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Sample records for nx borehole jack

  1. Estimates of in situ deformability with an NX borehole jack, Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    A series of borehole modulus measurements was obtained at the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) facility following removal of heat sources and a subsequent 1-year cooling period. A total of 212 measurements were obtained using a standard hardrock NX borehole (Goodman) jack. The results of 64 measurements made at the site before heating were reanalyzed for comparison with the post-heat data. Modulus values were calculated from the straight-line portion of the pressure vs displacement curves. Although the deformation modulus was observed to be highly variable, models were developed to explain much of this variability. Typically, spacial effects, anisotropy, and heating effects were present. The test results indicate that the deformation modulus tended to increase in the pillars between the underground openings where temperatures increased about 10{sup 0}C above the ambient 24{sup 0}C during the SFT-C. Conversely, a decrease in modulus was observed where temperatures were near 60{sup 0}C for a three-year period. In most cases, we found the modulus values to be slightly higher for vertical than for horizontal loading. There was a tendency for the modulus to be lower near excavated openings. While this effect was not ubiquitous, it was statistically significant.

  2. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  3. A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

    1971-01-01

    A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

  4. Lightweight Jack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under contract to Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Richard Dudgeon, Inc. developed a heavy lifting load cell system to lift segments of giant antennas in NASA's Deep Space Network. The company commercialized the technology in its Dudgeon High Pressure Ultrathin Pancake Jacks/Hydraulic Load Cells. They are ultralight and ultrathin -- a system weighing 79 pounds can lift 700 tons and can fit between points that measure fractions of an inch. They can be used for bridge weighing/lifting, heavy industrial and turbine weighing/positioning, and weighing/positioning of utilities and power plant equipment.

  5. Analysis of borehole expansion and gallery tests in anisotropic rock masses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Closed-form solutions are used to show how rock anisotropy affects the variation of the modulus of deformation around the walls of a hole in which expansion tests are conducted. These tests include dilatometer and NX-jack tests in boreholes and gallery tests in tunnels. The effects of rock anisotropy on the modulus of deformation are shown for transversely isotropic and regularly jointed rock masses with planes of transverse isotropy or joint planes parallel or normal to the hole longitudinal axis for plane strain or plane stress condition. The closed-form solutions can also be used when determining the elastic properties of anisotropic rock masses (intact or regularly jointed) in situ. ?? 1991.

  6. Jack & the Video Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlan, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    This article narrates how the use of video camera has transformed the life of Jack Williams, a 10-year-old boy from Colorado Springs, Colorado, who has autism. The way autism affected Jack was unique. For the first nine years of his life, Jack remained in his world, alone. Functionally non-verbal and with motor skill problems that affected his…

  7. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  8. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  9. Celebrate Ezra Jack Keats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the life of Ezra Jack Keats in relation to his children's books, both as illustrator and author. Presents extension ideas for activities and includes an annotated bibliography of his works, including videos based on Keats's work, biographies, biographical information, and Web resources. (LRW)

  10. Thomas Jack Lee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Jack Lee served as the sixth director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from July 6, 1989 to January 6, 1994. Prior to the appointment, Lee held positions as Center Deputy Director (1980 - 1989) and Spacelab Program Manager (1973 - 1980). Lee began his NASA career in July 1960 when he transferred to the newly formed MSFC from Redstone Arsenal's Army Ballistic Missile Agency.

  11. XS-1 Jack Russell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    NACA High-Speed Flight Station Rocket Shop. Jack Russell, Head of the Rocket Shop preparing to do pressurization tests on the XLR-11 rocket engine. The console provided the readings for the test of the rocket engine systems. 1956 photo

  12. Jack Dymond's Deep Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, R. E.; Delaney, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Most people do not know that Jack Dymond was a major influence on several aspects of current deep-sea research. Along with Margaret Leinen and Jack, we were part of the first Alvin dive program on the Endeavour hydrothermal field in 1984. Jack was working with Rick, on a sediment-trap study of the overall carbon fluxes in the vicinity of the Endeavour hydrothermal systems in an effort to address a question that Cindy Lee had posed about the overall carbon production from hydrothermal vents. At the time we were recognizing and naming many of the 20- to 40-meter-high sulfide structures in the Endeavour field (Hulk, Grotto, Dante, Dudley, Bastille), Jack commented that it was a shame that the world could not see these magnificent edifices or watch endlessly awesome black smokers. His feeling was that some vent sites should be converted to National Parks to preserve them from invasion by enthusiastic scientists, yet he clearly had the vision that the public should be given a sense of the grandeur involved locally, as well as the vastness of the 70,000-km ridge-crest system running through every ocean. Within a year we started talking about the RIDGE Program, and Jack was an early and enthusiastic participant in the design and development of RIDGE. Jack was among the first to encourage multi-disciplinary research at the hydrothermal vent sites. Recognizing that deep currents are important to vent processes, he urged physical oceanographers to work with the chemists, biologists, and geologists and was personally responsible for Rick becoming interested in studying vents. We, the co-authors of this abstract, became close friends as a result of having been introduced to each other by Jack. Several years ago, we co-authored the first paper ever written on the possible influence of hydrothermal activity on the circulation of the Europan Ocean, a paper that we here dedicate to the memory of Jack. Finally, it was in part because of Jack's conviction that the world should know

  13. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  14. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002870.htm Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Jack-in-the-pulpit is a plant belonging to ...

  15. 65th birthday Jack Steinberger

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Laudatio pour Jack Steinberger né le 25 mai 1921, à l'occasion de son 65me anniversaire et sa retraite officielle, pour sa précieuse collaboration au Cern. Néanmoins son principal activité continuera comme avant dans sa recherche au Cern. Plusieurs orateurs prennent la parole (p.ex. E.Picasso) pour le féliciter et lui rendre hommage

  16. John B. "Jack" Townshend (1927-2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Jack Townshend, geophysicist and dedicated public servant, died on 13 August 2012 in Fairbanks, Alaska. He was 85. Jack's career with the federal government, most of it with the national magnetic observatory program, spanned more than six solar cycles of time, and he retired only days before his death. The duration of Jack's career encompassed an important period in the history of the advancement of our understanding of the Earth. Jack's career of contributions, his life, and his personality are worthy of retrospective celebration.

  17. Remembering Jack: A Hampshire County Summer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ted

    1993-01-01

    A former counselor at a summer camp in Hampshire County (West Virginia) recalls his experiences with his campers and Jack Schaffenaker, an Appalachian "mountain man" and guitar picker. Through Jack, the campers engaged in fishing, storytelling, hiking, and folk singing, and shed some negative stereotypes about Appalachian people. (KS)

  18. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Jacking loads. 23.507 Section 23.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.507 Jacking loads. (a) The airplane must...

  19. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Jacking loads. 23.507 Section 23.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.507 Jacking loads. (a) The airplane must...

  20. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jacking loads. 23.507 Section 23.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.507 Jacking loads. (a) The airplane must...

  1. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jacking loads. 23.507 Section 23.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.507 Jacking loads. (a) The airplane must...

  2. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jacking loads. 23.507 Section 23.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.507 Jacking loads. (a) The airplane must...

  3. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - PROPOSED JACKING BRACKET EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin D. Stine

    1996-03-28

    This calculation applies to the Constructor's design of the proposed jacking bracket for the W6 x 20 steel set. The specific features of the jacking bracket evaluated in this analysis are the shear on the bracket bolts, and the effects of the applied moment on the W6 x 20 steel set beam segment.

  4. A note on the Goodman Jack

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swolfs, H.S.; Kibler, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A Note on the Goodman Jack: Reconnaissance experiments, performed to evaluate the practical utility of the hard-rock variety of the Goodman Jack, reveal that the Hustrulid-T* correction adequately reconciles the discrepancy between the measured and true deformation modulus of the rock mass in the range of 30 to 50 gigapascals. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Portable walking beam pump jack

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.N.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a portable walking beam pump jack for use in pumping liquids from an oil well. This jack consists of: an elongated frame having a longitudinal axis and front and rear ends, the frame also including first and second support seats; a towing receptacle, an axle connected transversely across the frame; ground engaging wheels connected to the axle for supporting the frame for rolling transportation; stabilizing means for securing the frame with respect to a ground location; a walking beam having a first end, a midportion and a second end, the second end being adapted for connection to a pumping rod; an engine mounted on the frame; a pair of arms counterweighted for balancing a pumping rod connected to the walking beam, a drive yoke, a support assembly foldably mounted on the frame and upon which the midportion of the walking beam is pivotally connected, the support assembly the arms and the drive yoke being foldable together, from a first, fixed position in which the walking beam arms and yoke are supported in a raised position for rocking in a pumping motion to a second, fixed position disposed downwardly and forwardly from the first fixed position and in which the walking beam arms and yoke are held in a lowered position for transportation; a front support and a hydraulic cylinder connected between the frame and the support assembly for moving the support assembly between the first, fixed position and the second fixed position.

  6. On Boreholes and PBO Borehole Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, M. T.; Mee, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Borehole tensor strainmeters (GTSM) installed in Australia and California have established a baseline of data spanning more than twenty years. The current baseline of data allows characterisation of a moderate number of instruments in a range of very different environments in a way which defines reasonable performance expectations for the upcoming PBO deployments. A generic understanding of effects which result from the process of installation of the instrument in a stressed rock mass emerges. This indicates that, provided due allowance is made for experimentally determined borehole recovery effects, the contribution of borehole strain meters more than adequately fills the observational gap between high stability/long term geodetic measurements of strain and strain rates and high resolution/high frequency seismic observations of earth deformation processes. The various strain relief processes associated with the installation procedures and borehole recovery effects associated with pre-existing stress fields will be documented. Procedures for calibration of the total borehole inclusion and for progressive removal of effects due to rock anisotropy and visco-elastic creep of the grout and rock close to the borehole from far field tectonic effects will be defined and illustrated with examples. Observed deviations from these processes will be shown to be small and consistent with otherwise observed or implied fault motions. Full details of these borehole induced processes are, however, difficult to determine in the early years following installation, particularly if there is significant tectonic activity at the time. Once quantified for each site, the effects can be robustly removed from data streams.

  7. Analysis of borehole breakouts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Kemeny, J.; Cook, N. G. W.

    1989-06-10

    Boreholes drilled into rock, which is subjected to stresses that amount to a significant fraction of the strength of the rock, may cause the rock to fail adjacent to the borehole surface. Often this results in the elongation of the cross section of the borehole in the direction of the minimum principal (compressive) stress orthogonal to the borehole axis. Such breakouts are valuable indicators of the direction of the minimum compressive stress orthogonal to the axis of the borehole. Their shapes may provide information about the magnitudes of both the maximum and minimum stresses relative to the strength of the rock. Borehole breakouts also may be impediments to drilling and to in situ measurement techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing. Observations and analyses of borehole breakouts raise three important questions. First, how does the shape of the borehole breakout evolve Second, why are breakout shapes stable despite the very high compressive stress concentrations that they produce Third, how is the shape of the breakout related to the magnitudes of the stresses in the rock In this paper, extensile splitting of rock in unconfined, plane strain compression is assumed to be the process of rock failure adjacent to the circumference of the borehole, by which a breakout forms. To simulate the evolution of a borehole breakout, this process is combined with a numerical boundary element analysis of the stresses around a borehole as its cross section evolves from the originally circular shape to that of a stable breakout.

  8. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Yasmin; Ikeme, Arinze; Bhogal, Navjyot; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT) during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD) machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age. PMID:26949554

  9. Jack-up rig for marine drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S. R.

    1981-05-26

    This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

  10. Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

  11. Connections: An Interview with Jack Beeson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Composer Jack Beeson discusses the distinctively American themes and music of his operas and comments on opera composition in general, matters of style, and the televising of opera. This article is part of a theme issue on opera. (SJL)

  12. Superconformal field theory and Jack superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Patrick; Lapointe, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    We uncover a deep connection between the {N} = {1} superconformal field theory in 2 D and eigenfunctions of the supersymmetric Sutherland model known as Jack super-polynomials (sJacks). Specifically, the singular vector at level rs/2 of the Kac module labeled by the two integers r and s are given explicitly as a sum of sJacks whose indexing diagrams are contained in a rectangle with r columns and s rows. As a second compelling evidence for the distinguished status of the sJack-basis in SCFT, we find that the degenerate Whittaker vectors (Gaiotto states) can be expressed as a remarkably simple linear combination of sJacks. As a consequence, we are able to reformulate the supersymmetric version of the (degenerate) AGT conjecture in terms of the combinatorics of sJacks. The closed-form formulas for the singular vectors and the degenerate Whittaker vectors, although only conjectured in general, have been heavily tested (in some cases, up to level 33/2). Both the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors are treated.

  13. Central Calorimeter Support Cradle Jack Failure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-10

    The Central Calorimeter and its support cradle are to be supported by either hydraulic or mechanical jacks. If hydraulics are used, each support will use two hydraulically coupled jacks with two out of the four supports hydraulically coupled giving the effect of a three point support system. If mechanical jacks are used, all four points are used for support. Figure 2 shows two examples of jack placement on a 3.5 inch support plate. These two support scenarios lead to five jack failure cases to be studied. This report deals with the way in which a 0.25 inch drop (failed jack) at one support affects the stresses in the cradle. The stresses from each failure case were analyzed in two ways. First, stress factors, defined as quotients of stress intensities of the failed case with respect to the static case, were generated and then, hand calculations similar to those in Engineering Note 3740.215-EN-14 were done using the reaction forces from the failed case.

  14. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  15. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  16. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  17. PBO Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, M.; Hasting, M.; Jackson, M.; Dittmann, S. T.; Johnson, W.; Venator, S.; Andersen, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Mueller, B.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results but there are still major hurdles to overcome in production, installation processes, data quality control, data processing and near real time delivery of calibrated strain data. PBO has made significant steps forward with the installation of 19 borehole strainmeters as of September 1st, 2006 with 28 total instruments planned by early December. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and represents the first dense

  18. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  19. Borehole seismic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Tao

    In many borehole seismic experiments, the velocity of the tube wave is higher than that of the surrounding rock shear wave. This fast tube wave creates a strong conical shear wave in the surrounding rock, similar to the Mach wave in supersonic aviation and the Cherenkov radiation in electrodynamics. Many geophysicists have tried to utilize the conical signal in VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and cross borehole data interpretation, using quasi static approximations to model the borehole effect. Two popular quasi static approximations are: the effective source array method for source borehole modeling and the squeeze strain method for receiver borehole modeling. These quasi static approximations are sensible as they qualitatively conform to Hueygen's principle and the typical wavelength of a VSP or a cross borehole seismic experiment is much larger than the borehole radius. However, they have not been quantitatively benchmarked against other non approximation method such as the frequency wave number method. The frequency wave number method is a rigorous, non approximation method for modeling straight boreholes without lengthwise variation. The boreholes may consist of many coaxial, homogeneous and axially symmetric shells. In this thesis, the results of the quasi static approximations are compared to the results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The comparison demonstrates that both the effective source array method and squeeze strain method gives the correct arrival time. The effective source array method gives incorrect amplitude and waveform for direct arrivals and tube waves due to its arbitrary assumption of the elementary source radiation pattern. The squeeze strain method gives fairly accurate amplitude and waveform for P and S direct arrivals but it fails to match the tube wave results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The omission of tube wave dispersion and amplitude loss by the quasi static approximation methods also

  20. Some physical and chemical indices of the Union Jack lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuli; Yan, Weigen; Tian, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The Union Jack lattice is the dual lattice of the 4.8.8 lattice. The quantum spin model with frustration and the Ising model on the Union Jack lattice have been studied extensively by physicists. In this paper, we derive the spectrum and Laplacian spectrum of the Union Jack lattice with toroidal boundary condition. As applications, we obtain the formulae of the number of spanning trees, the energy, and the Kirchhoff index of the Union Jack lattice with toroidal boundary condition.

  1. From Jack polynomials to minimal model spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this note, a deep connection between free field realizations of conformal field theories and symmetric polynomials is presented. We give a brief introduction into the necessary prerequisites of both free field realizations and symmetric polynomials, in particular Jack symmetric polynomials. Then we combine these two fields to classify the irreducible representations of the minimal model vertex operator algebras as an illuminating example of the power of these methods. While these results on the representation theory of the minimal models are all known, this note exploits the full power of Jack polynomials to present significant simplifications of the original proofs in the literature.

  2. Structural Analysis Using NX Nastran 9.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolewicz, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    NX Nastran is a powerful Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package used to solve linear and non-linear models for structural and thermal systems. The software, which consists of both a solver and user interface, breaks down analysis into four files, each of which are important to the end results of the analysis. The software offers capabilities for a variety of types of analysis, and also contains a respectable modeling program. Over the course of ten weeks, I was trained to effectively implement NX Nastran into structural analysis and refinement for parts of two missions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, the Restore mission and the Orion mission.

  3. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  4. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  5. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  6. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  7. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms...

  8. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liftboat-jacking systems. 134.150 Section 134.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.150 Liftboat-jacking systems. (a) For this subchapter, liftboat jacking...

  9. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liftboat-jacking systems. 134.150 Section 134.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.150 Liftboat-jacking systems. (a) For this subchapter, liftboat jacking...

  10. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liftboat-jacking systems. 134.150 Section 134.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.150 Liftboat-jacking systems. (a) For this subchapter, liftboat jacking...

  11. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liftboat-jacking systems. 134.150 Section 134.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ADDED PROVISIONS FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.150 Liftboat-jacking systems. (a) For this subchapter, liftboat jacking systems are vital systems and must comply with Sections...

  12. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  13. New jacking system resolves dynamic forces in 400-ft jack up

    SciTech Connect

    Chevallier, J.; Turner, L.

    1984-08-27

    This article describes the design and operation of Trident IX a successfully applied jack up system. A summary of Trident IX's two years of operation in the Arabian Gulf and offshore West Africa is presented. The system is compared to conventional jacking systems in terms of design, operation, costs and safety. Dynamic forces at 400 ft. water depths are summarized, and design of the legs to withstand these dynamic forces and accomodate the new system are explained. Features are listed.

  14. Lively Jack-O'-Lantern Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanzaro, Christy

    2010-01-01

    Pumpkin carving is a favorite classroom activity. Around late October, the halls are filled with the sour smell of raw pumpkin innards, as parents, teachers and students are up to their elbows in yellowish strings and slime. These round, orange squash are transformed into jack-o'-lanterns that are placed around the school. The day after Halloween,…

  15. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in "The…

  16. Loblolly Heroes: Jack Harris & Farris Ivie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Cassie, Ed.; McGarity, Fiona, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal issue, published by Texas high school students, features interviews with two Army veterans of World War II, Jack Harris who fought the Japanese in the Pacific, and Farris Ivie who fought the Germans in Europe. The publication recounts the war experiences of the two Texas natives in their own words through a series of one-on-one…

  17. Ramond singular vectors and Jack superpolynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarie-Vézina, Ludovic; Desrosiers, Patrick; Mathieu, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The explicit formula for the superconformal singular vectors in the Neveu-Schwarz sector has been obtained recently, via its symmetric polynomial representation, as a sum of Jack superpolynomials. Here we present the analogous, but slightly more complicated, closed-form expression for the Ramond singular vectors.

  18. Jack London and the San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sachs, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    After it was over, it seemed to many, and especially to eyewitnesses like Jack London, that the earthquake and fire had devastated San Francisco. However people were confident that, like the phoeniz, San Francisco would rise from the ashes and regain her palce as the "Imperial City of the West." 

  19. Jack Michael's Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…

  20. The Yme jack-up with skirt foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, A.; Tuen, K.A.; Baerheim, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Yme field is developed using the Maersk Giant jack-up as a permanent drilling and production platform. This paper will present the structural and geotechnical design aspect of jack-up with skirts to document this new way of utilizing jack-up structures. It will also outline the design of the riser system and installation aspects of the rig. The skirt foundation is an innovative cost effective foundation concept offering substantial opportunities for extending the use of jack-up structures compared to traditional spud-can foundations. The Yme field development would not have been economically attractive without skirted foundations on the jack-up.

  1. Microexplosions in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moren, P.

    1983-12-01

    At present micro explosions are the only known source that provides sufficient energy for large scale (about 0.5 to 1 km) seismic crosshole measurements. Results from a test of nondestructiveness on bore-hole walls from micro explosions are summarized. From geophysical well loggings in the holes it was found that only micro explosions with yields of 100 g and greater have a measurable effect on the bore-hole walls. However, the chemical properties of the bore-hole water changed as a result of collodial carbon of the explosive paste. Geophone-recordings from a series of shots with yields in the range 5 up to 200 g showed that the recorded maximum amplitude was linearly dependent of explosion yield.

  2. Astronaut Jack Lousma taking hot bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A closeup view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In deploying the shower facility, the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  3. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 NORTHEAST (BACK) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATION - Franklin Park Zoo, Feline House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 NORTHEAST (BACK) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATION - Franklin Park Zoo, Feline House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 NORTHEAST (BACK) AND NORTHWEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Franklin Park Zoo, Elephant House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack Maley, Photographer May 31, 1978 SOUTHWEST (FRONT) AND SOUTHEAST (SIDE) ELEVATION - Franklin Park Zoo, Feline House, Seaver Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  12. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  13. On Jack Hale's problem for impulsive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonotto, E. M.; Gimenes, L. P.; Souto, G. M.

    2015-07-01

    An interesting problem of Jack Hale deals with the existence of a maximal compact invariant set in discrete dynamical systems. A solution for this problem is known for locally bounded dynamical systems. Following this line of research, we consider in this paper a class of systems whose continuous dynamics are interrupted by abrupt changes of state and we present sufficient conditions to obtain the existence of a maximal compact invariant set for a system in this class. We use the theory of asymptotic compactness to get the results.

  14. Capsicum Annuum L. Lil' Pumpkin and Pepper Jack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 05C37-3 (trademarked as Lil’ Pumpkin) and 05C69-12 (trademarked as Pepper Jack). Lil’ Pumpkin and Pepper Jack are intended for ornamental applications. Lil’ Pumpkin’s unique black foliage and orange pumpkin-like fruit and Pepper Jack’s ...

  15. Alloying of GaNxAs1-x with InNxAs1-x: A simple formula for the band gap parametrization of Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrawiec, R.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that the band gap energy of dilute nitride ternary alloys (Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x in this case) can be predicted by knowing the band gap energy for dilute nitride binary alloys (GaNxAs1-x and InNxAs1-x alloys in this case) and a bowing parameter. The band gap energy for GaNxAs1-x and InNxAs1-x can be calculated after the band anticrossing (BAC) model [W. Shan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1221 (1999)] or other formula, whereas the bowing parameter can be assumed to be the same as for the GaInAs alloy. This approach does not require the BAC parameters related to Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x and can be applied for other dilute nitride ternary alloys. The obtained band gap predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data for as-grown GaInNAs materials. It means that the proposed energy gap parametrization corresponds to the random environment of N atoms by Ga and In atoms since alloying of GaNxAs1-x with InNxAs1-x also corresponds to alloying of Ga-rich environment of N atoms (which is expected for the as-grown GaInNAs material with low indium content) with In-rich environment of N atoms (which is expected for the as-grown GaInNAs material with high indium content).

  16. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  17. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  18. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses. II. Witnessing entanglement in 4Nx4N systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna

    2010-11-15

    We provide a class of optimal nondecomposable entanglement witnesses for 4Nx4N composite quantum systems or, equivalently, another construction of nondecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 4Nx4N complex matrices. This construction provides natural generalization of the Robertson map. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels.

  19. Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.

    1997-03-10

    A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

  20. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  1. Borehole survey instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, H.E.; Lin, J.W. III; Macha, E.S.; Smither, M.A.

    1984-12-04

    A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member upon a film disposed below the compass member. This arrangement permits the centering post for the compass member to be of minimum diameter consistent with rigidity requirements and permits a high angle compass member to indicate angles of inclination approaching ninety degrees. A multiple light bulb light source is utilized and each light bulb is mounted in a manner which permits a single light bulb to illuminate the entire compass member. A hand-held programming and diagnostic unit is provided which may be momentarily electrically mated with the borehole survey tool to input a programmed timed delay and diagnostically test both the condition of the light bulbs utilized as the illumination source and the state of the batteries within the instrument. This hand-held programmable unit eliminates all the mechanical programming switches and permits the instrument to be completely sealed from the pressure, fluids and contaminants normally found in a well bore.

