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Sample records for o-linked sugar chains

  1. Primary structure of O-linked carbohydrate chains in the cellulosome of different Clostridium thermocellum strains.

    PubMed

    Gerwig, G J; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Morag, E; Lamed, R; Bayer, E A

    1991-02-26

    The cell-free forms of the multiple cellulase-containing protein complex (cellulosome), isolated from the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum strains YS, ATCC 27405 and LQRI, have a total carbohydrate content of 5-7% (by mass), consisting of O-linked oligosaccharide chains. The carbohydrate chains were liberated by alkaline-borohydride treatment and fractionated as oligosaccharide alditols via gel-permeation chromatography and HPLC. The fractions were investigated by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with monosaccharide and methylation analysis and with fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). In addition to the previously described major oligosaccharide, (formula; see text) [Gerwig, G. J., de Waard, P., Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Morgenstern, E., Lamed, R. & Bayer, E. A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 1027-1035], the following partial structures of this compound could be established: (formula; see text). Cell-free and cell-associated forms of the cellulosome of C. thermocellum, as determined for strain YS, have the same oligosaccharide pattern. Based on the oligosaccharide structures, a biosynthetic pathway is suggested. PMID:2001693

  2. [Measurement of Liver Fibrosis Marker Targeting Sugar Chain Marker].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Kakuda, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Takashi; Funakoshi, Kunihiro

    2015-01-01

    The degree of liver fibrosis progression is an important factor in hepatocarcinogenesis, and monitoring liver fibrosis is important for predicting and preventing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is proportional to the appearance of a new hepatitis C therapy, or the expectation of liver fibrosis therapy, and liver fibrosis research is attracting attention. Although the Gold Standard for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis is liver biopsy, various problems, such as in the difficulty of invasive and frequent measurement, exist. The present non-invasive examination methods for the assessment of liver fibrosis also have a problem in the fields of organ specificity and diagnostic performance. Using a fully automated immunoassay system "HISCL", an assay system based on the lectin bound sugar reaction which is not an antigen-bound antibody reaction was developed. Measurements using the fully automated immunoassay system "HISCL" series and HISCL M2BPGi assay kit facilitated rapid assay (17 minutes) with a small sample volume (10 μL). Serum M2BPGi values can be used in various ways, such as for assessment of the risk and treatment associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, reflecting the liver fibrosis stage. Furthermore, many studies are currently in progress. The development of a new assay system for the detection of a cancer production sugar chain marker is expected in the future owing to the advent of a lectin-bound sugar chain reaction system. PMID:26524881

  3. A 23 kDa membrane glycoprotein bearing NeuNAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-3GalNAc O-linked carbohydrate chains acts as a receptor for Streptococcus sanguis OMZ 9 on human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neeser, J R; Grafström, R C; Woltz, A; Brassart, D; Fryder, V; Guggenheim, B

    1995-02-01

    Streptococcus sanguis colonizes several human oral surfaces, including both hard and soft tissues. Large salivary mucin-like glycoproteins bearing sialic acid residues are known to bind various S.sanguis strains. However, the molecular basis for the adhesion of S.sanguis to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) has not been established. The present study shows that S.sanguis OMZ 9 binds to exfoliated HBEC in a sialic acid-sensitive manner. The desialylation of such cells invariably abolishes adhesion of S.sanguis OMZ 9 to the cell surface. A soluble glycopeptide bearing short sialylated O-linked carbohydrate chains behaves as a potent inhibitor of the attachment of S.sanguis OMZ 9 to exfoliated HBEC. The resialylation of desialylated HBEC with CMP-sialic acid and Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha 2,3-sialyltransferase specific for O-glycans restores the receptor function for S.sanguis OMZ 9, whereas a similar cell resialylation with the Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase specific for N-glycans is without effect. Finally, the same resialylation reaction carried out with CMP-9-fluoresceinyl-sialic acid as a substrate yields exfoliated HBEC bearing fluorescence on a single 23 kDa protein, when using the alpha 2,3-sialyltransferase as the catalyst. The latter finding demonstrates that this 23 kDa cell surface glycoprotein bears NeuNAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-3GalNAc O-linked sugar chains, a carbohydrate sequence which is recognized by S.sanguis OMZ 9 on exfoliated HBEC. In similar experiments carried out with a buccal carcinoma cell line termed SqCC/Y1, S.sanguis OMZ 9 did not attach in great numbers to such cultured cells, and these cells were shown to not express membrane glycoprotein bearing alpha 2,3-sialylated O-linked carbohydrate chains. PMID:7772872

  4. A sugar chain at a specific position in the nascent polypeptide chain induces forward movement during translocation through the translocon.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Marifu; Fujita, Hidenobu; Morimoto, Fumiko; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2011-05-01

    Nascent polypeptide chains synthesized by membrane bound ribosomes are cotranslationally translocated through and integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum translocon. Hydrophobic segments and positive charges on the chain are critical to halt the ongoing translocation. A marginally hydrophobic segment, which cannot be inserted into the membrane by itself, can be a transmembrane segment depending on its downstream positive charges. In certain conditions, positive charges even 60 residues downstream cause the marginally hydrophobic segment to span the membrane by inducing the segment to slide back from the lumen. Here we systematically examined the effect of a core sugar chain on the fate of a marginally hydrophobic segment using a cell-free translation and translocation system. A sugar chain added within 12 residues upstream of the marginally hydrophobic segment prevents the sliding back and promotes forward movement of the polypeptide chain. The sugar chain apparently functions as a ratchet to keep the polypeptide chain in the lumen. We propose that the sugar chain is a third topology determinant of membrane proteins, in addition to a hydrophobic segment and positive charges of the nascent chain. PMID:21278156

  5. Novel bifidobacterial glycosidases acting on sugar chains of mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Takane; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2005-05-01

    Bifidobacterium bifidum was found to produce a specific 1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase. Its gene (afc A) has been cloned and the DNA sequence was determined. The Afc A protein consisting of 1959 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 205 kDa can be divided into three domains; the N-terminal function-unknown domain (576 aa), the catalytic domain (898 aa), and the C-terminal bacterial Ig-like domain (485 aa). The recombinant catalytic domain specifically hydrolyzed the terminal alpha-(1-->2)-fucosidic linkages of various oligosaccharides and sugar chains of glycoproteins. The primary structure of the catalytic domain exhibited no similarity to those of any glycoside hydrolases but showed similarity to those of several hypothetical proteins in a database, which resulted in establishment of a novel glycoside hydrolase family (GH family 95). Several bifidobacteria were found to produce a specific endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, which is the endoglycosidase liberating the O-glycosidically linked galactosyl beta1-->3 N-acetylgalactosamine disaccharide from mucin glycoprotein. The molecular cloning of endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was carried out on Bifidobacterium longum based on the information in the database. The gene was found to comprise 1966 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 210 kDa. The recombinant protein released galactosyl beta1-->3 N-acetylgalactosamine disaccharide from natural glycoproteins. This enzyme of B. longum is believed to be involved in the catabolism of oligosaccharide of intestinal mucin glycoproteins. Both 1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase and endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase are novel and specific enzymes acting on oligosaccharides that exist mainly in mucin glycoproteins. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that bifidobacteria produce these enzymes to preferentially utilize the oligosaccharides present in the intestinal ecosystem. PMID:16233817

  6. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. PMID:24039080

  7. A novel mass spectrometric strategy "BEMAP" reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G; Larsen, Martin R; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen. PMID:27562176

  8. A novel mass spectrometric strategy “BEMAP” reveals Extensive O-linked protein glycosylation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Anders; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Duggin, Iain G.; Larsen, Martin R.; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of sugars to proteins via side-chain oxygen atoms (O-linked glycosylation) is seen in all three domains of life. However, a lack of widely-applicable analytical tools has restricted the study of this process, particularly in bacteria. In E. coli, only four O-linked glycoproteins have previously been characterized. Here we present a glycoproteomics technique, termed BEMAP, which is based on the beta-elimination of O-linked glycans followed by Michael-addition of a phosphonic acid derivative, and subsequent titanium dioxide enrichment. This strategy allows site-specific mass-spectrometric identification of proteins with O-linked glycan modifications in a complex biological sample. Using BEMAP we identified cell surface-associated and membrane vesicle glycoproteins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and non-pathogenic E. coli K-12. We identified 618 glycosylated Serine and Threonine residues mapping to 140 proteins in ETEC, including several known virulence factors, and 34 in E. coli K-12. The two strains had 32 glycoproteins in common. Remarkably, the majority of the ETEC glycoproteins were conserved in both strains but nevertheless were only glycosylated in the pathogen. Therefore, bacterial O-linked glycosylation is much more extensive than previously thought, and is especially important to the pathogen. PMID:27562176

  9. A Highly Sensitive Diagnostic System for Detecting Dengue Viruses Using the Interaction between a Sulfated Sugar Chain and a Virion

    PubMed Central

    Saksono, Budi; Dewi, Beti Ernawati; Nainggolan, Leonardo; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method of detecting trace amounts of dengue virus (DENVs) from serum. Our method is based on the interaction between a sulfated sugar chain and a DENV surface glycoprotein. After capturing DENV with the sulfated sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles (SGNPs), the resulting complex is precipitated and viral RNA content is measured using the reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction SYBR Green I (RT-qPCR-Syb) method. Sugar chains that bind to DENVs were identified using the array-type sugar chain immobilized chip (Sugar Chip) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging. Heparin and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate were identified as binding partners, and immobilized on gold nanoparticles to prepare 3 types of SGNPs. The capacity of these SGNPs to capture and concentrate trace amounts of DENVs was evaluated in vitro. The SGNP with greatest sensitivity was tested using clinical samples in Indonesia in 2013–2014. As a result, the novel method was able to detect low concentrations of DENVs using only 6 μL of serum, with similar sensitivity to that of a Qiagen RNA extraction kit using 140 μL of serum. In addition, this method allows for multiplex-like identification of serotypes of DENVs. This feature is important for good healthcare management of DENV infection in order to safely diagnose the dangerous, highly contagious disease quickly, with high sensitivity. PMID:26010246

  10. Biosynthesis of ascites sialoglycoprotein-1, the major O-linked glycoprotein of 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma ascites cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to determine the timing of the major events in biosynthesis, and to characterize the contributions of chain initiation and elongation in maturation of the glycoprotein. Initiation of the earliest O-linked chains was detected by analysis of conversion of {sup 3}H-thr to {sup 3}H 2-aminobutyrate following mild alkaline borohydride elimination of O-linked sugars from peanut lectin-precipitated ASGP-1. Initiation was detected within 5 min of translation; amino sugar analysis of GlcNH{sub 2}-labeled, trypsinized cells also showed that GalNAc was added as late as 5 min prior to arrival of ASGP-1 at the cell surface. Thus initiation occurs throughout biosynthesis. Maturation of the glycoprotein from a lightly-glycosylated immature form to the heavily-glycosylated mature from involved both continued initiation of new chains and chain elongation, and occurred with a half-time of about 30 min. Analysis of labeled ASGP-1 released from the cell surface by trypsinization showed that although some newly-synthesized ASGP-1 reached the cell surface within 70-80 min of protein synthesis, the half-time for appearance of mature glycoprotein was in excess of 4 hr, indicating that most molecules reside in an intracellular compartment(s) for a considerable time.

  11. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity. PMID:26572430

  12. Biochemical characterization of inner sugar chains of acrosome reaction-inducing substance in jelly coat of starfish eggs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, H M M Jayantha; Yamagaki, Tohru; Matsumoto, Midori; Hoshi, Motonori

    2003-08-01

    The inception of the acrosome reaction (AR) in the starfish Asterias amurensis is perceived to be strongly associated with sulfated polysaccharide chains derived from an extremely large proteoglycan-like molecule called AR-inducing substance (ARIS), in which one of the sugar fragments, named fragment 1 (Fr. 1), was composed of the repeating units of [-->4]-beta-D-Xylp-(1-->3)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Fucp-4 (SO3-)-(1-->3)- alpha-L-Fucp-4(SO3-)-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->)n. In the current study, this sugar chain is inferred to link to the peptide part by O-glycosidic linkage through a sugar chain with different structural features from Fr. 1. This inner sugar portion of ARIS was isolated as Fr. 2 from the sonicated products of pronase digest of ARIS. Fr. 2, which retains AR-inducing activity to an admirable extent and has an apparent molecular size of 400 kDa, is composed of Gal, Xyl, Fuc, GalNAc, and GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 5:1:5:4:2 with O-sulfate substitutions at Gal-4, Gal-2, Gal-2,3 and Gal-2,4 (disulfated), Fuc-4, and GlcNAc-6. The study of Fr. 2 revealed that the major portion of the inner sugar chain of ARIS is composed of the heptasaccharide units of -->3)-Galp-(1-->3)-Fucp-(1-->3)-Galp-(1-->4)-GalNAcp-(1-->4)-GlcNAcp-6(SO3-)-(1-->6)-Galp-4(SO3-)-(1-->4)-GalNAcp-(1-->. This new structure of inner sugar chains of ARIS is elucidated by using electrospray ionization MS along with tandem mass analysis, sugar composition analysis, and methylation analysis of the sugar fragments obtained by acid-catalyzed resin-based partial hydrolysis of Fr. 2. Furthermore, this study corroborates that the sulfate groups are solely liable to the anionic character of ARIS, which ought to be present in the sugar chains of ARIS for its biological activity. PMID:12702668

  13. The AMOR Arabinogalactan Sugar Chain Induces Pollen-Tube Competency to Respond to Ovular Guidance.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Akane G; Inatsugi, Rie; Jiao, Jiao; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kuwata, Keiko; Ootani, Kento; Okuda, Satohiro; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Maruyama, Daisuke; Iwai, Hiroaki; Garénaux, Estelle; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Mori, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Itami, Kenichiro; Sasaki, Narie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-04-25

    Precise directional control of pollen-tube growth by pistil tissue is critical for successful fertilization of flowering plants [1-3]. Ovular attractant peptides, which are secreted from two synergid cells on the side of the egg cell, have been identified [4-6]. Emerging evidence suggests that the ovular directional cue is not sufficient for successful guidance but that competency control by the pistil is critical for the response of pollen tubes to the attraction signal [1, 3, 7]. However, the female molecule for this competency induction has not been reported. Here we report that ovular methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan (AMOR) induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri. We developed a method for assaying the response capability of a pollen tube by micromanipulating an ovule. Using this method, we showed that pollen tubes growing through a cut style acquired a response capability in the medium by receiving a sufficient amount of a factor derived from mature ovules of Torenia. This factor, named AMOR, was identified as an arabinogalactan polysaccharide, the terminal 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl residue of which was necessary for its activity. Moreover, a chemically synthesized disaccharide, the β isomer of methyl-glucuronosyl galactose (4-Me-GlcA-β-(1→6)-Gal), showed AMOR activity. No specific sugar-chain structure of plant extracellular matrix has been identified as a bioactive molecule involved in intercellular communication. We suggest that the AMOR sugar chain in the ovary renders the pollen tube competent to the chemotropic response prior to final guidance by LURE peptides. PMID:27068416

  14. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  15. Cadmium-free sugar-chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles containing low-toxicity ZnS-AgInS2 cores for probing lectin and cells.

    PubMed

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Masahiro; Nagata, Nonoka; Sakamoto, Masaya; Mochizuki, Eiko; Uematsu, Taro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Suda, Yasuo

    2014-02-19

    Sugar chains play a significant role in various biological processes through sugar chain-protein and sugar chain-sugar chain interactions. To date, various tools for analyzing sugar chains biofunctions have been developed. Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) functionalized with carbohydrate, such as quantum dots (QDs), are an attractive imaging tool for analyzing carbohydrate biofunctions in vitro and in vivo. Most FNPs, however, consist of highly toxic elements such as cadmium, tellurium, selenium, and so on, causing problems in long-term bioimaging because of their cytotoxicity. In this study, we developed cadmium-free sugar-chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) using ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) solid solution nanoparticles (NPs) of low or negligible toxicity as core components, and investigated their bioavailability and cytotoxicity. SFNPs were prepared by mixing our originally developed sugar-chain-ligand conjugates with ZAIS/ZnS core/shell NPs. In binding experiments with lectin, the obtained ZAIS/ZnS SFNPs interacted with an appropriate lectin to give specific aggregates, and their binding interaction was visually and/or spectroscopically detected. In addition, these SFNPs were successfully utilized for cytometry analysis and cellular imaging in which the cell was found to possess different sugar-binding properties. The results of the cytotoxicity assay indicated that SFNPs containing ZAIS/ZnS have much lower toxicity than those containing cadmium. These data strongly suggest that our designed SFNPs can be widely utilized in various biosensing applications involved in carbohydrates. PMID:24437371

  16. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  17. Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Hirata, Koichi; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. PMID:26378448

  18. Pulse-chase analysis of N-linked sugar chains from glycoproteins in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Edward; Ron, Efrat; Izenshtein, Yana; Adan, Yosef; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2010-01-01

    Attachment of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 precursor oligosaccharide to nascent polypeptides in the ER is a common modification for secretory proteins. Although this modification was implicated in several biological processes, additional aspects of its function are emerging, with recent evidence of its role in the production of signals for glycoprotein quality control and trafficking. Thus, phenomena related to N-linked glycans and their processing are being intensively investigated. Methods that have been recently developed for proteomic analysis have greatly improved the characterization of glycoprotein N-linked glycans. Nevertheless, they do not provide insight into the dynamics of the sugar chain processing involved. For this, labeling and pulse-chase analysis protocols are used that are usually complex and give very low yields. We describe here a simple method for the isolation and analysis of metabolically labeled N-linked oligosaccharides. The protocol is based on labeling of cells with [2-(3)H] mannose, denaturing lysis and enzymatic release of the oligosaccharides from either a specifically immunoprecipitated protein of interest or from the general glycoprotein pool by sequential treatments with endo H and N-glycosidase F, followed by molecular filtration (Amicon). In this method the isolated oligosaccharides serve as an input for HPLC analysis, which allows discrimination between various glycan structures according to the number of monosaccharide units comprising them, with a resolution of a single monosaccharide. Using this method we were able to study high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide profiles of total cell glycoproteins after pulse-chase in normal conditions and under proteasome inhibition. These profiles were compared to those obtained from an immunoprecipitated ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrate. Our results suggest that most NIH 3T3 cellular glycoproteins are relatively stable and that most of their oligosaccharides are trimmed to Man9-8GlcNAc2

  19. Comparison of methods of immobilization to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates for the detection of sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Fukui, E; Yoshino, S; Shinoda, M; Kojima, K; Matsumoto, I

    1999-11-15

    The immobilization of carbohydrates for solid-phase assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is difficult because they are hydrophilic. We developed four new methods for the immobilization of oligosaccharides. ELISA plates were first coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (MMAC) and an excess of active anhydride groups was introduced. They were subsequently reacted, in four different ways, to bind oligosaccharides. In method 1, the anhydride groups were reacted with hydrazide groups, in the presence of adipic acid dihydrazide, and then coupled to the reducing ends of sugar chains by reductive amination. In method 2, the anhydride groups were reacted with p-aminophenyl glycoside obtained by reduction with p-nitrophenyl glycoside. In method 3, the anhydride groups were reacted with 1, 6-hexamethylenediamine. Aminooxy groups were coupled to the amino groups introduced and then aminooxyacetic acid with carbodiimide and ligated to oligosaccharides by oxime formation. In method 4, stereospecifically aminated oligosaccharides reacted with the anhydride groups. We compared, in solid-phase assays systems, the ability of lectins to detect oligosaccharides immobilized with either one of these four new methods or one of the two methods previously described. Detection of sugars with lectins is useful because, in most cases, they recognize sugars stereospecifically. The immobilization method should therefore be carefully selected to avoid changing the configuration and substitution in C-1. PMID:10552909

  20. Fbs2 is a new member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family that recognizes sugar chains.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yukiko; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Chiba, Tomoki; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Tai, Tadashi

    2003-10-31

    F-box proteins are substrate recognition components of Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein-Roc1 (SCF) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. We reported previously that Fbs1 (F-box protein that recognizes sugar chains; equivalent to Fbx2 or NFB42) binds specifically to proteins attached with high mannose oligosaccharides and subsequently contributes to elimination of N-glycoproteins in cytosol (Yoshida, Y., Chiba, T., Tokunaga, F., Kawasaki, H., Iwai, K., Suzuki, T., Ito, Y., Matsuoka, K., Yoshida, M., Tanaka, K., and Tai, T. (2002) Nature 418, 438-442). Here we report the identification of another F-box protein that recognizes N-glycan, Fbs2 (called Fbx6b or FBG2 previously). Although the expression of Fbs1 was restricted to the adult brain and testis, the Fbs2 transcript was widely expressed. The Fbs2 protein forms an SCFFbs2 ubiquitinligase complex that targets sugar chains in N-glycoproteins for ubiquitylation. Only glycoproteins bound to concanavalin A lectin and not to wheat germ agglutinin or Ricinus communis agglutinin interacted with Fbs2 in various tissues and cell lines. Pull-down analysis using various oligosaccharides revealed that Man3-9GlcNAc2 glycans were required for efficient Fbs2 binding, whereas modifications of mannose residues by other sugars or deletion of inner GlcNAc reduced Fbs2 binding. Fbs2 interacted with N-glycans of T-cell receptor alpha-subunit (TCRalpha), a typical substrate of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and the forced expression of mutant Fbs2DeltaF, which lacks the F-box domain essential for forming the SCF complex, and decrease of endogenous Fbs2 by small interfering RNA led to inhibition of TCRalpha degradation in cells. Thus, Fbs2 is a novel member of F-box protein family that recognizes N-glycans and plays a role in ERAD. PMID:12939278

  1. Characterization of intact N- and O-linked glycopeptides using higher energy collisional dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Li; Tolic, Nikola; Qu, Yi; Meng, Da; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Qibin; Moore, Ronald J.; Zink, Erika M.; Lipton, Mary S.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Wu, Si

    2014-01-15

    Simultaneous elucidation of the glycan structure and the glycosylation site are needed to reveal the biological function of protein glycosylation. In this study, we employed a recent type of fragmentation termed higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) to examine fragmentation patterns of intact glycopeptides generated from a mixture of standard glycosylated proteins. The normalized collisional energy (NCE) value for HCD was varied from 30% to 60% to evaluate the optimal conditions for the fragmentation of peptide backbones and glycoconjugates. Our results indicated that HCD with lower NCE valuespreferentially fragmented the sugar chains attached to the peptides to generate a ladder of neutral loss of monosaccharides, thus enabling the putative glycan structure characterization. Also, detection of the oxonium ions enabled unambiguous differentiation of glycopeptides from non-glycopeptides. On the contrary, HCD with higher NCE values preferentially fragmented the peptide backbone and thus provided information needed for confident peptide identification. We evaluated the HCD approach with alternating NCE parameters for confident characterization of intact N-linked and O-linked glycopeptides in a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In addition, we applied a novel data analysis pipeline, so-called GlycoFinder, to form a basis for automated data analysis. Overall, 38 unique intact glycopeptides corresponding to eight glycosylation sites (including six N-linked and two O-linked sites) were confidently identified from a standard protein mixture. This approach provided concurrent characterization of both, the peptide and the glycan, thus enabling comprehensive structural characterization of glycoproteins in a single LC-MS/MS analysis.

  2. Structures of the sugar chains of a major glycoprotein present in the egg jelly coat of a starfish, Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Endo, T; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Arata, Y; Kobata, A

    1987-01-01

    Sugar chains of a major glycoprotein, obtained from the egg jelly coat of a starfish (Asterias amurensis), were released quantitatively as oligosaccharides by hydrazinolysis. After N-acetylation, they were converted to radioactive oligosaccharides by reduction with NaB3H4. Analysis by paper electrophoresis revealed that all of them were neutral oligosaccharides. Upon Bio-Gel P-4 column chromatography, the radioactive oligosaccharide mixture was separated into four components. Structural study of each component by sequential glycosidase digestion in combination with 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the glycoprotein contains the following oligosaccharides, in which R represents either proton, Glc alpha 1----, Glc alpha 1----3Glc alpha 1----, or Glc alpha 1----2Glc alpha 1----3Glc alpha 1----. (Formula: see text) PMID:3813529

  3. Stable isotope model for assessing production of short chain fatty acids from colon-derived sugar: application in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Murray, R D; Ailabouni, A; Powers, P; Kepner, J; Powers, L; Brunengraber, H

    1996-12-01

    Sugar reaching the colon because of intestinal maldigestion or malabsorption may be fermented to acetate and other short-chain fatty acids, resulting in stimulation of colonic water absorption and cell proliferation. To explore this phenomenon in more detail, we have developed a stable isotope model for estimating the fraction of colon-derived glucose or lactose that is fermented to acetate, propionate and butyrate. In an initial application of the model, [d3]-acetate and either [1-(13)C]-glucose or [D-1-(13)C]-lactose were infused into the cecum or colon of piglets, and plateau plasma acetate enrichment was monitored in the carotid artery. In acutely anesthetized piglets, the fractions of glucose and lactose fermented to acetate were 17.0 and 20.0%, respectively. In a chronically catheterized piglet, fermentation was higher (34.2%). When conducted in chronically catheterized animals or via a colostomy or ileostomy in infants, this model may be used to determine how age, previous surgery or antibiotic therapy affects the efficiency of colonic assimilation of carbohydrate. PMID:9001376

  4. Polyoxypregnane steroids with an open-chain sugar moiety from Marsdenia tenacissima and their chemoresistance reversal activity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sheng; To, Kenneth Kin-Wah; Ma, Liang; Yin, Chun; Tang, Chunping; Chai, Stella; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A polyoxypregnane aglycone, 12β-O-acetyl-11α-O-isobutyryltenacigenin B, and four polyoxypregnane glycosides with a pachybionic acid ester moiety, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-isobutyryltenacigenin B, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-tigloyltenacigenin B, 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-2-methylbutyryltenacigenin B, and 12β-O-acetyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-oleandronyl)-11α-O-tigloyltenacigenin B, were isolated from the canes of Marsdenia tenacissima, together with a disaccharide derivative. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations were further determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. With the exception of the disaccharide derivative, all five compounds are unusual naturally occurring polyoxypregnane glycosides bearing an open-chain sugar moiety. Two of these exhibit a wide spectrum of chemoresistance reversal activity, and potential mechanisms were studied accordingly. PMID:26988729

  5. Structural advantage of sugar beet α-glucosidase to stabilize the Michaelis complex with long-chain substrate.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Takayoshi; Yamashita, Keitaro; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Yao, Min; Kimura, Atsuo

    2015-01-16

    The α-glucosidase from sugar beet (SBG) is an exo-type glycosidase. The enzyme has a pocket-shaped active site, but efficiently hydrolyzes longer maltooligosaccharides and soluble starch due to lower Km and higher kcat/Km for such substrates. To obtain structural insights into the mechanism governing its unique substrate specificity, a series of acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides was employed for steady-state kinetic and structural analyses. The acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides have a longer maltooligosaccharide moiety compared with the maltose moiety of acarbose, which is known to be the transition state analog of α-glycosidases. The clear correlation obtained between log Ki of the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides and log(Km/kcat) for hydrolysis of maltooligosaccharides suggests that the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides are transition state mimics. The crystal structure of the enzyme bound with acarviosyl-maltohexaose reveals that substrate binding at a distance from the active site is maintained largely by van der Waals interactions, with the four glucose residues at the reducing terminus of acarviosyl-maltohexaose retaining a left-handed single-helical conformation, as also observed in cycloamyloses and single helical V-amyloses. The kinetic behavior and structural features suggest that the subsite structure suitable for the stable conformation of amylose lowers the Km for long-chain substrates, which in turn is responsible for higher specificity of the longer substrates. PMID:25451917

  6. Sugar chain of alpha-fetoprotein produced in human yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Hitoi, A; Tsuchida, Y; Nishi, S; Kobata, A

    1983-10-01

    The carbohydrate moiety of alpha-fetoprotein purified from human yolk sac tumors grown in nude mice was quantitatively released from the polypeptide chain as oligosaccharides by hydrazinolysis. The oligosaccharides were separated into a neutral and two acidic oligosaccharides by paper electrophoresis. By sequential exoglycosidase digestion in combination with per-O-methylation study and periodate oxidation, their structures were determined to be: Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT, Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT; and Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4 GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT, in which Gal is galactose, GlcNac is N-acetylglucosamine, Man is mannose, Fuc is fucose, Sia is sialic acid, and Subscript OT is the NaB3H4-reduced oligosaccharide. PMID:6192908

  7. Sugar-alcohol complexes of palladium(II): on the variable rigidity of open-chain carbohydrate ligands.

    PubMed

    Allscher, Thorsten; Kästele, Xaver; Kettenbach, Gerhard; Klüfers, Peter; Kunte, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The C4, C5, and C6 sugar alcohols erythritol (Eryt), D-threitol (D-Thre), D-arabitol (D-Arab), ribitol (Ribt), xylitol (Xylt), dulcitol (Dulc), and D-mannitol (D-Mann) form chelate complexes upon dissolution in Pd-en, an aqueous solution of [Pd(II)(en)(OH)2]. Stability rules are derived from the proportion of a respective species in the solution equilibrium. Crystal-structure analysis supports the NMR spectroscopic results for a series of binuclear compounds that contain the sugar alcohols as tetraanionic polyolato ligands: [Pd2(en)2(ErytH(-4))] x 10 H2O, [Pd2(en)2(D-Arab1,2;3,4H(-4))] x 7 H2O, [Pd2(en)2(Xylt1,2;3,4H(-4))] x 4 H2O, [Pd2(en)2(D-Mann1,2;3,4H(-4))] x 5 H2O, and [Pd2(en)2(Dulc2,3;4,5H(-4))] x 6 H2O. In the case of the pentitols and hexitols, the metalated tetraanions are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds uniformly connect an alkoxide acceptor to the hydroxy donor group located at the delta carbon atom. As a consequence of hydrogen bonding, the open-chain carbohydrate ligands become rigid. Crystal-structure analysis provides information on the configurational requirements for rigidity. According to these rules, the hydrogen-bond-supported Dulc2,3;4,5H(-4) tetraanion provides a geometrically persistent ligating pattern. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding seems to be the most-competitive variable to metalation of a polyol. [Pd2(tm-2,1:3,2-tet)(OH)3]OH (tm-2,1:3,2-tet = 1,3-bis(2'-dimethylaminoethyl)hexahydropyrimidine) is a metallizing agent that can force full metalation even in a case as intractable as that of dulcitol. Accordingly, [Pd4(tm-2,1:3,2-tet)2-(DulcH(-6))]Cl2 x 16 H2O contains the fully deprotonated hexitol as the ligand. PMID:17577890

  8. Sweeteners - sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... table sugar) Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (product of starch digestion) Sugars are found naturally in milk products ( ... It is also a syrup made from corn starch. Lactose (milk sugar) is the carbohydrate that is ...

  9. Biosynthesis of Conjugate Vaccines Using an O-Linked Glycosylation System

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chao; Sun, Peng; Liu, Bo; Liang, Haoyu; Peng, Zhehui; Dong, Yan; Wang, Dongshu; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Conjugate vaccines are known to be one of the most effective and safest types of vaccines against bacterial pathogens. Previously, vaccine biosynthesis has been performed by using N-linked glycosylation systems. However, the structural specificity of these systems for sugar substrates has hindered their application. Here, we report a novel protein glycosylation system (O-linked glycosylation via Neisseria meningitidis) that can transfer virtually any glycan to produce a conjugate vaccine. We successfully established this system in Shigella spp., avoiding the construction of an expression vector for polysaccharide synthesis. We further found that different protein substrates can be glycosylated using this system and that the O-linked glycosylation system can also effectively function in other Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains whose polysaccharide structure was not suitable for conjugation using the N-linked glycosylation system. The results from a series of animal experiments show that the conjugate vaccine produced by this O-linked glycosylation system offered a potentially protective antibody response. Furthermore, we elucidated and optimized the recognition motif, named MOOR, for the O-glycosyltransferase PglL. Finally, we demonstrated that the fusion of other peptides recognized by major histocompatibility complex class II around MOOR had no adverse effects on substrate glycosylation, suggesting that this optimized system will be useful for future vaccine development. Our results expand the glycoengineering toolbox and provide a simpler and more robust strategy for producing bioconjugate vaccines against a variety of pathogens. PMID:27118590

  10. CNS active O-linked glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Evan M.; Polt, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring glycopeptides and glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes. Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in vivo. Glycopeptides are involved in cell signaling and sorting, providing cell surface markers for recognition. From the drug design and synthesis perspective, modification of a peptide through glycosylation results in increased bioavailability and bioactivity of glycopeptides in living systems with negligible toxicity of degradation products. Glycopeptide synthesis can be accomplished through incorporation of a glycosylated amino acid in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) to form the desired peptide, or via incorporation of sugar-amino acid moieties. Additionally, research indicates that glycosylation increases penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by peptides, which may lead to novel therapeutics for neurological disorders. Recent applications of glycopeptides have focused on the in vivo central nervous system (CNS) effects after peripheral administration of centrally active peptides modified with various carbohydrates. PMID:26157795

  11. Muscle-Specific Myosin Heavy Chain Shifts in Response to a Long-Term High Fat/High Sugar Diet and Resveratrol Treatment in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.; Nguyen, Lisa; Hall, Allison E.; Huber, Ashley M.; Kocan, Jessica C.; Mattison, Julie A.; de Cabo, Rafael; LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Talmadge, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression within skeletal muscle can be induced by a host of stimuli including, but not limited to, physical activity, alterations in neural activity, aging, and diet or obesity. Here, we hypothesized that both age and a long-term (2 year) high fat/high sugar diet (HFS) would induce a slow to fast MHC shift within the plantaris, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, we tested whether supplementation with resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound that has been attributed with augmenting aerobic potential through mitochondrial proliferation, would counteract any diet-induced MHC changes by promoting a fast to slow isoform switch. In general, we found that MHC isoforms were not altered by aging during mid-life. The HFS diet had the largest impact within the soleus muscle where the greatest slow to fast isoform shifts were observed in both mRNA and protein indicators. As expected, long-term resveratrol treatment counteracted, or blunted, these diet-induced shifts within the soleus muscle. The plantaris muscle also demonstrated a fast-to-slow phenotypic response to resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, diet or resveratrol treatment impacts skeletal muscle phenotype in a muscle-specific manner and resveratrol supplementation may be one approach for promoting the fatigue-resistant MHC (type I) isoform especially if its expression is blunted as a result of a long-term high fat/sugar diet. PMID:26973542

  12. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    PubMed

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse. PMID:25958146

  13. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a significant industrial crop of the temperate zone, the worldwide production of which exceeded 240 million tons in 2000. Worldwide, sugar from sugar beet provides about a third of all sugar consumed. Used as a sweetener in foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals, sug...

  14. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  15. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World-wide demand for sugar approaches 140Mt each year, and is supplied by only two plants, once of which is the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.). A team of international researchers were assembled by the editor to review the body of literature on sugar beet production and assemble it into an accessi...

  16. The dystroglycanopathies: the new disorders of O-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul T

    2005-09-01

    It has become clear in the past half decade that a number of forms of congenital muscular dystrophy are in fact congenital disorders of glycosylation. Genes for Walker Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy 1C and 1D, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 21 have been identified, and gene mutations resulting in these diseases all cause the underglycosylation of alpha dystroglycan with O-linked carbohydrates. Unlike congenital disorders of glycosylation involving the N-linked pathway, these O-linked disorders possess distinctive muscle, eye, and brain phenotypes. Studies using mice and patient tissues strongly suggest that underglycosylation of dystroglycan inhibits the binding extracellular matrix proteins, effectively divorcing this important cell adhesion molecule from its extracellular environment. Moreover, defects in dystroglycan alone can account for most, if not all, cellular pathology. Thus, these disorders are now collectively referred to as dystroglycanopathies. PMID:16584074

  17. O-linked glycosylation in maize-expressed human IgA1.

    PubMed

    Karnoup, Anton S; Turkelson, Virgil; Anderson, W H Kerr

    2005-10-01

    O-Linked glycans vary between eukaryotic cell types and play an important role in determining a glycoprotein's properties, including stability, target recognition, and potentially immunogenicity. We describe O-linked glycan structures of a recombinant human IgA1 (hIgA1) expressed in transgenic maize. Up to six proline/hydroxyproline conversions and variable amounts of arabinosylation (Pro/Hyp + Ara) were found in the hinge region of maize-expressed hIgA1 heavy chain (HC) by using a combination of matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS), chromatography, and amino acid analysis. Approximately 90% of hIgA1 was modified in this way. An average molar ratio of six Ara units per molecule of hIgA1 was revealed. Substantial sequence similarity was identified between the HC hinge region of hIgA1 and regions of maize extensin-family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGP). We propose that because of this sequence similarity, the HC hinge region of maize-expressed hIgA1 can become a substrate for posttranslational conversion of Pro to Hyp by maize prolyl-hydroxylase(s) with the subsequent arabinosylation of the Hyp residues by Hyp-glycosyltransferase(s) in the Golgi apparatus in maize endosperm tissue. The observation of up to six Pro/Hyp hydroxylations combined with extensive arabinosylation in the hIgA1 HC hinge region is well in agreement with the Pro/Hyp hydroxylation model and the Hyp contiguity hypothesis suggested earlier in literature for plant HRGP. For the first time, the extensin-like Hyp/Pro conversion and O-linked arabinosylation are described for a recombinant therapeutic protein expressed in transgenic plants. Our findings are of significance to the field of plant biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry-developing transgenic plants as a platform for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. PMID:15901675

  18. Sugar 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk (such as yogurt, milk or cream) or fruit (fresh, dried) contains some natural sugars. Reading the ingredient list on a processed food’s label can tell you if the product contains added sugars, just not the ... juice concentrates High-fructose corn syrup Honey Invert ...

  19. Homology between O-linked GlcNAc transferases and proteins of the glycogen phosphorylase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Wrabl, J O; Grishin, N V

    2001-11-30

    The O-linked GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) are a recently characterized group of largely eukaryotic enzymes that add a single beta-N-acetylglucosamine moiety to specific serine or threonine hydroxyls. In humans, this process may be part of a sugar regulation mechanism or cellular signaling pathway that is involved in many important diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, no structural information about the human OGT exists, except for the identification of tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) at the N terminus. The locations of substrate binding sites are unknown and the structural basis for this enzyme's function is not clear. Here, remote homology is reported between the OGTs and a large group of diverse sugar processing enzymes, including proteins with known structure such as glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, and the glycosyl transferase MurG. This relationship, in conjunction with amino acid similarity spanning the entire length of the sequence, implies that the fold of the human OGT consists of two Rossmann-like domains C-terminal to the TPR region. A conserved motif in the second Rossmann domain points to the UDP-GlcNAc donor binding site. This conclusion is supported by a combination of statistically significant PSI-BLAST hits, consensus secondary structure predictions, and a fold recognition hit to MurG. Additionally, iterative PSI-BLAST database searches reveal that proteins homologous to the OGTs form a large and diverse superfamily that is termed GPGTF (glycogen phosphorylase/glycosyl transferase). Up to one-third of the 51 functional families in the CAZY database, a glycosyl transferase classification scheme based on catalytic residue and sequence homology considerations, can be unified through this common predicted fold. GPGTF homologs constitute a substantial fraction of known proteins: 0.4% of all non-redundant sequences and about 1% of proteins in the Escherichia coli genome are found to belong to the GPGTF

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) Plan ...

  1. Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World sugar production is around 160 Mt yearly with a per capita consumption of about 23 kg. Total utilization is increasing approximately 1.4% annually thanks to the improved standard of living in densely populated countries like China and India. About one-quarter of world production is extracted f...

  2. CNS Active O-Linked Glycopeptides that Penetrate the BBB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Evan; Polt, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Naturally occurring glycopeptides and glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes. Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in vivo. Glycopeptides are involved in cell signaling and sorting, providing cell surface markers for recognition. From the drug design and synthesis perspective, modification of a peptide through glycosylation results in increased bioavailability and bioactivity of glycopeptides in living systems with negligible toxicity of degradation products. Glycopeptide synthesis can be accomplished through incorporation of a glycosylated amino acid in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) to form the desired peptide, or via incorporation of sugar-amino acid moieties. Additionally, research indicates that glycosylation increases penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by peptides, which may lead to novel therapeutics for neurological disorders. Recent applications of glycopeptides have focused on the in vivo central nervous system effects after peripheral administration of centrally active peptides modified with various carbohydrates.

  3. Biochemical characterization of the O-linked glycosylation pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae responsible for biosynthesis of protein glycans containing N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Meredith D; Morrison, Michael J; Aas, Finn Erik; Børud, Bente; Koomey, Michael; Imperiali, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    The O-linked protein glycosylation pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is responsible for the synthesis of a complex oligosaccharide on undecaprenyl diphosphate and subsequent en bloc transfer of the glycan to serine residues of select periplasmic proteins. Protein glycosylation (pgl) genes have been annotated on the basis of bioinformatics and top-down mass spectrometry analysis of protein modifications in pgl-null strains [Aas, F. E., et al. (2007) Mol. Microbiol. 65, 607-624; Vik, A., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 4447-4452], but relatively little biochemical analysis has been performed to date. In this report, we present the expression, purification, and functional characterization of seven Pgl enzymes. Specifically, the enzymes studied are responsible for synthesis of an uncommon uridine diphosphate (UDP)-sugar (PglD, PglC, and PglB-acetyltransferase domain), glycan assembly (PglB-phospho-glycosyltransferase domain, PglA, PglE, and PglH), and final oligosaccharide transfer (PglO). UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-d-hexose (DATDH), which is the first sugar in glycan biosynthesis, was produced enzymatically, and the stereochemistry was assigned as uridine diphosphate N'-diacetylbacillosamine (UDP-diNAcBac) by nuclear magnetic resonance characterization. In addition, the substrate specificities of the phospho-glycosyltransferase, glycosyltransferases, and oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) were analyzed in vitro, and in most cases, these enzymes exhibited strong preferences for the native substrates relative to closely related glycans. In particular, PglO, the O-linked OTase, and PglB(Cj), the N-linked OTase from Campylobacter jejuni, preferred the native N. gonorrhoeae and C. jejuni substrates, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive biochemical characterization of this important O-linked glycosylation pathway and provides the basis for further investigations of these enzymes as antibacterial targets. PMID:21542610

  4. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  5. High blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000332.htm High blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... later when energy is needed. Symptoms of High Blood Sugar Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being ...