  2. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  3. Des-γ-Carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and NX-DCP Expressions and Their Relationship with Clinicopathological Features in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, Akiko; Akiba, Jun; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Nakayama, Masamichi; Nomura, Yoriko; Yasumoto, Makiko; Sanada, Sakiko; Nakashima, Osamu; Abe, Toshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2015-01-01

    Aim Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) has been used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently the DCP/NX-DCP ratio, calculated by dividing DCP by NX-DCP, has been reported useful in detecting HCC. The purpose of this study is to clarify the significance of DCP and NX-DCP expression in HCC tissues. Methods HCC and non-HCC tissue samples were obtained from 157 patients and were immunohistochemically examined for DCP and NX-DCP expression using anti-DCP antibody and anti-NX-DCP antibody. DCP and NX-DCP expression scores were calculated by multiplying staining intensity grade by percentage of stained area. Serum DCP and NX-DCP levels were determined in 89 patients. We evaluated the relationship between tumor expression, serum level, and pathomorphological findings. Results Intrahepatic metastasis (im) was significantly more frequent in cases with high DCP expression than in cases with low DCP expression. High NX-DCP expression was associated with significantly lower histological grade, and less frequent im or portal vein invasion (vp) than low NX-DCP expression. Serum DCP was correlated with DCP expression, but serum NX-DCP was not correlated with NX-DCP expression. DCP-positive (≥40 mAU/L), NX-DCP-positive (≥90 mAU/L), and DCP/NX-DCP ratio-positive (≥1.5) cases were associated with significantly larger tumor size and more frequent vp than negative cases. DCP was rarely expressed, but NX-DCP was frequently expressed in non-cancerous liver tissues. Patients with NX-DCP expression-negative tumors showed a lower survival rate than those with NX-DCP expression-positive tumors (p = 0.04), whereas the survival in serum NX-DCP-positive cases was lower than that of serum negative cases (p = 0.02). Conclusions DCP and NX-DCP were produced in HCC tissues, but differed in expression level and biological properties. DCP expression, serum DCP or NX-DCP level, and DCP/NX-DCP ratio were closely related to malignant properties of HCC. PMID:25739032

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher, for CFA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher, for CFA, 1970 SOUTHEAST CORNER AND MASSACHUSETTS AVE., FACADE - Clarence Moore House, 1746 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 3. Jack Boucher, photographer, July 1971. Scenic view along river ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Jack Boucher, photographer, July 1971. Scenic view along river showing Erie railroad line, taken from Rt. 97 at Hawks Nest, New York. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  6. 2. EAST SIDE OF SLAVE QUARTERS (Jack E. Boucher, photgrapher, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE OF SLAVE QUARTERS (Jack E. Boucher, photgrapher, April/May, 1986) - Felix & Odile Pratt Valle Slave Quarters, Southeast corner of Merchant & Second Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  7. 17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher for CFA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher for CFA, 1970 STAIR DETAIL AT FIRST- SECOND- FLOOR LEVEL - Wilkins House, 1700 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. VIEW OF THE JACKING, ELEVATING, AND LEVELING SKID. Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE JACKING, ELEVATING, AND LEVELING SKID. - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Crawler Transporters, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. Detail view southwest of miter gear; note crane jack to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view southwest of miter gear; note crane jack to right - miter and rack and pinion center top with universal joint at left. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. IR spectra of ICPCVD SiNx thin films for MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, G.; Reshetnikov, I.

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties of non-stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiNx) films for thermo sensitive membranes of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microoptomechanical systems (MOMS) has been studied applying infrared (IR) spectroscopy. For the structures SiNx/Si and (thin metal layer)/SiNx/Si transmission and reflection spectra in the region of wave numbers of 500-7000 cm-1 has been investigated. For the investigated structures analysis of optical properties observed in the IR spectra both in the form of selective absorption bands and interference modulation of a baseline was conducted.

  12. Pump jack system for oil well

    SciTech Connect

    Camren, V.

    1984-06-19

    A pump jack system is claimed for an oil well comprising a walking beam having one end connected to a vertical pump rod while being pivoted intermediate its ends for rocking movement by means of a single vertical connecting arm driven through an eccentric connection to a cushioned wheel, preferably a pneumatic tire. The latter is driven by a motor through pulley and sprocket members which provide speed reduction to a horizontal drive shaft that engages across the surface of the wheel to drive the same. The other end of the walking beam is provided with weights slidable along the beam into adjusted positions for counterbalancing the forces imposed on the beam through the pump rod. The wheel is also suitably weighted to counterbalance the weight of the connecting arm and its bearing on the wheel. To automatically deenergize the motor when the pump rod is jammed in the well, a limit switch assembly is mounted on the beam adjacent the end at which the pump rod is located. The motor and its drive train to the wheel, are mounted on the same support structure to permit easy removal and replacement as a unit.

  13. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    JACK is an interactive graphics program developed at the University of Pennsylvania that displays and manipulates articulated geometric figures. JACK is typically used to observe how a human mannequin interacts with its environment and what effects body types will have upon the performance of a task in a simulated environment. Any environment can be created, and any number of mannequins can be placed anywhere in that environment. JACK includes facilities to construct limited geometric objects, position figures, perform a variety of analyses on the figures, describe the motion of the figures and specify lighting and surface property information for rendering high quality images. JACK is supplied with a variety of body types pre-defined and known to the system. There are both male and female bodies, ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentile, based on NASA Standard 3000. Each mannequin is fully articulated and reflects the joint limitations of a normal human. JACK is an editor for manipulating previously defined objects known as "Peabody" objects. Used to describe the figures as well as the internal data structure for representing them, Peabody is a language with a powerful and flexible mechanism for representing connectivity between objects, both the joints between individual segments within a figure and arbitrary connections between different figures. Peabody objects are generally comprised of several individual figures, each one a collection of segments. Each segment has a geometry represented by PSURF files that consist of polygons or curved surface patches. Although JACK does not have the capability to create new objects, objects may be created by other geometric modeling programs and then translated into the PSURF format. Environment files are a collection of figures and attributes that may be dynamically moved under the control of an animation file. The animation facilities allow the user to create a sequence of commands that duplicate the movements of a

  14. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  15. Research on an AlSiNx bi-material thermal-mechanical uncooled infrared FPA pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Da-cheng

    2011-08-01

    AlSiNx bi-material thermal strain structure is used in uncooled optic readout infrared focal plane array (UOR IR FPA) pixel based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. In this paper, the problems that the AlSiNxstructure prevents FPA pixel scaling down and fill factor improving, and the Au reflection layer of the pixel leads to larger readout light energy loss are analyzed. The feasibility of AlSiNx instead of AlSiNx in the UOR IR FPA fabrication is researched in detail. The theoretical analyzing and simulation results demonstrate that, with optimized thicknesses and their matching designing of SiNx and Al, the thermal-mechanical response of AlSiNx bi-material structure is improved to 1.8 times and the intensity of optic readout signal is improved to about 2 times compared with AuSiNAlSiNx one.

  16. Characterization of a rapid thermal anneal TiNxOy/TiSi2 contact barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, V. Q.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, the physical and electrical properties of a TiNxOy/TiSi2 dual layer contact barrier are reported. The TiNxOy/TiSi2 barrier was formed by rapidly annealing a Ti thin film on Si in an N2 ambient. During this process, the Ti film surface reacts with N2 to form a TiNxOy skin layer and the bulk of the Ti film reacts with Si to form an underlying TiSi2 layer. The influences of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) conditions on the TiNxOy layer were investigated by varying the RTA temperature from 600 to 1100° C and cycle duration from 30 to 100 s. It is found that the resulting TiNxOy and TiSi2 layer thicknesses are dependent on RTA temperature and the starting Ti thickness. For a starting Ti thickness of 500Å, 150Å thick TiNxOy and 800Å thick TiSi2 are obtained after an RTA at 900° C for 30 s. The TiNxOy thickness is limited by a fast diffusion of Si into Ti to form TiSi2. When a Ti film is deposited on SiO2, Ti starts to react with SiO2 from 600° C and a significant reduction of the SiO2 thickness is observed after an RTA at 900° C. The resulting layer is composed of a surface TiNxOy layer followed by a complex layer of titanium oxide and titanium suicide. In addition, when Ti is depos-ited on TiSi2, thicker TiNxOy and TiSi2 layers are obtained after RTA. This is because the TiSi2 layer retards the diffusion of Si from the underlying substrate into the Ti layer. NMOSFETs were fabricated using the TiNxOy/TiSi2 as a contact barrier formed by RTA at 900° C for 30 s and a significant reduction of contact resistance was obtained. In addition, electromigration test at a high current density indicated that a significant improvement in mean time to failure (MTF) has been obtained with the barrier.

  17. Soft x-ray yield from NX2 plasma focus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Saw, S. H.

    2009-07-15

    The Lee model code is used to compute neon soft x-ray yield Y{sub sxr} for the NX2 plasma focus as a function of pressure. Comparison with measured Y{sub sxr} shows reasonable agreement in the Y{sub sxr} versus pressure curve, the absolute maximum yield as well as the optimum pressure. This gives confidence that the code gives a good representation of the neon plasma focus in terms of gross properties including speeds and trajectories and soft x-ray yields, despite its lack of modeling localized regions of higher densities and temperatures. Computed current curves versus pressure are presented and discussed particularly in terms of the dynamic resistance of the axial phase. Computed gross properties of the plasma focus including peak discharge current I{sub peak}, pinch current I{sub pinch}, minimum pinch radius r{sub min}, plasma density at the middle duration of pinch n{sub pinch}, and plasma temperature at middle duration of pinch T{sub pinch} are presented and the trends in variation of these are discussed to explain the peaking of Y{sub sxr} at optimum pressure.

  18. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexander F; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices. PMID:26049497

  19. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  20. Spanning Trees of the Generalised Union Jack Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Yan, Weigen

    2016-04-01

    The Union Jack lattice UJL(n, m) with toroidal boundary condition can be obtained from an n×m square lattice with toroidal boundary condition by inserting a new vertex vf to each face f and adding four edges (vf, ui(f)), where u1(f), u2(f), u3(f), and u4(f) are four vertices on the boundary of f. The Union Jack lattice has been studied extensively by statistical physicists. In this article, we consider the problem of enumeration of spanning trees of the so-called generalised Union Jack lattice UDn, which is obtained from the Aztec diamond ADnt of order n with toroidal boundary condition by inserting a new vertex vf to each face f and adding four edges (vf, ui(f)), where u1(f), u2(f), u3(f) and u4(f) are four vertices on the boundary of f.

  1. 4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket Gate Linkages, view to the north. The jacking pump, located along the wall on the left side of photograph, is used for pumping oil to lift the thrust bearing prior to starting the unit. Note the wicket gate linkages attached to the operating ring and visible in the lower center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  2. Integrability and Transition Coefficients Related to Jack Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Sheng; Xu, Ying-Ying; Yu, Ming

    2014-05-01

    Integrability plays a central role in solving many body problems in physics. The explicit construction of the Jack polynomials is an essential ingredient in solving the Calogero—Sutherland model, which is a one-dimensional integrable system. Starting from a special class of the Jack polynomials associated to the hook Young diagram, we find a systematic way in the explicit construction of the transition coefficients in the power-sum basis, which is closely related to a set of mutually commuting operators, i.e. the conserved charges.

  3. Progress in inflammatory neuropathy -the legacy of Dr Jack Griffin.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Eva L; Hughes, Richard A C; Willison, Hugh J

    2015-11-01

    The past quarter of a century has brought incredible advances in our understanding of inflammatory neuropathies, and the insights into Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) began in the 1990s with the seminal work of Dr Jack Griffin and his colleagues. In this essay, we provide a tribute to Jack, and review the recent progress in a field that he termed his personal favourite. In particular, we discuss the new developments in our understanding and diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies, the recent emergence of the node of Ranvier and the paranode as sites of intensive investigation, and the mechanistic evidence that is providing a platform for therapeutic development studies. PMID:26458287

  4. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  5. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy; Proctor, Robert H; Belzile, Francois; Chulze, Sofia N; Clear, Randall M; Cowger, Christina; Elmer, Wade; Lee, Theresa; Obanor, Friday; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F. graminearum. NX-2 isolates were only found in southern Canada and the northern U.S., where they were observed at low frequency (1.8%), but over a broader geographic range and set of cereal hosts than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analyses of TRI1 and adjacent genes produced gene trees that were incongruent with the history of species divergence within FSAMSC-1, indicating trans-species evolution of ancestral polymorphism. In addition, placement of NX-2 strains in the TRI1 gene tree was influenced by the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions associated with the evolution of the NX-2 chemotype, and a significant (P<0.001) change in selection pressure was observed along the NX-2 branch (ω=1.16) in comparison to other branches (ω=0.17) in the TRI1 phylogeny. Parameter estimates were consistent with positive selection for specific amino-acid changes during the evolution of NX-2, but direct tests of positive selection were not significant. Phylogenetic analyses of fourfold degenerate sites and intron sequences in TRI1 indicated the NX-2 chemotype had a single evolutionary origin and evolved recently from a type B ancestor. Our results indicate the NX-2 chemotype may be indigenous, and possibly endemic, to southern Canada and the northern U.S. In addition, we demonstrate that the evolution of TRI1 within FSAMSC-1 has been complex, with evidence of trans-species evolution and chemotype-specific shifts in selective

  6. The potential for NX-1207 in benign prostatic hyperplasia: an update for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Barrett

    2011-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affect many older men and can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. BPH is a progressive condition that may lead to complications including acute urinary retention. There exists an unmet need for a safe and effective, office-based, catheter-free therapy for BPH patients. NX-1207 is a promising first-in-class drug currently in phase III trials for the treatment of BPH. This review provides an overview of the NX-1207 trial program and considers its potential application for patients with symptoms related to BPH. NX-1207 is administered as an office-based procedure by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. NX-1207 has selective pro-apoptotic properties, which induce focal cell loss in prostate tissue, leading to prostate volume reduction with both short- and long-term symptomatic improvement. In four US clinical trials to date, NX-1207 has shown evidence of symptomatic improvement substantially better than currently approved BPH medications with no significant safety issues. Larger phase III trials are ongoing to confirm further the efficacy, safety, and tolerability for this minimally invasive, anesthetic-free, clinic-based treatment for BPH. PMID:23251763

  7. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  8. Filling Holes with Words: An Interview with Jack Gantos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2003-01-01

    This interview with Jack Gantos, an author who writes books for young adults, focuses on how he uses his own personal experiences in his books. Discusses memories of his father and his childhood, drug-smuggling activities and the resulting jail time, and student reactions to his books. (LRW)

  9. Gravity base, jack-up platform - method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, R.P.; Pease, F.T.; Ray, D.R.

    1981-05-05

    The invention relates to an offshore, gravity base, jack-up platform comprising a deck, a gravity base and one or more legs interconnecting the deck and base. The gravity base comprises a generally polygonal shaped, monolithic hull structure with reaction members extending downwardly from the hull to penetrate the waterbed and react to vertical and lateral loads imposed upon the platform while maintaining the gravity hull in a posture elevated above the surface of the waterbed. A method aspect of the invention includes the steps of towing a gravity base, jack-up platform, as a unit, to a preselected offshore site floating upon the gravity hull. During the towing operation, the deck is mounted adjacent the gravity base with a leg or legs projecting through the deck. At a preselected offshore station ballast is added to the gravity base and the platform descends slightly to a posture where the platform is buoyantly supported by the deck. The base is then jacked down toward the seabed and the platform is laterally brought onto station. Ballast is then added to the deck and the reaction members are penetrated into the waterbed to operational soil refusal. Ballast is then ejected from the deck and the deck is jacked to an operational elevation above a predetermined statistical wave crest height.

  10. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey; Jack E. Boucher, photographer; Sept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey; Jack E. Boucher, photographer; Sept. 1969 Copy of measured drawing, 1st floor plan, 1925 (From file of Wash. D.C. Board of Education, office of buildings and grounds) - Jackson (Public) School, R Street & Avon Place Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 46 CFR 134.150 - Liftboat-jacking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are vital systems and must comply with Sections 4/1.13.1 through 4/1.13.3 of the ABS's “Rules for... 128 of this subchapter. (b) Each control system for a liftboat jacking system must be designed so that loss of power, loss of pressure in the hydraulic system, or low hydraulic-fluid level will activate...

  12. Pentagon After Action Reports: The Jack Taylor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Stan

    In requesting after action reports--Pentagon-prepared summaries of interviews between reporters and Pentagon officials--investigative reporter Jack Taylor both aroused Pentagon opposition and created a rift between the Pentagon press corps and outside reporters. To investigate whether the full-time Pentagon press corps was reporting as…

  13. 7. Photocopy by Jack Boucher, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy by Jack Boucher, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1880s. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. B 370 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  14. Astronaut Jack Lousma with part of Inflight Medical Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, reaches into a medical kit, part of the Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS), during training for the second manned Skylab Earth-orbital mission. This activity took place in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at JSC.

  15. Developing Political Activism Awareness: An Interview with Jack Trammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetron, Tamara Harper

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jack Trammell, whose contributions in the field of education have encompassed a variety of areas with one common denominator: equal access to higher education for all. He serves as the director of Disability Support Services at Randolph-Macon College in Ashland, Va, where he is also an assistant professor,…

  16. Astronaut Jack Lousma egresses Skylab 3 Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, egresses the Skylab 3 Command Module aboard the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans, during recovery operations in the Pacific Ocean. Note surgical masks on those assisting Lousma. This is to prevent the astronauts from contracting infections.

  17. Jack Colby Continues Stellar Legacy of APPA Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    This article profiles 2011 APPA Fellow Jack K. Colby, assistant vice chancellor for facilities operations at North Carolina State University. Colby has a history of nonstop service to his profession and to APPA that makes that ever-active, never-stop rabbit look like a piker. Like previous APPA Fellows, Colby could easily rest on his laurels of…

  18. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  19. Astronaut Jack Lousma doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  20. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Jack E. Boucher, from Walling's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Jack E. Boucher, from Walling's Map of Providence County, R.I., in the collection of the Library of Congress, PHOTOCOPY OF 1851 WOODCUT OF THE WOONSOCKET COMPANY'S MILLS. - Woonsocket Company, Number 1 Mill, 100 Front Street, Woonsocket, Providence County, RI

  1. Downhole Imaging With Borehole Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokkema, J. T.; van den Berg, P. M.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; Luthi, S. M.

    We describe a directional borehole radar system. The antennas are positioned in a bi-static set-up. In order to obtain a focused radiation pattern, the transmitting and receiving dipoles are shielded with a curved reflector. The radiation pattern of this scattered wavefield is computed by solving the integral equation for the unknown elec- tric surface current at the conducting surface. Based on these numerical simulations, a prototype was built. The effective radiation pattern is in good agreement with the computed pattern. We also present a three-dimensional imaging method for this bore- hole radar. The computed radiation pattern is used in such a way that deconvolution for the angular radiation pattern can be applied. Data from preliminary laboratory and field tests under controlled conditions are promising. The applications of this method include the detection of unexploded ordinance from boreholes, the detection of objects and layers in tunnels, and the determination of the diameter of concrete columns in the Jetgrout Diameter System. With appropriate modifications, this system may be appli- cable in the oil- and gas industry for the detection of layers and fractures in borehole. It covers a gap between conventional logging measurements in boreholes, and seismic surface surveys.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  8. Detecting a fluid-filled borehole using elastic waves from a remote borehole.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jingji; Li, Zhen; Su, Yuanda

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a fluid-filled borehole with incident elastic waves is an important topic for downhole acoustic measurements. By analyzing the wave phenomena of this problem, one can simulate the detection of a borehole target using a source-receiver system in a remote borehole. The analysis result shows that the wave signals from the target borehole are of sufficient amplitude even though the borehole size is small compared to wavelength. Consequently, the target borehole can be detected when the two boreholes are far away from each other. The result can be utilized to provide a method for testing downhole acoustic imaging tools. PMID:27586782

  9. NxStage dialysis system-associated thrombocytopenia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sekkarie, Mohamed; Waldron, Michelle; Reynolds, Texas

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients has recently been reported to be commonly caused by electron-beam sterilization of dialysis filters. We report the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in the first two patients of a newly established home hemodialysis program. The 2 patients switched from conventional hemodialysis using polysulfone electron-beam sterilized dialyzers to a NxStage system, which uses gamma sterilized polyehersulfone dialyzers incorporated into a drop-in cartridge. The thrombocytopenia resolved after return to conventional dialysis in both patients and recurred upon rechallenge in the patient who opted to retry NxStage. This is the first report of thrombocytopenia with the NxStage system according to the authors’ knowledge. Dialysis-associated thrombocytopenia pathophysiology and clinical significance are not well understood and warrant additional investigations. PMID:26521886

  10. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlN/SiNx passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tan; Yuanjie, Lü; Guodong, Gu; Li, Wang; Shaobo, Dun; Xubo, Song; Hongyu, Guo; Jiayun, Yin; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2015-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 5 nm AlN passivation by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) were fabricated, covered by 50 nm SiNx which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). With PEALD AlN passivation, current collapse was suppressed more effectively and the devices show better subthreshold characteristics. Moreover, the insertion of AlN increased the RF transconductance, which lead to a higher cut-off frequency. Temperature dependence of DC characteristics demonstrated that the degradations of drain current and maximum transconductance at elevated temperatures for the AlN/SiNx passivated devices were much smaller compared with the devices with SiNx passivation, indicating that PEALD AlN passivation can improve the high temperature operation of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60890192).

  11. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rebecca R; O'Connell, Jared; Cox, Anthony J; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available. PMID:26056623

  12. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  13. Isotropic plasma etching of Ge Si and SiNx films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henry, Michael David; Douglas, Erica Ann

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on selective isotropic dry etching of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Ge thin film, release layers using a Shibaura chemical downstream etcher (CDE) with NF3 and Ar based plasma chemistry. Relative etch rates between Ge, Si and SiNx are described with etch rate reductions achieved by adjusting plasma chemistry with O2. Formation of oxides reducing etch rates were measured for both Ge and Si, but nitrides or oxy-nitrides created using direct injection of NO into the process chamber were measured to increase Si and SiNx etch rates while retarding Ge etching.

  14. Formation and coarsening of near-surface Ga nanoparticles on SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canniff, J. C.; Jeon, S.; Huang, S.; Goldman, R. S.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the formation and coarsening of near-surface Ga nanoparticles (NPs) in SiNx using Ga+ focused-ion-beam-irradiation of SiNx, followed by rapid thermal annealing. For surfaces with minimal curvature, diffusive growth is apparent, leading to nearly close packed arrays with NP diameters as small as 3 nm and densities as high as ˜4 × 1012 cm-2. The diffusive flux increases with annealing temperature, leading to NP coarsening by Ostwald ripening. For surfaces with increased curvature, diffusion towards the valleys also increases during annealing, leading to Ga NP coalescence and a bi-modal distribution of NP sizes.

  15. Impurity-Band Model for GaP1-xNx

    SciTech Connect

    Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Geisz, J. F.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2005-11-01

    Low-temperature absorption studies on free-standing GaP1-xNx films provide direct experimental evidence that the host conduction-band minimum (CBM) near X1C does not plunge downward with increased nitrogen doping, contrary to what has been suggested recently; rather, it remains stationary for x up to 0.1%. This fact, combined with the results of earlier studies of the CBM at ..GAMMA.. and conduction-band edge near L, confirms that the giant bandgap lowering observed in GaP1-xNx results from a CBM that evolves purely from nitrogen impurity bands.

  16. Roles of SiNx layers in light trapping and carrier collection of nanostructured crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    We investigated optical properties and photovoltaic (PV) performance of nanostructured Si solar cells with and without SiNx dielectric layers. The SiNx layer contributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency of the nanostructured cells at both short and long wavelengths. In contrast, the surface passivation of SiNx layers on flat cells helped the carrier collection mainly at short wavelength. The surface nanopatterned array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range, revealed by experimental data and optical simulation results. As a result, the nanostructured cells had high density of photo-generated carriers near the surface. This could lead to significant recombination loss of the cells without SiNx layers. Our work suggested that the SiNx layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured Si PV devices.

  17. MWD tool for deep, small diameter boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Buytaert, J.P.R.; Duckworth, A.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring a drilling parameters while drilling a borehole in an earth formation, wherein the borehole includes a small diameter deep borehole portion and a large diameter upper borehole portion. It includes small diameter drillstring means for drilling the deep borehole portion; sensor means, disposed within the small diameter drillstring means, for measuring a drilling parameter characteristic of the deep portion of the borehole while drilling the deep portion of the borehole and for providing sensor output signals indicative of the measured parameter; an upper drillstring portion extending between the surface of the formation and the small diameter drillstring means, the upper drillstring portion including a large diameter drillstring portion; data transmission means disposed within the large diameter drillstring portion and responsive to the sensor output.

  18. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  19. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  20. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  1. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  2. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  3. Defect termination on crystalline silicon surfaces by hydrogen for improvement in the passivation quality of catalytic chemical vapor-deposited SiNx and SiNx/P catalytic-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham Thi, Trinh; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen (H) in the improvement in the passivation quality of silicon nitride (SiNx) prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and Cat-CVD SiNx/phosphorus (P) Cat-doped layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) by annealing. Both structures show promising passivation capabilities for c-Si with extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) on n-type c-Si. Defect termination by H is evaluated on the basis of defect density (Nd) determined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and interface state density (Dit) calculated by the Terman method. The two parameters are found to be drastically decreased by annealing after SiNx deposition. The calculated average Dit at midgap (Dit-average) is 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si sample with a SRV of 2 cm/s, which is equivalent to 3.1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/c-Si sample with a SRV of 5 cm/s after annealing. The results indicate that H atoms play a critical role in the reduction in Dit for SiNx/c-Si and SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si, resulting in a drastic reduction in SRV by annealing.

  4. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop.

  5. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  6. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    F. graminearum and 21 related species form a species complex (FSAMSC-1) characterized by production of type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce NX-2, a novel type A trichothecene, resulting from variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1...