  6. Ethanol from Sugar Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

  7. Inhibition of O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase Reduces Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Magdalena; Ortiz-Meoz, Rodrigo F.; Walker, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is an essential cellular enzyme that posttranslationally modifies nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins via O-linked addition of a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety. Among the many targets of OGT is host cell factor 1 (HCF-1), a transcriptional regulator that is required for transactivation of the immediate-early genes of herpes simplex virus (HSV). HCF-1 is synthesized as a large precursor that is proteolytically cleaved by OGT, which may regulate its biological function. In this study, we tested whether inhibition of the enzymatic activity of OGT with a small molecule inhibitor, OSMI-1, affects initiation of HSV immediate-early gene expression and viral replication. We found that inhibiting OGT's enzymatic activity significantly decreased HSV replication. The major effect of the inhibitor occurred late in the viral replication cycle, when it reduced the levels of late proteins and inhibited capsid formation. However, depleting OGT levels with small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the expression of HSV immediate-early genes, in addition to reducing viral yields. In this study, we identified OGT as a novel cellular factor involved in HSV replication. Our results obtained using a small molecule inhibitor and siRNA depletion suggest that OGT's glycosylation and scaffolding functions play distinct roles in the replication cycle of HSV. IMPORTANCE Antiviral agents can target viral or host gene products essential for viral replication. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is an important cellular enzyme that catalyzes the posttranslational addition of GlcNAc sugar residues to hundreds of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, and this modification regulates their activity and function. Some of the known OGT targets are cellular proteins that are critical for the expression of herpes simplex virus (HSV) genes, suggesting a role for OGT in the replication cycle of HSV. In this study, we found that OGT is required for

  8. The Truth about Sugar.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times. PMID:26506805

  9. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  10. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  11. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to produce enough breast milk. (Hand expression and massage can help mothers express more milk.) The infant ... If you have diabetes during pregnancy, work with your health care ... sugar level. Be sure that your newborn's blood sugar level is ...

  12. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also ... sugar levels. continue How to Check Blood Sugar Levels Blood glucose testing is easier, less painful, and ...

  13. N- and O-linked glycosylation of total plasma glycoproteins in galactosemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Xia, Baoyun; Gleason, Tyler J.; Castañeda, Uriel; He, Miao; Berry, Gerard T.; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal metabolic disorder that results from profound impairment of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT); despite decades of research, the underlying mechanism of pathophysiology remains unclear. Previous studies of plasma and tissue samples from patients with classic galactosemia have revealed defects of protein and lipid glycosylation, however, the underlying bases for these defects and their clinical significance, if any, has remained unclear. As a step toward addressing these questions we characterized both the N- and O-linked glycomes of plasma proteins from neonates, infants, children, and adults with galactosemia using mass spectrometry and asked (1) whether similar or disparate defects exist for N-linked and O-linked modifications, (2) what factors correlate with the severity of these defects in different patients, and perhaps most important, (3) whether there is any apparent relationship between chronic glycosylation defects and long-term outcome in patients. We found that some but not all of the galactosemic neonates tested exhibited abnormal N- and O-linked glycosylation of plasma proteins. The types of abnormalities seen were similar between N- and O-linked moieties, but the extent of the defects varied between patients. Age, gender, GALT genotype, and predicted residual GALT activity all failed to explain the extent of the glycosylation defect in the samples studied. Dietary galactose restriction markedly normalized both the N- and O-linked glycosylation patterns for all infants tested; however, any remaining glycosylation defects evident in the plasma of older children or adults on galactose-restricted diets showed no correlation with clinical outcome. These data cannot rule out the possibility that subtle or localized glycosylation defects, not detectable by our methods or not reflected in plasma, may contribute to acute or long-term outcome severity. PMID:22743281

  14. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  15. Bacteriostatic activities of monoacyl sugar alcohols against thermophilic sporeformers.

    PubMed

    Piao, Junkui; Kawahara-Aoyama, Yumiko; Inoue, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    The bacteriostatic activities of monoacyl sugar alcohols with different acyl chains and hydrophilic heads were examined against some thermophilic sporeformers. Monomyristoyl erythritol and xylitol efficaciously suppressed their spore development. The number and orientation of the hydroxyl groups also played important roles in this activity, and monomyristoyl xylitol exhibited the highest activity among the monomyristoyl sugar alcohols. PMID:16428845

  16. Functional Analysis of the Glucuronyltransferases GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S of Drosophila melanogaster: Distinct Activities towards the O-linked T-antigen

    PubMed Central

    Breloy, Isabelle; Schwientek, Tilo; Althoff, Deborah; Holz, Marvin; Koppen, Tim; Krupa, Angelika; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster glucuronyltransferases dGlcAT-S and dGlcAT-P were reported to be expressed ubiquitously and results of in vitro activity assays indicate a functional redundancy. We analyzed both transferases in vivo and in vitro and could show significant differences in their activity towards N-and O-glycoproteins in vivo. While GlcAT-P is able to use N-linked N-acetyllactosamine chains and the O-linked T-antigen as a substrate to form non-sulfated HNK1- (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-) and glucuronyl-T-antigens in vivo, GlcAT-S adds glucuronic acid only to N-linked chains, thereby synthesizing only the non-sulfated HNK1-antigen. PMID:26751495

  17. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  18. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  19. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  20. Analysis of N-linked oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins on nitrocellulose sheets using lectin-peroxidase reagents.

    PubMed

    Kijimoto-Ochiai, S; Katagiri, Y U; Ochiai, H

    1985-05-15

    A rapid and convenient method was established for analysis of the N-linked carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins on nitrocellulose sheets. Proteins were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose sheets, reacted with peroxidase-coupled lectins, and detected by color development of the enzyme reaction. Four glycoproteins having N-linked oligosaccharide chains were used as test materials: Taka-amylase A (which has a high-mannose-type chain), ovalbumin (high-mannose-type chains and hybrid-type chains), transferrin (biantennary chains of complex type), and fetuin (triantennary chains of complex type and O-linked-type chains). Concanavalin A interacted with Taka-amylase A, transferrin, and ovalbumin but barely interacted with fetuin. After treatment of the glycoproteins on a nitrocellulose sheet with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, transferrin reacted with concanavalin A but Taka-amylase A and ovalbumin did not. Wheat germ agglutinin interacted with Taka-amylase A but not ovalbumin; therefore, they were distinguishable from each other. Fetuin and transferrin were detected by Ricinus communis agglutinin or peanut agglutinin after removal of sialic acid by treatment with neuraminidase or by weak-acid hydrolysis. Erythroagglutinating Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin detected fetuin and transferrin. Thus, the combined use of these procedures distinguished the four different types of N-linked glycoproteins. This method was also applied to the analysis of membrane glycoproteins from sheep red blood cells. The terminally positioned sugars of sialic acid, alpha-fucose, alpha-galactose, and alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine were also detected with lectins from Limulus polyphemus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Maclura pomifera, and Dolichos biflorus, respectively. PMID:2411164

  1. Transport of sugars.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility. PMID:25747398

  2. Effects of Sugars on Lipid Bilayers during Dehydration − SAXS/WAXS Measurements and Quantitative Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lenne, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary

    2009-04-02

    We present an X-ray scattering study of the effects of dehydration on the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of sugars. The presence of sugars has no effect on the average spacing between the phospholipid chains in either the fluid or gel phase. Using this finding, we establish that for low sugar concentrations only a small amount of sugar exclusion occurs. Under these conditions, the effects of sugars on the membrane transition temperatures can be explained quantitatively by the reduction in hydration repulsion between bilayers due to the presence of the sugars. Specific bonding of sugars to lipid headgroups is not required to explain this effect.

  3. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  4. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part of diabetes care. This ... check my blood sugar? You use a blood glucose meter to check your blood sugar. This device ...

  5. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  6. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Morris, Howard R; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein. PMID:25915761

  7. Enterocin F4-9, a Novel O-Linked Glycosylated Bacteriocin.

    PubMed

    Maky, Mohamed Abdelfattah; Ishibashi, Naoki; Zendo, Takeshi; Perez, Rodney Honrada; Doud, Jehan Ragab; Karmi, Mohamed; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis F4-9 isolated from Egyptian salted-fermented fish produces a novel bacteriocin, termed enterocin F4-9. Enterocin F4-9 was purified from the culture supernatant by three steps, and its molecular mass was determined to be 5,516.6 Da by mass spectrometry. Amino acid and DNA sequencing showed that the propeptide consists of 67 amino acid residues, with a leader peptide containing a double glycine cleavage site to produce a 47-amino-acid mature peptide. Enterocin F4-9 is modified by two molecules of N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser37 and Thr46. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are essential for the antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9. Further analysis of the enterocin F4-9 gene cluster identified enfC, which has high sequence similarity to a glycosyltransferase. The antimicrobial activity of enterocin F4-9 covered a limited range of bacteria, including, interestingly, a Gram-negative strain, Escherichia coli JM109. Enterocin F4-9 is sensitive to protease, active at a wide pH range, and moderately resistant to heat. PMID:25956765

  8. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Morris, Howard R.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein. PMID:25915761

  9. The precursor to B-type natriuretic peptide is an O-linked glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, Ute; O'Rear, Jessica; Guzzetta, Andrew; Jue, Rodney A; Protter, Andrew A; Pollitt, N Stephen

    2006-07-15

    Human pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP), the precursor for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and compared by Western blot analysis to BNP cross-reacting material immunoprecipitated from the plasma of heart failure patients. Both recombinant and native forms co-migrated as a diffuse band centered around 25 kDa and were reduced to a 12 kDa species by treatment with a mixture of O-link deglycosylation enzymes. The 108-amino acid CHO-expressed protein was examined by tryptic mapping and LC-MS and found to be an O-linked glycoprotein. Determination of the sites of O-glycosyl addition by blank cycle sequencing of tryptic and Glu-C (Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease) peptides showed that there are seven sites of glycosylation confined to a 36-amino acid residue stretch within the center of the propeptide region. This data is consistent with previous observations of higher molecular weight isoforms of BNP. PMID:16750161

  10. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  11. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you have diabetes, it is likely your health care provider told you how to treat yourself for low blood sugar . Treatment can include: Drinking juice Eating food Glucose tablets Or you may have ...

  13. Hyperactivity and sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. ... Several studies have shown a link between artificial colorings and ... do not show any effect. This issue is yet to be decided.

  14. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000386.htm Low blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  15. Sugar bingeing in rats.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2006-08-01

    Bingeing behavior is characteristic of many eating disorders. This unit describes an animal model of sugar bingeing. This model has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of sugar dependence in rats, e.g., indices of bingeing, withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence (deprivation effect), cross-sensitization with amphetamine, and increases in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens due to repeated bingeing. PMID:18428651

  16. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  17. 5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Two sugar coolers ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Two sugar coolers ca. 1880. View: After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan, it cooled and crystallized in these iron sugar coolers. After the sugar syrup was granulated and cooled it was dug out of the coolers and fed into the centrifugals. The Meyer Mill purchased twelve coolers between 1878 and 1881 costing between $35 and $45 each. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  18. Maufacture of raw cane sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

  19. Inhibition of osteoporosis in rats fed with sugar cane wax.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hajime; Man, Sun Li; Ohta, Yutaka; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Chinen, Isao

    2003-02-01

    Rats fed on a restricted, semi-purified diet containing a 50%-reduced level of carbohydrate and oil, but normal levels of protein, minerals and vitamins, exhibited osteoporosis. However, rats fed on this restricted diet, but containing sugar cane wax, did not exhibit this bone disease. Sugar cane wax, containing a long-chain carbohydrate with an OH radical, prevented the development of osteoporosis via a non-estrogenic mechanism. PMID:12729013

  20. Identification of O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine-modified proteins from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou-Ling; Chalkley, Robert J; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Burlingame, Alma L

    2012-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked β-D: -N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine and threonine residues occurs in all animals and plants. This modification is dynamic and ubiquitous, and regulates many cellular processes, including transcription, signaling and cytokinesis and is associated with several diseases. Cycling of O-GlcNAc is tightly regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Plants have two OGTs, SPINDLY (SPY) and SECRET AGENT (SEC); disruption of both causes embryo lethality. Despite O-GlcNAc modification of proteins being discovered more than 20-years ago, identification and mapping of protein GlcNAcylation is still a challenging task. Here we describe the use of lectin affinity chromatography combined with electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry to enrich and to detect O-GlcNAc modified peptides from Arabidopsis. PMID:22576084

  1. Fluorescence study of sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongjamroon, Sunida; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart

    2015-07-01

    We studied photoemission of monosaccharides and disaccharides using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. A 532- nm, 10 mW, laser was used to excite the samples and back-scattering signals were collected by a spectrometer. We found that most sugars show weak fluorescence in solid phase but do not fluoresce when dissolved in water solutions. The emission spectra show similar peak intensity at 590 nm, but they are different in emission intensities. We suggest that the fluorescence spectra may be used to differentiate sugar type, even though the origin of the fluorescence is unclear and needed further study.

  2. 1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Large rectangular piece lying in front of the mill is the top of the mill frame appearing in its proper place in 1928 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  4. Sugar beet traditional breeding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With rapidly changing agricultural practices, target environments, and biotic and abiotic stresses, plant breeders face the task of continually selecting plants with desirable traits with the goal to assemble advantageous combinations of genes in new varieties. Sugar beet has been selectively bred s...

  5. The Maple Sugar Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  6. SUGAR BEET QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than one third of the sucrose (sugar) consumed by humans is obtained from sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sucrose extraction begins with the production of a dark opaque juice from strips of sugarbeet. This juice is purified with lime and carbon dioxide, thickened by evaporation, and crystallize...

  7. Sugar Cane Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  8. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  9. 32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: End of mill into which cane was fed between top and bottom roll. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  11. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so ... as possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  12. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... before meals and at bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track ... before meals and at bedtime. Your blood sugar meter may have computer software to help you track ...

  13. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care team. What are target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes? A target is something ... gly- see -mee-uh). It means that your blood sugar level is higher than your target level or over ...

  14. Sugar-water hemolysis test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003673.htm Sugar-water hemolysis test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sugar-water hemolysis test is a blood test to detect ...

  15. Secretion of N- and O-linked Glycoproteins from 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Wai-Mei; Tan, Aik-Aun; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Hashim, Onn H.; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect women globally and accounts for ~23% of all cancers diagnosed in women. Breast cancer is also one of the leading causes of death primarily due to late stage diagnoses and a lack of effective treatments. Therefore, discovering protein expression biomarkers is mandatory for early detection and thus, critical for successful therapy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) coupled with lectin-based analysis followed by mass spectrometry were applied to identify potential biomarkers in the secretions of a murine mammary carcinoma cell line. Comparisons of the protein profiles of the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell line and a normal murine MM3MG mammary cell line indicated that cadherin-1 (CDH), collagenase 3 (MMP-13), Viral envelope protein G7e (VEP), Gag protein (GAG) and Hypothetical protein LOC433182 (LOC) were uniquely expressed by the 4T1 cells, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was exclusively secreted by the MM3MG cells. Further analysis by a lectin-based study revealed that aberrant O-glycosylated CDH, N-glycosylated MMP-13 and LOC were present in the 4T1 medium. These differentially expressed N- and O-linked glycoprotein candidates, which were identified by combining lectin-based analysis with 2D-E, could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. PMID:27226773

  16. Disruption of O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine Signaling Induces ER Stress and β Cell Failure.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Emilyn U; Bozadjieva, Nadejda; Kumusoglu, Doga; Abdulhamid, Sarah; Levine, Hannah; Haataja, Leena; Vadrevu, Suryakiran; Satin, Leslie S; Arvan, Peter; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2015-12-22

    Nutrient levels dictate the activity of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) to regulate O-GlcNAcylation, a post-translational modification mechanism to "fine-tune" intracellular signaling and metabolic status. However, the requirement of O-GlcNAcylation for maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating pancreatic β cell mass and function is unclear. Here, we reveal that mice lacking β cell OGT (βOGT-KO) develop diabetes and β cell failure. βOGT-KO mice demonstrated increased ER stress and distended ER architecture, and these changes ultimately caused the loss of β cell mass due to ER-stress-induced apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Akt1/2 signaling was also dampened in βOGT-KO islets. The mechanistic role of these processes was demonstrated by rescuing the phenotype of βOGT-KO mice with concomitant Chop gene deletion or genetic reconstitution of Akt2. These findings identify OGT as a regulator of β cell mass and function and provide a direct link between O-GlcNAcylation and β cell survival by regulation of ER stress responses and modulation of Akt1/2 signaling. PMID:26673325

  17. Secretion of N- and O-linked Glycoproteins from 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Phang, Wai-Mei; Tan, Aik-Aun; Gopinath, Subash C B; Hashim, Onn H; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers that affect women globally and accounts for ~23% of all cancers diagnosed in women. Breast cancer is also one of the leading causes of death primarily due to late stage diagnoses and a lack of effective treatments. Therefore, discovering protein expression biomarkers is mandatory for early detection and thus, critical for successful therapy. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) coupled with lectin-based analysis followed by mass spectrometry were applied to identify potential biomarkers in the secretions of a murine mammary carcinoma cell line. Comparisons of the protein profiles of the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell line and a normal murine MM3MG mammary cell line indicated that cadherin-1 (CDH), collagenase 3 (MMP-13), Viral envelope protein G7e (VEP), Gag protein (GAG) and Hypothetical protein LOC433182 (LOC) were uniquely expressed by the 4T1 cells, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was exclusively secreted by the MM3MG cells. Further analysis by a lectin-based study revealed that aberrant O-glycosylated CDH, N-glycosylated MMP-13 and LOC were present in the 4T1 medium. These differentially expressed N- and O-linked glycoprotein candidates, which were identified by combining lectin-based analysis with 2D-E, could serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for breast cancer. PMID:27226773

  18. Comparison of analytical methods for profiling N- and O-linked glycans from cultured cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Togayachi, Akira; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Geyer, Rudolf; Galuska, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kato, Koichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kondo, Sachiko; Kawasaki, Nana; Hashii, Noritaka; Kolarich, Daniel; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Packer, Nicolle H.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Nakano, Miyako; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kurimoto, Ayako; Wada, Yoshinao; Tajiri, Michiko; Yang, Pengyuan; Cao, Weiqian; Li, Hong; Rudd, Pauline M.; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    The Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative (HGPI) is an activity in the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) supported by leading researchers from international institutes and aims at development of disease-related glycomics/glycoproteomics analysis techniques. Since 2004, the initiative has conducted three pilot studies. The first two were N- and O-glycan analyses of purified transferrin and immunoglobulin-G and assessed the most appropriate analytical approach employed at the time. This paper describes the third study, which was conducted to compare different approaches for quantitation of N- and O-linked glycans attached to proteins in crude biological samples. The preliminary analysis on cell pellets resulted in wildly varied glycan profiles, which was probably the consequence of variations in the pre-processing sample preparation methodologies. However, the reproducibility of the data was not improved dramatically in the subsequent analysis on cell lysate fractions prepared in a specified method by one lab. The study demonstrated the difficulty of carrying out a complete analysis of the glycome in crude samples by any single technology and the importance of rigorous optimization of the course of analysis from preprocessing to data interpretation. It suggests that another collaborative study employing the latest technologies in this rapidly evolving field will help to realize the requirements of carrying out the large-scale analysis of glycoproteins in complex cell samples. PMID:26511985

  19. Intracellular and extracellular O-linked N-acetylglucosamine in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mitsutaka; Sawaguchi, Shogo; Kamemura, Kazuo; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to the hydroxyl group of serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAcylation) is a post-translational modification common to multicellular eukaryotes. To date, O-GlcNAcylations have been divided into two categories: the first involves nucleocytoplasmic and mitochondrial (intracellular) O-GlcNAcylation catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), and the second involves O-GlcNAcylation in the secretory pathways (extracellular) catalyzed by epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain-specific O-GlcNAc transferase (EOGT). Intracellular O-GlcNAcylation is involved in essential cellular and physiological processes such as synaptic activity, neuronal morphogenesis, and learning and memory. Moreover, intracellular O-GlcNAc might have a neuroprotective effect, protecting against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. EGF repeats on extracellular matrix proteins and the extracellular region of transmembrane proteins have recently been found to be modified by O-GlcNAc in the mouse cerebral cortex. EOGT is responsible for Adams-Oliver syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by aplasia cutis congenita and terminal transverse limb defects, often accompanied by cardiovascular and neurological defects. Thus, a mechanistic understanding of O-GlcNAc in the regulation of its target proteins is of importance from both a basic science and a clinical-translational perspective. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the physiological and pathological significances of both types of O-GlcNAcylations found in the nervous system. PMID:26278182

  20. Global increase in O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification promotes osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takahiro; Kamemura, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    The balance between bone formation and bone resorption is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and an imbalance in this bone metabolism leads to osteoporosis. Here, we found that osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells is promoted by the inactivation of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) and suppressed by the inactivation of O-GlcNAc transferase, as indicated by extracellular matrix calcification. The expression of osteogenic genes such as alp, ocn, and bsp during osteoblast differentiation was positively regulated in a O-GlcNAc glycosylation-dependent manner. Because it was confirmed that Ets1 and Runx2 are the two key transcription factors responsible for the expression of these osteogenic genes, their transcriptional activity might therefore be regulated by O-GlcNAc glycosylation. However, osteoclast differentiation of RAW264 cells, as indicated by the expression and activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, was unaffected by the inactivation of either O-GlcNAcase or O-GlcNAc transferase. Our findings suggest that an approach to manipulate O-GlcNAc glycosylation could be useful for developing the therapeutics for osteoporosis. PMID:26302267

  1. Identification of O-Linked Glycoproteins Binding to the Lectin Helix pomatia Agglutinin as Markers of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Diluka; Ossondo, Marlène; Fry, Simon; Loizidou, Marilena; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Dwek, Miriam V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification shown to be altered in all tumour types studied to date. Mucin glycoproteins have been established as important carriers of O-linked glycans but other glycoproteins exhibiting altered glycosylation repertoires have yet to be identified but offer potential as biomarkers for metastatic cancer. Methodology In this study a glycoproteomic approach was used to identify glycoproteins exhibiting alterations in glycosylation in colorectal cancer and to evaluate the changes in O-linked glycosylation in the context of the p53 and KRAS (codon 12/13) mutation status. Affinity purification with the carbohydrate binding protein from Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) was coupled to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to enable the identification of low abundance O-linked glycoproteins from human colorectal cancer specimens. Results Aberrant O-linked glycosylation was observed to be an early event that occurred irrespective of the p53 and KRAS status and correlating with metastatic colorectal cancer. Affinity purification using the lectin HPA followed by proteomic analysis revealed annexin 4, annexin 5 and CLCA1 to be increased in the metastatic colorectal cancer specimens. The results were validated using a further independent set of specimens and this showed a significant association between the staining score for annexin 4 and HPA and the time to metastasis; independently (annexin A4: Chi square 11.45, P = 0.0007; HPA: Chi square 9.065, P = 0.0026) and in combination (annexin 4 and HPA combined: Chi square 13.47; P = 0.0002). Conclusion Glycoproteins showing changes in O-linked glycosylation in metastatic colorectal cancer have been identified. The glycosylation changes were independent of p53 and KRAS status. These proteins offer potential for further exploration as biomarkers and potential targets for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26495974

  2. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... your diabetes treatment plan. Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are High People with high blood sugar may: ... fine. previous continue How Are High Blood Sugar Levels Treated? To treat high blood sugar, it helps ...

  3. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    PubMed

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  4. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    PubMed Central

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  5. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the

  6. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  7. O-linked GlcNAcylation elevated by HPV E6 mediates viral oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-08-16

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents of anogenital cancers and a fraction of head and neck cancers. The mechanisms involved in the progression of HPV neoplasias to cancers remain largely unknown. Here, we report that O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were markedly increased in HPV-caused cervical neoplasms relative to normal cervix, whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) levels were not altered. Transduction of HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) up-regulated OGT mRNA and protein, elevated the level of O-GlcNAc, and promoted cell proliferation while reducing cellular senescence. Conversely, in HPV-18-transformed HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, inhibition of O-GlcNAc with a low concentration of a chemical inhibitor impaired the transformed phenotypes in vitro. We showed that E6 elevated c-MYC via increased protein stability attributable to O-GlcNAcylation on Thr58. Reduction of HPV-mediated cell viability by a high concentration of O-GlcNAc inhibitor was partially rescued by elevated c-MYC. Finally, knockdown of OGT or O-GlcNAc inhibition in HeLa cells or in TC-1 cells, a mouse cell line transformed by HPV16 E6/E7 and activated K-RAS, reduced c-MYC and suppressed tumorigenesis and metastasis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for HPV oncoprotein-mediated transformation. These findings may eventually aid in the development of effective therapeutics for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting aberrant O-GlcNAc. PMID:27482104

  8. The role of protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine in mediating cardiac stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Chatham, John C.; Marchase, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The modification of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) has emerged as a highly dynamic post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating numerous biological processes. Much of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of O-GlcNAc on cellular function has been in the context of its adverse effects in mediating a range of chronic disease processes, including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. However, at the cellular level it has been shown that O-GlcNAc levels are increased in response to stress; augmentation of this response improved cell survival while attenuation decreased cell viability. Thus, it has become apparent that strategies that augment O-GlcNAc levels are pro-survival, whereas those that reduce O-GlcNAc levels decrease cell survival. There is a long history demonstrating the effectiveness of acute glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) treatment and to a lesser extent glutamine in protecting against a range of stresses, including myocardial ischemia. A common feature of these approaches for metabolic cardioprotection is that they both have the potential to stimulate O-GlcNAc synthesis. Consequently, here we examine the links between metabolic cardioprotection with the ischemic cardioprotection associated with acute increases in O-GlcNAc levels. Some of the protective mechanisms associated with activation of O-GlcNAcylation appear to be transcriptionally mediated; however, there is also strong evidence to suggest that transcriptionally independent mechanisms also play a critical role. In this context we discuss the potential link between O-GlcNAcylation and cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis including the role of non-voltage gated, capacitative calcium entry as a potential mechanism contributing to this protection. PMID:19607882

  9. Changes in O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Homeostasis Activate the p53 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz; Madan, Rashna; Chien, Jeremy; Dias, Wagner Barbosa; Slawson, Chad

    2016-09-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification consisting of the addition of a single N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine and threonine residues in proteins by the enzyme O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), whereas the enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification. In cancer, tumor samples present with altered O-GlcNAcylation; however, changes in O-GlcNAcylation are not consistent between tumor types. Interestingly, the tumor suppressor p53 is modified by O-GlcNAc, and most solid tumors contain mutations in p53 leading to the loss of p53 function. Because ovarian cancer has a high frequency of p53 mutation rates, we decided to investigate the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and p53 function in ovarian cancer. We measured a significant decrease in O-GlcNAcylation of tumor tissue in an ovarian tumor microarray. Furthermore, O-GlcNAcylation was increased, and OGA protein and mRNA levels were decreased in ovarian tumor cell lines not expressing the protein p53. Treatment with the OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G (TMG), silencing of OGA, or overexpression of OGA and OGT led to p53 stabilization, increased nuclear localization, and increased protein and mRNA levels of p53 target genes. These data suggest that changes in O-GlcNAc homeostasis activate the p53 pathway. Combination treatment of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin with TMG decreased tumor cell growth and enhanced cell cycle arrest without impairing cytotoxicity. The effects of TMG on tumor cell growth were partially dependent on wild type p53 activation. In conclusion, changes in O-GlcNAc homeostasis activate the wild type p53 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, and OGA inhibition has the potential as an adjuvant treatment for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:27402830

  10. Free sugar profile in cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  11. Structural Identification of O-Linked Oligosaccharides Using Exoglycosidases and MSn Together with UniCarb-DB Fragment Spectra Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Liaqat; Kenny, Diarmuid T.; Hayes, Catherine A.; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of specific exoglycosidases alongside a spectral library of O-linked oligosaccharide collision induced dissociation (CID) MS fragments, UniCarb-DB, provides a pathway to make the elucidation of O-linked oligosaccharides more efficient. Here, we advise an approach of exoglycosidase-digestion of O-linked oligosaccharide mixtures, for structures that do not provide confirmative spectra. The combination of specific exoglycosidase digestion and MS2 matching of the exoglycosidase products with structures from UniCarb-DB, allowed the assignment of unknown structures. This approach was illustrated by treating sialylated core 2 O-linked oligosaccharides, released from the human synovial glycoprotein (lubricin), with a α2–3 specific sialidase. This methodology demonstrated the exclusive 3 linked nature of the sialylation of core 2 oligosaccharides on lubricin. When specific exoglycosidases were not available, MS3 spectral matching using standards was used. This allowed the unusual 4-linked terminal GlcNAc epitope in a porcine stomach to be identified in the GlcNAc1-4Galβ1–3(GlcNAcβ1-6)GalNAcol structure, indicating the antibacterial epitope GlcNAcα1–4. In total, 13 structures were identified using exoglycosidase and MSn, alongside UniCarb-DB fragment spectra comparison. UniCarb-DB could also be used to identify the specificity of unknown exoglycosidases in human saliva. Endogenous salivary exoglycosidase activity on mucin oligosaccharides could be monitored by comparing the generated tandem MS spectra with those present in UniCarb-DB, showing that oral exoglycosidases were dominated by sialidases with a higher activity towards 3-linked sialic acid rather than 6-linked sialic acid. PMID:24957756

  12. The role of O-linked GlcNAc modification on the glucose response of ChREBP

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Noriko; Noguchi, Takahiro; Eguchi, Hironobu; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Uyeda, Kosaku; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} The O-linked GlcNAc modification is crucial for the glucose response. {yields} Mlx is required for nuclear localization and transcription activity of ChREBP. {yields} The presence of Mlx stabilizes ChREBP protein. -- Abstract: The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) functions as a transcription factor in mediating the glucose-activated gene expression of multiple liver enzymes, which are responsible for converting excess carbohydrate to storage fat. ChREBP is translocated into the nucleus in response to high glucose levels, and then up-regulates transcriptional activity. Although this glucose activation of ChREBP is generally observed only in liver cells, overexpression of wild type max-like protein X (Mlx), but not an inactive mutant Mlx, resulted in the exhibition of the ChREBP functions also in a human kidney cell line. Because high glucose conditions induce the glycosylation of cellular proteins, the effect of O-linked GlcNAc modification on ChREBP functions was examined. Treatment with an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor (PUGNAc), which increases the O-linked GlcNAc modification of cellular proteins, caused an increase in the glucose response of ChREBP. In contrast, treatment with a glutamine fructose amidotransferase inhibitor (DON), which decreases O-GlcNAcylation by inhibiting the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, completely blocked the glucose response of ChREBP. These results suggest that the O-linked glycosylation of ChREBP itself or other proteins that regulate ChREBP is essential for the production of functional ChREBP.

  13. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review. PMID:18707886

  14. O-linked oligosaccharides from salivary agglutinin: Helicobacter pylori binding sialyl-Lewis x and Lewis b are terminating moieties on hyperfucosylated oligo-N-acetyllactosamine.

    PubMed

    Issa, Samah; Moran, Anthony P; Ustinov, Sergey N; Lin, Jack Han-Hsing; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2010-08-01

    Salivary agglutinin plays a vital biological role modulating the protective effect in the oral cavity by interacting with a broad range of oral pathogens. Here, we describe the first characterization of the O-linked oligosaccharides of salivary agglutinin identified by negative ion liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dominating structures were neutral or monosialylated core 1 (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) and core 2 (Galbeta1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-6)GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) structures extended by fucosylated oligo-N-acetyllactosamine units. Oligosaccharides detected as [M-H](-) or [M-2H](2)(-) ions ranged from the disaccharide Galbeta1-3GalNAcol up to structures of almost 4000 Da, corresponding to core 1/2 structures with five N-acetyllactosamine units and 11 fucoses. Fucose was found either as terminal or internal blood group H structures in type 1 (Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-R), type 2 (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-R) and type 3 (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) units, where the chains also could be fucosylated on GlcNAc yielding repeated Lewis a/b or Lewis x/y structures. Sialylation was located either at the non-reducing end of the N-acetyllactosamine chains as sialyl-Lewis x or as sialyl-T (NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) type structures with or without further extension of the C-6 branch of GalNAc with neutral fucosylated N-acetyllactosamine chains. The data indicated that sialylation, fucosylation and type 1 N-acetyllactosamine termination are important regulatory elements for controlling the oligosaccharide chain length. Furthermore, it was shown that these regulatory oligosaccharide elements could be utilized by the pathogen Helicobacter pylori to colonize the oral cavity, reside in dental plaque and serve as a reservoir for reinfection after successful clearance of H. pylori gastric infection. PMID:20466654

  15. Simultaneous assay of neutral sugars and amino sugars by an automatic sugar analyzer: applications to glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kellich, G; Ziegler, D

    1975-04-01

    The simultaneous assay of neutral sugars and amino sugars commonly found in glycoproteins is described. The automatic sugar analyzer used for the determination is based on the ion-exchange chromatography of sugar-borate complexes on a strong anion-exchange resin. The sugars are identified with the orcinol/sulfuric acid reagent. While less than 40 nmol of mannose, fucose, galactose, glucose, xylose, or arabinose is sufficient for analysis at least 200 nmol mannosamine, glucosamine, or galactosamine is required; acidic monosaccharides cannot be determined. The technique of sugar analysis is applied to structural studies on natural compounds, e.g. the monosaccharide composition of lichenan and the carbohydrate moiety of the glycoproteins ovomucoid and Collocalia mucoid. PMID:1150155

  16. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Oligosaccharyltransferases Involved in O-Linked Protein Glycosylation▿

    PubMed Central

    Faridmoayer, Amirreza; Fentabil, Messele A.; Mills, Dominic C.; Klassen, John S.; Feldman, Mario F.

    2007-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that occurs in all domains of life. Pilins, the structural components of type IV pili, are O glycosylated in Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we characterized the P. aeruginosa 1244 and N. meningitidis MC58 O glycosylation systems in Escherichia coli. In both cases, sugars are transferred en bloc by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) named PglL in N. meningitidis and PilO in P. aeruginosa. We show that, like PilO, PglL has relaxed glycan specificity. Both OTases are sufficient for glycosylation, but they require translocation of the undecaprenol-pyrophosphate-linked oligosaccharide substrates into the periplasm for activity. Whereas PilO activity is restricted to short oligosaccharides, PglL is able to transfer diverse oligo- and polysaccharides. This functional characterization supports the concept that despite their low sequence similarity, PilO and PglL belong to a new family of “O-OTases” that transfer oligosaccharides from lipid carriers to hydroxylated amino acids in proteins. To date, such activity has not been identified for eukaryotes. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing recombinant O glycoproteins synthesized in E. coli. PMID:17890310

  17. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... John’s A1C and blood sugar numbers are too high. John and his health care team talk about what he can do to get closer to his A1C and blood sugar goals. John decides he will be more active. He ...

  18. Using Math With Maple Sugaring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Suggest several math activities using the simple technique of tapping a sugar maple tree for sap. Information and activities presented are useful in tapping one or two trees on school property, helping students who tap trees at home, or leading a field trip to a nearby maple sugaring site. (ERB)

  19. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  20. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential nutrients that support growth and overall health. Fresh fruits, for example, contain simple carbs but also have ... soda, cookies, cake, candy, frozen desserts, and some fruit drinks) tend to also be ... key to keeping sugar consumption in check is moderation. Added sugar ...

  1. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

  2. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar... situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of...

  3. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    MedlinePlus

    ... an insulin shot continue Signs That Blood Sugar Levels Are Low There are a bunch of symptoms ... start feeling better. How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated? When blood sugar levels are low, the ...

  4. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels are. continue Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels Managing diabetes is like a three-way balancing ... unusually tired. previous continue Treating High Blood Sugar Levels Treating high blood sugar levels involves fixing what ...

  5. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar... situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of...

  6. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar... situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of...

  7. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar... situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of...

  8. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar... situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of...

  9. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of novel 20-O-linked homocamptothecin ester derivatives as potent topoisomerase I inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Di-Zao; Wang, Cun-Ying; Liu, Rui-Hua; Wang, Yan-Ming; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Yu-Rong; Pan, Xian-Dao

    2013-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the antitumor activity of homocamptothecins (hCPTs), a series of novel 20-O-linked hCPT ester derivatives were first designed and synthesized based on a synthetic route, by which hCPTs are acylated with different substituted phenoxyacetic acid ester derivatives. Most of the derivatives were assayed for in vitro cytotoxicity against six human cancer cell lines KB, KB/VCR, A549, HCT-8, Bel7402, and A2780, and most of the assayed compounds exhibited good antiproliferative activity on these tumor cell lines especially on KB. PMID:24215541

  10. 33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: From above the mill showing the three 15' x 22' horizontal rolls, mill frame or cheeks, portland cement foundation, and lower part of vertical drive shaft lying next mill in foreground. The loose metal piece resting on top of the mill frame matched the indented portion of the upper frame to form a bracket and bearing for the drive shaft when it was in its proper upright position. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. 35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Bevel gear at lower end of vertical drive shaft in foreground turned bevel gear of top roll when the vertical drive shaft was in place in the brass-bearing socket in the middle ground of the photograph. The bolts above the top roll and at the side of the two bottom rolls adjusted the pressure and position of the rolls' brass bearings. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  12. 30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1885-1870. View: Masonry-lined passage-way leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away. Bridges over the passageways, no longer in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. 34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Side view of mill. Vertical drive shaft lying on ground in foreground. When drive-shaft was in upright position its bevel gear was meshed with the bevel gear of the top roll, transmitting the animals'circular motion around the drive shaft to the horizontal rolls. The foundation is of portland cement. The heavy timber mill bed, between the mill and the portland cement foundation has rolled away. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  14. 31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: View down at the mill from top of the mill's circular masonry enclosure. Mill animals circling above the mill, on top of the enclosure, dragged booms radiating from the drive shaft to power the mill. The drive-shaft is no longer in its upright positon but is lying next to the mill in the foreground. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  15. 12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Threeroll sugar mill: oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Three-roll sugar mill: one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. Masonry-lined passageway leading to the mill at the center of its circular masonry enclosure. The passageway permitted cane to be carried to the mill and cane trash (bagasse) to be carried away after milling. Bridges over the passageways, not in place, permitted the mill animals to circle and power the mill from above. View shows area prior to substantial overgrowth existing in 1978 views of the area. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  16. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet... State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which... sugarcane processors according to the statute and the regulations in 7 CFR part 1435 and made...

  17. Skin problems in sugar artists.

    PubMed

    Bangha, E; Elsner, P

    1996-11-01

    Sugar artistry is a growing profession amongst bakers and confectioners and an increasingly common hobby in amateur cooks. The main work consists of manual manipulation of sugar which is formed into figures and objects for table and food decoration. The sugar must be warmed up to 50 degrees C in order to be liquid and malleable and so the artists suffer from diverse thermally induced skin problems on their hands. Such changes have not to date been reported in the dermatological literature. In this study we report our experience in 50 Swiss sugar artists who have suffered from skin problems. The study took the form of a questionnaire survey. The response rate was 30 out of 50. Twenty-six reported no chronic skin disorder. Four suffered from a palmar vesicular relapsing type of chronic eczema. The main skin problems on the hands during work with hot sugar were increased sweating, seen in 20 out of 30 (67%), and burning with erythema and blistering, seen in 12 out of 30 (40%). Most participants (83%) were highly irritated by the skin problems during their work, and applied a protective cream before working with sugar, or wore rubber gloves. Topical therapy with a preparation containing 10% aluminium chloride hexahydrate, used once daily for 3 weeks, evaluated in 14 participants, decreased sweating in 10 (71%) and reduced the thermally induced erythema in one (7%). PMID:8977679

  18. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They...

  19. Hsp90 regulates O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase: a novel mechanism of modulation of protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxue; Snead, Connie M; Catravas, John D

    2012-06-15

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is involved in many important cellular processes. Increased O-GlcNAc has been implicated in major diseases, such as diabetes and its complications and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that O-GlcNAc modification occurs in the proteasome and serves to inhibit proteasome function by blocking the ATPase activity in the 19S regulatory cap, explaining, at least in part, the adverse effects of O-GlcNAc modification and suggesting that downregulating O-GlcNAc might be important in the treatment of human diseases. In this study, we report on a novel mechanism to modulate cellular O-GlcNAc modification, namely through heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition. We observed that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat binding site of Hsp90. Inhibition of Hsp90 by its specific inhibitors, radicicol or 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, destabilized OGT in primary endothelial cell cultures and enhanced its degradation by the proteasome. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition downregulated O-GlcNAc protein modifications and attenuated the high glucose-induced increase in O-GlcNAc protein modification, including high glucose-induced increase in endothelial or type 3 isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) O-GlcNAcylation. These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAc modification and that Hsp90 inhibitors might be used to modulate O-GlcNAc modification and reverse its adverse effects in human diseases. PMID:22496241

  20. N- and O-linked glycosylation site profiling of the human basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Piras, Valentina; Liori, Barbara; Pisano, Elisabetta; Iavarone, Federica; Vincenzoni, Federica; Cordaro, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we show that the heterogeneous mixture of glycoforms of the basic salivary proline-rich protein 3M, encoded by PRB3-M locus, is a major component of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva in the first years of life. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of the intact proteoforms before and after N-deglycosylation with Peptide-N-Glycosidase F and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing of peptides obtained after Endoproteinase GluC digestion allowed the structural characterization of the peptide backbone and identification of N- and O-glycosylation sites. The heterogeneous mixture of the proteoforms derives from the combination of 8 different neutral and sialylated glycans O-linked to Threonine 50, and 33 different glycans N-linked to Asparagine residues at positions 66, 87, 108, 129, 150, 171, 192, and 213. PMID:26991339

  1. Negative Ion CID Fragmentation of O-linked Oligosaccharide Aldoses—Charge Induced and Charge Remote Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doohan, Roisin A.; Hayes, Catherine A.; Harhen, Brendan; Karlsson, Niclas Göran

    2011-06-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation was compared between reducing and reduced sulfated, sialylated, and neutral O-linked oligosaccharides. It was found that fragmentation of the [M - H]- ions of aldoses with acidic residues gave unique Z-fragmentation of the reducing end GalNAc containing the acidic C-6 branch, where the entire C-3 branch was lost. This fragmentation pathway, which is not seen in the alditols, showed that the process involved charge remote fragmentation catalyzed by a reducing end acidic anomeric proton. With structures containing sialic acid on both the C-3 and C-6 branch, the [M - H]- ions were dominated by the loss of sialic acid. This fragmentation pathway was also pronounced in the [M - 2H]2- ions revealing both the C-6 Z-fragment plus its complementary C-3 C-fragment in addition to glycosidic and cross ring fragmentation. This generation of the Z/C-fragment pairs from GalNAc showed that the charges were not participating in their generation. Fragmentation of neutral aldoses showed pronounced Z-fragmentation believed to be generated by proton migration from the C-6 branch to the negatively charged GalNAc residue followed by charge remote fragmentation similar to the acidic oligosaccharides. In addition, A-type fragments generated by charge induced fragmentation of neutral oligosaccharides were observed when the charge migrated from C-1 of the GalNAc to the GlcNAc residue followed by rearrangement to accommodate the 0,2A-fragmentation. LC-MS also showed that O-linked aldoses existed as interchangeable α/β pyranose anomers, in addition to a third isomer (25% of the total free aldose) believed to be the furanose form.

  2. O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine modification of mammalian Notch receptors by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase Eogt1

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaidani, Yuta; Ichiyanagi, Naoki; Saito, Chika; Nomura, Tomoko; Ito, Makiko; Nishio, Yosuke; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Koichi; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized A130022J15Rik (Eogt1)-a mouse gene homologous to Drosophila Eogt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect in the Eogt mutant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is conserved through evolution. -- Abstract: O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear protein modification that is common in nearly all eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. We had recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch and Dumpy are O-GlcNAcylated by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, in Drosophila. However, no study has yet shown whether O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular proteins is limited to insects such as Drosophila or whether it occurs in other organisms, including mammals. Here, we report the characterization of A130022J15Rik, a mouse gene homolog of Drosophila Eogt (Eogt 1). Enzymatic analysis revealed that Eogt1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of Drosophila EOGT, wherein the Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines of the folded EGF-like domains is modified. This observation is supported by the fact that the expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect caused by Eogt downregulation. In HEK293T cells, Eogt1 expression promoted modification of Notch1 EGF repeats by O-GlcNAc, which was further modified, at least in part, by galactose to generate a novel O-linked-N-acetyllactosamine structure. These results suggest that Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase and that O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is a fundamental biochemical process conserved through evolution.