  7. Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Menneken, Martina; Nemchin, Alexander A; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

    2007-08-23

    Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an estimated low zircon crystallization temperature, have previously been used as evidence for early recycling of continental crust, leading to the production of granitic melts in the Hadean era. Here we present the discovery of microdiamond inclusions in Jack Hills zircons with an age range from 3,058 +/- 7 to 4,252 +/- 7 million years. These include the oldest known diamonds found in terrestrial rocks, and introduce a new dimension to the debate on the origin of these zircons and the evolution of the early Earth. The spread of ages indicates that either conditions required for diamond formation were repeated several times during early Earth history or that there was significant recycling of ancient diamond. Mineralogical features of the Jack Hills diamonds-such as their occurrence in zircon, their association with graphite and their Raman spectroscopic characteristics-resemble those of diamonds formed during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and, unless conditions on the early Earth were unique, imply a relatively thick continental lithosphere and crust-mantle interaction at least 4,250 million years ago. PMID:17713532

  8. Hydraulically-operated pump jack with chain drive

    SciTech Connect

    Ratell Jr., R. E.

    1985-02-05

    My invention relates to pumping apparatus, particularly to a hydraulically-operated pump jack for oil, brine water and the like. The apparatus is fabricated from steel plate to make a strong, but light-weight tower which may be easily transported from one site to another by a small boom truck or gin pole truck. In contrast to pump jacks of the walking beam type which are massive in size, my improved pump jack is compact and is seated on and secured directly to the head of an oil well casing. A vertically-arranged hydraulic cylinder has its piston rod connected to a cross head on which a pair of sprockets are journalled. Chains pass around respective sprockets, one reach of each chain extending upwardly and is anchored to a stationary part of the tower. The other reach of each chain extends upwardly and over and around an upper sprocket journalled on a shaft carried by the upper end of the tower, each chain then extending downwardly to a yoke to which the polish rod is connected. This arrangement will result in a 2 to 1 ratio between the movement of the polish rod and the stroke of the hydraulic cylinder.

  9. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  10. AmeriFlux US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand. Site Description - The jack pine site is owned by Michigan Technological University. The stand is managed, and thus thinned and harvested depending on stand age. This jack pine site is naturally regenerating following a clearcut around 1989. Heavy snow in December 2001 c

  11. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx particles with easy-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoguo; Zhang, Yongbo; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Fashen

    2015-11-01

    The microwave magnetic properties of the soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx (x≈3) particles with easy-plane anisotropy were reported. The high MS and out-of-plane anisotropy result in the high permeability in GHz frequency band. The complex permeability of the Y2Fe17Nx particles/paraffin composite was further enhanced by inducing the easy magnetization planes of the particles to be parallel to each other through a rotational orientation. The calculated reflection loss (RL) properties of the orientated Y2Fe17Nx composite revealed that this composite can be used as high-performance absorber in S band.

  12. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  13. Plan for Using Solar-Powered Jack Pumps to Sample Groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    David Hudson, Charles Lohrstorfer, Bruce Hurley

    2007-05-03

    Groundwater is sampled from 39 monitoring wells on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. Many of these wells were not designed or constructed for long-term groundwater monitoring. Some have extensive completion zones and others have obstructions such as pumps and tubing. The high-volume submersible pumps in some wells are unsuitable for long-term monitoring and result in large volumes of water that may have to be contained and characterized before subsequent disposition. The configuration of most wells requires sampling stagnant well water with a wireline bailer. Although bailer sampling allows for the collection of depth-discrete samples, the collected samples may not be representative of local groundwater because no well purging is done. Low-maintenance, solar-powered jack pumps will be deployed in nine of these onsite monitoring wells to improve sample quality. These pumps provide the lift capacity to produce groundwater from the deep aquifers encountered in the arid environment of the NTS. The water depths in these wells range from 700 to 2,340 ft below ground surface. The considerable labor and electrical power requirements of electric submersible pumps are eliminated once these pumps are installed. Access tubing will be installed concurrent with the installation of the pump string to provide downhole access for water-level measurements or other wireline instruments. Micro-purge techniques with low pump rates will be used to minimize purge volumes and reduce hydraulic gradients. The set depths of the pumps will be determined by the borehole characteristics and screened interval.

  14. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  15. Coupled aquifer-borehole simulation.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A model coupling fluid hydraulics in a borehole with fluid flow in an aquifer is developed in this paper. Conservation of momentum is used to create a one-dimensional steady-state model of vertical flow in an open borehole combined with radially symmetric flow in an aquifer and with inflow to the well through the wellbore screen. Both laminar and turbulent wellbore conditions are treated. The influence of inflow through the wellbore screen on vertical flow in the wellbore is included, using a relation developed by Siwoń (1987). The influence of inflow reduces the predicted vertical variation in head up to 15% compared to a calculation of head losses due to fluid acceleration and the conventional Colebrook-White formulation of friction losses in a circular pipe. The wellbore flow model is embedded into the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. The nonlinear conservation of momentum equations are iteratively linearized to calculate the conductance terms for vertical flow in the wellbore. The resulting simulations agree favorably with previously published results when the model is adjusted to meet the assumptions of the previous coupled models. PMID:19682095

  16. Possibility of tilt observation at the sea floor by using the BBOBST-NX system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Ito, A.; Sugioka, H.; Shinohara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1999, we had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, performed several practical observations to create a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology. Now, the BBOBS data is proved to be acceptable for broadband seismic analyses. In these studies, the period range mostly used is about 10 - 200 s, but in longer period range, i.e. geodetic range, is unknown region in the sea floor observation. High mobility of our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX can be a breakthrough to realize the geodetic observation network on the sea floor. Two kinds of attempts to expand observation range toward the geodetic one have been started since 2009, based on our BBOBS technology. One is for detecting vertical displacement by attaching an absolute pressure gauge (APG) in the BBOBS system. The highly stable frequency oscillator within the OBS recorder is adequate for precise pressure measurement of the APG. This BBOBS+APG system has been operated since 2009. In this presentation, we will report results of several test experiments for the tilt observation just beneath the sea floor by using the BBOBS-NX system, as the second one. The tilt is measured by using two horizontal mass position signals of the sensor. The first test observation was performed by using the same sensor of the BBOBS-NX at the land observatory in 2010. The result was comparable with that of the water tube tilt-meter there. After the in situ test for 2 months at the sea floor in the Shikoku Basin in 2012, we started the practical tilt observation at the sea floor off Boso peninsula (KAP3 site) as the feasibility study between April 2013 and April 2014. The deployment and recovery were performed by the ROV. In both observations, a Doppler current profiler was deployed nearby the BBOBST-NX to monitor bottom currents through the observation period. In January 2014, a slow slip event (SSE) occurred near the KAP3 site. The Mw of the SSE is 6.5, and

  17. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  19. Teaching Scientists to Fish, as Inspired by Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    It is almost inconceivable that as Jack Dymond's graduate student for eight years, I never mastered the skill of fly-fishing, a pursuit so near and dear to his heart. In fact, Jack did inspire me, not to tie flies and cast, but eventually to teach fellow scientists to fish. The work I'll present - connecting scientists and educators to achieve societal benefit - is profoundly influenced by Jack's dedication to applying scientific understanding and critical thinking to societal issues. With colleagues in the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), http://www.cosee.net/, I enable scientists to efficiently make meaningful contributions to educational outreach. A key goal of the multi-Center, national COSEE Network is helping scientists build the skills and acquire the resources needed to share their science with diverse audiences. At Scripps, we are piloting an innovative approach to helping scientists meet funding agencies' broader impact requirements. Key elements of the approach include: 1) services to identify educational outreach options that best fit scientists' research and preferences; 2) assistance establishing partnerships with educational outreach providers who have the skills and resources to develop and implement effective programs and exhibits; and 3) nuts and bolts (line and fly) assistance writing proposal text, drafting budgets, and coordinating with institutional business offices to ensure that the proposed educational outreach effort is compelling and sufficiently funded. Where does the fishing lesson come in? We facilitators of scientist-educator partnerships empower scientists to launch enduring collaborations. Once comfortable working with top-notch educational organizations, scientists can tap these resources, project after project, often with little or no additional involvement on our part. Our initial investment in brokering the relationships is richly rewarded. By helping scientists get started, it's as if we are teaching

  20. The influence of musical cadence into aquatic jumping jacks kinematics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mário J; Oliveira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Genoveva; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise "Jumping jacks" kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface). Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 b·min(-1), 135 b·min(-1), 150 b·min(-1), 165 b·min(-1) and 180 b·min(-1)) with 16 full cycles of the "Jumping jacks" exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs' (i.e. hands), lower limbs' (i.e. feet) and center of mass' 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limb's velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limb's displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence. Key pointsWhile performing the Jumping Jacks, expert and fit subjects increase their lower limbs segmental velocity to maintain the range of motion.The upper limbs displacement is reduced to maintain the music cadence.Expert and fit subjects present similar response for alternating or simultaneously head-out aquatic exercises when increasing the music cadence. PMID:24149548

  1. Tough new jack-up for rough seas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Rowan Company's new deepwater jack-up, Rowan Gorilla I, is scheduled to spud its initial well off the east coast of Canada later this month for a consortium of oil companies including Bow Valley-Husky and ATS Exploration Ltd. The new rig's class designation--Gorilla--reflects designers' expectations for the drilling unit that is suited to work in virtually all ice-free hostile environmental areas of the world. Rowan's confidence in the design, built by Marathon LeTourneau's Vicksburg, Mississippi yard, is reiterated by the fact that two additional rigs in the Gorilla class are being built. Rowan Gorilla II is being constructed at Marathon's Singapore yard, and the Rowan Gorilla III is in early construction stages at the firm's Vicksburg yard. The three Gorilla-class rigs will cost in excess of $85 million each, including owner-furnished drilling equipment. This, according to owners, will make them among the costliest jack-ups in the world. Another record being claimed by the Gorilla-class drilling units is that they are the largest jack-ups in the world. Fully outfitted, a Gorilla contains 16,000 tons of steel. Its triangular hull measures 297 ft from bow to stern and 292 ft across the stern. The rig has a variable load of 2,750 tons for drilling consumables and 42,265 sq ft of deck space. Its ample storage capacity, along with its 503-ft leg length and certain design features, makes the rig compatible with hostile offshore areas, where it can continue drilling for long periods unattended.

  2. Prediction methods of spudcan penetration for jack-up units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-xia; Duan, Meng-lan; Li, Hai-ming; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Jian-jun

    2012-12-01

    Jack-up units are extensively playing a successful role in drilling engineering around the world, and their safety and efficiency take more and more attraction in both research and engineering practice. An accurate prediction of the spudcan penetration depth is quite instrumental in deciding on whether a jack-up unit is feasible to operate at the site. The prediction of a too large penetration depth may lead to the hesitation or even rejection of a site due to potential difficulties in the subsequent extraction process; the same is true of a too small depth prediction due to the problem of possible instability during operation. However, a deviation between predictive results and final field data usually exists, especially when a strong-over-soft soil is included in the strata. The ultimate decision sometimes to a great extent depends on the practical experience, not the predictive results given by the guideline. It is somewhat risky, but no choice. Therefore, a feasible predictive method for the spudcan penetration depth, especially in strata with strong-over-soft soil profile, is urgently needed by the jack-up industry. In view of this, a comprehensive investigation on methods of predicting spudcan penetration is executed. For types of different soil profiles, predictive methods for spudcan penetration depth are proposed, and the corresponding experiment is also conducted to validate these methods. In addition, to further verify the feasibility of the proposed methods, a practical engineering case encountered in the South China Sea is also presented, and the corresponding numerical and experimental results are also presented and discussed.

  3. Cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic induction for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.; Lee, K.H.

    1991-08-01

    Audio-frequency cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetics (EM) are interesting alternatives to existing techniques for petroleum reservoir characterization and monitoring. With these methods signals may be propagated several hundreds of meters through typical sand/shale reservoirs and data may be collected at high accuracy with a high sensitivity to the subsurface resistivity distribution. Field systems for cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole EM measurements have been designed and built by Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories for reservoir evaluation and monitoring. The cross-borehole system utilizes vertical axis induction coil antennas for transmission and detection of sinusoidal signals. Data are collected in profiles with the source coil moving continuously while its signal is detected by a stationary receiver coil located in a separate well. Subsequent profiles are collected using a different receiver depth and the same transmitter span until a suite of profiles is obtained that cover the desired interval in the borehole. The surface-to-borehole system uses a large diameter surface loop transmitter and a vertical axis borehole receiver. Due to its high signal strength this system operates using a sweep frequency transmitter waveform so that data may be simultaneously collected over several decades of frequency. Surface-to-borehole profiles are equally repeatable and although this data is less sensitive than cross-borehole EM, it can be fit to a resistivity section consistent with the borehole log. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Nikitenkov, N. N.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Babihina, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    coating for Zr-2.5Nb alloy from hydrogenation. Dense TiNx films were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (CVA). Hydrogen absorption rate was calculated from the kinetic curves of hydrogen sorption at elevated temperature of the sample (T = 673 K) and pressure (P = 2 atm). Results revealed that TiNx films significantly reduced hydrogen absorption rate of Zr-2.5Nb.

  5. Hard and relaxed a-SiNxHy films prepared by PECVD: Structure analysis and formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangdong; He, Qiong; Fan, Taijun; Jiang, Yadong; Huang, Long; Ao, Tianhong; Ma, Chunqian

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNxHy) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Their chemical structures and mechanical properties were investigated. Results reveal that there are four kinds of Sisbnd N groups, involving Si3N4, Hsbnd Sisbnd N3, H2sbnd Sisbnd N2, and Si3sbnd Sisbnd N, in the a-SiNxHy films. Deposition at 300 °C and flow ratio of SiH4/NH3 = 30/30 sccm leads to the yield of special a-SiNxHy films, in which per two high-N-coordinated Sisbnd N groups (Si3N4 or Hsbnd Sisbnd N3) are distributed with one inter-buffer group (Si3sbnd Sisbnd N). Such a-SiNxHy films exhibit ultralow residual stress (-0.17 MPa), high elastic modulus (206.9 GPa) and high uniformity, holding great potential for device fabrications. The chemical reactions for the formation of a-SiNxHy films were proposed, and the thermodynamic calculations indicate that the utilization ratio of NH3 reagent in the chemical reactions increases significantly with the increase of SiH4 flow, but the utilization ratio of Sisbnd N bonds in the a-SiNxHy formation decreases inversely. This work discloses valuable information on the chemical reactions and structures for a-SiNxHy films, and suggests a route to the preparation of a-SiNxHy films with high hardness and low stress by conventional PECVD.

  6. Forest Modeling of Jack Pine Trees for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghhadam, Mahta; Saatchi, Sasan

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the intensive field campaign for the Boreal forest ecosystem-atmosphere research (BOREAS) project in August 1993, the NASA/JPL AIRSAR covered an area of about 100 km by 100 km near the Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, ground-truth measurements were made in several stands which have been selected as the primary study sites, as well as in some auxiliary sites. This paper focuses on an area including Jack Pine stands in the Nipawin area near the park.

  7. Astronaut Jack Lousma in Lower Body Negative Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A medium close-up view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, in the Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD), as Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, works around the leg band area. This portion of the LBNPD MO-92 experiment was televised on August 7, 1973. The LBNPD experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide inflight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerence and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon returning to Earth environment. The bicycle ergometer is in the background, partially visible behind Bean.

  8. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

  9. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  10. Memristor and selector devices fabricated from HfO2-xNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Partridge, J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Monoclinic HfO2-xNx has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO2-xNx films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.

  11. Fabrication of Si heterojunction solar cells using P-doped Si nanocrystals embedded in SiNx films as emitters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated on p-type single-crystal Si (sc-Si) substrates using phosphorus-doped Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiNx (Si-NCs/SiNx) films as emitters. The Si-NCs were formed by post-annealing of silicon-rich silicon nitride films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition. We investigate the influence of the N/Si ratio in the Si-NCs/SiNx films on their electrical and optical properties, as well as the photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterojunction devices. Increasing the nitrogen content enhances the optical gap E04 while deteriorating the electrical conductivity of the Si-NCs/SiNx film, leading to an increased short-circuit current density and a decreased fill factor of the heterojunction device. These trends could be interpreted by a bi-phase model which describes the Si-NCs/SiNx film as a mixture of a high-transparency SiNx phase and a low-resistivity Si-NC phase. A preliminary efficiency of 8.6% is achieved for the Si-NCs/sc-Si heterojunction solar cell. PMID:24188725

  12. Efficiency improvement of flexible a-SiGe:H solar cells decorated by SiNx composite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyan; Ye, Xiaojun; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Junkun; Wu, Xuemei; Qiu, Bocang; Zhang, Ruiying

    2015-05-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of the efficiency improvement of flexible a-SiGe:H solar cells decorated by SiNx composite nanostructures. The structures, which are composed of SiNx nanodome structures and a thin SiNx film that is underneath the nanodome structures, were implemented via sequential processes using inductance-coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD), nanosphere lithography (NSL), and reactive ion etching (RIE). Compared with the a-SiGe:H solar cells without the SiNx composite nanostructures, solar cells with SiNx composite nanostructures exhibit that the surface reflectivity reduces down to less than 5% over the spectrum range of 200-700 nm, and the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) increase up to 0.76 V from 0.70 V and 52.4% from 38.4% respectively, although the short circuit current density (Jsc) reduces down to 11.6 mA/cm2 from 14.7 mA/cm2. The improvement for Voc and FF indicates that a-SiGe:H solar cells were well passivated by using such SiNx composite structures, which results in the overall enhancement of the conversion efficiency from 4.38% to 5.13% finally. If the absorption of the dielectric composite nanostructures decreases, the higher conversion efficiency should be promisingly achieved in these Si-based thin film solar cells decorated by dielectric composite nanostructures.

  13. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  14. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  15. Magnetotransport in perovskite series La{sub n{minus}nx}Ca{sub 1+nx}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} ferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, H.; Hayakawa, J.; Matsui, M.

    1998-01-01

    The perovskite series La{sub n{minus}nx}Ca{sub 1+nx}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n=2,3, and {infinity}) composed of n layers of MnO{sub 2} is a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) ferromagnet. Results on the transport properties of epitaxial a-axis thin-film samples with a fixed carrier concentration (x=0.3) have indicated that a reduction in the number of layers results in systematic changes in the various features. These include an increase in resistivity, a decrease in the resistivity peak temperature T{sub c}{sup {rho}} corresponding to the metal-insulator transition, an enhancement of the maximum MR near T{sub c}{sup {rho}}, and an increase in the low-temperature intrinsic MR. In order to explain the variation in these features with the number of MnO{sub 2} layers, it is necessary to take both c-axis transfer interaction and two-dimensional spin fluctuation into account. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Qualitative Research, Semiotics, North Beach, South of Markey, Jack London, and the Grateful Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Looks at educational research from a macro perspective, advocating semiotics as the foundation for qualitative research in education. Presents myths and disputations and an open-ended conclusion via the kaleidoscopic interpretations of Jack London, Phil Dick, Jack Kerouac, the Grateful Dead, and an assortment of street characters. (Author/VWL)

  17. Investigating the Jack the Ripper Case: Engaging Students in a Criminal Investigations Class through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Kazmi, Syed

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the utilization of a class project involving the Jack the Ripper murders. Students enrolled in a criminal investigations class were required to investigate the five canonical murders associated with the infamous serial killer known as Jack the Ripper and the murders that occurred in London during 1888. This paper…

  18. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section 25.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General. The...

  19. Remembering Community Inclusion: Stories From the Life of Jack Eldon Baker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millington, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Jack Eldon Baker was born, lived, and died in Gilbert, Arkansas. The story of his life is retold in excerpts from a memorial publication published by the people of the town. This article also makes the case that his story is an example of community inclusion. Through the voices of those who knew him, we see Jack as a person who gave to the…

  20. Transitional Experiences of Post-16 Sports Education: Jack's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, David C. R.; Sparkes, Andrew C.; Brown, David H. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the layered transitional experiences of a semi-professional athlete named Jack (a pseudonym) between the fields of professional sport and further and higher education. Our analysis is framed by the quadripartite framework of structuration and focuses on Jack's "in-situ" practices at his college and university in…

  1. 77 FR 42713 - Notice of Intent to Grant an Exclusive License; PadJack, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Notice of Intent to Grant an Exclusive License; PadJack, Inc. AGENCY: National... intent to grant PadJack, Inc. a revocable exclusive license to practice the following...

  2. Spontaneous magnetization of the Ising model on the union jack and 4-6 lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Wang, S. C.

    1988-03-01

    Spontaneous magnetization of the Ising model on the anisotropic Union Jack and 4-6 lattices are derived exactly. The conjecture by Lin and Wang is confirmed. Our result is a generalization of the recent work on the isotropic Union Jack lattice by Choy and Baxter.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  4. Infrared absorption of thin films MoSi2/SiNx micro-bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Su, Yan; He, Yong; Wang, Kaiying

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report the infrared absorption and opto-electrical characteristics of multilayered thin films of MoSi2/SiNx with a micro-bridge structure. The thin films of MoSi2 deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit a relatively smooth surface (RMS roughness <1 nm, ˜0.98 Å/s), on which their square resistance is linearly increased from 340 to 550 Ω/sq. as the thickness decreases from 32 to 16 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that the thin film MoSi2 with a thickness of ˜24 nm (450 Ω/sq.) presents the maximum infrared absorption on nearly dielectric thin film SiNx. Optical simulation verifies that the resistivity of the nearly dielectric thin film SiNx has an important influence on the infrared absorption of the thin film MoSi2. This work provides the physical understanding regarding the building of micro-bridges with the high infrared absorption.

  5. Cloning, expression, and crystallization of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) canavalin.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, J D; Ko, T P; McPherson, A

    1993-01-01

    Canavalin is the major storage protein of the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and belongs to the classical vicilin fraction. A full-length cDNA for canavalin was generated by the polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence coding for canavalin and the corresponding amino acid sequence were determined and shown to be homologous with those of other seed storage proteins. The amino acid sequence contained an internal sequence duplication corresponding to the structural redundancy in the monomer demonstrated by crystallographic analysis. The coding region of the canavalin cDNA was inserted into a T7 RNA polymerase expression vector and used to transform Escherichia coli. A recombinant protein with a molecular mass of 47 kilodaltons was expressed and purified to 95% homogeneity. The protein exhibited the same physical, immunological, and biochemical properties as native jack bean canavalin. Recombinant canavalin, following treatment with trypsin, was crystallized in two forms. Crystals of a rhombohedral habit grew to 1 mm in the longest dimension and diffracted to beyond 3-A resolution. Three-dimensional diffraction data demonstrated crystals of the recombinant protein to be isomorphous with crystals of the natural plant protein, thereby confirming the identity of their structures. PMID:8310055

  6. Comparing Luminex NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel and RespiFinder-22 for multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Christiane; Hirsch, Hans H

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory tract infection (RTI) involves a variety of viruses and bacteria, which can be conveniently detected by multiplex nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). To compare the novel Luminex-based NxTAG-Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) with the routine multiplex-ligation-NAT based RespiFinder-22® (RF-22), 282 respiratory specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs (71%), broncho-alveolar lavage (27%), throat swabs, tracheal secretions, and sputum (2%) from 116 children and 155 adults were extracted using a Corbett CAS1200 (Qiagen), and analyzed in parallel by the routine RF-22 and NxTAG-RPP. Concordant results were obtained in 263 (93.3%) cases consisting of concordant positives in 167 (59.2%) and concordant negatives in 96 (34%). Results were discordant in 19 (6.7%) consisting of 15 positive:negative, and 4 negative:positive results by NxTAG-RPP versus RF-22, respectively. Co-infections were observed in 10.3% with NxTAG-RPP and in 5.9% with RF-22. Most additional viral pathogens identified by the NxTAG-RPP involved dual infections with rhinovirus and RSV. Discordant samples were mainly due to low genome signals of Ct less than 36, when retested by QNAT suggesting a higher sensitivity of the NxTAG-RPP, also when detecting multiple infections. Hands-on time after extraction for 24 and 96 samples was 0.25 and <0.5 hr for the NxTAG-RPP, and 2 and 4 hr for the RF-22, respectively. The median turn-around time was 6 hr (range 5-7 hr) for NxTAG-RPP and 12 hr (range 8-16 hr) for RF-22. The NxTAG-RPP showed comparable detection rates for most respiratory pathogens, while hands-on and turn-around time were considerably shorter. The clinical significance of detecting multiple viruses needs further clinical evaluation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1319-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856438

  7. PBO Borehole Strain and Siesmic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Hasting, M.; Dittman, T.; Johnson, W.; Meertens, C.