  3. Structural and metabolic studies of O-linked fucose-containing proteins of normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that cultured human and rodent cells contain a series of low molecular weight glycosylated amino acids of unusual structure, designated amino acid fucosides. The incorporation of radiolabelled-fucose into one of these components, designated FL4a (glucosylfucosylthreonine), is markedly-reduced in transformed epithelial and fibroblastic cells. The authors have examined fucose-labelled normal and virally-transformed rat fibroblast cell lines for glycoproteins which might be precursors to amino acid fucosides. Using milk alkaline/borohydride treatment (the beta-elimination reaction) to release O-linked oligosaccharides from proteins, they have isolated and partially characterized two low M/sub r/ reaction products (designated DS-ol and TS-ol) released from macromolecular cell material. The identity of one of these components (DS-ol, glucosylfucitol) suggested the existence in these cells of a direct protein precursor to FL4a. They examined fucose-labelled macromolecular cell material for proteins which release DS-ol (DS-proteins.). Using gel filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent autoradiography, they have observed DS-proteins which appear to exhibit a broad molecular weight size range, and are also present in culture medium from normal and transformed cells. The findings suggest that mammalian cells contain DS-proteins and TS-proteins with a novel carbohydrate-peptide linkage wherein L-fucose is O-linked to a polypeptide backbone. Metabolic studies were undertaken to examine both the relationship between DS-protein and FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a and the biochemical basis for the decreased level of FL4a observed in transformed cells.

  4. Concurrent automated sequencing of the glycan and peptide portions of O-linked glycopeptide anions by ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James A; Ko, Byoung Joon; Xu, Hua; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Robotham, Scott A; Shaw, Jared B; Feldman, Mario F; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-10-01

    O-Glycopeptides are often acidic owing to the frequent occurrence of acidic saccharides in the glycan, rendering traditional proteomic workflows that rely on positive mode tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) less effective. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of negative mode ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) MS for the characterization of acidic O-linked glycopeptide anions. This method was evaluated for a series of singly and multiply deprotonated glycopeptides from the model glycoprotein kappa casein, resulting in production of both peptide and glycan product ions that afforded 100% sequence coverage of the peptide and glycan moieties from a single MS/MS event. The most abundant and frequent peptide sequence ions were a/x-type products which, importantly, were found to retain the labile glycan modifications. The glycan-specific ions mainly arose from glycosidic bond cleavages (B, Y, C, and Z ions) in addition to some less common cross-ring cleavages. On the basis of the UVPD fragmentation patterns, an automated database searching strategy (based on the MassMatrix algorithm) was designed that is specific for the analysis of glycopeptide anions by UVPD. This algorithm was used to identify glycopeptides from mixtures of glycosylated and nonglycosylated peptides, sequence both glycan and peptide moieties simultaneously, and pinpoint the correct site(s) of glycosylation. This methodology was applied to uncover novel site-specificity of the O-linked glycosylated OmpA/MotB from the "superbug" A. baumannii to help aid in the elucidation of the functional role that protein glycosylation plays in pathogenesis. PMID:24006841

  5. 2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761899. Threeroll sugar mill, oneton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1899. Three-roll sugar mill, one-ton daily processing capacity. Manufactured by Edwin Maw, Liverpool, England, ca. 1855-1870. View: Top roll and one bottom roll, mill housing or cheeks, and spur pinion gears. The broken projection on the mill beside the bottom roll indicates the location of the cane tray. The cane juice crushed from the cane flowed into the juice tray below the bottom rolls. It then flowed into a wooden gutter and through a short tunnel in the mill's masonry enclosure and on to the boiling house for further processing. The opening at the base of the masency wall (In the photograph) is where the gutter ran from the mill to the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  7. Conformational Dynamics of Dry Lamellar Crystals of Sugar Based Lipids: An Atomistic Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    ManickamAchari, Vijayan; Bryce, Richard A.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2014-01-01

    The rational design of a glycolipid application (e.g. drug delivery) with a tailored property depends on the detailed understanding of its structure and dynamics. Because of the complexity of sugar stereochemistry, we have undertaken a simulation study on the conformational dynamics of a set of synthetic glycosides with different sugar groups and chain design, namely dodecyl β-maltoside, dodecyl β-cellobioside, dodecyl β-isomaltoside and a C12C10 branched β-maltoside under anhydrous conditions. We examined the chain structure in detail, including the chain packing, gauche/trans conformations and chain tilting. In addition, we also investigated the rotational dynamics of the headgroup and alkyl chains. Monoalkylated glycosides possess a small amount of gauche conformers (∼20%) in the hydrophobic region of the lamellar crystal (LC) phase. In contrast, the branched chain glycolipid in the fluid Lα phase has a high gauche population of up to ∼40%. Rotational diffusion analysis reveals that the carbons closest to the headgroup have the highest correlation times. Furthermore, its value depends on sugar type, where the rotational dynamics of an isomaltose was found to be 11–15% and more restrained near the sugar, possibly due to the chain disorder and partial inter-digitation compared to the other monoalkylated lipids. Intriguingly, the present simulation demonstrates the chain from the branched glycolipid bilayer has the ability to enter into the hydrophilic region. This interesting feature of the anhydrous glycolipid bilayer simulation appears to arise from a combination of lipid crowding and the amphoteric nature of the sugar headgroups. PMID:24978205

  8. Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

    Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

  9. Amphitropic liquid crystal phases from polyhydroxy sugar surfactants: Fundamental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Zied, Osama K.; Hashim, Rauzah; Timimi, B. A.

    2015-03-01

    The self-assembly phenomena on a special class of poly-hydroxy sugar surfactant have been studied extensively. This class of material is classified as amphitropic liquid crystals since they exhibit both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties. Hence the potential applications of these non-ionic surfactants are more versatile than those from the conventional lyotropic liquid crystals including those from thermotropic phases, but the latters are yet to be realized. Unfortunately, due to the lack of interest (or even awareness), fundamental studies in thermotropic glycolipids are scanty to support application development, and any tangible progress is often mired by the complexity of the sugar stereochemistry. However, some applications may be pursued from these materials by taking the advantage of the sugar chirality and the tilted structure of the lipid organization which implies ferroelectric behavior. Here, we present our studies on the stereochemical diversity of the sugar units in glycosides that form the thermotropic/lyotropic phases. The structure to property relationship compares different chain designs and other popular polyhydroxy compounds, such as monooleins and alkylpolyglucosides. Different structural properties of these glycosides are discussed with respect to their self-assembly organization and potential applications, such as delivery systems and membrane mimetic study.

  10. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    PubMed

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  11. Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

  12. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    PubMed

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  13. Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159853.html Rising Blood Sugar Hitting More Obese Adults To curb diabetes, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- Among obese American adults, control of blood sugar is worsening, leading to more diabetes and heart ...

  14. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  15. Growing of sugar cane for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, R.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program is reviewed and research into ways of increasing sugar cane yields discussed. Sugar cane varieties are being selected for their ''total sugars'' production. The effects of supplimentary applications of fertilizers and irrigations are being investigated. Time up to several months can be saved because in the growing of sugar cane for alcohol and cellulose it is not necessary to ripen the cane to convert most of the sugars to sucrose. The author feels that growing sugar cane for alcohol has a lot of potential for petroleum importing contries in the tropics. Smaller sugar mills, no longer economic for sugar production, can be economic for alcohol production as the energy requirements are far less.

  16. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  17. Effect of sugars and polyols on water in agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, K; Watase, M; Williams, P A; Phillips, G O

    1991-01-01

    Effects of ribose, glucose, sucrose, ethylene glycol, glycerin, propylene glycol, and sorbitol on water in concentrated agarose gels were studied by differential scanning calorimetry at low temperatures. Changes in the phase transition temperatures of 40% agarose gels, induced by the addition of these chemical reagents, are discussed, together with rheological and thermal data for the same systems at ambient and higher temperatures. Both sugars and polyols are believed to reduce the amount of freezable water and to promote plasticization and molecular mobility of agarose chains in gels, thus shifting the glass transition temperatures to lower temperatures. However, the effects of decreasing freezable water, and the direct effect on the junction zones, produced by sugars seem to be different from the effects produced by polyols. PMID:1746332

  18. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: a sugar code for vertebrate development?

    PubMed

    Poulain, Fabienne E; Yost, H Joseph

    2015-10-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have long been implicated in a wide range of cell-cell signaling and cell-matrix interactions, both in vitro and in vivo in invertebrate models. Although many of the genes that encode HSPG core proteins and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate and modify HSPG sugar chains have not yet been analyzed by genetics in vertebrates, recent studies have shown that HSPGs do indeed mediate a wide range of functions in early vertebrate development, for example during left-right patterning and in cardiovascular and neural development. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the various roles of HSPGs in these systems and explore the concept of an instructive heparan sulfate sugar code for modulating vertebrate development. PMID:26487777

  19. O-Linked N-acetylglucosaminylation of Sp1 interferes with Sp1 activation of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kihong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Ha, Chang Hoon

    Glycolysis, the primary pathway metabolizing glucose for energy production, is connected to the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) which produces UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a GlcNAc donor for O-linked GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAc), as well as for traditional elongated glycosylation. Thus, glycolysis and O-GlcNAc are intimately associated. The present study reports the transcriptional activation of glycolytic genes by the transcription factor Sp1 and the O-GlcNAc-mediated suppression of Sp1-dependent activation of glycolytic genes. O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant Sp1 stimulated the transcription of nine glycolytic genes and cellular production of pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Consistently, this mutant Sp1 increased the protein levels of the two key glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), to a greater extent than wild-type Sp1. Finally, the mutant Sp1 occupied GC-rich elements on PFK and GAPDH promoters more efficiently than wild-type Sp1. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 suppresses Sp1-mediated activation of glycolytic gene transcription. PMID:26499076

  20. Human RNA Polymerase II Promoter Recruitment in Vitro Is Regulated by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brian A; Burlingame, Alma L; Myers, Samuel A

    2016-07-01

    Although the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain was described 20 years ago, the function of this RNA polymerase II (pol II) species is not known. We show here that an O-GlcNAcylated pol II species (pol IIγ) exists on promoters in vitro Inhibition of O-GlcNAc-transferase activity and O-GlcNAcylation prevents pol II entry into the promoter, and O-GlcNAc removal from pol II is an ATP-dependent step during initiation. These data indicate that O-GlcNAc-transferase activity is essential for RNA pol II promoter recruitment and that pol II goes through a cycling of O-GlcNAcylation at the promoter. Mass spectrometry shows that serine residues 2 and 5 of the pol II C-terminal domain are O-GlcNAcylated, suggesting an overlap with the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH)-dependent serine 5 phosphorylation events during initiation and P-TEFb (positive transcriptional elongation factor b) events during elongation. These data provide unexpected and important insights into the role of a previously ill-defined species of RNA polymerase II in regulating transcription. PMID:27129214

  1. The Putative O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase SPINDLY Inhibits Class I TCP Proteolysis to Promote Sensitivity to Cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Evyatar; Livne, Sivan; Kobinson-Katz, Tammy; Tal, Lior; Pri-Tal, Oded; Mosquna, Assaf; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mueller, Bruno; Tarkowski, Petr; Weiss, David

    2016-06-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) is a putative serine and threonine O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT). While SPY has been shown to suppress gibberellin signaling and to promote cytokinin (CK) responses, its catalytic OGT activity was never demonstrated and its effect on protein fate is not known. We previously showed that SPY interacts physically and functionally with TCP14 and TCP15 to promote CK responses. Here, we aimed to identify how SPY regulates TCP14/15 activities and how these TCPs promote CK responses. We show that SPY activity is required for TCP14 stability. Mutation in the putative OGT domain of SPY (spy-3) stimulated TCP14 proteolysis by the 26S proteasome, which was reversed by mutation in CULLIN1 (CUL1), suggesting a role for SKP, CUL1, F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in TCP14 proteolysis. TCP14 proteolysis in spy-3 suppressed all TCP14 misexpression phenotypes, including the enhanced CK responses. The increased CK activity in TCP14/15-overexpressing flowers resulted from increased sensitivity to the hormone and not from higher CK levels. TCP15 overexpression enhanced the response of the CK-induced synthetic promoter pTCS to CK, suggesting that TCP14/15 affect early steps in CK signaling. We propose that posttranslational modification of TCP14/15 by SPY inhibits their proteolysis and that the accumulated proteins promote the activity of the CK phosphorelay cascade in developing Arabidopsis leaves and flowers. PMID:27208284

  2. Improved In-gel Reductive β-Elimination for Comprehensive O-linked and Sulfo-glycomics by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nix, David B.; Kumagai, Tadahiro; Katoh, Toshihiko; Tiemeyer, Michael; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel proteolytic digestion of resolved protein bands has produced high-resolution proteomic analysis of biological samples. Similar approaches, that would allow in-depth analysis of the glycans carried by glycoproteins resolved by SDS-PAGE, require special considerations in order to maximize recovery and sensitivity when using mass spectrometry (MS) as the detection method. A major hurdle to be overcome in achieving high-quality data is the removal of gel-derived contaminants that interfere with MS analysis. The sample workflow presented here is robust, efficient, and eliminates the need for in-line HPLC clean-up prior to MS. Gel pieces containing target proteins are washed in acetonitrile, water, and ethyl acetate to remove contaminants, including polymeric acrylamide fragments. O-linked glycans are released from target proteins by in-gel reductive β-elimination and recovered through robust, simple clean-up procedures. An advantage of this workflow is that it improves sensitivity for detecting and characterizing sulfated glycans. These procedures produce an efficient separation of sulfated permethylated glycans from non-sulfated (sialylated and neutral) permethylated glycans by a rapid phase-partition prior to MS analysis, and thereby enhance glycomic and sulfoglycomic analyses of glycoproteins resolved by SDS-PAGE. PMID:25489664

  3. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  4. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  5. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 or 6 hard candies 1 tablespoon of sugar, plain or dissolved in water 1 tablespoon of honey or syrup Wait about 15 minutes before eating any more. Be careful not to eat too much. This can cause high blood sugar and weight gain. Check your blood sugar again. ...

  6. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  8. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  9. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous solution of inverted...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  13. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  15. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  16. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  17. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  18. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  19. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  20. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  1. Sustainability issues and opportunities in the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum...

  2. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic

  3. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... the health risks associated with sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research ... commissioned a research review by Harvard scientists. (The trade group today is called the Sugar Association.) The ...

  4. Handbook of cane sugar engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, E.

    1986-01-01

    The handbook has included the description of cane sugar manufacture, mills, diffusers, boilers and other factory machinery, calculation methods of capacity for every piece of equipment, and process and manufacturing techniques. This new edition has been revised and information that is either obsolete or of little interest has been deleted or shortened. Additions have been made in chapters dealing with recently developed equipment and a completely new chapter covers automation and data processing. Numerous figures, graphs, drawings, photographs, tables and formulae are provided.

  5. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  6. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  7. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  8. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  9. 15 CFR 2011.203 - Issuance of specialty sugar certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.203 Issuance of specialty sugar certificates. (a) Specialty sugars imported into the United States from specialty sugar source countries may be entered...

  10. Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

  11. Electron density analysis of the effects of sugars on the structure of lipid bilayers at low hydration - a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lenné, T.; Kent, B.; Koster, K.L.; Garvey, C.J.; Bryant, G.

    2012-02-06

    Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the effects of sugars on membranes during dehydration. Previous work has shown that the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of DPPC bilayers are relatively unaffected by the presence of sugars. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of the electron density profiles of DPPC in the presence of sugars at low hydration. The difficulties of determining the correct phasing are discussed. Sugars and other small solutes have been shown to have an important role in improving the tolerance of a range of species to desiccation and freezing. In particular it has been shown that sugars can stabilize membranes in the fluid membrane phase during dehydration, and in the fully dehydrated state. Equivalently, at a particular hydration, the presence of sugars lowers the transition temperature between the fluid and gel phases. There are two competing models for explaining the effects of sugars on membrane phase transition temperatures. One, designated the water replacement hypothesis (WRH) states that sugars hydrogen bond to phospholipid headgroups, thus hindering the fluid-gel phase transition. One version of this model suggests that certain sugars (such as trehalose) achieve the measured effects by inserting between the phospholipid head groups. An alternative model explains the observed effects of sugars in terms of the sugars effect on the hydration repulsion that develops between opposing membranes during dehydration. The hydration repulsion leads to a lateral compressive stress in the bilayer which squeezes adjacent lipids more closely together, resulting in a transition to the gel phase. When sugars are present, their osmotic and volumetric effects reduce the hydration repulsion, reduce the compressive stress in the membranes, and therefore tend to maintain the average lateral separation between lipids. This model is called the hydration forces explanation (HFE). We recently showed that neither mono- nor di

  12. Novel O-linked methylated glycan antigens decorate secreted immunodominant glycoproteins from the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus

    PubMed Central

    Hewitson, James P.; Nguyen, D. Linh; van Diepen, Angela; Smit, Cornelis H.; Koeleman, Carolien A.; McSorley, Henry J.; Murray, Janice; Maizels, Rick M.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2016-01-01

    Glycan molecules from helminth parasites have been associated with diverse biological functions ranging from interactions with neighbouring host cell populations to down-modulation of specific host immunity. Glycoproteins secreted by the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are of particular interest as the excretory–secretory products (termed HES) of this parasite contain both heat-labile and heat-stable components with immunomodulatory effects. We used MALDI-TOF-MS and LC–MS/MS to analyse the repertoire of N- and O-linked glycans released from Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products by PNGase A and F, β-elimination and hydrazinolysis revealing a broad range of structures including novel methylhexose- and methylfucose-containing glycans. Monoclonal antibodies to two immunodominant glycans of H. polygyrus, previously designated Glycans A and B, were found to react by glycan array analysis to a methyl-hexose-rich fraction and to a sulphated LacDiNAc (LDN; GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc) structure, respectively. We also analysed the glycan repertoire of a major glycoprotein in Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products, VAL-2, which contains many glycan structures present in Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products including Glycan A. However, it was found that this set of glycans is not responsible for the heat-stable immunomodulatory properties of Heligmosomoides polygyrus excretory–secretory products, as revealed by the inability of VAL-2 to inhibit allergic lung inflammation. Taken together, these studies reveal that H. polygyrus secretes a diverse range of antigenic glycoconjugates, and provides a framework to explore the biological and immunomodulatory roles they may play within the mammalian host. PMID:26688390

  13. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  14. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  15. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  16. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  17. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  18. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  20. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  1. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

  2. Downregulation of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase by RNA interference decreases MMP9 expression in human esophageal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    QIAO, ZHE; DANG, CHENGXUE; ZHOU, BIN; LI, SHAOMIN; ZHANG, WEI; JIANG, JIANTAO; ZHANG, JIN; MA, YUEFENG; KONG, RANRAN; MA, ZHENCHUAN

    2016-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-linked glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation). O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational carbohydrate modification of diverse nuclear and cytosolic proteins by the addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine. It was recently demonstrated that OGT and the level of O-GlcNAcylation are upregulated in esophageal cancer; however, the physiological consequences of this upregulation remain unknown. The current study reports that OGT knockdown by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) did not affect cell viability; however, cell migration in esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells was significantly reduced. OGT-specific shRNA vectors efficiently decreased the protein and mRNA levels of OGT and the RL2 level (a marker of O-GlcNAcylation levels) in Eca-109 esophageal cancer cells. In addition, colony formation and cell proliferation assays demonstrated that OGT-specific shRNA decreased the proliferation of Eca-109 cells; however, there was no significant statistical difference between OGT-specific shRNA and control shRNA. Notably, transwell assays demonstrated that the migratory ability of Eca-109 cells was significantly suppressed following knockdown of the OGT gene. Correspondingly, western blot analyses demonstrated that OGT knockdown significantly downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in Eca-109 cells. These results suggest that OGT may promote the migration, invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer cells by enhancing the stability or expression of MMP9. PMID:27123109

  3. Precision Drilling Of Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalina, Jaroslav

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the features of the precision drilling of sugar beet, methods of measurements, mathematical relations, procedure and results. The use of a high-speed camera and of a computer with an investigation of the drilling mechanisms enabled to achieve the shortening of the procedure by one half, an accurate assessment of the principles of drilling mechanisms without implication of other influences arising in field tests and the availability of more data for decision making. The result of the experiments was a considerably simpler assessment of the principles of drill mechanisms.

  4. Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Berdon, Jorge; Rodríguez-Peña, Nelly; García Leal, Cristian; Stoner, Kathryn E; Schondube, Jorge E

    2013-02-01

    Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment. PMID:23085289

  5. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  6. Structural analysis of PseH, the Campylobacter jejuni N-acetyltransferase involved in bacterial O-linked glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wan Seok; Nam, Mi Sun; Namgung, Byeol; Yoon, Sung-il

    2015-03-20

    Campylobacter jejuni is a bacterium that uses flagella for motility and causes worldwide acute gastroenteritis in humans. The C. jejuni N-acetyltransferase PseH (cjPseH) is responsible for the third step in flagellin O-linked glycosylation and plays a key role in flagellar formation and motility. cjPseH transfers an acetyl group from an acetyl donor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to the amino group of UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine to produce UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of cjPseH, crystal structures of cjPseH alone and in complex with AcCoA were determined at 1.95 Å resolution. cjPseH folds into a single-domain structure of a central β-sheet decorated by four α-helices with two continuously connected grooves. A deep groove (groove-A) accommodates the AcCoA molecule. Interestingly, the acetyl end of AcCoA points toward an open space in a neighboring shallow groove (groove-S), which is occupied by extra electron density that potentially serves as a pseudosubstrate, suggesting that the groove-S may provide a substrate-binding site. Structure-based comparative analysis suggests that cjPseH utilizes a unique catalytic mechanism of acetylation that has not been observed in other glycosylation-associated acetyltransferases. Thus, our studies on cjPseH will provide valuable information for the design of new antibiotics to treat C. jejuni-induced gastroenteritis. - Highlights: • cjPseH adopts a single-domain structure of a central β-sheet decorated by α-helices. • cjPseH features two continuously connected grooves on the protein surface. • Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) binds into a deep groove of cjPseH in an ‘L’ shape. • The acetyl end of AcCoA points to a wide groove, a potential substrate-binding site.

  7. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  8. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations relative to their FY 2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments are reduced with this...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.603 - Eligible sugar seller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar seller. 1435.603 Section 1435.603... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.603 Eligible sugar seller. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar seller, the sugar seller must...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be...

  15. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is widely grown, however high profitability requires proper land selection and management. This chapter describes the characteristics of sugar beet and reviews its land and soil management, including cultivation techniques, crop rotation, soil tillage, planting and seedbed preparation, di...

  16. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  17. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  18. Natural Product Sugar Biosynthesis and Enzymatic Glycodiversification**

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Melançon, Charles E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2009-01-01

    Many biologically active small molecule natural products produced by microorganisms derive their activities from sugar substituents. Changing the structures of these sugars can have a profound impact on the biological properties of the parent compounds. This realization has inspired attempts to derivatize the sugar moieties of these natural products through exploitation of the sugar biosynthetic machinery. This approach requires an understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of each target sugar and detailed mechanistic knowledge of the key enzymes. Scientists have begun to unravel the biosynthetic logic behind the assembly of many glycosylated natural products, and have found that a core set of enzyme activities is mixed and matched to synthesize the diverse sugar structures observed in nature. Remarkably, many of these sugar biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases also exhibit relaxed substrate specificity. The promiscuity of these enzymes has prompted efforts to modify the sugar structures and/or alter the glycosylation patterns of natural products via metabolic pathway engineering and/or enzymatic glycodiversification. In applied biomedical research, these studies will enable the development of new glycosylation tools and generate novel glycoforms of secondary metabolites with useful biological activity. PMID:19058170

  19. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  20. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

  1. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  2. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  4. Polysaccharides from Sugar - A Range of Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known for many years that bacteria, most notably Leuconostoc spp., can convert sugar into a high-molecular weight glucan known as dextran. While problematic in the sugar industry due to its potential for forming biofilms, viscous slimes and for interfering with massecuite boiling and su...

  5. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  6. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  8. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  9. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. Under the second part of section 13(b)(15) of the Act, the...

  10. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine...

  11. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  12. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  13. Fructose-containing sugars and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recent studies related to sugar consumption and cardiovascular risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. We then examine the scientific basis for competing recommendations for sugar intake. We conclude that although it appears prudent to avoid excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars, levels within the normal range of human consumption are not uniquely related to CVD risk factors with the exception of triglycerides, which may rise when simple sugars exceed 20% of energy per day, particularly in hypercaloric settings. PMID:26178027

  14. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar. PMID:25745238

  15. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  16. 4. View of castiron sugar kettle with mill ruins in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of cast-iron sugar kettle with mill ruins in background, looking S. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  17. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  18. VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UNLOADING STATION THAT WAS ADDED IN 1997. SUGAR BIN AND MILL IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. Crater Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The large crater at the top of this THEMIS visible image has several other craters inside of it. Most noticeable are the craters that form a 'chain' on the southern wall of the large crater. These craters are a wonderful example of secondary impacts. They were formed when large blocks of ejecta from an impact crashed back down onto the surface of Mars. Secondaries often form radial patterns around the impact crater that generated them, allowing researchers to trace them back to their origin.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.3, Longitude 347.5 East (12.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  1. Influence of sugars and hormones on the genes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize endosperms.

    PubMed

    Ren, X D; Liu, H M; Liu, Y H; Hu, Y F; Zhang, J J; Huang, Y B

    2015-01-01

    Starch is the major storage product in the endosperm of cereals. Its synthesis is closely related to sucrose metabolism. In our previous study, we found that the expression of most of the genes involved in starch synthesis might be regulated by sugars and hormones in the maize endosperm. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism. Thus, in this study, maize endosperms were treated with different sugars and hormones and the expression of genes involved in sucrose metabolism (including synthesis, degradation, and transport) were evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We found that genes affected by different sugars and hormones were primarily regulated by abscisic acid. Sucrose and abscisic acid showed an additive effect on the expression of some genes. Differences in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis were observed. PMID:25867309

  2. Structure-function relationships affecting the insecticidal and miticidal activity of sugar esters.

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Farone, William; Palmer, Tracy; Barrington, Anthony

    2003-06-01

    Synthetic sugar esters are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds that are produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids. The objective of this research was to determine how systematic alterations in sugar or fatty acid components of sugar ester compounds influenced their insecticidal properties. Sucrose octanoate, sorbitol octanoate, sorbitol decanoate, sorbitol caproate, xylitol octanoate, xylitol decanoate and xylitol dodecanoate were synthesized and evaluated against a range of arthropod pests. Dosage-mortality studies were conducted on pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster) on pear, tobacco aphid (Myzus nicotianae) Blackman and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta [Johannson]) on tobacco, and twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on apple in laboratory bioassays. These sugar esters were compared with insecticidal soap (M-Pede, Dow AgroSciences L.L.C., San Diego, CA), to determine how toxicologically similar these materials were against the arthropod pests. Substitutions in either the sugar or fatty acid component led to significant changes in the physical properties and insecticidal activity of these compounds. The sugar esters varied in their solubility in water and in emulsion stability, yet, droplet spread upon pear leaves occurred at low concentrations of 80-160 ppm and was strongly correlated with psylla mortalities (R2 = 0.73). Sequentially altering the sugar or fatty acid components from lower to higher numbers of carbon chains, or whether the sugar was a monosaccharide or disaccharide did not follow a predictable relationship to insecticidal activity. Intuitively, changing the hydrophile from sorbitol (C6) to xylitol (C5) would require a decrease in lipophile chain length to maintain hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) relationships, yet an increase in lipophile chain length was unexpectedly needed for increasing insecticidal activity. Thus, the HLB of these materials did not correlate with pear psylla mortalities. Initial insect

  3. Sugar radicals formed by photo-excitation of guanine cation radical in oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Amitava; Collins, Sean; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents evidence that photo-excitation of guanine cation radical (G•+) in dGpdG and DNA-oligonucleotides: TGT, TGGT, TGGGT, TTGTT, TTGGTT, TTGGTTGGTT, AGA and AGGGA in frozen glassy aqueous solutions at low temperatures leads to hole transfer to the sugar phosphate backbone and results in high yields of deoxyribose radicals. In this series of oligonucleotides we find that, G•+ on photo-excitation, at 143 K leads to the formation of predominantly C5′• and C1′• with small amounts of C3′•. Photo-conversion yields of G•+ to sugar radicals in oligonucleotides decreased as the overall chain length increased. However, for high molecular weight dsDNA (salmon testes) in frozen aqueous solutions substantial conversion of G•+ to C1′• (only) sugar radical is still found (ca. 50%). Within the cohort of sugar radicals formed we find a relative increase in the formation of C1′• with length of the oligonucleotide along with decreases in C3′• and C5′• For dsDNA in frozen solutions, only the formation of C1′• is found via photo-excitation of G•+ without a significant temperature dependence (77 K to 180 K). Long wavelength visible light (>540 nm) is observed to be about as effective as light under 540 nm for photoconversion of G•+ to sugar radicals for short oligonucleotides but gradually loses effectiveness with chain length. This wavelength dependence is attributed to base-to-base hole transfer for wavelengths >540 nm. Base-to-sugar hole transfer is suggested to dominate under 540 nm. These results may have implications for a number of investigations of hole transfer through DNA in which DNA-holes are subjected to continuous visible illumination. PMID:17547448

  4. Sugar Glues for Broken Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Vimal P.; Mencio, Caitlin P.; Hlady, Vladimir; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycans regulate diverse functions in the CNS by interacting with a number of growth factors, matrix proteins and cell surface molecules. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are two major glycosaminoglycans present in the PGs of CNS. Functionality of these PGs is to a large extent dictated by the fine sulfation patterns present on their GAG chains. In the past 15 years, there has been a significant expansion in our knowledge on the role of HS and CS chains in various neurological processes such as neuronal growth, regeneration, plasticity and pathfinding. However, defining the relationship between distinct sulfation patterns of the GAGs and their functionality has so far been difficult. With the emergence of novel tools for synthesis of defined GAG structures, and techniques for their characterization, we are now in a better position to explore the structure—function relationship of GAGs in the context of their sulfation patterns. In this review, we discuss the importance GAGs on CNS development, injury and disorders with an emphasis on their sulfation patterns. Finally, we outline several GAG based therapeutic strategies to exploit GAG chains for ameliorating various CNS disorders. PMID:25285176

  5. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  6. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  7. Ethanol from sugar crops: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Allen, B.R.; Bose, A.; Kresovich, S.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the hardships resulting from rising oil prices and periodic production shortfalls, many developing countries, especially those with warm humid climates, have explored ethanol production from sugar crops. This critical review offers information on ethanol production for development planners. Two sugar crop-based ethanol systems, raw sugar facility retrofit and conventional juice extraction, are first examined. The agronomy of sugar crops (cane, beet, sorghum) is then described, as are the steps in crop processing (extraction, fermentation, distillation, stillage disposal). The costs of producing ethanol from a typical sugarcane processing plant and from a state-of-the-art molasses processing facility are presented, and the trade-offs between producing ethanol or raw sugar from sugarcane weighed. Finally, the properties of ethanol in automotive fuels are outlined, along with important storage, handling, and safety considerations. Three major problems are cited in ethanol production from sugar crops: adverse environmental effects (10 gallons of waste to 1 gallon of ethanol); the high cost of conventional milling equipment; and the loss of potential revenue from raw sugar sales. A future possibility of producing ethanol from fibrous residues (bagasse) is noted. Included are a 64-item bibliography (1936-1980) and 31 tables.

  8. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or β-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic β-keto ester or β-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as β-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic β-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic β-diketones, β-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  9. Sugars, Alcohols, and Cometary Astrobiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Radio and IR observations have revealed that a rich organic chemistry exists in comets and in a variety of interstellar regions. Among the organic molecules detected are acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitriles. The simplest sugar, glycolaldehyde, has been reported (Hollis et al., ApJ, 2000, 540, L107), as has an amino acid, glycine (Kuan et al., ApJ, 2003, 593, 848; but see Hollis et al., ApJ, 2003, 588, 353). Gas-phase reactions to produce many of these molecules are not well understood, and solid-phase chemistry is thought to make an important contribution. To better understand organic chemistry in cold cosmic environments, we have performed photo- and radiation chemical experiments on icy materials at 10 - 100 K. Gas-phase molecules are frozen in a vacuum chamber, and then exposed to either MeV protons or vacuum-UV photons to mimic cosmic-ray bombardment or cosmic-UV exposure, respectively. Changes in ice composition are followed in situ with IR spectroscopy. In this AGU presentation we will describe our latest results for glycolaldehyde, as well as a few prebiological organics. Solid-state IR spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions will be made for the chemical composition of selected Solar System objects. -- This research is funded through NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and SARA programs, and through the NASA Astrobiology Program under RTOP 344-53-51-01 to M. J. Mumma (NASA GSFC).

  10. The Conversion of Starch and Sugars into Branched C10 and C11 Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew D; Kim, Jin K; Wu, Ruilian; Hoyt, Caroline B; Kimball, David B; Silks, Louis A; Gordon, John C

    2016-09-01

    Oligosaccharides, such as starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, are abundant and easily obtainable bio-derived materials that can potentially be used as precursors for fuels and chemical feedstocks. To access the pertinent molecular building blocks (i.e., 5- or 6-carbon containing sugar units) located within these biopolymers and transform them into useful fuel precursors, oligosaccharide depolymerization followed by chain extension is required. This chain extension can readily be performed via a Garcia-Gonzalez-like approach using β-diketones under mild conditions to provide fuel precursors containing an increased carbon atom content that meets fuel requirements. In a subsequent step, ring opening and hydrodeoxygenation chemistry of these species allows for the preparation of branched alkanes under relatively mild conditions. This approach can be applied to monomeric sugars (glucose and xylose), oligosaccharides (starch), and potentially to hydrolyzed dedicated energy crops to allow the conversion of real biomass into fuel type molecules. PMID:27428812

  11. Effects of Sugar Content and Temperature on Rheology and Microrheology of Israeli Honey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Daphne

    2008-07-01

    The rheological properties of selected Israeli honeys were evaluated using both rheology and microrheology. Most honeys are Newtonian; their viscosity ranges over 3-4 orders of magnitude and the water content is typically between 13-29%. The viscosity of honey is determined by the temperature, the relative amount of water/sugar, and the molecular chain length of sugars present in the honey, which is correlated to the origin of the honey. Effects of temperature and origin of the honey were determined with rheology and compared to microrheology to distinguish any local heterogeneity. Rheological measurements were correlated with the moisture content, as determined by refractometry. After the base-line behavior had been established, sugars were added to floral-origin standard and reduced-calorie honeys, to determine the effect of supplementary sugar on the rheology. This approach may be used to determine whether sugar content of a honey, or similar materials, has been altered; this could be especially valuable for non-homogeneous materials, such as jams with solid particles.

  12. [Analytical evidences of sugar added to wine].

    PubMed

    Dupuy, P

    1978-01-01

    In many countries addition of sugar to the grape must for increasing the alcohol concentration is autorized by regulation. This addition must be supervised by a priori and a posteriori controls. The saccharose from sugar beet contrains 100 mg/kg of betain, which can be determined in wine after purification by ion exchange and gas chromatography of a decomposition product of its butylester. Methyl betaine has been used as internal standard to improve the method. The natural wine contains low quantity of betaine. For this reason it is impossible to detect an addition of sugar lower than that corresponding to 2 degrees alcohol. The other methods (13C content of ethanol, polyosides contained as impurity in sugar) seem to present the same limitation. PMID:754584

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  14. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  15. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  16. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  17. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    PubMed Central

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from “safe under all conditions” to “unsafe at any dose”. Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes. PMID:22025850

  18. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (<2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) collected in 24 hour periods during different seasons in the United Kingdom and PM10 collected from Thailand and Malaysia including haze episodes. Also total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples were collected from Taiwan. Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  19. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  20. A novel approach for chemically deglycosylating O-linked glycoproteins. The deglycosylation of submaxillary and respiratory mucins

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, T.A.; Gupta, R.; Jentoft, N. )

    1992-01-28

    A new approach for removing O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate side chains from glycoproteins is described. Periodate oxidation of the C3 and C4 carbons in peptide-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues generates a dialdehyde product which, under mild alkaline conditions, undergoes a {beta}-elimination which releases carbohydrate and leaves an intact peptide cores. The pH and time dependence, and intermediates of the elimination, have been extensively followed by carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy and amino acid analysis using ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM) as the substrate. The deglycosylation of OSM is complete and provides apomucin in high yield with an amino acid composition identical to the starting material. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic studies and carbohydrates analysis of the deglycosylation intermediates of the human mucin indicate that certain sialic acid containing and N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides have elevated resistance to TFMSA treatment at 0C. By the use of neuraminidase, repeated mild TFMSA treatments, and multiple oxidations and {beta}-eliminations, the human mucin can be nearly completely deglycosylated. It is expected that all mucins and most glycoproteins containing O-glycosidic linkages can be readily and nearly completely deglycosylated using this combined approach.

  1. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  2. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  3. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base...

  4. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  6. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  8. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  9. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.604 - Eligible sugar buyer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar buyer. 1435.604 Section 1435.604... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.604 Eligible sugar buyer. (a) To be considered an eligible sugar buyer, the bioenergy...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a...

  13. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  14. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC), and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  15. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  16. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  17. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... sugar imports as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar marketing allocations relative to their FY 2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined that all sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments are...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  20. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  1. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who...

  2. By-products of the cane sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Paturav, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

  3. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

  4. The sequence of rat leukosialin (W3/13 antigen) reveals a molecule with O-linked glycosylation of one third of its extracellular amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, N; Barclay, A N; Willis, A C; Williams, A F

    1987-01-01

    Leukosialin is one of the major glycoproteins of thymocytes and T lymphocytes and is notable for a very high content of O-linked carbohydrate structures. The full protein sequence for rat leukosialin as translated from cDNA clones is now reported. The molecule contains 371 amino acids with 224 residues outside the cell, one transmembrane sequence and 124 cytoplasmic residues. Data from the peptide sequence and carbohydrate composition suggest that one in three of the extracellular amino acids may be O-glycosylated with no N-linked glycosylation sites. The cDNA sequence contained a CpG rich region in the 3' coding sequence and a large 3' non-coding region which included tandem repeats of the sequence GGAT. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2965006

  5. Silicate complexes of sugars in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph B; Lu, Gang; Singer, Stephanie R; Kolb, Vera M

    2004-08-11

    Certain sugars react readily with basic silicic acid to form soluble 2/1 (sugar/silicic acid) silicate complexes. Failure of monohydroxy compounds to give soluble products under these conditions indicates that the sugar silicates are chelates: five-membered diolato rings. Only furanose forms react. Pyranose sugars are stable under these conditions. Because all glycosides fail to react with silicic acid under these conditions, reaction appears to involve the anomeric position (C1 in aldoses, C2 in ketoses), which has a more acidic hydroxy group. Reaction is completed only when the anomeric hydroxy group is cis to an adjacent hydroxy group. The appropriate furanose form must have sufficient natural abundance and solubility to provide an observable product, as measured by (29)Si and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. These structural and practical constraints rationalize the successful reaction of the monosaccharides ribose, xylose, lyxose, talose, psicose, fructose, sorbose, and tagatose and the disaccharides lactulose, maltulose, and palatinose. Glucose, mannose, galactose, and sucrose, among others, failed to form complexes. This high selectivity for formation of sugar silicates may have ramifications in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:15291565

  6. Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume. PMID:22564941

  8. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS−)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS− choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS− levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice. PMID:23926132

  9. Conversion of cellulosic materials to sugar

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Mitra, Gautam

    1976-08-03

    A process for the production of sugar, mainly glucose, by the enzymatic degradation of cellulosic materials, particularly cellulosic wastes, which comprises hydrolyzing the cellulosic material in the presence of cellulase enzyme to produce a sugar solution and recovering from the hydrolysis products a major proportion of the cellulase enzyme used in the hydrolysis reaction for re-use. At least a portion of the required makeup cellulase enzyme is produced in a two-stage operation wherein, in the first stage, a portion of the output sugar solution is utilized to grow a cellulase-secreting microorganism, and, in the second stage, cellulase enzyme formation is induced in the microorganism-containing culture medium by the addition of an appropriate inducer, such as a cellulosic material. Cellulase enzyme is precipitated from the culture liquid by the addition of an organic solvent material, such as a low molecular weight alkyl ketone or alcohol, and the cellulase precipitate is then fed to the hydrolysis reaction.

  10. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  11. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  12. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  13. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  14. Fuels and chemicals from hemicellulose sugars.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Qu, Liang; Xu, Qing; Tsao, George T

    2012-01-01

    Industrial processes of lignocellulosic material have made use of only the hexose component of the cellulose fraction. Pentoses and some minor hexoses present in the hemicellulose fraction, which may represent as much as 40% of lignocellulosic biomass, have in most cases been wasted. The lack of good methods for utilization of hemicellulose sugars is a key obstacle hindering the development of lignocellulose-based ethanol and other biofuels. In this chapter, we focus on the utilization of hemicellulose sugars, the structure of hemicellulose and its hydrolysis, and the biochemistry and process technology involved in their conversion to valuable fuels and chemicals. PMID:22249365

  15. Sugar amino acids in designing new molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Srinivasu, Pothukanuri; Tapadar, Subhasish; Mohan, Bajjuri Krishna

    2005-03-01

    Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. This article describes some of our works on various sugar amino acids and many other related building blocks, like furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. used in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies. PMID:16133829

  16. Functional analysis of anomeric sugar kinases.

    PubMed

    Conway, Louis P; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Anomeric sugar kinases perform fundamental roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Under- or overexpression of these enzymes, or mutations causing functional impairments can give rise to diseases such as galactosaemia and so the study of this class of kinase is of critical importance. In addition, anomeric sugar kinases which are naturally promiscuous, or have been artificially made so, may find application in the synthesis of libraries of drug candidates (for example, antibiotics), and natural or unnatural oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological functions of these enzymes, the tools which have been developed to investigate them, and the current frontiers in their study. PMID:27351442

  17. Extension of microwave-accelerated residue-specific acid cleavage to proteins with carbohydrate side chains and disulfide linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxi; Shefcheck, Kevin; Callahan, John; Fenselau, Catherine

    2008-12-01

    This laboratory has introduced a chemical method for residue-specific protein cleavage and has provided a preliminary assessment of the suitability of microwave-accelerated acid cleavage as a proteomic tool. This report is a continuing assessment of the fate of common protein modifications in microwave-accelerated acid cleavage. We have examined the cleavage of ribonuclease A and the related N-linked glycoprotein ribonuclease B, and the O-linked glycoprotein alpha crystallin A chain, using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI-MS to identify the peptide products. RNase A and B each contains four disulfide bonds, and the addition of a reducing reagent, such as dithiothreitol, was found to be required to achieve efficient acidic proteolysis. The linkage of the glycosidic group to the asparagine side chain in ribonuclease B was found not to be cleaved by brief microwave treatment in 12.5% acetic acid. The distribution of the heterogeneous carbohydrate side chain in the glycopeptide products of acid cleavage was compared to that of the glycopeptide products of tryptic digestion. Hydrolysis within the carbohydrate chain itself is minimal under the conditions used. The O-linked side chain on alpha crystalline A was found to be cleaved during acid cleavage of the protein.