    2007-05-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. A brief history of US BSM program is presented. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results: imaging two slow slip events in the PNW along with excellent tele-siesmic imaging. Exciting work has been done in the PBO community relating modeled strain from the GPS network to observed strain from the BSM network. PBO also plans the installation of three volcanic arrays at Mt St Helens, Yellowstone and Long Valley. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and

  8. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  9. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  10. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  11. Serum NX-DCP as a New Noninvasive Model to Predict Significant Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masaya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Hirotaka; Momose, Kenji; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Finding a noninvasive method to predict liver fibrosis using inexpensive and easy-to-use markers is important. Objectives: We aimed to clarify whether NX-des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (NX-DCP) could become a new noninvasive model to predict liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) related liver disease. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study on a consecutive group of 101 patients who underwent liver biopsy for HCV-related liver disease at Kobe University Hospital. Laboratory measurements were performed on the same day as the biopsy. Factors associated with significant fibrosis (F3-4) were assessed by multivariate analyses. A comparison of predictive ability between multivariate factors and abovementioned noninvasive models was also performed. Results: Increase in serum NX-DCP was significantly related to increase in fibrosis stage (P = 0.006). Moreover, NX-DCP was a multivariate factor associated with the presence of significant fibrosis F 3-4 (median 21 of F0-2 group vs. median 22 of F3-4 group with P = 0.002). The AUC of NX-DCP showed no significant differences compared with those of the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), modified-APRI, the Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI), the Lok index, the Hui score, cirrhosis discriminating score (CDS) and the Pohl score (P > 0.05). Conclusions: NX-DCP correlated positively with fibrosis stage and could discriminate well between HCV-related patients with or without significant fibrosis. Moreover, NX-DCP had a similar predictive ability to the abovementioned models, and thereby could be a new noninvasive prediction tool for fibrosis. PMID:25788955

  12. High-rate deposition of a-SiNx:H for photovoltaic applications by the expanding thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W. M. M.; Hong, J.; van Assche, F. J. H.; Moschner, J. D.; Lauinger, T.; Soppe, W. J.; Weeber, A. W.; Schram, D. C.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2002-09-01

    Driven by the need for improvement of the economical competitiveness of photovoltaic energy, the feasibility of high-rate (>1 nm/s) amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx):H deposited by the expanding thermal plasma (ETP) technique has been explored with respect to the application of the a-SiNx:H as functional antireflection coating on crystalline silicon solar cells. First, the deposition rate and the a-SiNx:H film properties, such as refractive index, Si, N, and H atomic density, and hydrogen bonding configurations, have been mapped for various operating conditions. From ellipsometry, elastic recoil detection, and infrared spectroscopy, it has been shown that deposition rates up to 20 nm/s can be reached with a fair film homogeneity and that the refractive index and the N/Si ratio can fully be tuned by the plasma composition while the hydrogen content can be controlled by the substrate temperature. Good antireflection coating performance of the a-SiNx:H has therefore been observed for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. These cells with ETP a-SiNx:H yielded only slightly lower conversion efficiencies than high-quality reference cells due to a much lower degree of surface passivation. This lack of surface passivation has also been shown in a separate study on the surface recombination velocity. Furthermore, it has been tested whether the a-SiNx:H films lead to silicon bulk passivation, which is essential for solar cells based on cheaper, defective silicon stock material such as multicrystalline silicon. It has been proven that bulk passivation of the cells is indeed induced by the high-rate ETP deposited a-SiNx:H after a high-temperature step in which the metal contacts of the cells are processed. These results make the ETP technique an interesting candidate for high-throughput processing of competitive silicon solar cells. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  13. Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Beltrami, H.

    2011-12-01

    The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions.

  14. Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.

    2012-04-01

    The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions. (http://palma.fis.ucm.es/~volker/)

  15. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  16. Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.4–1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  17. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs.

  18. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Habasque, Jérémie; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, Niels T.; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Demarcq, Hervé; Gerlotto, François

    2016-08-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The uncertainty associated to jack mackerel population structure currently hampers management. Several hypotheses have been proposed from a single population up to several discrete populations. Still no definitive answer was given. Determining how environmental conditions drive jack mackerel distribution can provide insights on its population structure. To do so, here we performed in three steps. First, we used satellite data to develop a statistical model of jack mackerel horizontal habitat suitability. Model predictions based on interaction between temperature and chlorophyll-a match the observed jack mackerel distribution, even during extreme El Niño event. Second, we studied the impact of oxygen and show that jack mackerel distribution and abundance is correlated to oxygen over a wide variety of scales and avoid low oxygen areas and periods. Third, on the basis of the above we built a conceptual 3D model of jack mackerel habitat in the Southeastern Pacific. We reveal the presence of a low suitable habitat along the Chilean and Peruvian coast, figuratively presenting a closed door caused by a gap in the horizontal habitat at ∼19-22°S and a shallow oxycline off south-centre Peru. This kind of situation likely occurs on a seasonal basis, in austral summer but also at longer temporal scales. A lack of exchanges at some periods/seasons partially isolate jack mackerel distributed off Peru. On the other hand the continuity in the habitat during most of the year explains why exchanges occur. We conclude that the more likely population structure for jack mackerel is a pelagic metapopulation.

  19. Distinguishing primary and secondary inclusion assemblages in Jack Hills zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Hopkins-Wielicki, Michelle D.; Harrison, T. Mark

    2015-10-01

    Detrital igneous zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, range in age from ~ 3.0 to nearly 4.4 Ga and contain an inclusion assemblage dominated by quartz and muscovite, cited as evidence of their derivation from peraluminous granitoids. However, some phosphate inclusions in these zircons are known to be secondary from their post-depositional U-Pb ages and manifest mineralization along cracks. We undertook a survey of mineral inclusions in 4.3-3.0 Ga Jack Hills zircons with particular emphasis on their relationship to possible alteration features (e.g., cracks, disturbed internal zonation, and visual turbidity). Mineral inclusions revealed at polished surfaces show variations in modal mineralogy, mostly corresponding to their relationship with cracks. Muscovite is common both on and away from cracks, although the chemistry of muscovite inclusions shows little relationship with other potential alteration features. Inclusions filling cracks (secondary) and inclusions isolated from cracks differ in their modal mineralogy, although both suites are rich in muscovite and quartz. The higher incidence of crack-intersecting inclusions among younger zircons may reflect effects of the (generally larger) inclusion size among younger zircons. Mismatches between the isolated and crack-intersecting populations indicate selective loss of certain phases (e.g., feldspar, apatite) and over-representation of quartz and muscovite along cracks likely due to the effects of larger inclusion size and varying degrees of overpressure following zircon cooling and decompression. Inclusions not associated with cracks in magmatically zoned versus regions with disturbed zoning have similar phase proportions. This indicates only minor inclusion replacement away from cracks (i.e., the isolated assemblage is likely primary). This holds true also for inclusions within visually turbid versus clear volumes of zircon. Phase proportions within the inclusion assemblages differ with age indicating a

  20. Effect of Duty Cycle on Characteristics of CrNx Thin Films Deposited by Pulsed Direct Current Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi-Lung; Wu, Bo-Yi; Chen, Pin-Hung; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Chun-Ta; Wu, Wan-Yu

    2013-11-01

    CrNx thin films have been deposited on silicon wafer, 304 stainless steel, and tungsten carbide substrates using pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering. A 10 kHz unipolar mode and a N2/Ar ratio of 17.5% were used. During the deposition, the substrate was not biased and not heated during the entire deposition time of 30 min. The microstructure, crystalline phase, and mechanical properties of the obtained CrNx thin films were examined to investigate the effect of the duty cycle. The results show that the maximum current and power density increase with decreasing duty cycle from 100% (DC) to 5%. Although the thickness of the CrNx thin films decreases with decreasing duty cycle, the ratio of the thickness to the pulse on-time shows a maximum of 273.3 nm/min at the lowest duty cycle of 5%. The obtained CrNx thin films show a mixture of the Cr2N and CrN phases. Moreover, the Cr-N bonding state and the percentages of CrN and Cr2N vary with the duty cycle. The effects of the duty cycle on the hardness, coefficient of friction, and corrosion behavior of the CrNx thin films are also investigated in this study.

  1. Evaluation of crack-healing behavior in SiNx/SiC nanolaminated thin film by microbending test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, M.; Tonoya, Y.; Harada, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the crack-healing behavior of SiNx/SiC nanolaminated films quantitatively. SiNx/SiC nanolaminated films were fabricated by alternating ion-beam assisted deposition of SiNx and SiC. The fabricated nanolaminated films consisted of four layers with the top layer being SiNx. Smooth and notched microbeam specimens were fabricated using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. The nanosized notch was introduced in form of an imitational crack on the film surface by FIB. Some notched samples were heated at 1000 ºC for 24 to 96 h in air. The fracture strength was evaluated by bending tests using a nanoindentation system. After heating, the notch was filled with reaction products. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the reaction products contained oxide compounds, most likely SiO2. The fracture load of the notched specimens recovered with increasing heating time. The filling of the notch with oxidation products caused the recovery of the fracture load. However, the recovery was not complete compared with the strength of a smooth sample. It is concluded that the filling of a notch with oxidation products recovers the mechanical strength of SiNx/SiC nanolaminated films only to a certain extent.

  2. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10‑7-10‑8 m/s and that of influx is about 10‑4-10‑1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the conduction band edge of GaNxP1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngerich, M.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Weiser, G.; Geisz, J. F.; Harris, C.; Lindsay, A.; O'Reilly, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    We show that a two-level band-anticrossing (BAC) model fails to describe the evolution of N-related states in GaNxP1-x . Band structure calculations prove that a two-level model describes these states in ordered GaNP supercells. Photocurrent measurements support a BAC-related blueshift of the GaP-like direct band gap in disordered GaNP, but calculations and electromodulated absorption and pressure studies show that the wide energy distribution of the lower-lying N-related states leads to the anticrossing interaction involving many N levels in disordered GaNP.

  4. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  5. Means and method for protecting apparatus situated in a borehole from closure of the borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, J.P.

    1983-08-16

    Apparatus, situated in a borehole traversing an earth formation, is protected from closure of the borehole by being encased in an inflatable device. Surface equipment inflates and maintains the inflatable device at a sufficient pressure so as to prevent the earth formation from closing in an contacting the apparatus.

  6. 2. Jack Boucher,photographer, July 1971. Scenic view along river showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Jack Boucher,photographer, July 1971. Scenic view along river showing Erie railroad line, Taken from Rt. 97 at Hawks Nest, New York. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  7. AmeriFlux US-Wi9 Young Jack pine (YJP)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi9 Young Jack pine (YJP). Site Description - The Wisconsin Young Jack Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Clearcut on 40 to 70 year intervals, jack pine stands occupy approximately 13% of the region.

  8. AmeriFlux US-Wi5 Mixed young jack pine (MYJP)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi5 Mixed young jack pine (MYJP). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mixed Young Jack Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Clearcut on 40 to 70 year intervals, jack pine stands occupy approximately 13% of the region.

  9. Generalized Jack polynomials and the AGT relations for the SU(3) group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S.; Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We find generalized Jack polynomials for the SU(3) group and verify that their Selberg averages for several first levels are given by Nekrasov functions. To compute the averages, we derive recurrence relations for the Selberg integrals.

  10. View of astronaut Jack Lousma in the Shuttle spacesuits (EMU) at bldg 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Portrait view of astronaut Jack Lousma in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) at bldg 29 Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). He is wearing the full extravehicular mobility unit and is standing on platform about to be lowered into the water.

  11. Heavy duty precision leveling jacks expedite setup time on horizontal boring mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenbaugh, W.; Jones, C.

    1966-01-01

    Leveling jack is a precise alignment tool which expedites the setup of components or assemblies up to 2500 pounds on horizontal boring mills. This tool eliminates the necessity of wedges and blocks to shim the components to proper position.

  12. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS. PMID:27414283

  13. Seismoelectric Wave Measurements in Borehole Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hu, H.; Guan, W.

    2014-12-01

    An experimental system was built in the laboratory based on the electrokinetic theory, which contains a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer ( 1 MS/s, 22 bits ). The electrokinetic measurements are carried out with seismoelectric well logging technique in borehole models at high frequency (90 kHz), and the localized electrokinetic fields that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are clearly observed with monopole source in two sandstone models that are saturated by tap water. The magnitudes of these seismoelectric waves are in the range of 1-100 microvolt, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. The experimental results also show that the seismoelectric well logging signals are related to the permeability of borehole formations. Their amplitudes become larger in the high permeability model, which can be used to measure the permeability of rock formation although no such relationship has ever been provided in existing theories. We also made seismoelectric measurements in a lucite borehole model, but no observable seismoelectric signals were recorded by the electrode. This is not out of our expectation because the lucite formation is not porous and no electrokinetic conversion occurs in such material. However, the electric signal recorded in the Lucite borehole represents the background noise of our measurement system, which is less than 0.5 microvolt. This study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and also presents the range of seismoelectric signals in borehole saturated by tap water that is much closer to the condition of actual formation.

  14. Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.

  15. Oxidation and thermal fatigue of coated and uncoated NX-188 nickel-base alloy in a high velocity gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Young, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A cast nickel-base superalloy, NX-188, coated and uncoated, was tested in a high-velocity gas stream for resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue by cycling between room temperature and 980, 1040, and 1090 C. Contrary to the behavior of more conventional nickel-base alloys, uncoated NX-188 exhibited the greatest weight loss at the lowest test temperature. In general, on the basis of weight change and metallographic observations a coating consisting of vapor-deposited Fe-Cr-Al-Y over a chromized substrate exhibited the best overall performance in resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue.

  16. Jack Rabbit Pretest Shadowplate Drawings For TATB IHE Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; McDaniel, D W

    2009-07-10

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured deadzone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. When setting up computer simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest series, the modeler or code developer can execute simulations with increasing degrees of refinement using detail found in the shadowplate design. The easiest way to get started is by treating the shadowplate in each experiment as a monolithic homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The simulation of detonation would begin as a point initiation below the center, bottom surface of the shadowplate. The detonation running through the ultrafine TATB booster can be simulated using program burn and then switched over to a reactive flow detonation model as the detonation front crosses the boundary into the main charge LX-17 IHE. A modeler wanting to further refine the simulation and progression of shock through the shadowplate can use the more detailed shadowplate design information presented in this document. The source drawings are included in Appendix A of this document. Their titles and drawing numbers are listed. Each experiment's shadowplate consists of two major components. A 303 stainless steel shape that defines the outer dimensions of shadowplate and a cylindrical 303 stainless steel detonator housing that is located in a closely machined pocket in the shape. The SIMPLE ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shape, it's machined cylindrical pocket, and detonator body which is treated as a monolithic, homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The detonator body cross section shows an accurately dimensioned void where the slapper flyer barrel, LX-16 (pressed PETN) pellet, and pellet

  17. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, James E.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space.

  18. Comparative analysis of a jack-up drilling unit with different leg systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiangang; Bai, Yong; Jia, Lusheng

    2012-09-01

    The jack-up unit is one of the best drilling platforms in offshore oil fields with water depth shallower than 150 meters. As the most pivotal component of the jack-up unit, the leg system can directly affect the global performance of a jack-up unit. Investigation shows that there are three kinds of leg structure forms in the world now: the reverse K, X, and mixing types. In order to clarify the advantage and defects of each one, as well as their effect on the global performance of the jack-up unit, this paper commenced to study performance targets of a deepwater jack-up unit with different leg systems (X type, reverse K type, and mixing type). In this paper a typical leg scantling dimension and identical external loads were selected, detailed finite element snalysis (FEA) models were built to simulate the jack-up unit's structural behavior, and the multi-point constraint (MPC) element together with the spring element was used to deal with the boundary condition. Finally, the above problems were solved by comparative analysis of their main performance targets (including ultimate static strength, dynamic response, and weight).

  19. Low temperature SiNx:H films deposited by inductively coupled plasma for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. P.; Wei, D. Y.; Xu, L. X.; Guo, Y. N.; Xiao, S. Q.; Huang, S. Y.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films with different chemical compositions (SiNx:H) have been synthesized by using low frequency inductively coupled plasma of Si + N2 + H2 at a low temperature of 100 °C. The bonding configurations, bond density, hydrogen content, and chemical composition, as well as the refractive index are intensively investigated by a variety of characterization tools. Silicon nitride based antireflection layer on alkaline-textured silicon surface reduces the reflectivity to about 4%. As-deposited silicon nitride films exhibit an excellent passivation effect on p- and n-type Si. The surface recombination velocity is reduced to 36 cm/s on n-type silicon with resistivity of 2-3 Ω cm. The passivation effect originates from the H-related chemical passivation and fixed charge related field passivation. The growth mechanism of SiNx:H from the precursor gas of H2 diluted mixture of silane and nitrogen is also discussed.

  20. Molecular metal-Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt-nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt-N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s-1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols.

  1. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid’s synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2. PMID:26460749

  2. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  3. Molecular metal–Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt–nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt–N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s−1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols. PMID:26250525

  4. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde.

  5. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okko, Olli; Hassinen, Pertti; Front, Kai

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurement devices. The report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consist of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogeneous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment.

  6. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  7. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  8. Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass

  9. Borehole Summary Report for C4997 Rotary Drilling, WTP Seismic Boreholes Project, CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Difebbo, Thomas J.

    2007-02-28

    The following Final Geologic Borehole Report briefly describes the drilling of a single borehole at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford, Washington, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. The location of the WTP is illustrated in Figure 1-1. The borehole was designated as “C4997”, and was drilled to obtain seismic and lithologic data for the Pretreatment Facility and High-Level Waste Vitrification Plant in the WTP. Borehole C4997 was drilled and logged to a total depth of 1428 ft below ground surface (bgs) on October 8, 2006, and was located approximately 150 ft from a recently cored borehole, designated as “C4998”. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) determined the locations for C4997, C4998, and other boreholes at the WTP in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Review Panel, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The total depth of Borehole C4997 was also determined by PNNL.

  10. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  11. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  12. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Large Storage Window in a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Sandwiched Structure for Nanocrystalline Silicon Floating Gate Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Gao; Yu, Lin-Wei; Huang, Xin-Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kun-Ji

    2008-07-01

    An a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon [(nc-Si)/a-SiNx] sandwiched structure is fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system at low temperature (250° C). The nc-Si layer is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane mixture gas by using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Atom force microscopy measurement shows that the density of nc-Si is about 2 × 1011 cm-2. By the pretreatment of plasma nitridation, low density of interface states and high-quality interface between the Si substrate and a-SiNx insulator layer are obtained. The density of interface state at the midgap is calculated to be 1 × 1010 cm-2eV-1 from the quasistatic and high frequency C - V data. The charging and discharging property of nc-Si quantum dots is studied by capacitance-voltage (C - V) measurement at room temperature. An ultra-large hysteresis is observed in the C - V characteristics, which is attributed to storage of the electrons and holes into the nc-Si dots. The long-term charge-loss process is studied and ascribed to low density of interface states at SiNx/Si substrate.

  13. Jack Rabbit Pretest Data For TATB Based IHE Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

    2008-06-18

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments, 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured dead-zone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. This document contains reference data tables for all 5 experiments. These data tables include: (1) Measured laser velocimetry of the experiment diagnostic plate (2) Computed diagnostic plate profile contours through velocity integration (3) Computed center axis pressures through velocity differentiation. All times are in microseconds, referenced from detonator circuit current start. All dimensions are in millimeters. Schematic axi-symmetric cross sections are shown for each experiment. These schematics detail the materials used and dimensions of the experiment and component parts. This should allow anyone wanting to evaluate their TATB based insensitive high explosive detonation model against experiment. These data are particularly relevant in examining reactive flow detonation model prediction in computational simulation of dead-zone formation and resulting impulse gradients produced by detonating TATB based explosive.

  14. Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.; Crawford, Donald C.

    1986-01-01

    A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each drive rod stationary with respect to the pressure housing. An electromechanical movable latch device is also provided for each one of the drive rods. Each movable latch device is provided with a base and is actuatable to hold a respective drive rod stationary with respect to the base. An electromechanical lift device is further provided for each base which is actuatable for moving a respective base longitudinally along the pressure housing. In this manner, one or more drive rods can be moved in the pressure housing by sequentially and repetitively operating the electromechanical devices. Preferably, each latch device includes a pair of opposed latches which grip teeth located on the respective drive rod. Two, three, or four drive rods can be located symmetrically about the longitudinal axis of the pressure housing.

  15. Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.; Crawford, D.C.

    1983-10-06

    A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each drive rod stationary with respect to the pressure housing. An electromechanical movable latch device is also provided for each one of the drive rods. Each movable latch device is provided with a base and is actuatable to hold a respective drive rod stationary with respect to the base. An electromechanical lift device is further provided for each base which is actuatable for moving a respective base longitudinally along the pressure housing. In this manner, one or more drive rods can be moved in the pressure housing by sequentially and repetitively operating the electromechanical devices. Preferably, each latch device includes a pair of opposed latches which grip teeth located on the respective drive rod. Two, three, or four drive rods can be located symmetrically about the longitudinal axis of the pressure housing.

  16. Additive and non-additive genetic components of the jack male life history in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Forest, Adriana R; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Heath, Daniel D; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-08-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, exhibit alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males exist in two phenotypes: large "hooknose" males and smaller "jacks" that reach sexual maturity after only 1 year in seawater. The mechanisms that determine "jacking rate"-the rate at which males precociously sexually mature-are known to involve both genetics and differential growth rates, where individuals that become jacks exhibit higher growth earlier in life. The additive genetic components have been studied and it is known that jack sires produce significantly more jack offspring than hooknose sires, and vice versa. The current study was the first to investigate both additive and non-additive genetic components underlying jacking through the use of a full-factorial breeding design using all hooknose sires. The effect of dams and sires descendant from a marker-assisted broodstock program that identified "high performance" and "low performance" lines using growth- and survival-related gene markers was also studied. Finally, the relative growth of jack, hooknose, and female offspring was examined. No significant dam, sire, or interaction effects were observed in this study, and the maternal, additive, and non-additive components underlying jacking were small. Differences in jacking rates in this study were determined by dam performance line, where dams that originated from the low performance line produced significantly more jacks. Jack offspring in this study had a significantly larger body size than both hooknose males and females starting 1 year post-fertilization. This study provides novel information regarding the genetic architecture underlying ARTs in Chinook salmon that could have implications for the aquaculture industry, where jacks are not favoured due to their small body size and poor flesh quality. PMID:27450674

  17. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  18. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  19. Defect reduction of SiNx embedded m-plane GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seohwi; Kim, Minho; So, Byeongchan; Yoo, Geunho; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyuseung; Nam, Okhyun

    2014-12-01

    Nonpolar (1 0 -1 0) m-plane GaN has been grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). We studied the defect reduction of m-GaN with embedded SiNx interlayers deposited by ex-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full-width at half-maximum values of the X-ray rocking curves for m-GaN with embedded SiNx along [1 1 -2 0]GaN and [0 0 0 1]GaN were reduced to 528 and 1427 arcs, respectively, as compared with the respective values of 947 and 3170 arcs, of m-GaN without SiNx. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy revealed that the basal stacking fault density was decreased by approximately one order to 5×104 cm-1 due to the defect blocking of the embedded SiNx. As a result, the near band edge emission intensities of the room-temperature and low-temperature photoluminescence showed approximately two-fold and four-fold improvement, respectively.

  20. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

  1. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  2. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  3. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  4. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  5. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  11. Thermochromic properties of VO2 thin film on SiNx buffered glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun; You, HyunWoo; Ko, Kyeong-Eun; Kwon, O.-Jong; Chang, Se-Hong; Park, Chan

    2013-07-01

    VO2 thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates with silicon nitride sodium-diffusion barrier layer as diffusion barrier, in order to investigate the effect of sodium ion diffusion on the formation of VO2. SiNx layers with thicknesses over 30 nm were found to successfully prevent sodium ion diffusion in VO2 thin film and also contribute to the formation of VO2 thin film, which was confirmed by XRD spectra and XPS measurements. The change of infrared transmittance at 2500 nm wavelength with temperature change from room temperature to 80 °C was increased significantly, and the optical hysteresis width of the sample decreased by almost 6 K as well. The results suggest that applying diffusion barrier can improve the thermochromic properties of the VO2 films for energy-saving smart coatings, and silicon nitride can be one of the effective materials to prevent sodium ion diffusion.

  12. Possible interactions between two-level system defects in SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladchenko, Sergiy; Khalil, Moe; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, Kevin D.

    2011-03-01

    Low-temperature properties of PECVD SiNx dielectric films are measured within the capacitor of superconducting LC resonators. Experiments are made at temperatures from 30 to 300 mK, and at storage energies from 1 to 106 photons in a resonant cavity. While the power and temperature dependence of the loss agrees with two-level system (TLS) theory above 60 mK, below this temperature we observe significant deviations. In this regime we observe a reduction in loss upon lowering dielectric temperature, in direct contrast with the independent TLS model of defects within our film. This new phenomena may indicate interactions between two-level systems. We can also spectroscopically resolve the loss from dominant defects in our capacitors, which have a volume of ~ 2000 μ m 3 .

  13. Evolution of superclusters and delocalized states in GaAs1–xNx

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fluegel, B.; Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Crooker, S. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-11-21

    The evolution of individual nitrogen cluster bound states into an extended state infinite supercluster in dilute GaAs1–xNx was probed through temperature and intensity-dependent, time-resolved and magnetophotoluminescence (PL) measurements. Samples with compositions less than 0.23% N exhibit PL behavior that is consistent with emission from the extended states of the conduction band. Near a composition of 0.23% N, a discontinuity develops between the extended state PL peak energy and the photoluminescence excitation absorption edge. The existence of dual localized/delocalized state behavior near this composition signals the formation of an N supercluster just below the conduction band edge. The infinite supercluster ismore » fully developed by 0.32% N.« less

  14. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  15. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  16. Investigation of jack-up leg extension for deep water operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Elhewy, Ahmed; Hegazy, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Since the first jack-up was built, jackups have become the most popular type of mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) for offshore exploration and development purposes in shallow water. The most pivotal component of the jack-up unit is the leg, which can directly affect the global performance of the unit. In this paper, an investigation into extending the length of the jack up leg is carried out in order to study the enhancement of the rig capability to drill in deeper water approaching the range of the Semisubmersible Drilling Unit (SSDU) (300-1000ft). A study of the performance of a deep-water jack-up unit is performed with different leg lengths. Typical leg scantling dimensions and identical external loads are assigned, and then a detailed Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model is created in order to simulate the jack-up leg unit's structural behavior. A Multi-point Constraint (MPC) element together with the spring element is used to deal with the boundary conditions. Finally, a comparative analysis for five leg lengths is carried out to illustrate their performance, including the ultimate static strength, and weight.