  18. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity. PMID:17617461

  19. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  20. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all...) among the sugarcane processors. CCC determined that it was not necessary to establish farm level... sector was not expected to fill its allotment and therefore, there was no need to limit sugarcane...

  1. 24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugal inner basket, 1879. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879. View: After sugar was granulated and cooled it was dried and drained, completely separating the sugar crystals from the molasses, in the centrifugal. Revolving at 1200 rpm the sugar charge was forced outward with the molasses flying through the holes in the brass lining. Dried sugar was left behind in the inner basket and was dug out by hand. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  2. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  3. Natural variability in acyl moieties of sugar esters produced by certain tobacco and other Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B M; Zaitlin, Dave; Wagner, George J

    2016-10-01

    A unique feature of glandular trichomes of plants in the botanical family Solanaceae is that they produce sugar esters (SE), chemicals that have been shown to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Sugar esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) provide pest resistance, and are important flavor precursors in oriental tobacco cultivars. Acyl moieties of SEs in Nicotiana spp., petunia, and tomato are shown to vary with respect to carbon length and isomer structure (2-12 carbon chain length; anteiso-, iso-, and straight-chain). Sugar esters and their acyl groups could serve as a model to explore the basis of phenotypic diversity and adaptation to natural and agricultural environments. However, information on the diversity of acyl composition among species, cultivars, and accessions is lacking. Herein, described is the analysis of SE acyl groups found in 21 accessions of Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco), six of Nicotiana occidentalis subsp. hesperis, three of Nicotiana alata, two of N. occidentalis, four modern tobacco cultivars, five petunia hybrids, and one accession each of a primitive potato (Solanum berthaultii) and tomato (Solanum pennellii). A total of 20 different acyl groups was observed that were represented differently among cultivars, species, and accessions. In Nicotiana species, acetate and iso- and anteiso-branched acids prevailed. Straight-chain groups (2-8 carbons) were prominent in petunias, while octanoic acid was prominent in N. alata and N. × sanderae. Two unexpected acyl groups, 8-methyl nonanoate and decanoate were found in N. occidentalis subsp. hesperis. Longer chain groups were found in the petunia, tomato, and potato species studied. PMID:27262877

  4. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    PubMed

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16904804

  5. Relations in Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineur, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The criticisms made against chain indexing are reviewed, and PRECIS briefly considered as a possible (but improbable) general substitute for indexing. The failures of chain indexing arise mainly from an overemphasis on generic relationships. The use of symbols to represent relations between terms is suggested for the chain index. (80 references)…

  6. Sugar Beet, Energy Beet, and Industrial Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a temperate root crop grown primarily as a source of sucrose for human diets. Breeding has focused on sucrose yield, which is simply the product of total root yield times the proportion of sucrose in the harvested roots, minus loss of sucrose in molasses due to impuriti...

  7. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who ... test their blood sugar levels before breakfast, before lunch, before dinner, ... join a sports team at school. People who use an insulin pump or who ...

  8. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  9. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  10. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  11. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  12. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  13. Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

  14. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  15. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  16. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  17. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  18. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  19. Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

    2005-11-01

    The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

  20. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed. PMID:14653632

  1. Effects of Sugar (Sucrose) on Children's Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of sugar on behavior of 45 preschool and elementary school children. Provided all children with basic breakfast that included drink containing either 50 g of sucrose, a comparably sweet placebo, or very little sucrose. Found some small behavior changes in high-sucrose group. All effects were small in magnitude and not considered…

  2. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed. PMID:17915518

  3. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  4. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  5. Successful application of dextranase in sugar beet factories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextranases are sometimes applied to hydrolyze dextran polysaccharide in sugar manufacture when bacterial deterioration of sugar beet has occurred. Unfortunately, dextranases only have a small market and low volume sales compared to many other industrial enzymes. Consequently, research and develop...

  6. Analysis of Biomass Sugars Using a Novel HPLC Method

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F. A.; Hames, B. R.; Schell, D.; Chum, H. L.

    2007-01-01

    The precise quantitative analysis of biomass sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the most accurate method of biomass sugar analysis is based on the gas chromatography analysis of derivatized sugars either as alditol acetates or trimethylsilanes. The derivatization method is time consuming but the alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method cannot resolve most sugars found in biomass hydrolysates. We have demonstrated for the first time that by careful manipulation of the HPLC mobile phase, biomass monomeric sugars (arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, mannose, and galactose) can be analyzed quantitatively and there is excellent baseline resolution of all the sugars. This method was demonstrated for standard sugars, pretreated corn stover liquid and solid fractions. Our method can also be used to analyze dimeric sugars (cellobiose and sucrose).

  7. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158834.html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep ... could be deadly. Xylitol, the substance that gives sugar-free gum its sweetness, is dangerous to dogs, ...

  8. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu, or Allergy? Wise Choices Links Cut Added Sugars Choose water, fat-free milk, or unsweetened tea or coffee instead of sodas, sports drinks, energy drinks, and fruit drinks. Reduce sugar in recipes. If a recipe says 1 cup, ...

  9. Sugars as the Source of Energized Carbon for Abiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, A. L.

    2010-04-01

    Reaction of sugars with nitrite under mild conditions yielded ammonia needed for the synthesis of nitrogenous organics for abiogenesis, thereby eliminating the need for a planet-wide source of unstable ammonia for origins processes based on sugars.

  10. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  11. NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHTOFCENTER, OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHT-OF-CENTER, OFFICE AND LABORATORY AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  12. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  13. Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157954.html Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar Study was conducted in Britain, ... fruit drinks and juices give kids a full day's worth of sugar in a single serving, a ...

  14. 2. Skewed view of E elevation of sugar mill looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Skewed view of E elevation of sugar mill looking NW. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  15. [Characteristics of virus double-stranded RNA, isolated from microscopic fungi parasitizing on sugar beet].

    PubMed

    Mel'nychuk, M D; Spyrydonov, V H; Oleksiienko, I P

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out comparative studies of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of viral nature isolated from sugar beet leaves and from mycelium of microscopic fungi using different methods such as PAAG electrophoresis and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was shown that the fragments of dsRNA from sugar beet leaves and from mycelium microscopic fungi had the identical electrophoretic pattern and the same size (1.8 and 2.0 kbp). Using PCR technique it was shown, that isolated dsRNA have a common template for amplification. Electron microscopy of PCR-positive mycelium allows us to detect the virus particles of the spherical form with diameter 30-40 nm. The obtained data confirm our previous suppositions, concerning the belonging of isolated dsRNAs (size 1.8 and 2.0 kbp) to new mycovirus targeted a microscopic fungus, instead of beet cryptic viruses. PMID:16250236

  16. Stepwise ethanolic precipitation of sugar beet pectins from the acidic extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-20

    A stepwise ethanol-precipitation (SEP) procedure was developed for the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from a pectin-containing aqueous extract. Five fractions of different chemical and molecular characteristics were produced by stepwise elevating the alcohol concentration of the precipitation medium from 50% to 80% v/v. Comparison of chemical and macromolecular features between the obtained fractions indirectly suggested that the ability of pectin to solubilize in the ethanol-water binary mixture depended greatly on the polymer structure. Fractions rich in neutral sugars were precipitated at relatively high ethanol concentrations, probably due to the enhanced interactions generated between pectin side chains and solvent molecules. Furthermore, the obtained fractions displayed different surface activities. Results obtained in this work indicate that the SEP procedure is more selective with respect to pectin structural features and surface properties than the one-step ethanolic precipitation. PMID:26572361

  17. Expanding the Nucleotide and Sugar 1-Phosphate Promiscuity of Nucleotidyltransferase RmlA via Directed Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, Rocco; Chang, Aram; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2012-03-15

    Directed evolution is a valuable technique to improve enzyme activity in the absence of a priori structural knowledge, which can be typically enhanced via structure-guided strategies. In this study, a combination of both whole-gene error-prone polymerase chain reaction and site-saturation mutagenesis enabled the rapid identification of mutations that improved RmlA activity toward non-native substrates. These mutations have been shown to improve activities over 10-fold for several targeted substrates, including non-native pyrimidine- and purine-based NTPs as well as non-native d- and l-sugars (both a- and b-isomers). This study highlights the first broadly applicable high throughput sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase screen and the first proof of concept for the directed evolution of this enzyme class toward the identification of uniquely permissive RmlA variants.

  18. Ultrasensitive detection of proteins and sugars at single-cell level

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Satoshi; Morikawa, Mika; Kaneda, Mugiho; Nakaishi, Kazunari; Nakatsuma, Akira; Ninomiya, Masaki; Yoshimura, Teruki; Miura, Toshiaki; Ito, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Each cell produces its own responses even if it appears identical to other cells. To analyze these individual cell characteristics, we need to measure trace amounts of molecules in a single cell. Nucleic acids in a single cell can be easily amplified by polymerase chain reaction, but single-cell measurement of proteins and sugars will require de novo techniques. In the present study, we outline the techniques we have developed toward this end. For proteins, our ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide cycling can detect proteins at subattomoles per assay. For sugars, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy coupled with glucose oxidase-catalyzed reaction allows us to measure glucose at tens of nM. Our methods thus offer versatile techniques for single-cell-level analyses, and they are hoped to strongly promote single-cell biology as well as to develop noninvasive tests in clinical medicine. PMID:27064305

  19. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    PubMed

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. PMID:18957765

  20. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  1. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  2. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Werpy, Todd A; Zacher, Alan H

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  3. Gushing metal chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  4. Factors associated with the acceptance of sugar and sugar substitutes by the public.

    PubMed

    Mackay, D A

    1985-09-01

    Acceptance is described in both market and sensory research terminology and recent developments in the fields of applied psychology and physiology are examined for their pertinence to public acceptance of sucrose and its substitutes. Information on the function of sucrose in foods other than beverages is presented with emphasis on salivation as an acceptance factor and attention is drawn to its possible dental significance. Distinctions are made between the sweetening and bulking properties of sucrose and sugar substitutes. Factors having a bearing on the acceptance of sweet foods and the determination of their optimal sugar content are described in detail. While major decreases in sucrose intake in the US resulted from high-fructose corn-sweetener usage in soft drinks, no evidence is yet available to suggest that the use of sugar substitutes of the intense artificial sweetener type has caused any decrease in ordinary sugar consumption. Neither is the consumption of polyols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol) high enough in confectionery categories to cause any discernible decrease in sugar usage. The evidence suggests not so much that sugar substitutes may have stopped the growth in sucrose usage, but that new product categories such as diet foods and "sugarless' confections may have been created. These categories were never available to fermentable carbohydrate sweeteners and equivalence in acceptance to sucrose-sweetened products was not an important factor in their growth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3902661

  5. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Mc Cutchen, Carol M.; Li; Xu; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  6. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  7. Effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the US sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, crop is produced in North Dakota and Minnesota . The objective of this research was to determine the effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality in the absence of disease. Sugar beet was planted at Prosper, North Dakota in 2005, 2006 and...

  8. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  9. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  10. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  11. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  12. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.401 - CCC sugar inventory disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CCC sugar inventory disposition. 1435.401 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Disposition of CCC Inventory § 1435.401 CCC sugar inventory disposition. (a) CCC will dispose of inventory in the...

  14. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  15. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  16. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  17. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section....

  18. Brief History of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is most likely native to western and southern Asia and is believed to have arrived in Europe via the Mediterranean countries through Egypt. The cultivation of sugar beet as an alternate source of sugar is attributed Andreas Siegmund Marggraf in the 1740s. Subsequent pro...

  19. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  20. Coxsackievirus A24 Variant Uses Sialic Acid-Containing O-Linked Glycoconjugates as Cellular Receptors on Human Ocular Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Nitesh; Inoue, Hirotoshi; Jamshidi, Fariba; Storm, Rickard J.; Oberste, M. Steven; Arnberg, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) is a main causative agent of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), which is a highly contagious eye infection. Previously it has been suggested that CVA24v uses sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates as attachment receptors on corneal cells, but the nature of these receptors is poorly described. Here, we set out to characterize and identify the cellular components serving as receptors for CVA24v. Binding and infection experiments using corneal cells treated with deglycosylating enzymes or metabolic inhibitors of de novo glycosylation suggested that the receptor(s) used by CVA24v are constituted by sialylated O-linked glycans that are linked to one or more cell surface proteins but not to lipids. CVA24v bound better to mouse L929 cells overexpressing human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) than to mock-transfected cells, suggesting that PSGL-1 is a candidate receptor for CVA24v. Finally, binding competition experiments using a library of mono- and oligosaccharides mimicking known PSGL-1 glycans suggested that CVA24v binds to Neu5Acα2,3Gal disaccharides (Neu5Ac is N-acetylneuraminic acid). These results provide further insights into the early steps of the CVA24v life cycle. PMID:21880775

  1. Comparison of analytical methods for profiling N- and O-linked glycans from cultured cell lines : HUPO Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromi; Kaji, Hiroyuki; Togayachi, Akira; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Geyer, Rudolf; Galuska, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Karlsson, Niclas G; Jin, Chunsheng; Kato, Koichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kondo, Sachiko; Kawasaki, Nana; Hashii, Noritaka; Kolarich, Daniel; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Packer, Nicolle H; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Nakano, Miyako; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kurimoto, Ayako; Wada, Yoshinao; Tajiri, Michiko; Yang, Pengyuan; Cao, Weiqian; Li, Hong; Rudd, Pauline M; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    The Human Disease Glycomics/Proteome Initiative (HGPI) is an activity in the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) supported by leading researchers from international institutes and aims at development of disease-related glycomics/glycoproteomics analysis techniques. Since 2004, the initiative has conducted three pilot studies. The first two were N- and O-glycan analyses of purified transferrin and immunoglobulin-G and assessed the most appropriate analytical approach employed at the time. This paper describes the third study, which was conducted to compare different approaches for quantitation of N- and O-linked glycans attached to proteins in crude biological samples. The preliminary analysis on cell pellets resulted in wildly varied glycan profiles, which was probably the consequence of variations in the pre-processing sample preparation methodologies. However, the reproducibility of the data was not improved dramatically in the subsequent analysis on cell lysate fractions prepared in a specified method by one lab. The study demonstrated the difficulty of carrying out a complete analysis of the glycome in crude samples by any single technology and the importance of rigorous optimization of the course of analysis from preprocessing to data interpretation. It suggests that another collaborative study employing the latest technologies in this rapidly evolving field will help to realize the requirements of carrying out the large-scale analysis of glycoproteins in complex cell samples. PMID:26511985

  2. O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Acts as a Glucose Sensor to Epigenetically Regulate the Insulin Gene in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Durning, Sean P; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Prasad, Nripesh; Wells, Lance

    2016-01-29

    The post-translational protein modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a proposed nutrient sensor that has been shown to regulate multiple biological pathways. This dynamic and inducible enzymatic modification to intracellular proteins utilizes the end product of the nutrient sensing hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, UDP-GlcNAc, as its substrate donor. Type II diabetic patients have elevated O-GlcNAc-modified proteins within pancreatic beta cells due to chronic hyperglycemia-induced glucose overload, but a molecular role for O-GlcNAc within beta cells remains unclear. Using directed pharmacological approaches in the mouse insulinoma-6 (Min6) cell line, we demonstrate that elevating nuclear O-GlcNAc increases intracellular insulin levels and preserves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during chronic hyperglycemia. The molecular mechanism for these observed changes appears to be, at least in part, due to elevated O-GlcNAc-dependent increases in Ins1 and Ins2 mRNA levels via elevations in histone H3 transcriptional activation marks. Furthermore, RNA deep sequencing reveals that this mechanism of altered gene transcription is restricted and that the majority of genes regulated by elevated O-GlcNAc levels are similarly regulated by a shift from euglycemic to hyperglycemic conditions. These findings implicate the O-GlcNAc modification as a potential mechanism for hyperglycemic-regulated gene expression in the beta cell. PMID:26598517

  3. O-GlcNAcomic Profiling Identifies Widespread O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine Modification (O-GlcNAcylation) in Oxidative Phosphorylation System Regulating Cardiac Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junfeng; Liu, Ting; Wei, An-Chi; Banerjee, Partha; O'Rourke, Brian; Hart, Gerald W

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic cycling of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on nucleocytoplasmic proteins serves as a nutrient sensor to regulate numerous biological processes. However, mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation and its effects on function are largely unexplored. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the proteome and O-GlcNAcome of cardiac mitochondria from rats acutely (12 h) treated without or with thiamet-G (TMG), a potent and specific inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase. We then determined the functional consequences in mitochondria isolated from the two groups. O-GlcNAcomic profiling finds that over 88 mitochondrial proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, with the oxidative phosphorylation system as a major target. Moreover, in comparison with controls, cardiac mitochondria from TMG-treated rats did not exhibit altered protein abundance but showed overall elevated O-GlcNAcylation of many proteins. However, O-GlcNAc was unexpectedly down-regulated at certain sites of specific proteins. Concomitantly, TMG treatment resulted in significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, ATP production rates, and enhanced threshold for permeability transition pore opening by Ca(2+). Our data reveal widespread and dynamic mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation, serving as a regulator to their function. PMID:26446791

  4. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the histone chaperone HIRA complex and regulates nucleosome assembly and cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-06-01

    The histone chaperone HIRA complex, consisting of histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA), Ubinuclein1 (UBN1), and calcineurin binding protein 1 (CABIN1), deposits histone variant H3.3 to genic regions and regulates gene expression in various cellular processes, including cellular senescence. How HIRA-mediated nucleosome assembly of H3.3-H4 is regulated remains not well understood. Here, we show that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), an enzyme that catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of serine or threonine residues, interacts with UBN1, modifies HIRA, and promotes nucleosome assembly of H3.3. Depletion of OGT or expression of the HIRA S231A O-GlcNAcylation-deficient mutant compromises formation of the HIRA-H3.3 complex and H3.3 nucleosome assembly. Importantly, OGT depletion or expression of the HIRA S231A mutant delays premature cellular senescence in primary human fibroblasts, whereas overexpression of OGT accelerates senescence. Taken together, these results support a model in which OGT modifies HIRA to regulate HIRA-H3.3 complex formation and H3.3 nucleosome assembly and reveal the mechanism by which OGT functions in cellular senescence. PMID:27217568

  5. Modification of RelA by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine links glucose metabolism to NF-κB acetylation and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Allison, David F.; Wamsley, J. Jacob; Kumar, Manish; Li, Duo; Gray, Lisa G.; Hart, Gerald W.; Jones, David R.; Mayo, Marty W.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms linking glucose metabolism with active transcription remain undercharacterized in mammalian cells. Using nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as a glucose-responsive transcription factor, we show that cells use the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) to potentiate gene expression in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or etoposide. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that, upon induction, OGT localizes to NF-κB–regulated promoters to enhance RelA acetylation. Knockdown of OGT abolishes p300-mediated acetylation of RelA on K310, a posttranslational mark required for full NF-κB transcription. Mapping studies reveal T305 as an important residue required for attachment of the O-GlcNAc moiety on RelA. Furthermore, p300 fails to acetylate a full-length RelA(T305A) mutant, linking O-GlcNAc and acetylation events on NF-κB. Reconstitution of RelA null cells with the RelA(T305A) mutant illustrates the importance of this residue for NF-κB–dependent gene expression and cell survival. Our work provides evidence for a unique regulation where attachment of the O-GlcNAc moiety to RelA potentiates p300 acetylation and NF-κB transcription. PMID:23027940

  6. Two O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase genes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. have overlapping functions necessary for gamete and seed development.