  17. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  18. Rapid communication: experimental evidence that juvenile pelagic jacks (Carangidae) respond behaviorally to DMSP.

    PubMed

    Debose, Jennifer L; Nevitt, Gabrielle A; Dittman, Andrew H

    2010-03-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced by marine algae and released during foraging activity by zooplankton and fish. Pelagic fishes depend on patchily distributed foraging opportunities, and DMSP may be an important signaling molecule for these events. We have previously shown that the abundance of carangid jacks is positively associated with elevated DMSP levels over coral reefs in the Gulf of Mexico, suggesting that these fishes may use spatial and temporal variation in DMSP to locate foraging opportunities. Here, we extend this work by demonstrating that juveniles of two species of pelagic jack, crevalle jack, Caranx hippos, and bluefin trevally, C. melampygus, detect and respond to DMSP in a flow-through tank in the laboratory. Juveniles of these species showed elevated swimming activity in response to ecologically relevant concentrations of DMSP (10(-9) M). These results provide further evidence that this chemical may serve as a chemosensory cue for carangid species. PMID:20177745

  19. Application of metal magnetic memory technology on defects detection of jack-up platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Changhang; Cheng, Liping; Xie, Jing; Yin, Xiaokang; Chen, Guoming

    2016-02-01

    Metal magnetic memory test (MMMT), which is an effective way in evaluating early damages of ferrimagnets, can determine the existence of material stresses concentration and premature defects. As one of offshore oil exploration and development equipment, jack-up platform always generate stress concentration during its life-cycle due to complicated loading condition and the hash marine environment, which will decline the bearing capacity and cause serious consequences. The paper conducts in situ experiments of defects detection on some key structural components of jack-up platform using MMMT. The signals acquired by MMM-System are processed for feature extraction to evaluate the severity of structure stress concentration. The results show that the method presented in this paper based on MMMT can provide an effective and convenient way of defect detection and structural health monitoring for Jack-up Platform.

  20. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on orientation activities in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2002-12-01

    The effects of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the orientation activities of the inbred, adult middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats, 9 months old and retired breeders towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking, mounting), the environment (climbing, raring, exploration), themselves (nongenital grooming, genital grooming) and mobility (restricted, unrestricted) after treating these subjects twice daily for 10 days. Results showed that subjects treated with 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased orientation activities towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking and mounting), increased genital grooming towards themselves and restricted movements to a particular area of the cage but decreased interest in the external environment (climbing, raring, exploration) as compared with the controls during the investigation period. In conclusion, this study gives further evidences that different fractions of E. longifolia Jack modified the orientation activities of the middle-aged male rats. PMID:12685506

  1. Spin-singlet quantum Hall states and Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estienne, Benoit; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2012-04-01

    We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wavefunctions and their quasihole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction ν=2k/2r-1 and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin-singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k,r) spin-singlet Jack states.

  2. Towards the Proof of AGT Relations with the Help of the Generalized Jack Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Original proofs of the AGT relations with the help of the Hubbard-Stratanovich duality of the modified Dotsenko-Fateev matrix model did not work for β ≠ 1, because Nekrasov functions were not properly reproduced by Selberg-Kadell integrals of Jack polynomials. We demonstrate that if the generalized Jack polynomials, depending on the N-ples of Young diagrams from the very beginning, are used instead of the N-linear combinations of ordinary Jacks, this resolves the problem. Such polynomials naturally arise as special elements in the equivariant cohomologies of the GL( N)-instanton moduli spaces, and this also establishes connection to alternative ABBFLT approach to the AGT relations, studying the action of chiral algebras on the instanton moduli spaces. In this paper, we describe a complete proof of AGT in the simple case of GL(2) ( N = 2) Yang-Mills theory, i.e., the 4-point spherical conformal block of the Virasoro algebra.

  3. Jack Superpolynomials with Negative Fractional Parameter: Clustering Properties and Super-Virasoro Ideals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Patrick; Lapointe, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre

    2012-12-01

    The Jack polynomials {P_λ^{(α)}} at α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1) indexed by certain ( k, r, N)-admissible partitions are known to span an ideal {IN^{(k,r)}} of the space of symmetric functions in N variables. The ideal {IN^{(k,r)}} is invariant under the action of certain differential operators which include half the Virasoro algebra. Moreover, the Jack polynomials in {IN^{(k,r)}} admit clusters of size at most k: they vanish when k + 1 of their variables are identified, and they do not vanish when only k of them are identified. We generalize most of these properties to superspace using orthogonal eigenfunctions of the supersymmetric extension of the trigonometric Calogero-Moser-Sutherland model known as Jack superpolynomials. In particular, we show that the Jack superpolynomials {P_λ^{(α)}} at α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1) indexed by certain ( k, r, N)-admissible superpartitions span an ideal {{I}N^{(k,r)}} of the space of symmetric polynomials in N commuting variables and N anticommuting variables. We prove that the ideal {{I}N^{(k,r)}} is stable with respect to the action of the negative-half of the super-Virasoro algebra. In addition, we show that the Jack superpolynomials in {{I}N^{(k,r)}} vanish when k + 1 of their commuting variables are equal, and conjecture that they do not vanish when only k of them are identified. This allows us to conclude that the standard Jack polynomials with prescribed symmetry should satisfy similar clustering properties. Finally, we conjecture that the elements of {{I}N^{(k,2)}} provide a basis for the subspace of symmetric superpolynomials in N variables that vanish when k + 1 commuting variables are set equal to each other.

  4. 75 FR 32357 - Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Forest Service Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV... Four Corners, west of Bozeman, Montana, to a new substation near Big Sky Meadow Village in Big Sky... facility between the Jack Rabbit substation and the Meadow Village substation, along with building a...

  5. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  6. Design parameters for borehole strain instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.; Hart, Rhodes

    1985-01-01

    The response of a borehole strain meter to hydrostatic and shear deformations in an isotropic medium is calculated to facilitate optimum instrument design and produce instrument response factors for parameters typically encountered in installed instruments. Results for an empty borehole are first compared with results for an instrument in intimate contact with the surrounding rock. The effects of the grout used to install the instrument are then examined. Where possible, analytic forms for the response factors are given. Results for typical installations are then presented in graphical form for optimizing instrument design in an environment of known elastic parameters. Alternatively, the results may be applied in the measurement of unknown strain signals, to correct for instrument response or to provide in-situ estimates of the elastic properties of the environment by examination of observed strain response to known strain signals.

  7. High-precision multicomponent borehole deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladwin, Michael T.

    1984-12-01

    An instrument capable of deep borehole measurement of vector plane strain to 0.3 nstrain and tilt to 1.0 nrad has been developed for deployment in crustal deformation and earthquake prediction studies. The instrument has been deployed in California where shear strains dominate the deformation. The 125-mm-diam package is grouted in 175-mm boreholes at depths of approximately 200 m. The wall thickness and the grout thickness are chosen to match instrument strength to expected rock parameters. The instrument is capable of flat response from dc to 10 Hz on any single channel. The electronics package is stable to three parts in 108 over the temperature range 10 to 45° C. Reliable shear strain data is available immediately on installation when simple volume strain meters show only bond curing effects or thermal recovery signals.

  8. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  9. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  10. Borehole fracture detection using magnetic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for detecting fractures in a formation penetrated by a borehole wherein the fracture is first filled with a magnetic material and the formation then logged with an instrument that responds to the earth's magnetic field. The fracture can be filled with a magnetic material by including it in the drilling mud when the well is drilled and changing the mud system before logging. The logging tool can comprise a simple compass or a magnetometer.

  11. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  12. Malignant mesenchymal tumors in two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii).

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire; Wobeser, Gary A; Simko, Elemir

    2004-10-01

    Two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii) with proliferative lesions in their internal organs were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) for necropsy because of concern that dogs that had contact with the hares might have been exposed to an infectious disease. In both hares, the primary diagnosis was neoplasia. One hare had metastatic leiomyosarcoma and uterine fibroma, the other had metastatic mesenchymal tumors involving the liver and mesentery. These cases represent the only reports of malignant mesenchymal tumors in white-tailed jack rabbits that we have found in the literature. PMID:15650095

  13. Study of enhanced photovoltaic behavior in InGaN-based solar cells by using SiNx insertion layer: Influence of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunga; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Jang, Jongjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-03-01

    Using a SiNx insertion layer to reduce dislocations, enhanced photovoltaic properties could be obtained in p-i-n InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cell. To investigate the influence of the dislocations on the photovoltaic behaviors, a sample grown without SiNx insertion layer was identically prepared for comparison. From optical properties measurements, the reduction in the number of non-radiative centers and a stronger In localization effect was shown in the sample with SiNx insertion layer. However, the quantum confined stark effect was almost negligible in both the samples. Electrical properties measurement showed reduced saturation current and increased shunt resistance in the sample with SiNx insertion layer due to the reduced dislocation density. By comparing these results and using a numerical model, the influence of the dislocation density on the different photovoltaic properties such as open-circuit voltage and fill factor has been confirmed.

  14. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.; Descz-Pan, M.

    1995-12-31

    We have assessed the feasibility of borehole to surface electromagnetic measurements for fluid injection monitoring. To do this we performed a vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEMP) experiment at the University of California Richmond Field Station where a saline water injection zone was created at a subsurface depth of 30 meters. The methodology used is quite similar to the conventional seismic (VSP) procedure for surface to borehole measurements. In our case however, the transmitter was located in a PVC cased borehole while the receivers were deployed on the surface. With a carefully designed system operating at 9.6 kHz we were able to make measurements accurate to 1 % in amplitude and 1 degree in phase. The data profiles at surface were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. Measurements were made at 5 m intervals. Although the VEMP process is quite vulnerable to near surface conductivity anomalies we readily detected the flat tabular target zone which was about 3 m thick and covered an area of about 120 M{sup 2}.

  15. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  16. Influence of adsorption kinetics on stress evolution in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingping; Fang, Ming; He, Hongbo; Shao, Jianda; Li, Zhaoyang

    2013-07-01

    An in situ multi-beam optical sensor system was used to monitor and analyze the force per unit width (F/w) and stress evolution during several stages in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films. Stress was observed to relieve quickly after interrupt and recover rapidly after growth resumption in both films. Stress relief was reversible in SiO2 film but partial reversible in SiNx film. Stress relief results from both physical and chemical adsorption. Stress recovery is caused by physical desorption. And chemical adsorption results in an irreversible stress relief component. No chemical adsorption occurs in SiO2 film because of the stable chemical structure. The relationship between adsorption kinetics and films' mechanical behavior is revealed.

  17. Effect of SiNx interlayer on structural and electrical properties of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) gallium nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Sung-Min; Seo, Yong Gon; Kim, Doo Soo; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Park, Jung Ho

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the effects of SiNx interlayers on the structural and electrical properties of nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The Nomarski optical microscope images showed that the deposition conditions of the SiNx layer could strongly affect the a-plane GaN surface morphology due to the different SiNx coverage. Basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) and threading dislocation (TD) densities were reduced in the a-plane GaN samples with high SiNx coverage and multiple SiNx-treated GaN interlayers. These results indicate that TD reduction is associated with an increase in the 3D growth step and with the blocking of TD propagation. From on-axis (11-20) X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurements, the anisotropy of full width at half maximum (FWHM) can be attributed to the crystal mosaicity due to insertion of different SiNx interlayers. The anisotropy of sheet resistance between the c-and m-axis was also clearly seen in a-plane GaN samples with a high density of defects, which was attributed to the BSFs as scattering centers.

  18. Difference in linear polarization of biaxially strained I nxG a1 -xN alloys on nonpolar a -plane and m -plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Cui, Ying; Griffiths, James T.; Fu, Wai Y.; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg; Humphreys, Colin J.; Oliver, Rachel A.

    2015-12-01

    I nxG a1 -xN structures epitaxially grown on a -plane or m -plane GaN exhibit in-plane optical polarization. Linear elasticity theory treats the two planes equivalently and is hence unable to explain the experimentally observed higher degree of linear polarization for m -plane than a -plane I nxG a1 -xN . Using density functional theory, we study the response of I nxG a1 -xN random alloys to finite biaxial strains on both nonpolar planes. The calculated m -plane I nxG a1 -xN valence band splitting is larger than that of the a plane, due to a greater degree of structural relaxation in a -plane I nxG a1 -xN . We provide a parametrization of the valence band splitting of I nxG a1 -xN strained to a -plane and m -plane GaN for In compositions between 0 and 0.5, which agrees with experimental measurements and qualitatively explains the experimentally observed difference between a -plane and m -plane polarization.

  19. Improved performance of semi-polar (11-22) GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on SiNx interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joocheol; Jang, Jongjin; Hwang, Jungwhan; Jung, Chilsung; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Lim, Hyoungjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2013-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of the in-situ SiNx nanomask in reducing defects in semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane sapphire. The properties of the semipolar InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) LEDs were improved with a high-quality (11-22) GaN epilayer grown on the SiNx interlayer. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum of both on-axis and off-axis planes on SiNx interlayer. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) band-edge emission intensity of (11-22) GaN grown on the SiNx interlayer was approximately 4 times higher than that of GaN without the SiNx interlayer, which suggests reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers. The optical power of LEDs with the SiNx interlayer was 200% and 270% higher at injection currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively, compared to the reference LEDs.

  20. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  1. Borehole Paleoclimatology: In search of a minimum depth criterion for terrestrial borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    One important uncertainty in borehole paleoclimatology that has been overlooked is the degree to which ground surface temperature (GST) reconstructions depend on the maximum depth of the profile. Because the vast majority of measured borehole temperature profiles are acquired from boreholes of opportunity, the maximum measurement depth in data used for paleoclimatic studies varies considerably (beginning at depths as shallow as 100-150 m and extending to depths of more than 1 km). The depth of the borehole is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. Here we illustrate how the minimum depth of a temperature-depth profile impacts the estimation of the climatic transient and the resultant GST reconstruction. In particular, we attempt to quantitatively illustrate the effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of borehole temperature logs of different depths. Our results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. We show that borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths provide the most robust GST reconstructions and are preferable for inferring past climatic variations at the ground surface. Furthermore, we find that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths

  2. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of InNxP1-x alloy in full range (0 ≤ x ≤1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Metin; Reshak, A. H.; Yalcin, Battal G.; Bagci, Sadik; Ustundag, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We have performed first-principles method to investigate structural and electronic properties of InNxP1-x ternary semiconductor alloy in full range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) using density functional theory. We have used modified Becke-Johnson potential to obtain accurate band gap results. From the electronic band structure calculation we have found that InNxP1-x become metal between 47 and 80% of nitrogen concentration. Additional to our band gap calculations, we have also used the band anticrossing model. The band anticrossing model supplies a simple, analytical expression to calculate the physical properties, such as the electronic and optical properties, of III-NxV1-x alloys. The knowledge of the electron density of states is required to understand and clarify some properties of materials such as the band structures, bonding character and dielectric function. In order to have a deeper understanding of these properties of the studied materials, the total and partial density of states has been calculated. Finally, we have calculated the total bowing parameter b of studied alloys, together with three contributions bVD, bCE, and bSR due to volume deformation, different atomic electron negativities and structural relaxation, respectively.

  4. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce2Fe17NX and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Z.; Wei, J. Z.; Xia, Y. H.; Wu, R.; Yun, C.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, W. Y.; Du, H. L.; Han, J. Z.; Liu, S. Q.; Yang, Y. C.; Wang, C. S.; Yang, J. B.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce2Fe17NX have been investigated. The Ce2Fe17NX compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce2Fe17NX paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ ' = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of -26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and -60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  5. A transparent diode with high rectifying ratio using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide/SiNx coupled junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Jea; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a transparent diode that shows both high rectifying ratio and low leakage current at process temperature below 250 °C. This device is clearly distinguished from all previous transparent diodes in that the rectifying behavior results from the junction between a semiconductor (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)) and insulator (SiNx). We systematically study the properties of each junction within the device structure and demonstrate that the a-IGZO/SiNx junction is the source of the outstanding rectification. The electrical characteristics of this transparent diode are: 2.8 A/cm2 on-current density measured at -7 V; lower than 7.3 × 10-9 A/cm2 off-current density; 2.53 ideality factor; and high rectifying ratio of 108-109. Furthermore, the diode structure has a transmittance of over 80% across the visible light range. The operating principle of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/a-IGZO/SiNx/ITO device was examined with an aid of the energy band diagram and we propose a preliminary model for the rectifying behavior. Finally, we suggest further directions for research on this transparent diode.

  6. Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Su, Sheng-Pin; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Bo-Ji; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Wu, Chih-I; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonic interconnection on chip is the emerging issue for next-generation integrated circuits. With the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring based optical Kerr switch, we demonstrate for the first time the wavelength and format conversion of optical on-off-keying data with a bit-rate of 12 Gbit/s. The field-resonant nonlinear Kerr effect enhances the transient refractive index change when coupling the optical data-stream into the micro-ring through the bus waveguide. This effectively red-shifts the notched dip wavelength to cause the format preserved or inversed conversion of data carried by the on-resonant or off-resonant probe, respectively. The Si quantum dots doped Si-rich SiNx strengthens its nonlinear Kerr coefficient by two-orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Si or Si3N4. The wavelength-converted and cross-amplitude-modulated probe data-stream at up to 12-Gbit/s through the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring with penalty of −7 dB on transmission has shown very promising applicability to all-optical communication networks. PMID:25923653

  7. In-situ SiNx/InN structures for InN field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervos, Ch.; Adikimenakis, A.; Beleniotis, P.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2016-04-01

    Critical aspects of InN channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been investigated. SiNx dielectric layers were deposited in-situ, in the molecular beam epitaxy system, on the surface of 2 nm InN layers grown on GaN (0001) buffer layers. Metal-insulator-semiconductor Ni/SiNx/InN capacitors were analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage measurements and were used as gates in InN FET transistors (MISFETs). Comparison of the experimental C-V results with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations indicates the presence of a positive charge at the SiNx/InN interface of Qif ≈ 4.4 - 4.8 × 1013 cm-2, assuming complete InN strain relaxation. Operation of InN MISFETs was demonstrated, but their performance was limited by a catastrophic breakdown at drain-source voltages above 2.5-3.0 V, the low electron mobility, and high series resistances of the structures.

  8. Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1)...

  13. Borrelia sp. infection in coyotes, black-tailed jack rabbits and desert cottontails in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E C; Windberg, L A

    1989-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) from southern Texas were sampled for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from 1980 to 1986; black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) were sampled in 1986. Coyote fetuses, adult coyote kidneys, and black-tailed jack rabbit and desert cottontail kidneys were cultured for B. burgdorferi in 1986. Results of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests for B. burgdorferi in coyotes were as follows (number positive at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:128/number tested): 1980 (0 of 30), 1981 (0 of 21), 1982 (0 of 53), 1983 (0 of 78), 1984 (47 of 97), 1985 (20 of 88), and 1986 (42 of 80). Eight of 26 black-tailed jack rabbits and two of seven desert cottontails tested in 1986 had IFA titers to B. burgdorferi of greater than or equal to 1:128. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from one of five coyote fetuses, three of 31 adult coyote kidneys, and two of 10 black-tailed jack rabbit kidneys in 1986. These results indicate that B. burgdorferi infection has been present in coyotes in Texas, at least since 1984 and that transplacental transmission occurs. PMID:2644452

  14. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  15. Closing the Science-Policy Gap. A Conversation with Pediatrician Jack P. Shonkoff. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child was founded to close the gap between what we know and what we do to promote the healthy development of young children. When scientific knowledge is ignored rather than used to inform early childhood policy and practices, our children pay a very high price. Council Chair Jack P. Shonkoff,…

  16. From Word to World: Reflections on the Ezra Jack Keats Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Juan Felipe

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the author's Ezra Jack Keats Award for "Calling the Doves/El Canto de las Palomas" (1995), a bilingual picture book based on his childhood in the farm working camps of Central California. Concludes that writers must stay true to the deep sources of multicultural experience, for positive change, and for the magical pictures and poems. (SG)

  17. Eurycoma longifolia JACK and orientation activities in sexually experienced male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Sim, M K

    1998-02-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia JACK were studied on the orientation activities of sexually experienced male rats towards receptive females (mounting, licking, anogenital sniffing), environment (exploration, raring, climbing), themselves (genital grooming, non-genital grooming) and mobility (unrestricted, restricted) after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 10 d prior to the test. The results showed that E. longifolia JACK modified the orientation activities of the treated male rats in that they significantly displayed more frequent and vigorous mounting, licking and anogenital sniffing towards the receptive females, and it further intensified self orientation as indicated by the increased grooming of the genitals compared to the controls (p<0.05). In addition, rats treated with 800 mg/kg of methanol, water and butanol extracts of E. longifolia JACK continued to show confinement to a particular area of the cage (around the female), thus showing restriction in movement as compared to the controls (p<0.05). However, the treated males possessed a lack of interest in the external environment as indicated by a reduction in exploration, raring and climbing on the cage wall. Hence, the present study further supports the folk use of E. longifolia JACK as an aphrodisiac. PMID:9514610

  18. The Future of the American Faculty: An Interview with Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, R. Eugene

    2004-01-01

    Martin J. Finkelstein and Jack H. Schuster have teamed up to continue tracing the changes taking place in faculty work with their Project on the American Faculty. They have published The New Academic Generation: A Profession in Transformation (1998), co-authored with Robert Seal, and are preparing a new manuscript to appear in 2004 with a working…

  19. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical...

  20. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical...

  1. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical...

  2. 14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting singly and in combination with a horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction...: (i) The airplane structure must be designed for a vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical...

  3. Jack Mezirow's Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleja, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of…

  4. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  5. Pivoting output unit control systems activated by jacks. [for controlling aircraft flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belliere, P.

    1978-01-01

    An invention to be used for controlling aircraft flaps is described. It is applicable to control systems with two coaxial output units which pivot simultaneously with respect to two fixed units and which are activated by two opposed, straight coaxial jacks.

  6. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  7. Astronaut Jack Lousma looks at map of Earth in ward room of Skylab cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, looks at a map of Earth at the food table in the ward room of the Orbital Workshop (OWS). In this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit.

  8. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training near Homestead AFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Three views documenting Astronaut Jack R. Lousma in Water Survival Training at the Air Force School at Turkey Point, near Homestead AFB. Views include long range view of Lousma parasailing, with tether attached to unseen craft (34035); view of Lousma in water with floatation devices attached to his arms (34036); close-up view of Lousma during parasailing training (34037).

  9. Astronauts Jack R. Lousma, right, and C. Gordon Fullerton greet the press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Astronauts Jack R. Lousma speaks to news media and friends at Ellington Air Force Base after the landing the the Space Shuttle Columbia at the end of the STS-3 mission. Pilot C. Gordon Fullerton, holding his daughter, stands behind him (28929); wide angle view of STS-3 crew and families on podium (28930).

  10. The House That Jack Built: Neoliberalism, Teaching in Higher Education and the Moral Objections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative tale "the house that Jack built" is used as an analogy for flawed theories. This paper considers how the marketisation of higher education in neoliberal countries like England is affecting teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions. Neoliberal policy approaches resulting in the marketisation of higher education…

  11. Trace Elements Reveal a Possible Link Between Jack Hills Detrital Zircons and the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

    2012-03-01

    The Jack Hills detrital zircons range in age 4.3-3.0 Ga. At ca. 3.9 Ga the record contains a population that appears to have recrystallized during a major thermal event. This may be circumstantial terrestrial evidence for the Late Heavy Bombardment.

  12. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction. PMID:25397989

  13. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  14. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  15. Fully dense Sm2Fe17Nx permanent magnets prepared by shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashimo, Tsutomu; Tashiro, Suguru; Hirosawa, Satoshi; Makita, Ken

    1996-07-01

    Fully dense Sm2Fe17Nx bulk bodies with porosities less than 5% were prepared by shock compression in a certain low-pressure region, using the magnetically aligned powder pellets with an initial porosity of 46%-52% and without binder. Below a driving shock pressure (single shock wave using a copper standard capsule) of about 10 GPa, the recovered specimens did not consolidate well, and above about 20 GPa they began to decompose to α-Fe and Sm nitride. The consolidated state and porosity depended on the driving shock pressure, the thickness and porosity of the starting powder pellet, and the thickness of the impact plate. It was found that the shock consolidated bulk bodies had a Curie temperature of approximately 475 °C, and that the magnetic properties were sensitive to shock pressure, porosity, alignment, etc. The largest values of coercivity and maximum energy product of the recovered bulk specimens prepared in this study were 7.1 kOe and 16.8 MGOe, respectively.

  16. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  17. Method and apparatus for multipole acoustic wave borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Winbow, G.A.; Baker, L.J.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described for determining the radial thickness of an invaded zone of an earth formation surrounding a borehole where a virgin earth formation surrounds the borehole and is separated from the borehole by the invaded zone. The method comprises: (a) transmitting a 2/sup n/-pole P-wave from a point in the borehole into the earth formation surrounding the borehole, n being an integer greater than zero; (b) measuring the P-wave velocity of a zone of the earth formation located at a first radial distance from the borehole by detecting the arrival of the 2/sup n/-pole P-wave at a first location and at a second location in the borehole spaced longitudinally along the borehole from the point of transmission and from each other. The second location is spaced farther from the point of transmission than is the first location, the time arrival between the detections of the 2/sup n/-pole P-wave arrival is measured at the first location and the second location; and (c) repeating the steps (a) and (b) with successively increased longitudinal spacings between the point of transmission and the first location and between the point of transmission and the second location to measure the P-wave velocities of zones of the earth formation located successively radially farther away from the borehole.

  18. The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

    The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

  19. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  20. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  1. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic

  2. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  3. Heritability and Y-chromosome influence in the jack male life history of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Heath, D D; Rankin, L; Bryden, C A; Heath, J W; Shrimpton, J M

    2002-10-01

    Jacking in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is an alternative reproductive strategy in which males sexually mature at least 1 year before other members of their year class. We characterize the genetic component of this reproductive strategy using two approaches; hormonal phenotypic sex manipulation, and a half-sib breeding experiment. We 'masculinized' chinook salmon larvae with testosterone, reared them to first maturation, identified jacks and immature males based on phenotype, and genotyped all fish as male ('XY') or female ('XX') using PCR-based Y-chromosome markers. The XY males had a much higher incidence of jacking than the XX males (30.8% vs 9.9%). There was no difference in body weight, gonad weight, and plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol between the two jack genotypes, although XY jacks did have a higher gonadosomatic index (GSI) than XX jacks. In the second experiment, we bred chinook salmon in two modified half-sib mating designs, and scored the number of jacks and immature fish at first maturation. Heritability of jacking was estimated using two ANOVA models: dams nested within sires, and sires nested within dams with one-half of the half-sib families common to the two models. The sire component of the additive genetic variance yielded a high heritability estimate and was significantly higher than the dam component (h(2)(sire) = 0.62 +/- 0.21; h(2)(dam) = -0.14 +/- 0.12). Our experiments both indicated a strong sex-linked component (Y-chromosome) to jacking in chinook salmon, although evidence for at least some autosomal contribution was also observed. PMID:12242648

  4. Investigation of NbNx thin films and nanoparticles grown by pulsed laser deposition and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Farha, Ashraf

    Niobium nitride films (NbNx) were grown on Nb and Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), laser heating, and thermal diffusion methods. Niobium nitride films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (lambda = 1064 nm, 40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, different nitrogen background pressures and deposition temperatures. The effect of changing PLD parameters for films done by PLD was studied. The seen observations establish guidelines for adjusting the laser parameters to achieve the desired morphology and phase of the grown NbNx films. When the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for laser fluence, surface roughness, deposition rate, nitrogen content, and grain size increases with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to change in the phase structure of the NbNx films from mixed -Nb 2N and cubic delta-NbN phases to single hexagonal beta- Nb 2N. A change in substrate temperature led to a pronounced change in the preferred orientation of the crystal structure, the phase transformation, surface roughness, and composition of the films. The structural, electronic, and nanomechanical properties of niobium nitride PLD deposited at different nitrogen pressures (26.7-66.7 Pa) on Si(100) were investigated. The NbNx, films exhibited a cubic delta-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The highly-textured delta-NbN films have a Tc up to 15.07 K. The film was deposited at a nitrogen background pressure of 66.7 Pa exhibited improved superconducting properties and showed higher hardness values as compared to films deposited at lower nitrogen pressures. NbN nanoclusters that were deposited on carbon coated Cu-grids using PLD at laser fluence of 8 J/cm2 were observed. Niobium nitride is prepared by heating of Nb sample in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere (133 Pa

  5. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  6. The Role of Active Fractures on Borehole Breakout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, D.; Kohl, T.; Schoenball, M.; Müller, B.

    2013-12-01

    The properties of georeservoirs are strongly related to the stress field and their interpretation is a major target in geotechnical management. Borehole breakouts are direct indicators of the stress field as they develop due to the concentration of the highest compressional stress toward the minimum horizontal stress direction. However, the interaction with fractures might create local perturbations. Such weakened zones are often observed by localized anomalies of the borehole breakout orientation. We examined high-quality acoustic borehole televiewer (UBI) logs run in the entire granite sections at the deep well GPK4 at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The borehole is moderately inclined (15° - 35°) in its middle section. Detailed analysis of 1221 borehole elongation pairs in the vicinity of 1871 natural fractures observed in GPK4 well is used to infer the role of fractures on the borehole breakouts shape and orientation. Patterns of borehole breakout orientation in the vicinity of active fractures suggest that the wavelength of the borehole breakout orientation anomalies in this granite rock depend on the scale of the fracture while the rotation amplitude and direction is strongly influenced by the fracture orientation. In the upper and middle part of the well even a linear trend between fracture and breakout orientations could be established. In addition to the rotation, breakouts typically are found to be asymmetrically formed in zones of high fracture density. We find that major faults tend to create a systematic rotation of borehole breakout orientation with long spatial wavelength while abrupt changes are often observed around small fractures. The finding suggest that the borehole breakout heterogeneities are not merely governed by the principal stress heterogeneities, but that the effect of mechanical heterogeneities like elastic moduli changes, rock strength anisotropy and fracturing must be taken into account. Thus, one has to be careful to infer the

  7. Optical Seismometers: Borehole and Vault Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, J. D.; Berger, J.; Wyatt, F. K.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed an interferometric seismometer which uses optics instead of electronics to infer ground motion. The sensor, assembled exclusively from glass and metal materials, could be deployed into deep boreholes where temperatures often exceed 150 °C. Our first prototype consists of a leaf-spring suspension and an optical-fiber-linked interferometer, which monitors vertical displacement of the seismic mass. Several years of testing and improvements have increased its performance at both low (e.g., tidal) and high (tens of Hz) frequencies. The prototype sensor performs as well as or better than most observatory grade seismometers and has an overall observed dynamic range of 109 or 30 bits of resolution (based on its observed noise floor and its maximum mass velocity). We have also built a simple horizontal component prototype which consists of a mass suspended from a vertical pendulum whose flexure is fabricated from a single block of material. Just as our vertical seismometer can serve as a gravity meter, the horizontal prototype can serve as a tiltmeter (both of their responses are flat to DC). Tests are currently being conducted with the new sensor in our Piñon Flat Seismic Test Facility (California). One advantage of our optical displacement transducer is its dynamic range, which relaxes the requirement that the horizontal component sensor be level, simplifying borehole installations. We have already achieved a dynamic range of ±5° and we expect that a range of ±10° is possible with some effort.

  8. Hydrogeologic framework and borehole yields in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapaah-Siakwan, S.; Gyau-Boakye, P.

    2000-08-01

    In Ghana, 68% of the population live in rural communities, which are scattered and remote. Groundwater is the most feasible source of potable water supply for most of these dispersed and remote settlements. To meet the present and future challenges of population expansion vis-à-vis the observed declining rainfall in most parts of Africa including Ghana, it is necessary to assess, efficiently manage, and utilize the groundwater resources. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe the hydrogeologic framework and analyze borehole yields as part of the groundwater-resources assessment of Ghana. The hydrogeologic units are broadly categorized as: (1) the Basement Complex (crystalline rocks), which underlies about 54% of the country; (2) the Voltaian System, which underlies about 45%; and (3) the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic sedimentary strata (Coastal Provinces), which underlie the remaining 1% of the country. The Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces have higher groundwater potential than the Voltaian System. This is particularly significant, because the Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces underlie the most densely populated areas of the country and can hence be tapped for human use. The average borehole yields of the Basement Complex, the Coastal Provinces and the Voltaian System range from 2.7-12.7, 3.9-15.6, and 6.2-8.5 m3/h, respectively.

  9. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  10. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  11. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

  14. Is there really carbon in the detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pollok, Kilian; Whitehouse, Martin; Pidgeon, Robert; Wilde, Simon

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of graphite and diamond inclusions in detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills in Western Australia, with the oldest inclusion-bearing zircon being 4,252 Myrs (Menneken et al. 2007). When the diamond inclusions were first identified by Raman spectroscopy, several characteristics were taken as evidence against possible contamination from diamond polishing powder used to prepare the samples. Some diamond inclusions appeared larger than the grain-size of the diamond polishing powder, while most of them were associated with graphite. Raman spectra of the diamond inclusions were clearly different to those from diamond particles in the polishing powder. Also, the extremely large spread of carbon isotope compositions of the diamond-graphite composite inclusions with δ13C values extending from -58 to -5 per mil argued against contamination, as both synthetic and natural diamonds have a narrow range of carbon isotope composition (Nemchin et al. 2008). In this study, we have applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy on focussed ion beam sections cut from a fully embedded diamond inclusion and a fully embedded carbon inclusion in two zircon grains from Jack Hills. Results show that the graphitic material is not a solid inclusion, but covers the walls of a void as a 10-20 nm thick layer. Since we identified numerous CO2 inclusions in the same host zircon by Raman spectroscopy, it is likely that this inclusion was once filled with CO2 On the other hand, similar to a study by Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (2014), performed on surface diamond-graphite inclusions from one of our samples, we found that the embedded diamond inclusion consists of several hundred nano-meter large angular diamond fragments mixed with some gold particles. This is strong evidence that the embedded diamond particles originated from the diamond polishing powder. The diamond particles could enter the cavity through an opening 2 - 3 μm wide

  15. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Satoshi

    2009-08-18

    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  16. Clinical Evaluation of the New High-Throughput Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay for Multiplex Respiratory Pathogen Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jonathan H K; Lam, Ho-Yin; Yip, Cyril C Y; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Ma, Edmond S K; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tang, Bone S F; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-07-01

    A broad range of viral and bacterial pathogens can cause acute respiratory tract infection. For rapid detection of a broad respiratory pathogen spectrum, multiplex real-time PCR is ideal. This study evaluated the performance of the new Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) in comparison with the BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP) or singleplex real-time PCR as reference. A total of 284 clinical respiratory specimens and 3 influenza A/H7N9 viral culture samples were tested. All clinical specimens were processed and analyzed in parallel using NxTAG-RPP and the reference standard method. The H7N9 viral culture samples were tested using NxTAG-RPP only. Overall, the NxTAG-RPP demonstrated ≥93% sensitivity and specificity for all respiratory targets except human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HCoV-HKU1. The H7N9 virus was detected by the influenza A virus matrix gene target, while other influenza A virus subtyping gene targets in the panel remained negative. Complete concordance between NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP was observed in 98.8% (318/322) of positive results (kappa = 0.92). Substantial agreement was found for most respiratory targets, but significant differences were observed in human metapneumovirus (P = 0.001) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (P = 0.031). NxTAG-RPP has a higher sample throughput than FA-RP (96 samples versus 1 sample per run) while the turnaround times for NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP were 5 h (up to 96 samples) and 1 h (for one sample), respectively. Overall, NxTAG-RPP demonstrated good diagnostic performance for most respiratory pathogens. The high sample throughput with reasonable turnaround time of this new assay makes it a suitable multiplex platform for routine screening of respiratory specimens in hospital-based laboratories. PMID:27122380

  17. Development of broadband antireflection of high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings are commonly required in many silicon or III-V compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, and image sensors so as to enhance light conversion efficiency. Conventional approach using a single-layer antireflection coating is simple and commonly used in industry but it has a limited working bandwidth. To achieve broadband or even omni-directional characteristics, structures using thick graded refractive index (GRIN) multilayers or nanostructured surfaces which have equivalent graded refractive index profile have been proposed and demonstrated. In this paper, we will show our development of broadband antireflection for high index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 via inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICPCVD). Global optimization of thin-film broadband antireflection coating using adaptive simulated annealing is presented. Unlike the conventional optical coating design which uses the refractive index of available materials, the optimization approach used here decides the optimal values of the refractive index as well as the thickness of each layer. The first thin-film material optimization is carried out on the ICP-CVD machine operating at low temperature of 250°C by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The demonstrated double layer antireflection thin film reduces the average reflectance of Si surface from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. This optical thin-film design and material development can be extended to optical wavelength filters and integrated micro-GRIN devices.

  18. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  19. Structural and electrical anisotropies of Si-doped a-plane (11-20) GaN films with different SiNx interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Sung-Min; Seo, Yong Gon; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Park, Jung Ho

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different SiNx interlayers on the structural and electrical properties of nonpolar Si-doped a-plane (11-20) GaN films grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire were investigated. The surface roughness depends strongly on the SiNx coverage, deposition temperature and number of SiNx layers. The in-plane anisotropy of on-axis x-ray rocking curves (XRCs) (full width at half-maximum) was significantly decreased by the introduction of multiple SiNx-treated GaN interlayers, indicating coherently scattering domains of uniform size. Off-axis XRC measurements were also employed to investigate the effects on the mosaic twist corresponding to edge dislocation and the I1-type basal-plane stacking fault (BSF) density. Hall effect measurement showed that the electrical conductivity was the highest when multiple SiNx/GaN interlayers were employed. The measured sheet resistances (Rsh) along the c-axis were higher than those along the m-axis. These anisotropic conductivities could be explained by BSFs acting as carrier scattering centers. The ratios of Rsh along the two in-plane orientations also correlated well with the BSF densities.

  20. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  1. Dependence of Body Wave Velocity on Borehole Stress Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiayong; Man, Yuanpeng; Qi, Hui

    In order to develop ultrasonic method for the quantitative measurement of in-situ rock stresses, we investigate the influence of stress concentration on the body-wave velocities around a borehole. First, the acoustoelasticity theory of finite-deformation solids yields a direct and explicit quantitative borehole acoustoelasticity, which reveals that the orientations of the maximum and minimum wave-velocity shifts at the borehole surface coincide with the directions of the minimum and maximum far-field principal stresses, respectively. Second, pulse-echo measurement of wave-velocity variations at the borehole surface in the sandstone sample under the biaxial compressional loadings is performed to validate the quantitative borehole acoustoelasticity. The consistence of the experimental results with the theoretical prediction means that the ultrasonic method based on acoustoelasticity theory could be a promising noncontact and non-destructive method for the quantitative measurement of in-situ rock stresses.

  2. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  3. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  4. Borehole-to-borehole geophysical methods applied to investigations of high level waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the use of borehole to borehole geophysical measurements to detect geological discontinuities in High Level Waste (HLW) repository sites. The need for these techniques arises from: (a) the requirement that a HLW repository's characteristics and projected performance be known with a high degree of confidence; and (b) the inadequacy of other geophysical methods in mapping fractures. Probing configurations which can be used to characterize HLW sites are described. Results from experiments in which these techniques were applied to problems similar to those expected at repository sites are briefly discussed. The use of a procedure designed to reduce uncertainty associated with all geophysical exploration techniques is proposed; key components of the procedure are defined.

  5. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  6. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.N.

    1983-05-10

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  7. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.N.

    1981-06-09

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  8. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  9. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  10. Multiple fracturing experiments: propellant and borehole considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1982-01-01

    The technology for multiple fracturing of a wellbore, using progressively burning propellants, is being developed to enhance natural gas recovery. Multiple fracturing appears especially attractive for stimulating naturally fractured reservoirs such as Devonian shales where it is expected to effectively intersect existing fractures and connect them to a wellbore. Previous experiments and modeling efforts defined pressure risetimes required for multiple fracturing as a function of borehole diameter, but identified only a weak dependence on peak pressure attained. Typically, from four to eight equally spaced major fractures occur as a function of pressure risetime and in situ stress orientation. The present experiments address propellant and rock response considerations required to achieve the desired pressure risetimes for reliable multiple fracturing.

  11. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis associated with a borehole supply.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D; Allaby, M; Crook, S; Casemore, D; Healing, T D; Soltanpoor, N; Hill, S; Hooper, W

    1995-06-23

    From 1 April to 31 May 1993, 64 cases of cryptosporidiosis were diagnosed within one district health authority. Forty were classified as primary cases, 35 of whom were clustered in an area supplied by a discrete public water supply that supplied the majority of homes in a large town. Most of the water in this supply is abstracted from boreholes and some is filtered before distribution. Households that received mains water from this supply were 15 times more likely to be affected than households nearby that received water from other sources. A case control study demonstrated a dose response relationship between consumption of water obtained from the town supply and risk of illness. Very low concentrations of cryptosporidial oocysts were detected in the water supply on four occasions several weeks after the outbreak. Environmental investigation failed to reveal a likely mechanism for contamination of the water supply. PMID:7613587

  12. Borehole plugging materials development program, report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Walley, D.M.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-02-01

    The data for 2 yr of grout mixtures durability studies developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are reported. In addition, data for 1 yr of durability studies of grout mixture field samples used to plug the ERDA No. 10 exploratory drill hole near the WIPP site are included. The grout samples and the data do not show any evidence of deterioration during the durability studies that include exposure to brine at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The data include strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, expansion, weight change, porosity, permeability, bond strength, chemical analysis of cements, and petrographic examinations. The work was performed at the Concrete Division of the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The work is continuing at WES.

  13. Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. F.

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

  14. Metazoan parasites of blue jack mackerel Trachurus picturatus (Perciformes: Carangidae) from Portuguese mainland waters.

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Pereira, A; Correia, A T; Cruz, C; Saraiva, A

    2016-07-01

    Blue jack mackerel, Trachurus picturatus, is a carangid fish which constitutes an important commercial resource in the north-east Atlantic. Its metazoan parasite community from Portuguese mainland waters was investigated here for the first time. Nine parasite taxa were found, most of which are common parasites of Trachurus spp. The parasite community was broadly similar to that of the Atlantic horse mackerel, T. trachurus, from the same region, but two digenean species were detected in blue jack mackerel, Monascus filiformis and Tergestia sp., which did not occur in horse mackerel from this region. A comparison with the two previous studies of T. picturatus parasite communities shows that continental-shelf regions are characterized by higher prevalences of digenean trematodes and an absence of trypanorhynch cestodes, in contrast with oceanic regions. PMID:26121918

  15. Discussion on key points of wind load of jack-up unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Hu, An-kang; Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    The anti-overturning ability and structure safety of jack-up unit in in-place condition are often affected by environment loads, especially wind load. According to the MODU rule, the projected area method is used for calculating the wind load. However, the calculated results are conservative and not good for structure optimization design. In this paper, a 400 ft jack-up is studied as an example. Based on the wind tunnel test and numerical simulation method, some key points of wind load calculation, such as shielding effect, lift effect and shape coefficient of component, are discussed. The study shows that the points mentioned above, which are ignored in the MODU rule calculation, result in the conservative result.

  16. Dynamic analysis method of offshore jack-up platforms in regular and random waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Shuguang

    2012-03-01

    A jack-up platform, with its particular structure, showed obvious dynamic characteristics under complex environmental loads in extreme conditions. In this paper, taking a simplified 3-D finite element dynamic model in extreme storm conditions as research object, a transient dynamic analysis method was proposed, which was under both regular and irregular wave loads. The steps of dynamic analysis under extreme conditions were illustrated with an applied case, and the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) was calculated for each response parameter of base shear, overturning moment and hull sway. Finally, the structural response results of dynamic and static were compared and analyzed. The results indicated that the static strength analysis of the Jack-up Platforms was not enough under the dynamic loads including wave and current, further dynamic response analysis considering both computational efficiency and accuracy was necessary.

  17. Nontrivial ferrimagnetism of the Heisenberg model on the Union Jack strip lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Tokuro; Nakano, Hiroki

    2013-08-01

    We study the ground-state properties of the S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the Union Jack strip lattice by using the exact-diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We confirm a region of a magnetization state intermediate between the Néel-like spin liquid state and the conventional ferrimagnetic state of a Lieb-Mattis type. In the intermediate state, we find that the spontaneous magnetization changes gradually with respect to the strength of the inner interaction. In addition, the local magnetization clearly shows an incommensurate modulation with long-distance periodicity in the intermediate magnetization state. These characteristic behaviors lead to the conclusion that the intermediate magnetization state is a non-Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic one. We also discuss the relationship between the ground-state properties of the S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the original Union Jack lattice and those on our strip lattice.

  18. Construction of edge states in fractional quantum Hall systems by Jack polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Wan, Xin

    2014-04-01

    We study the edge-mode excitations of a fractional quantum Hall droplet by expressing the edge-state wave functions as linear combinations of Jack polynomials with a negative parameter. We show that the exact diagonalization within a subspace of Jack polynomials can be used to generate the chiral edge-mode excitation spectrum in the Laughlin phase and the Moore-Read phase with realistic Coulomb interaction. The truncation technique for the edge excitations simplifies the procedure to reliably extract the edge-mode velocities, which avoids the otherwise complicated analysis of the full spectrum that contains both edge and bulk excitations. Generalization to the Read-Rezayi state is also discussed.

  19. Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

    2014-08-01

    We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

  20. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  1. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  2. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-02-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 ybp. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  3. Impact of maximum borehole depths on inverted temperature histories in borehole paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Smerdon, J. E.; Matharoo, G. S.; Nickerson, N.

    2011-07-01

    A quantitative assessment is presented for the impact of the maximum depth of a temperature-depth profile on the estimate of the climatic transient and the resultant ground surface temperature (GST) reconstruction used in borehole paleoclimatology. The depth of the profile is important because the downwelling climatic signal must be separated from the quasi-steady state thermal regime established by the energy in the Earth's interior. This component of the signal is estimated as a linear increase in temperature with depth from the lower section of a borehole temperature profile, which is assumed to be unperturbed by recent changes in climate at the surface. The validity of this assumption is dependent on both the subsurface thermophysical properties and the character of the downwelling climatic signal. Such uncertainties can significantly impact the determination of the quasi-steady state thermal regime, and consequently the magnitude of the temperature anomaly interpreted as a climatic signal. The quantitative effects and uncertainties that arise from the analysis of temperature-depth profiles of different depths are presented. Results demonstrate that widely different GST histories can be derived from a single temperature profile truncated at different depths. Borehole temperature measurements approaching 500-600 m depths are shown to provide the most robust GST reconstructions spanning 500 to 1000 yr BP. It is further shown that the bias introduced by a temperature profile of depths shallower than 500-600 m remains even if the time span of the reconstruction target is shortened.

  4. A kinetic study of jack-bean urease denaturation by a new dithiocarbamate bismuth compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, D. C.; Borges, E.; Torres, M. F.; Braga, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    A kinetic study concerning enzymatic inhibitory effect of a new bismuth dithiocarbamate complex on jack-bean urease is reported. A neural network approach is used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem arising from numerical treatment of the subject. A reaction mechanism for the urease denaturation process is proposed and the rate constants, relaxation time constants, equilibrium constants, activation Gibbs free energies for each reaction step and Gibbs free energies for the transition species are determined.

  5. Astronaut Jack Lousma During EVA to Deploy Twin Pole Sun Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab-3 was the second marned mission in the skylab project. The crew spent 59 days in orbit. In this photo, Astronaut Jack Lousma deploys the Twin Pole Sun Shield created by Marshall Space Flight Center team members to replace the micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat. The shield was damaged during the Skylab-2 mission.

  6. Rereading "The Jack-Roller:" Hidden Histories in Sociology and Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ian

    2009-01-01

    I revisit one of the iconic Chicago School studies, Clifford Shaw's "The Jack-Roller". A naive reading of Shaw's book leaves the reader with a sense of having been inducted into a melange of what we now know as "sociology" and "social work," but which to Shaw seems a coherent stance. I suggest that this is close to the heart of how things were,…

  7. Astronaut Jack Lousma hooks up cable for rate gyro six pack during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23 ft. 2 in. connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on August 24, 1973, as senn in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television tranmsission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console.

  8. View of Jack Lousma's hands using silverware to gather food at food station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close-up view of Skylab 3 pilot Jack Lousma's hands using a silverware utensil to gather food at the food station, in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, had just zoomed the TV camera in for this closeup of the food tray following a series of wide shots of Lousma at the food station.

  9. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically < 2 ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to 250 ppm) have also been found in igneous zircons from three continental parent rocks: granites, Li-rich pegmatites, and migmatites in pelitic metasediment. The substitution of trivalent cations (REEs and Y) in zircon correlates with Li + 1 and P + 5 , suggesting that an interstitial site for Li, as well as the xenotime substitution for P, provides charge balance for REEs. Li is thus fixed in the zircon structure by coupled substitutions, and diffusive changes in [Li] composition are rate-limited by slow diffusion of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  10. Influence of nitrogen-related defects on optical and electrical behaviour in HfO2-xNx deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, B. J.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McCulloch, D. G.; Partridge, J. G.

    2015-09-01

    HfO2-xNx films have been deposited by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O2-N2 atmosphere with a series of nitrogen partial pressures. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed the optimum deposition conditions required to passivate O vacancies in the HfO2-xNx films by nitrogen. Low-mobility interstitial species prevent crystallisation of nitrogen-incorporated films. These effects combine to remove leakage paths resulting in superior breakdown strengths compared to films deposited without nitrogen. The bandgap was maintained at ˜5.9 eV in the films in which nitrogen passivated the oxygen vacancies. This is essential to provide sufficient band offsets for HfO2-xNx films to be used an effective gate dielectric.

  11. Estuaries as Nurseries for the Jacks Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus (Carangidae) in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. C.; Parrish, J. D.

    2002-09-01

    Estuaries provide juvenile nursery habitat for many species of fish that inhabit marine environments as adults. In Hawaii, some juvenile Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus occupy estuaries opportunistically before moving to nearshore ocean habitats. This study examined the extent and nature of estuarine habitat available in the lower Hanalei River of Kauai, the relative abundance and distribution of jacks in the estuary, and their diets. Salinity measurements indicated that the upstream extent of saltwater ranged from the mouth to nearly 5 km upriver and was strongly influenced by the variable river discharge. Juvenile jacks between 80 and 310 mm FL were observed on underwater transects over the full range of mixohaline conditions. Hand-operated seine collections produced overall catch rates of ∼0·64 fish/haul for each of these species. The two jacks ate much the same spectrum of food items. C. ignobilis was somewhat more piscivorous than C. melampygus, as determined by measures of frequency of predation and number and bulk of prey. Data for length at age, incorporating daily otolith increment counts from these estuarine juveniles and previous counts from non-estuarine specimens, were fitted to a lifetime von Bertalanffy growth model. The results greatly extended the age range of the model and suggested that growth rates were not much different between estuarine and non-estuarine fish.

  12. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board. PMID:25745250

  13. Signals from the ancient geodynamo: A paleomagnetic field test on the Jack Hills metaconglomerate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, John A.; Cottrell, Rory D.

    2013-04-01

    The oldest history of Earth's magnetic field cannot be directly read from extant bulk rocks because of subsequent metamorphism at temperatures close to or exceeding the Curie temperature of common magnetic minerals. The Jack Hills metasediments of Western Australia, which have seen lower peak metamorphic temperatures, contain zircons as old as ˜4.4 billion-yr-old. To assess whether these sediments can retain an ancient signal of the geodynamo, we present a paleomagnetic conglomerate test on a cobble-bearing Jack Hills unit. Thermal demagnetization reveals a distinct magnetic component with high unblocking temperatures between ˜550 and 580 °C that passes the conglomerate test, indicating magnetization prior to deposition of the conglomerate. This result, together with rock magnetic data, indicates that the high unblocking temperature component is carried by magnetite which records magnetization in an ambient field, and the simplest explanation is that a dynamo was present. Existing geochronological data imply that the clasts could contain mixtures of minerals extending to ages only slightly older than the maximum depositional age at 3.05 billion-yr-ago. However, the positive conglomerate test reported here indicates that the Jack Hills metasediments have the potential to record Paleorchean to Hadean magnetic fields, on a clast or sub-clast mineral scale.

  14. Estuaries as nurseries for the jacks Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus (Carangidae) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.C.; Parrish, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Estuaries provide juvenile nursery habitat for many species of fish that inhabit marine environments as adults. In Hawaii, some juvenile Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus occupy estuaries opportunistically before moving to nearshore ocean habitats. This study examined the extent and nature of estuarine habitat available in the lower Hanalei River of Kauai, the relative abundance and distribution of jacks in the estuary, and their diets. Salinity measurements indicated that the upstream extent of saltwater ranged from the mouth to nearly 5 km upriver and was strongly influenced by the variable river discharge. Juvenile jacks between 80 and 310 mm FL were observed on underwater transects over the full range of mixohaline conditions. Hand-operated seine collections produced overall catch rates of ???0.64 fish/haul for each of these species. The two jacks ate much the same spectrum of food items. C. ignobilis was somewhat more piscivorous than C. melampygus, as determined by measures of frequency of predation and number and bulk of prey. Data for length at age, incorporating daily otolith increment counts from these estuarine juveniles and previous counts from non-estuarine specimens, were fitted to a lifetime von Bertalanffy growth model. The results greatly extended the age range of the model and suggested that growth rates were not much different between estuarine and non-estuarine fish. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  16. Do Jack Hills Detrital Zircons Contain Records of the Early Geodynamo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Maloof, A. C.; Tailby, N. D.; Ramezani, J.; Fu, R. R.; Glenn, D. R.; Kehayias, P.; Walsworth, R. L.; Hanus, V.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.; Harrison, T. M.; Bowring, S. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Coe, R. S.; Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. Recently, Tarduno et al. (2015) argued that magnetization in Jack Hills zircons provides evidence for a substantial geomagnetic field dating back to their U/Pb formation ages (3.3 and 4.2 Ga). However, the identification of such ancient field records requires establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since their formation. At a minimum, it should be demonstrated that they have not been remagnetized since being deposited at ~3.0 Ga. To establish the timing and intensity of the metamorphic and alteration events experienced by the zircon, we conducted 12 paleomagnetic field tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology on their host rocks (see Weiss et al. 2015, EPSL). Our data show that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely from emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at 1.1 Ga (see Figure). Even if some Jack Hills zircons do record a pre-depositional magnetization, they still could have been remagnetized sometime during the 1.4 Gy between their crystallization and their deposition. First, the temperatures capable of remagnetizing magnetite inclusions are well below those that could reset a U-Pb date or result in significant discordance. Therefore, thermal events capable of completely remagnetizing Jack Hills zircons could be undetected by the techniques reported by Tarduno at al. (2015). Second, the zircons' magnetization might be dominated by secondary ferromagnetic inclusions or contamination. To address the latter possibility, we are conducting electron microscopy, x-ray tomography, and magnetic field mapping on the zircons. Our initial quantum diamond magnetometry high

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  18. The simultaneous production of sphingan Ss and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) in Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Guoqiang; Huang, Haidong; Chen, Sibin; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Keran; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sphingans and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) are both widely used biopolymers produced by bacteria. In the batch fermentation of Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02 in a 5L fermenter using glucose as carbon source, ivory colored sphingan Ss production was a growth-associated process with a maximum purified production of 14.88 ± 0.83 g/L, while 6.08 ± 0.23 g/L PHB was simultaneously produced. Sphingan Ss and PHB were separated by a simple dilution, heating and centrifugation or filtration process, and sphingan Ss can be cost-effectively extracted using a small amount of acid rather than multi-fold volumes of alcohols. From ultrathin sections of S. sanxanigenens NX02, we found that the interior space of the cells was filled with PHB granules, and the outside was surrounded by abundant Ss. The purified sphingan Ss can be used as an excellent gelling and emulsifying agent in biotechnology applications such as food, personal care and production processes. Proposed pathways of Ss and PHB biosynthesis from glucose are also presented. PMID:26434528

  19. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-01

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid-liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna21, Zn2NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO2 type, and Zn2NI is closely related. Each N3- is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X- anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn4] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn2NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  20. Probing the role of an atomically thin SiNx interlayer on the structure of ultrathin carbon films.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J; Goohpattader, Partho S; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S; Bhatia, C S

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  1. Probing the Role of an Atomically Thin SiNx Interlayer on the Structure of Ultrathin Carbon Films

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J.; Goohpattader, Partho S.; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement ~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  2. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0 ± 0.5 g L(-1) and 0.81 g L(-1) h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA. PMID:26143572

  3. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  4. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  5. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  6. SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component ma...

  7. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  8. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  9. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  10. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  11. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  13. Thermobaric calculation of a steam-thermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishaev, M. G.; Azizov, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    A procedure is proposed for carrying out an approximate analytical calculation of pressure and temperature along a vertical borehole for thermal water with a temperature of 150-320°C taking into account its phase transition into steam. It is shown that both a single-phase flow mode for water and a two-phase flow mode for a mixture of water and steam can appear in the borehole under certain conditions.

  14. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  15. Deformation Monitoring by Borehole Geodetic Strainmeter in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Ergintav, Semih; Dogru, Asli; Yilmaz, Onur; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirik, Liz

    2015-04-01

    This project is aimed to study three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation through North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) in Marmara Region, Turkey. Within this project, two borehole observatories consisting of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, tiltmeters, and pore pressure sensors have been deployed in Istanbul. These installations have been supported by Istanbul Development Agency (ISTKA) (financially) and UNAVCO (technically). Istanbul, located near the most active parts of the North Anatolian Fault, has been monitored by different observing techniques such as seismic networks and continuous/survey-mode GPS networks for decades. Borehole strainmeters are very sensitive to deformation in the range of less than a month and can capture signals with superior precision at local spatial scales. In this project, it will be possible to determine the movements precisely which can not be monitored with available measurement systems in the middle and the eastern part of Marmara Sea through NAFS. Our long term objective is to build a borehole monitoring system in the region. By integrating various data obtained from borehole observatories, we expect to get a better understanding of dynamics in the western NAF. In this presentation, we introduce data and ongoing analysis obtained with strainmeters.

  16. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  17. Comparative study of CoFeNx/C catalyst obtained by pyrolysis of hemin and cobalt porphyrin for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline and acidic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the oxygen reduction kinetics and mechanisms of CoFeNx/C catalysts have been conducted with rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) in aqueous acid and alkaline solutions, as well as acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The CoFeNx/C catalysts in this study were obtained by the pyrolysis of hemin and a cobalt porphyrin. In an alkaline electrolyte, a larger electron transfer coefficient (0.63) was obtained in comparison to that in an acidic electrolyte (0.44), signifying a lower free energy barrier for oxygen reduction. The kinetic rate constant (2.69 × 10-2 cm s-1) for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline solution at 0.6 V (versus RHE) is almost 4 times larger than that in acidic solution (7.3 × 10-3 cm s-1). A synergetic catalytic mechanism is proposed. The overall reduction is a 4-electron reduction of oxygen. The obtained CoFeNx/C catalyst was further evaluated as a cathode catalyst in single fuel cells with acidic, neutral and alkaline electrolyte membranes. The order of the single cell performances either for power density or for stability is acidic > neutral > alkaline. The different behaviors of the CoFeNx/C catalyst in half cell and single cell are discussed.

  18. Eoarchean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills zircon source and loss of Hadean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; Kohl, Issaku E.; Young, Edward D.

    2014-12-01

    Given the global dearth of Hadean (>4 Ga) rocks, 4.4-4.0 Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Narryer Gneiss Complex (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia) constitute our best archive of early terrestrial materials. Previous Lu-Hf investigations of these zircons suggested that felsic (low Lu/Hf) crust formation began by ∼4.4 to 4.5 Ga and continued for several hundred million years with evidence of the least radiogenic Hf component persisting until at least ∼4 Ga. However, evidence for the involvement of Hadean materials in later crustal evolution is sparse, and even in the detrital Jack Hills zircon population, the most unradiogenic, ancient isotopic signals have not been definitively identified in the younger (<3.9 Ga) rock and zircon record. Here we show Lu-Hf data from <4 Ga Jack Hills detrital zircons that document a significant and previously unknown transition in Yilgarn Craton crustal evolution between 3.9 and 3.7 Ga. The zircon source region evolved largely by internal reworking through the period 4.0-3.8 Ga, and the most ancient and unradiogenic components of the crust are mostly missing from the record after ∼4 Ga. New juvenile additions to the crust at ca. 3.9-3.8 Ga are accompanied by the disappearance of unradiogenic crust ca. 3.9-3.7 Ga. Additionally, this period is also characterized by a restricted range of δ18O after 3.8 Ga and a shift in several zircon trace element characteristics ca. 3.9-3.6 Ga. The simultaneous loss of ancient crust accompanied by juvenile crust addition can be explained by a mechanism similar to subduction, which effects both processes on modern Earth. The oxygen isotope and trace element information, although less sensitive to tectonic setting, also supports a transition in zircon formation environment in this period.

  19. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  20. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  1. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Southern Study Area Jack Pine LAI and FPAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The RSS-4 team collected several data sets related to leaf, plant, and stand physical, optical, and chemical properties. This data set contains leaf area indices and FPAR measurements that were taken at the three conifer sites in the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 and at the jack pine tower flux and a subset of auxiliary sites during July and August 1994. The measurements were made with LAI-2000 and Ceptometer instruments. The measurements were taken for the purpose of model parameterization and to test empirical relationships that were hypothesized between biophysical parameters and remotely sensed data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  3. Stochastic Network Models in Neuroscience: A Festschrift for Jack Cowan. Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Bressloff, Paul C; Ermentrout, Bard; Faugeras, Olivier; Thomas, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Jack Cowan's remarkable career has spanned, and molded, the development of neuroscience as a quantitative and mathematical discipline combining deep theoretical contributions, rigorous mathematical work and groundbreaking biological insights. The Banff International Research Station hosted a workshop in his honor, on Stochastic Network Models of Neocortex, July 17-24, 2014. This accompanying Festschrift celebrates Cowan's contributions by assembling current research in stochastic phenomena in neural networks. It combines historical perspectives with new results including applications to epilepsy, path-integral methods, stochastic synchronization, higher-order correlation analysis, and pattern formation in visual cortex. PMID:27043152

  4. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay. PMID:27401400

  5. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  7. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  8. Spectroscopic studies of heat-treated FeNxCy/C involved in electrochemical oxygen reduction under acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Wu, Jyun-Ren

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-incorporated FeNx electrocatalysts (FeNC/C-T) have been synthesized by carbonizing a nitrogen-containing specie and iron precursor on carbon blacks at various heat-treated temperatures. The catalyst properties (crystalline structure, surface chemical states, oxidation state and co-ordination geometry) and their formation scheme of FeNC/C-T have been thoroughly examined by X-ray based spectroscopies such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol tolerance were also investigated by rotating disk electrode tests in 0.5 M H2SO4. By combined results from XPS and XAS spectroscopies, the catalysts carbonized at 1073 K possess higher surface Fe/C and N/C atomic ratios with formation of carbons incorporated FeN4 species were found to have the optimal electrocatalytic properties.

  9. Verifying field-effect passivation of a SiNx layer on a silicon nanopillar array using surface photovoltage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunah; Cho, Yunae; Sohn, Ahrum; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    In silicon (Si) wafer based photovoltaic (PV) devices, light-trapping strategies to improve optical absorption are very important due to the indirect bandgap of Si. Surface nano-patterned Si enable omnidirectional broadband antireflection (AR) effects with the help of graded refractive index, multiple scattering, diffraction, and Mie resonance. In this work, the surface photovoltage (SPV) of periodic nanopillar (NP) arrays were investigated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The SPV characteristics clearly revealed that positive fixed charges in SiNx layers induced downward band bending at the Si surface and increased SPV at the NP top surface. The similar SPV value of NPs and planar counterpart suggests that field effect passivation by the dielectric layer coating could help improve PV performance of nanostructure-based Si solar cells and that KPFM measurements are useful tool for quantitative investigation of surface electrical properties of Si nanostructures.

  10. Self-organized ZnO nanodot arrays: Effective control using SiNx interlayers and low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Y.; Cheng, Q. J.; Xu, S.; Wei, D. Y.; Zhou, H. P.; Long, J. D.; Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-02-01

    An advanced inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-assisted rf magnetron sputtering deposition method is developed to synthesize regular arrays of pear-shaped ZnO nanodots on a thin SiNx buffer layer pre-deposited onto a silicon substrate. It is shown that the growth of ZnO nanodots obey the cubic root-law behavior. It is also shown that the synthesized ZnO nanodots are highly-uniform, controllable by the experimental parameters, and also feature good structural and photoluminescent properties. These results suggest that this custom-designed ICP-based technique is very effective and highly-promising for the synthesis of property- and size-controllable highly-uniform ZnO nanodots suitable for next-generation light emitting diodes, energy storage, UV nanolasers, and other applications.

  11. Approach to estimating the maximum depth for glacially induced hydraulic jacking in fractured crystalline rock at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lönnqvist, M.; Hökmark, H.

    2013-09-01

    Hydraulic jacking is a significant dilation of a fracture that occurs when the pore pressure within it exceeds the sum of the fracture's normal stress and tensile strength. This phenomenon may occur during a glacial period because of changes in hydraulic and mechanical boundary conditions. Since hydraulic jacking may alter flow patterns and the transport capacity of the rock mass, its possible effects on the long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository should be considered. We develop an approach to assess glacially induced hydraulic jacking in fractured crystalline rock and establish bounding estimates of the maximum jacking depth for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (SKB) repository site at Forsmark. The pore pressure is estimated using mechanically uncoupled two-dimensional poroelastic continuum models with hydraulic and mechanical conditions based on SKB's reconstruction of the Weichselian glaciation at this site (120-0 ka B.P.). For warm-based conditions, the water pressure at the ice/bed interface is set at 98% of the mechanical load, whereas for glacial conditions with extensive proglacial permafrost, the corresponding water pressure is set at a (lower) annual average value. We demonstrate that the pore pressure within the uppermost kilometer of rock is mainly governed by the water pressure at the ice/bed interface and that the mechanical impact of the ice load on the pore pressure is sufficiently small to be ignored. Given the current and estimated future stress conditions at Forsmark, hydraulic jacking is mainly of concern for subhorizontal fractures, i.e., it is sufficient to consider situations when the pore pressure exceeds the vertical stress. We conclude that hydraulic jacking at Forsmark will be confined to the uppermost 200 m of the rock mass.

  12. Morphology of bipolar cells and their participation in spatial organization of the inner plexiform layer of jack mackerel retina.

    PubMed

    Podugolnikova, T A

    1985-01-01

    Morphology of bipolar cells in the jack mackerel retina [Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus (Aleev)] was investigated by the Golgi method. Eight types of bipolar cells are described. It is the first time that cells with an unbranched main dendrite are found in fish retina. It is shown that the inner plexiform layer of the jack mackerel retina contains regular lattices, located at 5 levels and conserted in a characteristic way with the cone mosaic. These lattices are formed by swellings of bipolar cell axons. It is shown that only bipolar cells with small dendritic aborizations (less than or equal to 14 micron dia) take part in this organization. PMID:3832608

  13. GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

    2013-04-01

    It is very important to form an integrated ring of thixotropic slurry around the pipe segments to reduce resistance during large diameter and long distance pipe jacking. Furthermore, the integrated slurry ring between the pipe and the excavated soil can effectively reduce the soil disturbance caused by the pipes, and minimize ground settlement. It is necessary to real-time monitor the spatial distribution of the thixotripic slurry during jacking process. The traditional solution to estimate the outlines of slurry ring is the jacking load and the injecting pressure. If the jacking load increases, which means more slurry should be injected to reduce the jacking load. However, this solution couldn't provide the distribution of the slurry beneath pipe segments, and locate the zones which need to be injected enough slurry. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to detect the thickness of the grouting behind the shield tunnel segments in last several years. An important factor is the dielectric difference between grouting and soil. Similarly, the interface between the liquid slurry with high relative electric permittivity and surrounding soil, should be recognized from GPR image due to the distinct dielectric difference. Here, GPR experiment has been conducted on a sewage pipe jacking engineering. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the distribution of the thixotropic slurry through GPR image. In this sewage jacking engineering, the width and the thickness of each pipe segments is 200 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Considering the resolution and propagation range of radar wave, ground coupled bowtie antenna of 900 MHz frequency has been selected for GPR data acquisition. A series of circular GPR data have been collected along the inner surface of pipe segments. In addition, sampling of slurry has been performed on four different segments. The relative electric permittivity and conductivity of the thixotropic slurry have been measured by using time

  14. Tissue staining properties of lectins from the seeds of the jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) and the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, T; Robertson, D; McIntosh, D; Forrester, J A

    1987-01-01

    N-acetyl-D-galactosamine binding lectins from winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) were isolated, purified and conjugated with horse radish peroxidase and their tissue staining properties studied. Despite having an apparently common inhibiting sugar, the lectins showed differences in their staining properties. The lectin from the winged bean stained none of the mouse and human tissues tried even after neuraminidase treatment whereas the jack fruit lectin stained most of the untreated cells. The staining was found to be improved by the prior treatment of the cells with neuraminidase and inhibited completely by the inhibiting sugar. The differences in the staining properties of the lectins are discussed. PMID:2452865

  15. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  16. Effects of a clear-cut harvest on soil respiration in a jack pine - Lichen woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Wickland, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    Quantification of the components of ecosystem respiration is essential to understanding carbon (C) cycling of natural and disturbed landscapes. Soil respiration, which includes autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration from throughout the soil profile, is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle. We measured soil respiration (soil CO2 emission) at an undisturbed mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stand in Saskatchewan (old jack pine, OJP), and at a formerly continuous portion of the stand that was clear-cut during the previous winter (clear-cut, CC). Tree harvesting reduced soil CO2 emission from ???22.5 to ???9.1 mol CO2??m2 for the 1994 growing season. OJP was a small net sink of atmospheric CO2, while CC was a net source of CO2. Winter emissions were similar at both sites. Reduction of soil respiration was attributed to disruption of the soil surface and to the death of tree roots. Flux simulations for CC and OJP identify 40% of CO2 emission at the undisturbed OJP site as near-surface respiration, 25% as deep-soil respiration, and 35% as tree-root respiration. The near-surface component was larger than the estimated annual C input to soil, suggesting fast C turnover and no net C accumulation in these boreal uplands in 1994.

  17. Vacuum contact drying kinetics of Jack pine wood and its influence on mechanical properties: industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouertani, Sahbi; Koubaa, Ahmed; Azzouz, Soufien; Hassini, Lamine; Dhib, Kamel Ben; Belghith, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Wood can be dried rapidly using combined contact heating and low vacuum. However, the impact on Jack pine wood drying and its mechanical strength remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to determine the kinetics of vacuum contact drying of Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) wood boards (dimensions 50 × 100 × 2480 mm3) under various drying temperatures and vacuum pressures at a pilot scale. Drying temperatures and vacuum pressures ranged from 65 to 95 °C and from 169.32 to 507.96 mbar, respectively. Dried samples were subjected to flexural loading to determine mechanical strength. Results indicated that drying time decreased with higher drying temperature and vacuum pressure, where as decreased vacuum pressure increased the temperature of wood samples at a constant drying temperature. Results also indicated that the mechanical properties of dried samples were affected by drying temperature, vacuum pressure, and lumber grade. Mechanical test results were then compared to those for a conventional drying process, revealing that vacuum contact drying do not have a negative impact on the wood mechanical properties.

  18. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  19. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity-ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, 'complementarity' and 'selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the 'jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity-multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  20. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  1. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  2. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  3. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  4. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  5. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  6. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  7. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  8. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. On the Eicosanoid Trail with John Vane and Jack McGiff: 1974-1976. A personal reminiscence.

    PubMed

    Flower, R J

    2015-07-01

    In this brief personal reminiscence I comment upon the friendship and mutual understanding that arose between two great scientists and co-travellers, John Vane and Jack McGiff. I relate the events that led up to their meeting and focus on the brief period of time when they worked together on eicosanoid pharmacology in the UK. PMID:25807880

  10. Study on the design method of the jack-up's x-type cantilever allowable load nephogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yazhou; Sun, Chengmeng; Qin, Hongde; Jiang, Bin; Fan, Yansong

    2014-09-01

    The extending of a cantilever and transverse moving of a drilling floor enable the jack-up to operate in several well positions after the Jack-up has pitched. The cantilever allowable load nephogram is the critical reference which can evaluate the jack-up's drilling ability, design the cantilever structure and instruct a jack-up manager to make the operations safe. The intent of this paper is to explore the interrelationships between the cantilever position, drilling floor and the loads including wind force, the stand set-back weight etc., through analyzing the structure and load characteristics of the x-type cantilever and the simplified mechanics model with the restriction of the maximum moment capacity of the cantilever single side beam. Referring to several typical position designs load values, the cantilever allowable load nephogram is obtained by using the suitable interpolation method. The paper gives a method for cantilever allowable load design, which is proved reliable and effective by the calculation example.

  11. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  12. Magic Words, Magic Brush: The Art of William Butler and Jack Yeats. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Jayne

    This curriculum unit, designed for grades 7-12, integrates various artistic disciplines with geography, history, social studies, media, and technology. This unit on William Butler Yeats, the writer, and Jack Yeats, the painter, seeks to immerse students in a study of the brothers as voices of Ireland and as two of the most renowned artists of the…

  13. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  14. From BlackJack to GOX: the transfer, test, and validation of the ROCSat-3 GPS occultation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrington, Allen H.; Armatys, Michael; Bell, Bryan; Charles, Jeff; Lahmeyer, Chuck; Lee, Cynthia; Meehan, Tom; Munson, Tim; Robison, David; Srinivasan, Jeff; Stecheson, Ted; Young, Larry

    2004-01-01

    ROCSat-3's primary instrument is the GPS Occultation Receiver (GOX) and is based on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) proven BlackJack GPS Receiver. The COSMIC GOX receivers will demonstrate an important new operational data type for near-real-time assimilation into weather models by providing over 2500 atmospheric profiles per day with a global distribution.

  15. Recognizing the Geochemical Consequences of Zircon Alteration at Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Harrison, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia are the best known >4 Ga terrestrial mineral record. As their ca. 3 Ga host quartzite experienced several documented Precambrian metamorphic events, it is unsurprising that various alteration features have been suggested or identified in the zircons. Using these grains to understand early Earth conditions requires knowledge to what extent they have been altered. We have used 200 ion microprobe δ18O and 67 trace element analyses of these zircons, together with backscattered electron and cathodoluminescence imaging, to assess differences between spots falling on crack-bearing vs. uncracked surfaces. Analyses on uncracked surfaces were further subdivided into those within magmatic zonations versus those in altered regions. We have combined the results with data from previous studies of Jack Hills zircons to identify alteration signatures and their mechanisms. Analyses on cracks overlap the field of uncracked regions in terms of most variables, but also display trends toward distinct compositions. Regions with altered zonationare often intermediate between magmatic and cracked regions but also overlap magmatic regions in other variables. Clear alteration signals include high P (>1000 ppm), high LREE/HREE (Nd/Yb (N) >0.01), high Ti (>900°C apparent Txlln), high Fe (>1000 ppm), and low HREE/MREE (Yb/Gd (N) <10). Cracks and altered regions are more likely to show high Th/U, low Ce/Ce*, and low δ18O, but the considerable overlap with magmatic regions limits the diagnostic usefulness of these variables. Crack-associated alteration is likely due to the extensive Fe-Ti oxide and xenotime mineralization seen in the zircons. Many but not all CL-dark regions are consistent with solid-state recrystallization. Bright regions cross-cutting magmatic zonation are evident in some zircons, but we have not yet identified a diagnostic signature of this alteration mode.Mineral inclusions falling on and away from cracks show distinct

  16. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  17. Electrical evaluation of crack generation in SiNx and SiOxNy thin-film encapsulation layers for OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Kil; Kim, Sungmin; Heo, Jaeyeong; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2016-05-01

    By measuring leakage current density, we detected crack generation in silicon nitride (SiNx) and silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) thin-film encapsulation layers, and correlated with the films' water vapor permeability characteristics. After repeated bending cycles, both the changes in water vapor transmission rate and leakage current density were directly proportional to the crack density. Thick SiNx films had better water vapor barrier characteristics in their pristine state, but cyclic loading led to fast failure. Varying the atomic concentration of the SiOxNy films affected their bending reliability. We attribute these differences to changes in the shape of the crack tip as the oxygen content varies.

  18. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  19. Using Transom Jack in the Human Engineering Analysis of the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Alves, Jeffrey R.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the human engineering analysis performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert (MSRR-1/QMI) using Transom Jack (Jack) software. The Jack software was used to model a virtual environment consisting of the MSRR-1/QMI hardware configuration and human figures representing the 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female. The purpose of the simulation was to assess the human interfaces in the design for their ability to meet the requirements of the Pressurized Payloads Interface Requirements Document - International Space Program, Revision C (SSP 57000). Jack was used in the evaluation because of its ability to correctly model anthropometric body measurements and the physical behavior of astronauts working in microgravity, which is referred to as the neutral body posture. The Jack model allows evaluation of crewmember interaction with hardware through task simulation including but not limited to collision avoidance behaviors, hand/eye coordination, reach path planning, and automatic grasping to part contours. Specifically, this virtual simulation depicts the human figures performing the QMI installation and check-out, sample cartridge insertion and removal, and gas bottle drawer removal. These tasks were evaluated in terms of adequate clearance in reach envelopes, adequate accessibility in work envelopes, appropriate line of sight in visual envelopes, and accommodation of full size range for male and female stature maneuverability. The results of the human engineering analysis virtual simulation indicate that most of the associated requirements of SSP 57000 were met. However, some hardware design considerations and crew procedures modifications are recommended to improve accessibility, provide an adequate work envelope, reduce awkward body posture, and eliminate permanent protrusions.

  20. TRENDS IN BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION: ASSAYING AND REMOTE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    Several borehole geophysical techniques have been developed in recent years. Assaying technique development has been concentrated on nuclear methods, with some progress being made on using electrical and magnetic properties for mineral identification. Adaptation of conventional surface geophysical techniques to the borehole for locating near-misses of mineralized zones has led to the development of borehole resistivity, electromagnetic (EM), gravity and magnetic methods to the borehole environment. This paper discusses some of the applications and pitfalls of these new techniques.

  1. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  2. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  3. [Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].

    PubMed

    Haller, R

    1999-01-01

    With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders. PMID:10489586

  4. AmeriFlux CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover. Site Description - The ground is gently rolling with a weak slope (<5%). In mesic areas (designated as well to moderately well drained areas, according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (Agriculture Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey, 1983)), the soil is a ferro-humic to humic podzol covered by an organic layer having an average depth of 26 cm (Fig. 1). In humid areas, the soil is organic (imperfectly to poorly drained) with an average organic layer of 125 cm. Mesic areas accounted for approximately 75% of the total surface area of the footprint and humid areas accounted for 25%. Full-time continuous measurements eneded in 2011. Intermittent measurements are on-going as resources permit.

  5. Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Bunawan, Hamidun; Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Siti Noraini; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2014-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species. PMID:24772185

  6. Relaxed singular vectors, Jack symmetric functions and fractional level sl ˆ (2) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The fractional level models are (logarithmic) conformal field theories associated with affine Kac-Moody (super)algebras at certain levels k ∈ Q. They are particularly noteworthy because of several longstanding difficulties that have only recently been resolved. Here, Wakimoto's free field realisation is combined with the theory of Jack symmetric functions to analyse the fractional level sl ˆ (2) models. The first main results are explicit formulae for the singular vectors of minimal grade in relaxed Wakimoto modules. These are closely related to the minimal grade singular vectors in relaxed (parabolic) Verma modules. Further results include an explicit presentation of Zhu's algebra and an elegant new proof of the classification of simple relaxed highest weight modules over the corresponding vertex operator algebra. These results suggest that generalisations to higher rank fractional level models are now within reach.

  7. Modeling of the Jack Rabbit Series of Experiments with a temperature-based reactive burn mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbiens, Nicolas; Sorin, Remy; Dubois, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    A reactive burn model based on shocked explosive temperature has been presented at the previous joint AIRAPT/APS-SCCM in Seattle. It has been shown that the temperature of the unburnt shocked explosive is a good candidate to drive rate laws of decomposition. Such models are able to reproduce the evolution of the sensitivity of explosives with porosity. They also predict a drastic reduction of the reactivity in the case of multi-shock compression without any bolt-on desensitization model. In this work, we apply our temperature-based reactive burn model to the data of the Jack Rabbit Series of Experiments. Indeed, these experiments dedicated to the study of detonation wave corner turning and shock desensitization in LX-17 are harsh tests for reactive burn models. Details of our model together with preliminary results will be shown.

  8. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Jack Pine Leaf Biochemistry and Modeled Spectra in the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen; Lucas, Neil; Dawson, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-4 team focused its efforts on deriving estimates of LAI and leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations from remotely sensed data for input into the Forest BGC model. This data set contains measurements of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle biochemistry from the BOREAS SSA in July and August 1994. The data contain measurements of current and year-1 needle chlorophyll, nitrogen, lignin, cellulose, and water content for the OJP flux tower and nearby auxiliary sites. The data have been used to test a needle reflectance and transmittance model, LIBERTY (Dawson et al., in press). The source code for the model and modeled needle spectra for each of the sampled tower and auxiliary sites are provided as part of this data set. The LIBERTY model was developed and the predicted spectral data generated to parameterize a canopy reflectance model (North, 1996) for comparison with AVIRIS, POLDER, and PARABOLA data. The data and model source code are stored in ASCII files.

  9. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  10. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  11. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  13. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  14. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... and the mine workings; (3) The concentrations of methane, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and carbon...

  15. Borehole logging method for fracture detection and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, B.E.; Johnson, D.L

    1989-05-16

    A method is describe for locating a fracture in a subsurface earth formation traversed by a borehole, the method using an acoustic source and at lest one acoustic detector traversing the borehole at a plurality of depths, the fracture positioned outside the direct path from the acoustic source to the at least acoustic detector, the method consists of the steps of: generating a first signal from the acoustic source, the first signal representative of Stoneley wave propagating in the borehole, receiving the first signal at the at least one detector, the first signal representative of Stoneley waves propagating in the borehole from the acoustic source to the at least one detector, receiving a second signal at the at least one detector, the second signal representative of reflections of the Stoneley wave, the reflections arising from an interaction of the Stoneyle waves and the fracture; and combining the first and second received signals to derive a fracture signal indicative of a characteristic of the fracture.

  16. Borehole televiewer for fracture detection and cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.; Clerke, E.A.

    1991-02-12

    This patent describes a method for acoustically logging a borehole in the earth to detect anomalies in the earth formation beyond the wall of the borehole. It comprises generating a plurality of narrow beam acoustic pulses with a rotating transducer at a first location in the borehole, wherein the complete circumference of the borehole at the first location is scanned by the pulses; receiving at the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses and producing a first electrical signal; receiving at a second location vertically spaced from the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses with a single element annular thin film omnidirectional receiver and producing a second electrical signal; recording the first and second electrical signals to provide a visual display of the elapsed time between the generating of the acoustic pulses and the occurrence of reflection events from the anomalies in the first and second electrical signals; and analyzing the display to locate the position of the anomalies.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  18. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  19. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  20. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  1. A study of sonic logging in a cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.; Everhart, A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of sonic logging in a cased borehole. Results were obtained from a scaled-model laboratory experiment and from computer simulations. The waveforms from the computer model indicate that sonic logging can be successful in bonded and unbonded cased holes. A slowness-time semblance signal processing technique is used to obtain wave velocities from waveforms.

  2. A study of sonic logging in a cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.K.; Everhart, A.H.

    1983-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of sonic logging in a cased borehole. Results were obtained from a scale-model laboratory experiment and from computer simulations. The waveforms from the computer model indicate that sonic logging can be successful in bonded and unbonded cased holes. A slowness/timesemblance signal-processing technique is used to obtain wave velocities from waveforms.

  3. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  4. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  5. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  6. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  7. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT3 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 3 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT3 was fired on March 12, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT3, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 41.7 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 65.0 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 40 millimeters at 10.9 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1636 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2056 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.80. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 64.6 kilobars at 15.7 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 2.2 microseconds.

  8. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT6 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 6 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT6 experiment was fired on April 1, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT6, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 54.2 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 64.5 microseconds at the central axis. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters at 14.1 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1860 meters per second. At 55 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2408 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 227 kilobars at 20.1 microseconds, indicating a late time chemical reaction in the LX-17 dead-zone. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 1.7 microseconds.

  9. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT7 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 7 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT7 experiment was fired on April 3, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT7, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The PDV earliest signal extinction was 50.7 microseconds at 45 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 65.0 microseconds at 20 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters and at 15.2 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1447 meters per second. At 65 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2360 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.61. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 49 kilobars at 23.3 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 4.6 microseconds.

  10. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT5 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 5 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT5 was fired on March 17, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT5, 160 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 20, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 40.0 microseconds at 45 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 64.9 microseconds at 20 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 55 millimeters at 12.8 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1877 meters per second. At 65 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2277 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.82. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 78 kilobars at 11.9 and 21.2 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 4.1 microseconds.

  11. Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 4 Section 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

    2008-06-25

    The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT4 was fired on March 19, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 64 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 44.9 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 69.5 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 50 millimeters at 13.3 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1558 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2019 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 98.6 kilobars at 15.0 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 0.7 microseconds.

  12. Proteus mirabilis urease: nucleotide sequence determination and comparison with jack bean urease.

    PubMed

    Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

    1989-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. Six open reading frames were found within a region of 4,952 base pairs which were predicted to encode polypeptides of 31.0 (ureD), 11.0 (ureA), 12.2 (ureB), 61.0 (ureC), 17.9 (ureE), and 23.0 (ureF) kilodaltons (kDa). Each open reading frame was preceded by a ribosome-binding site, with the exception of ureE. Putative promoterlike sequences were identified upstream of ureD, ureA, and ureF. Possible termination sites were found downstream of ureD, ureC, and ureF. Structural subunits of the enzyme were encoded by ureA, ureB, and ureC and were translated from a single transcript in the order of 11.0, 12.2, and 61.0 kDa. When the deduced amino acid sequences of the P. mirabilis urease subunits were compared with the amino acid sequence of the jack bean urease, significant amino acid similarity was observed (58% exact matches; 73% exact plus conservative replacements). The 11.0-kDa polypeptide aligned with the N-terminal residues of the plant enzyme, the 12.2-kDa polypeptide lined up with internal residues, and the 61.0-kDa polypeptide matched with the C-terminal residues, suggesting an evolutionary relationship of the urease genes of jack bean and P. mirabilis. PMID:2687233

  13. Finite elements analysis of an underground collector installed by pipe-jacking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Omer, Joshua; Arias, Daniel; Pando, Luis

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a useful analysis method for estimating simultaneously the stability, stress distribution and groundwater seepage as micro - tunnel is being advanced into the ground. The research is mainly concerned with the results of a case study conducted on a project to create a long industrial collector of effluent network in the east bank of the river Avilés (north coast of Spain). This coastal city has significant port and industrial installations in its environs. The geology of the location comprises Quaternary deposits on both flanks of the estuary and includes different highly variable geotechnical behavior. The industrial effluent network, constructed in the year 2010, has a length of 13.087 km and consists of 1.5 m diameter pipes, reaching a maximum depth of 5.8 m below the surface. Only the first 7.0 km of the collector (south area) were formed using pipe-jacking method whilst the rest were formed in open excavations or surface laid. Using the commercial software RS2, a 2D finite element program for soil and rock application, the ground response to pipe jacking in pipeline installation in Avilés was analyzed. Both axi-symmetric and plane strain analyses were carried out in RS2 to simulate in 3D the ground response to pipe advancement. The results demonstrate how much of deformation there is at ground surface in the immediate vicinity of the pipeline. The main objective is to show the possible patterns of ground subsidence and tunnel stresses to inform designers as to whether the tunnel will be stable and safe.

  14. Diamonds in Earthʼs oldest zircons from Jack Hills conglomerate, Australia, are contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa; Wirth, Richard; Green, Harry

    2014-02-01

    The earliest period of Earth history is the Hadean era (4600-4000 Myr) but to date no rocks are known to be preserved from this time. However, abundant detrital zircons from the Archean Jack Hills conglomerate complex of Western Australia have been found with dates in excess of 4000 Myr and there is a significant literature concerning these zircons from which abundant geochemical and mineralogical information has been obtained. The essence of what has been derived from these zircons and their inclusions concerning conditions of formation is that the zircons crystallized from granitic melts at shallow depths. However, in the last decade two papers were published reporting microdiamond inclusions in a suite of zircons ranging in age from ∼4200 Myr to ∼3000 Myr, implying much greater depths and repeated recycling and re-incorporation of diamonds into zircons over at least 1200 Myr. To complicate the issue, subsequent to this discovery, another study surveyed the inclusion suite in a very large sample (>400) of Jack Hills zircons (JHZs) and found no diamonds but abundant inclusions that are consistent with the previous consensus. It is important, therefore, to verify whether or not the reported JHZ diamonds could be laboratory contamination because diamond abrasive paste was used for sample preparation. Here, we report very-high-resolution re-examination of the original diamond-bearing specimens that were kindly provided to us by the authors (see Acknowledgements). We confirm the presence of diamonds in their zircons but the diamonds we find are fragments of polishing compound. These results combined with the lack of diamonds in any other samples of JHZs strongly suggest that there are no indigenous diamonds in the JHZs.

  15. Magnetic properties of Sm2(Fe0.95M0.05)17Nx (M=Cr and Mn) anisotropic coarse powders with high coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mikio; Majima, Kazuhiko; Shimuta, Toru; Katsuyama, Shigeru; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    Sm2(Fe0.95Cr0.05)17Nx and Sm2(Fe0.95Mn0.05)17Nx coarse powders 10-70 mum in size were synthesized by crushing mother alloy ingots into 32-74 mum in particle size and subsequent nitrogenation at 748 K in a flowing mixed gas of 60 vol % H2+40 vol % NH3. The effects of Cr or Mn substitution for Fe on the nitrogenation rate, magnetic properties, and microstructure of the Sm2Fe17Nx hard magnetic material were investigated. Cr and Mn substitution was quite effective for accelerating nitrogenation. When the powders were nitrogenated beyond x=3, amorphous phase formation was observed as the x value increased. The magnetic properties of the nitrogenated powders were significantly improved by Cr and Mn substitution, and these powders also possessed a satisfactory magnetic anisotropy. The maximum coercivity in this study, 0.59 MA/m, was obtained for the Sm2(Fe0.95Mn0.05)17N5.0 powder in spite of its large particle size. The high coercivity of the coarse powders was caused by a cell-like microstructure composed of fine 2-17 crystalline grains 20-30 nm in size surrounded by an amorphous phase.

  16. Electromigration in multilayer metallization: Drift-controlled degradation and the electromigration threshold of Al-Si- Cu/TiNxOy/TiSi2 contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, A. S.

    1991-11-01

    Metallizations that incorporate a conductive layer beneath an Al alloy (multilayers) are necessary for the improvement in electromigration performance required by the continued feature size reduction and increased integration of microelectronic devices. Degradation of contact structures that utilize multilayer metallization will result from electromigration-induced voiding of the Al layer. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of voiding is required for the accurate prediction of contact reliability. We have examined electromigration voiding in Al-Si-Cu/TiNxOy/TiSi2 multilayer contacts. Accelerated testing reveals that a TiNxOy/TiSi2 layer formed by rapid thermal anneal of Ti is an effective Si diffusion barrier at operating temperatures (<125 °C) and eliminates electromigration-induced leakage failures. Contact degradation occurs by increased resistance due to voiding of the Al-Si-Cu layer. Voiding involves drift-controlled edge displacement where the Al-Si-Cu layer migrates out of positively biased contacts, leaving the TiNxOy/TiSi2 layer intact. For 1-μm-diam contacts, the drift velocity has a significant lattice diffusion component and failure times are expected to far exceed operation lifetimes of devices. Additionally, evidence is presented for an electromigation threshold that eliminates voiding degradation for contacts connected by stripes.

  17. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I–V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I–V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole–Frenkel (P–F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM. PMID:26508086

  18. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p(+)-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM. PMID:26508086

  19. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  20. Zero-Offset VSP in the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled borehole COSC-1. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this an approx. 2.5 km deep borehole, with nearly 100% core recovery, was drilled in the Scandinavian Caledonides, close to the town of Åre in western Jämtland/Sweden. The seismic survey consisted of a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment with receivers at the surface and in the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source (VIBSIST 3000) was used and activated over a period of 20 seconds as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. For each source point, 25 seconds of data were recorded. The wavefield was recorded in the borehole by 15 three-component receivers using a Sercel Slimwave geophone chain with an inter-tool spacing of 10 meters. The ZVSP was designed to result in a geophone spacing of 2 meters over the whole borehole length. The source was about 30 meters away from the borehole and thus, provides a poor geometry to rotate 3C-data in greater depths. For this reason, a check shot position was defined in about 1.9 km distance to the borehole. With this offset shots, it is possible to rotate the components of the 3C receivers and to concentrate the S-wave energy on one component and thus, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of S-wave events. This offset source point was activated periodically for certain depth positions of the geophone chain. The stacked ZVSP-data show a high signal-to-noise ratio and good data quality. Frequencies up to 150 Hz were recorded. On the vertical component, clear direct P-wave arrivals are visible. Several P-wave reflections occur below 1600 meters depth. After rotating the components

  1. Horizontal stress anisotropy determined from acoustic full waveforms in borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, A.

    2003-04-01

    Drilling inside competent formations, such as crystalline rocks, hard carbonated rocks or sandstones, involves stable stress modifications around the hole. For vertical boreholes, these modifications depend essentially on the horizontal state of stress, particularly on its anisotropy. They may significantly spread up to more than 0.5 meter from the hole. As the usual frequencies of the borehole acoustic waveforms are about 20 KHz, these modified stress areas should be taken into account in order to interpret the records of the body waves, because their corresponding wavelengths range between 0.25 m for P waves and 0.175 m for S waves. The observation of the borehole acoustic body waves which propagate inside gneisses and metabasites (KTB borehole in Bavaria), granites (boreholes of Soultz-sous-forest in Alsace, and those in Vendée), and compact sandstones and dolomites (Balazuc1 borehole in the South of France), allows us to determine two or sometimes three successive arrivals of P and S waves, although the formations are homogeneous and there is no reflector, such as a fracture. The hypothesis that the double P and S waves may be the result of the reflection of the body waves inside the stress modified areas is consistent with the calculated sizes of the paths of the supposed reflected waves. The theory of borehole rock mechanics does not predict sharp changes in the sizes of these areas as overburdened pressure increases ; but the values of the supposed sizes of the modified areas are, as a function of depth, scattered above and steady below the depth where the overburdened pressure appears equal to the maximum horizontal stress. The squeezing of micro-cracks by pressure is assumed to homogenise formation rheology, and therefore, only the steady values may be considered as representative. Matching the calculated steady values with the possible models of stress deformation can be managed from the horizontal stress anisotropy values, but the solutions are not

  2. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  3. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  5. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  6. Analytical results and sample locality maps of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Little Jacks Creek (ID-111-006), Big Jacks Creek (ID-111-007C), Duncan Creek (ID-111-0007B), and Upper Deep Creek (ID-111-044) Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.S.; Gent, C.A.; Bradley, L.A.; King, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report detailing the analytical results and sample locality maps of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate, and rock samples from the Little Jacks Creek, Big Jacks Creek, Duncan Creek, and Upper Deep Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

  7. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  8. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  9. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  10. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  11. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher S.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  12. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production. PMID:27376835

  13. Evolution of N defect states and optical transitions in ordered and disordered GaP1-xNx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, C.; Lindsay, A.; O'Reilly, E. P.

    2008-07-01

    We show using an sp3s* tight-binding model that the band anti-crossing (BAC) model describes well the evolution of the lowest N-related conduction states in ordered GaP1-xNx alloys, including the evolution of the Γ character with increasing x. We obtain a good description of the lowest conduction states in disordered GaPN structures by explicitly treating the interaction between the GaP host Γ conduction band minimum and defect states associated with a random distribution of N atoms. We find a very similar value for the total Γ character mixed into the N levels in the ordered and disordered cases, but a wider distribution of states with Γ character in the disordered case. We show that the band gap reduction with increasing composition is dominated by the increasing formation of N cluster states. Overall key features of the band structure can be well described using a modified BAC model which explicitly includes the broad distribution of N levels in disordered GaPN alloys.

  14. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher S; DeDiego, Marta L; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  15. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  16. Laboratory investigation of borehole breakouts and Multi-step failure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Xiao-Ping; Mao, Ji-Zheng; Cui, Zhan-Tao

    1993-05-01

    Based on our experiment of borehole breakouts with a group of sandstone samples described in this paper, a multi-step failure model of borehole breakouts are proposed to quantitatively explain the relationship between the section shape of borehole breakouts and the state of crustal stress. In this model the borehole spalling is not only related to the state of stress at a single point but also the state of stress on its neighboring area. The comparison between the experimental results of borehole breakouts and the calculation results shows a good agreement.

  17. Mid-Proterozoic detrital zircons and the depositional history of the Jack Hills (Narryer Gneiss Complex, Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz-biotite schists ("metaconglomerates" s.l.) in the Jack Hills outcrops of the Narryer Terrane of Western Australia host detrital >4 Ga zircons. These rocks are presumed to have been deposited at about 3 Ga and subsequently experienced metamorphism and granite intrusion at 2.45-2.6 Ga. Protoliths of the oldest detrital zircon population (>3.8 Ga) have not yet been identified, and the post-2.6 Ga history of the Jack Hills remains murky. Rare metavolcanic units are documented at ca. 1.8-1.9 Ga. Some metasediments near the Hadean zircon "discovery" site that are apparently young enough to have incorporated mid-Proterozoic detrital zircons are evidence of further geologic activity, although it is possible that these rocks were tectonically juxtaposed later. To further resolve the Proterozoic history of the Jack Hills, we report U-Pb age data for 60 detrital zircons extracted from two quartzites from the eastern Jack Hills (~50 km distant from the "discovery" site of Hadean zircons); in this sample suite 26 concordant zircons range in age from 0.168-3.49 Ga, with an age peak at ca. 2.6 Ga and a scattering of ages from 1.06-2.0 Ga. Zircon sources <1.8 Ga have not so far been identified in the Narryer Terrane and may point to far-field sediment transport. Several ca. 1.07 Ga zircons may derive from the Warakurna Large Igneous Province of the same age, which extends through much of central and Western Australia. One concordant zircon with a 206Pb/238U age of 0.166±6 Ga displays a patchy internal texture indicative of alteration; all other concordant grains are >1.06 Ga. Only 2 concordant zircons display ages >3 Ga, unlike the dominant mid-Archean signature from other reported Proterozoic sediments in the Jack Hills. All told, these quartzites display a significantly different provenance than other previously studied units from the terrane, with decreased importance of mid-Archean zircon sources and significantly younger (<1.06 Ga) ages of sedimentation than

  18. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  19. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  20. Early Archean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills Zircon source terrane inferred from Lu-Hf, 207Pb/ 206Pb, and δ 18O systematics of Jack Hills zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Young, Edward D.

    2011-09-01

    Several lines of isotopic evidence - the most direct of which is from Hadean Jack Hills zircons - suggest a very early history of crust formation on Earth that began by about 4.5 Ga. To constrain both the fate of the reservoir for this crust and the nature of crustal evolution in the sediment source region of the Jack Hills, Western Australia, during the early Archean, we report here initial 176Hf/ 177Hf ratios and δ 18O systematics for <4 Ga Jack Hills zircons. In contrast to the significant number of Hadean zircons which contain highly unradiogenic 176Hf/ 177Hf requiring a near-zero Lu/Hf reservoir to have separated from the Earth's mantle by 4.5 Ga, Jack Hills zircons younger than ca. 3.6 Ga are more radiogenic than -13ɛ (CHUR) at 3.4 Ga in contrast to projected values at 3.4 Ga of -20ɛ for the unradiogenic Hadean reservoir indicating that some later juvenile addition to the crust is required to explain the more radiogenic younger zircons. The shift in the Lu-Hf systematics together with a narrow range of mostly mantle-like δ 18O values among the <3.6 Ga zircons (in contrast to the spread towards sedimentary δ 18O among Hadean samples) suggests a period of transition between 3.6 and 4 Ga in which the magmatic setting of zircon formation changed and the highly unradiogenic low Lu/Hf Hadean crust ceased to be available for intracrustal reworking. Constraining the nature of this transition provides important insights into the processes of crustal reworking and recycling of the Earth's Hadean crust as well as early Archean crustal evolution.