    PubMed

    Hartweck, Lynn M; Scott, Cheryl L; Olszewski, Neil E

    2002-07-01

    The Arabidopsis SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY) proteins are similar to animal O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferases (OGTs). OGTs catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-GlcNAc to Ser/Thr residues of proteins. In animals, O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to affect protein activity, stability, and/or localization. SEC protein expressed in Escherichia coli had autocatalytic OGT activity. To determine the function of SEC in plants, two tDNA insertional mutants were identified and analyzed. Although sec mutant plants did not exhibit obvious phenotypes, sec and spy mutations had a synthetic lethal interaction. This lethality was incompletely penetrant in gametes and completely penetrant postfertilization. The rate of both female and male sec spy gamete transmission was higher in plants heterozygous for both mutations than in plants heterozygous for sec and homozygous for spy. Double-mutant embryos aborted at various stages of development and no double-mutant seedlings were obtained. These results indicate that OGT activity is required during gametogenesis and embryogenesis with lethality occurring when parentally derived SEC, SPY, and/or O-GlcNAcylated proteins become limiting. PMID:12136030

  7. The Biosynthesis of Nitrogen-, Sulfur-, and High-carbon Chain-containing Sugars†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-I; McCarty, Reid M.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates serve many structural and functional roles in biology. While the majority of monosaccharides are characterized by the chemical composition: (CH2O)n, modifications including deoxygenation, C-alkylation, amination, O- and N-methylation, which are characteristic of many sugar appendages of secondary metabolites, are not uncommon. Interestingly, some sugar molecules are formed via modifications including amine oxidation, sulfur incorporation, and “high-carbon” chain attachment. Most of these unusual sugars have been identified over the past several decades as components of microbially produced natural products, although a few high-carbon sugars are also found in the lipooligosaccharides of the outer cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. Despite their broad distribution in nature, these sugars are considered “rare” due to their relative scarcity. The biosynthetic steps that underlie their formation continue to perplex researchers to this day and many questions regarding key transformations remain unanswered. This review will focus on our current understanding of the biosynthesis of unusual sugars bearing oxidized amine substituents, thio-functional groups, and high-carbon chains. PMID:23348524

  8. Crater chains on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  9. Cytochrome P450 93G1 Is a Flavone Synthase II That Channels Flavanones to the Biosynthesis of Tricin O-Linked Conjugates in Rice1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Pui Ying; Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chan, Wai Lung; Liu, Hongjia; Lo, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Flavones are a major class of flavonoids with a wide range of physiological functions in plants. They are constitutively accumulated as C-glycosides and O-linked conjugates in vegetative tissues of grasses. It has long been presumed that the two structural modifications of flavones occur through independent metabolic routes. Previously, we reported that cytochrome P450 93G2 (CYP93G2) functions as a flavanone 2-hydroxylase (F2H) that provides 2-hydroxyflavanones for C-glycosylation in rice (Oryza sativa). Flavone C-glycosides are subsequently formed by dehydratase activity on 2-hydroxyflavanone C-glycosides. On the other hand, O-linked modifications were proposed to proceed after the flavone nucleus is generated. In this study, we demonstrate that CYP93G1, the closest homolog of CYP93G2 in rice, is a bona fide flavone synthase II (FNSII) that catalyzes the direct conversion of flavanones to flavones. In recombinant enzyme assays, CYP93G1 desaturated naringenin and eriodictyol to apigenin and luteolin, respectively. Consistently, transgenic expression of CYP93G1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in the accumulation of different flavone O-glycosides, which are not naturally present in cruciferous plants. Metabolite analysis of a rice CYP93G1 insertion mutant further demonstrated the preferential depletion of tricin O-linked flavanolignans and glycosides. By contrast, redirection of metabolic flow to the biosynthesis of flavone C-glycosides was observed. Our findings established that CYP93G1 is a key branch point enzyme channeling flavanones to the biosynthesis of tricin O-linked conjugates in rice. Functional diversification of F2H and FNSII in the cytochrome P450 CYP93G subfamily may represent a lineage-specific event leading to the prevalent cooccurrence of flavone C- and O-linked derivatives in grasses today. PMID:24843076

  10. Sugar-dependent modulation of neuronal development, regeneration, and plasticity by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory M; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) play important roles in the developing and mature nervous system, where they guide axons, maintain stable connections, restrict synaptic plasticity, and prevent axon regeneration following CNS injury. The chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS GAG) chains that decorate CSPGs are essential for their functions. Through these sugar chains, CSPGs are able to bind and regulate the activity of a diverse range of proteins. CSPGs have been found both to promote and inhibit neuronal growth. They can promote neurite outgrowth by binding to various growth factors such as midkine (MK), pleiotrophin (PTN), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neurotrophin family members. CSPGs can also inhibit neuronal growth and limit plasticity by interacting with transmembrane receptors such as protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ), leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, and the Nogo receptors 1 and 3 (NgR1 and NgR3). These CS-protein interactions depend on specific sulfation patterns within the CS GAG chains, and accordingly, particular CS sulfation motifs are upregulated during development, in the mature nervous system, and in response to CNS injury. Thus, spatiotemporal regulation of CS GAG biosynthesis may provide an important mechanism to control the functions of CSPGs and to modulate intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we will discuss these sulfation-dependent processes and highlight how the CS sugars on CSPGs contribute to neuronal growth, axon guidance, and plasticity in the nervous system. PMID:26315937

  11. Sequence Analysis and Domain Motifs in the Porcine Skin Decorin Glycosaminoglycan Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Bo; Solakylidirim, Kemal; Joo, Eun Ji; Toida, Toshihiko; Higashi, Kyohei; Linhardt, Robert J.; Li, Lingyun

    2013-01-01

    Decorin proteoglycan is comprised of a core protein containing a single O-linked dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Although the sequence of the decorin core protein is determined by the gene encoding its structure, the structure of its GAG chain is determined in the Golgi. The recent application of modern MS to bikunin, a far simpler chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, suggests that it has a single or small number of defined sequences. On this basis, a similar approach to sequence the decorin of porcine skin much larger and more structurally complex dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate GAG chain was undertaken. This approach resulted in information on the consistency/variability of its linkage region at the reducing end of the GAG chain, its iduronic acid-rich domain, glucuronic acid-rich domain, and non-reducing end. A general motif for the porcine skin decorin GAG chain was established. A single small decorin GAG chain was sequenced using MS/MS analysis. The data obtained in the study suggest that the decorin GAG chain has a small or a limited number of sequences. PMID:23423381

  12. Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

  13. Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Sugar Transporter Genes is Associated with the Difference in Sugar Accumulation between Grasses and Eudicots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Ma, Baiquan; Owiti, Albert; Korban, Schuyler S.; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Sugars play a variety of roles in plants, and their accumulation in seeds and/or surrounding pericarp tissues is distinctly different between grasses and eudicots. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of genes involved in sugar accumulation in these two major groups of flowering plants. Here, we compared evolutionary rates, gene duplication, and selective patterns of genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport between grasses and eudicots using six grass species and seven eudicot species as materials. Overall, sugar transporter genes exhibit divergent evolutionary patterns, whereas, sugar metabolism genes showing similar evolutionary pattern between monocots and eudicots. Sugar transporter genes have higher frequencies of recent duplication in eudicots than in grasses and their patterns of evolutionary rate are different. Evidence for divergent selection of these two groups of flowering plants is also observed in sugar transporter genes, wherein, these genes have undergone positive selection in eudicots, but not in grasses. Taken together, these findings suggest that sugar transporter genes rather than sugar metabolism genes play important roles in sugar accumulation in plants, and that divergent evolutionary patterns of sugar transporter genes are associated with the difference of sugar accumulation in storage tissues of grasses and eudicots. PMID:27356489

  14. Divergent Evolutionary Pattern of Sugar Transporter Genes is Associated with the Difference in Sugar Accumulation between Grasses and Eudicots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hui; Ma, Baiquan; Owiti, Albert; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Sugars play a variety of roles in plants, and their accumulation in seeds and/or surrounding pericarp tissues is distinctly different between grasses and eudicots. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of genes involved in sugar accumulation in these two major groups of flowering plants. Here, we compared evolutionary rates, gene duplication, and selective patterns of genes involved in sugar metabolism and transport between grasses and eudicots using six grass species and seven eudicot species as materials. Overall, sugar transporter genes exhibit divergent evolutionary patterns, whereas, sugar metabolism genes showing similar evolutionary pattern between monocots and eudicots. Sugar transporter genes have higher frequencies of recent duplication in eudicots than in grasses and their patterns of evolutionary rate are different. Evidence for divergent selection of these two groups of flowering plants is also observed in sugar transporter genes, wherein, these genes have undergone positive selection in eudicots, but not in grasses. Taken together, these findings suggest that sugar transporter genes rather than sugar metabolism genes play important roles in sugar accumulation in plants, and that divergent evolutionary patterns of sugar transporter genes are associated with the difference of sugar accumulation in storage tissues of grasses and eudicots. PMID:27356489

  15. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... to raw sugar imports as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar... sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane states' sugar marketing allotments are... program will not prevent any domestic sugarcane processors from marketing all of their FY 2010...

  16. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... to raw sugar imports as required by law. Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors' sugar... sugarcane processors had surplus allocation. Therefore, all sugarcane States' sugar marketing allotments are... Program will not prevent any domestic sugarcane processors from marketing all of their FY 2010...

  17. Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

  18. 19. RW Meyer Sugar: 18761889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. RW Meyer Sugar: 1876-1889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: Looking toward west end of cooling shed. After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan it cooled and crystallized in large sugar coolers. The humidity and vapors caused by the sorghum pan would have retarded the crystallizing and cooling of the sugar in the boiling house. In 1881 this shed was constructed to house the coolers and the sugar before it was dried in the centrifugals. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  19. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Daie, J.

    1986-04-01

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of /sup 14/C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions.

  20. Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

  1. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of 5-Carbon Sugar Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Frye, John G.; Werpy, Todd A.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    PNNL, in cooperation with the USDOE and CRADA partners, National Corn Growers Association and Archer Daniels Midland, has developed a new class of catalysts based on Nickel and Rhenium with very effective performance for highly selective, high conversion hydrogenolysis of five–carbon sugar alcohols to useful glycols. The Ni-Re catalyst appears to exhibit preferential hydrogenolysis of the carbon-carbon bonds of secondary carbons over primary carbons of the 5-carbon sugar alcohols tested. In addition, the catalyst has demonstrated significant and unique primary C-O bond hydrogenolysis activity in its ability to convert glycerol into 1,2- propylene glycol, which is then stable in the presence of this class of catalysts. The rhenium containing catalysts are found to have higher activity and better selectivity to desired glycols than previously reported catalysts. A continuous flow reactor lifetime test of over 1500 hours also demonstrated the requisite high stability for an industrially attractive process.

  2. Sugar cane. Positive energy source for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Birkett, H.S.; West, M.D.

    1981-06-01

    Sugar cane stands out as a renewable resource for fuel alcohol production, thanks to its unique, highly positive energy balance. It supplies its own processing fuel, bagasse. Net liquid fuel usage is only that consumed on the farm, amounting to a maximum of 0.3 volume per volume of ethanol produced. In some locations, the net liquid fuel consumption of the farm is as low as 0.12 volume/volume produced. This small debit may be offset by generating electric power and by foreseeable processing improvements. In view of the very favorable fuel balance for sugar cane, a decision to employ it as a renewable source of ethanol depends wholly on economic and political factors, which in turn are highly location-dependent.

  3. Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

  4. Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacteria from Sugar Beets

    PubMed Central

    Tallgren, Antti H.; Airaksinen, Ulla; von Weissenberg, Robert; Ojamo, Heikki; Kuusisto, Juhani; Leisola, Matti

    1999-01-01

    Six hundred microorganisms were isolated from sugar beets collected from different parts of Finland to study their slime production. A total of 170 of them produced exopolysaccharides, of which 35% were heteropolysaccharides. The yield of heteropolysaccharides from sucrose was lower than that of dextrans. Five isolates, which were chosen for closer study, were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides (two species), Rahnella aquatilis (two species), and Enterobacter amnigenus. PMID:9925632

  5. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  6. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain. Importantly, though, people eat foods, not isolated fatty acids. Some food sources of SFAs may pose no risk for CHD or possibly even be protective. Advice to reduce saturated fat in the diet without regard to nuances about LDL, SFAs, or dietary sources could actually increase people's risk of CHD. When saturated fats are replaced with refined carbohydrates, and specifically with added sugars (like sucrose or high fructose corn syrup), the end result is not favorable for heart health. Such replacement leads to changes in LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides that may increase the risk of CHD. Additionally, diets high in sugar may induce many other abnormalities associated with elevated CHD risk, including elevated levels of glucose, insulin, and uric acid, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin and leptin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and altered platelet function. A diet high in added sugars has been found to cause a 3-fold increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, but sugars, like saturated fats, are a diverse class of compounds. The monosaccharide, fructose, and fructose-containing sweeteners (e.g., sucrose) produce greater degrees of metabolic abnormalities than does glucose (either isolated as a monomer, or in chains as starch

  7. Stability of dry liposomes in sugar glasses.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W Q; Leopold, A C; Crowe, L M; Crowe, J H

    1996-01-01

    Sugars, particularly trehalose and sucrose, are used to stabilize liposomes during hydration (freeze-drying and air-drying). As a result, dry liposomes are trapped in a sugar glass, a supersaturated and thermodynamically unstable solid solution. We investigated the effects of the glassy state on liposome fusion and solute retention in the dry state. Solute leakage from dry liposomes was extremely slow at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg); however, it increased exponentially as temperature increased to near or above the Tg, indicating that the glassy state had to be maintained for dry liposomes to retain trapped solutes. The leakage of solutes from dry liposomes followed the law of first-order kinetics and was correlated linearly with liposome fusion. The kinetics of solute leakage showed an excellent fit with the Arrhenius equation at temperatures both above and below the Tg, with a transitional break near the Tg. The activation energy of solute leakage was 1320 kJ/mol at temperatures above the Tg, but increased to 1991 kJ/mol at temperatures below the Tg. The stabilization effect of sugar glass on dry liposomes may be associated with the elevated energy barrier for liposome fusion and the physical separation of dry liposomes in the glassy state. The half-life of solute retention in dry liposomes may be prolonged by storing dry liposomes at temperatures below the Tg and by increasing the Tg of the dry liposome preparation. PMID:8785336

  8. Equilibrium surface tension, dynamic surface tension, and micellization properties of lactobionamide-type sugar-based gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Umezawa, Shin; Fujino, Akihiko; Torigoe, Kanjiro; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Esumi, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    A sugar-based gemini surfactant N,N'-dialkyl-N,N'-dilactobionamideethylenediamine (2C(n)Lac, where n represents alkyl chain lengths of 8, 10, 12, and 14) was synthesized by reacting N,N'-dialkylethylenediamine with lactobionic acid. The adsorption properties of 2C(n)Lac were characterized by equilibrium and dynamic surface tension measurements. Their micellization properties were investigated by steady-state fluorescence using pyrene as a probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The dependence of these properties on the alkyl chain length and the number of sugars was determined through a comparison with the corresponding monomeric surfactants C(n)MLA and previously reported sugar-based gemini surfactants containing monosaccharide gluconamide or disaccharide lactobionamide groups with a hexanediamide spacer. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension of 2C(n)Lac are both lower than those of C(n)MLA surfactants. These lower values indicate that the synthesized sugar-based gemini surfactants have excellent micelle-forming ability in solution and high adsorption ability at the air-water interface, which result from strong interactions of the hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyls in lactobionamide groups. When the alkyl chain length of 2C(n)Lac increases to 14, premicellar formation occurs in the solution along with adsorption at the air-water interface at concentrations below the cmc. Furthermore, 2C(n)Lac forms micelles measuring 4 to 12 nm in solution, with no dependence on the alkyl chain length, and their size slightly increases with increasing concentration. PMID:23728326

  9. Chain entanglements. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixman, Marshall

    1988-09-01

    A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.

  10. Beet sugar refining applications: Hydrate freeze separation program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The beet sugar segment is the most energy intensive of the food products industry, consuming some 40 trillion Btu per year of primary fuel (the equivalent of over 13.5 million barrels a year of oil). It takes about 6700 Btu to refine 1 pound of sugar from beets. Changing factory operations to use freeze crystallization as outlined in this report and demonstrated in this program, the energy use in the industry can be reduced by about 40%. A project to accomplish full scale changes in a factory is projected to have a simple payback of just over 3 years. The sugar industry now loses about 15% of the sugar extracted from the beet. This sugar is lost in the molasses, the concentrated impurities that are extracted with sugar from the beet. One proposed use of this process described in this report is to recover a fraction of this sugar that is now lost. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Direct conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars by a microbially-driven Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ramanan; Shin, Hyun Dong; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a microbially-driven Fenton reaction that fragments cellulose and hemicellulose, degrades cellodextrins and xylodextrins, and produces short-chain oligosaccharides and monomeric sugars in a single bioreactor. The lignocellulose degradation system operates at neutral pH and does not require addition of conventional lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, thus avoiding problems associated with enzyme accessibility and specificity. The ability to produce useful bioproducts was demonstrated by production of the bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate with the xylan degradation products as starting substrate. PMID:27469094

  12. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield. PMID:27214164

  13. The effect of sugar-free and sugar chewing gums on plaque deposition

    PubMed Central

    Tangade, Pradeep; Mathur, Anmol; Chaudhary, Shikha; Gupta, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chewing gum is a habit practiced regularly by a relatively high proportion of individuals in many countries including India, and its use has increased within the last decade. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sugar-free and sugar chewing gums on plaque deposition. Materials and Methods: The study is a double blind clinical trial involving 16 healthy volunteers (divided into 2 groups) in a 4-day plaque regrowth model. On day one, subjects received professional prophylaxis, suspended oral hygiene measures, and commenced chewing their allocated product. Gum chewing was one piece chewed for 30 minutes 3 times a day. On day 5, subjects were scored for plaque with the help of Silness and Loe Index. Results: Results show sugar-free group have a lesser mean plaque score of 0.98 as compare to sugar group (1.23), though this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The sugar-free gums can be used as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene measures. PMID:23087737

  14. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    PubMed Central

    Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. “Bingeing”, “withdrawal”, “craving” and cross-sensitization are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity. PMID:17617461

  15. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    PubMed

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar. PMID:27222405

  16. Arabidopsis GUX Proteins Are Glucuronyltransferases Responsible for the Addition of Glucuronic Acid Side Chains onto Xylan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xylan, the second most abundant cell wall polysaccharide, is composed of a linear backbone of β-(1,4)-linked xylosyl residues that are often substituted with sugar side chains, such as glucuronic acid (GlcA) and methylglucuronic acid (MeGlcA). It has recently been shown that muta...

  17. Intrinsic selectivity in some prebiotic reactions of urazole with sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Colloton, Patricia A.

    2004-02-01

    Urazole (1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-dione) (1), 4-methylurazole (12), and its carbon analog, 4,4-dimethylpyrazolidine-3,5-dione (18), react with 2-deoxy-D-ribose (2-deoxy-D-erythro-pentose; 6) in an aqueous solution at room temperature in a regioselective manner (a single substitution on a hydrazidic nitrogen, no reaction on the imide nitrogen) to give a mixture of four nucleosides. These are α and β pyranosides (p) and α and β furanosides (f). The α p forms in a stereoselective manner. A crystalline precipitate is formed in each of the above reactions, which is an exclusive enantiospecific product, 1R, 2R α p. 1 with 2-deoxy-L-ribose (10) gives a precipitate with the exclusive 1S, 2S α p stereochemistry. With 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-deoxy-D-arabino-hexose; 7) the reaction with 1 is stereospecific, since only one isomer, β p, forms in the solution. Causes of enhanced reactivity of 1 with sugars were also studied. It was found that cyclic hydrazide analogs of 1, such as 12 and 18, are reactive, but open-chain analogs, 1,2,-diacetylhydrazine (21) and 1,2-dicarbethoxyhydrazine (22), are not. Although this reactivity assessment was done qualitatively and under restrictive reaction conditions, it still may be valuable for understanding α -effect of hydrazide nucleophiles. The prebiotic significance of our results is discussed.

  18. Evidence for a Functional O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) System in the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermobaculum terrenum.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Adam; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Ferenbach, Andrew T; Lebedev, Andrey A; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2015-12-18

    Post-translational modification of proteins is a ubiquitous mechanism of signal transduction in all kingdoms of life. One such modification is addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues, known as O-GlcNAcylation. This unusual type of glycosylation is thought to be restricted to nucleocytoplasmic proteins of eukaryotes and is mediated by a pair of O-GlcNAc-transferase and O-GlcNAc hydrolase enzymes operating on a large number of substrate proteins. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is responsive to glucose and flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Thus, a close relationship is thought to exist between the level of O-GlcNAc proteins within and the general metabolic state of the cell. Although isolated apparent orthologues of these enzymes are present in bacterial genomes, their biological functions remain largely unexplored. It is possible that understanding the function of these proteins will allow development of reductionist models to uncover the principles of O-GlcNAc signaling. Here, we identify orthologues of both O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in the genome of the thermophilic eubacterium Thermobaculum terrenum. The O-GlcNAcase and O-GlcNAc-transferase are co-expressed and, like their mammalian orthologues, localize to the cytoplasm. The O-GlcNAcase orthologue possesses activity against O-GlcNAc proteins and model substrates. We describe crystal structures of both enzymes, including an O-GlcNAcase·peptide complex, showing conservation of active sites with the human orthologues. Although in vitro activity of the O-GlcNAc-transferase could not be detected, treatment of T. terrenum with an O-GlcNAc-transferase inhibitor led to inhibition of growth. T. terrenum may be the first example of a bacterium possessing a functional O-GlcNAc system. PMID:26491011

  19. O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Transferase and O-GlcNAcase Interact with Mi2β Protein at the Aγ-Globin Promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Costa, Flávia C; Tan, Ee Phie; Bushue, Nathan; DiTacchio, Luciano; Costello, Catherine E; McComb, Mark E; Whelan, Stephen A; Peterson, Kenneth R; Slawson, Chad

    2016-07-22

    One mode of γ-globin gene silencing involves a GATA-1·FOG-1·Mi2β repressor complex that binds to the -566 GATA site relative to the (A)γ-globin gene cap site. However, the mechanism of how this repressor complex is assembled at the -566 GATA site is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) processing enzymes, O-GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), interact with the (A)γ-globin promoter at the -566 GATA repressor site; however, mutation of the GATA site to GAGA significantly reduces OGT and OGA promoter interactions in β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) bone marrow cells. When WT β-YAC bone marrow cells are treated with the OGA inhibitor Thiamet-G, the occupancy of OGT, OGA, and Mi2β at the (A)γ-globin promoter is increased. In addition, OGT and Mi2β recruitment is increased at the (A)γ-globin promoter when γ-globin becomes repressed in postconception day E18 human β-YAC transgenic mouse fetal liver. Furthermore, we show that Mi2β is modified with O-GlcNAc, and both OGT and OGA interact with Mi2β, GATA-1, and FOG-1. Taken together, our data suggest that O-GlcNAcylation is a novel mechanism of γ-globin gene regulation mediated by modulating the assembly of the GATA-1·FOG-1·Mi2β repressor complex at the -566 GATA motif within the promoter. PMID:27231347

  20. Dynamic O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Modification of Proteins Affects Stress Responses and Survival of Mesothelial Cells Exposed to Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O.; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. PMID:24854264

  1. Dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins affects stress responses and survival of mesothelial cells exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph; Kratochwill, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. PMID:24854264

  2. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  3. Quantitative fingerprinting of O-linked glycans released from proteins using isotopic coded labeling with deuterated 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone.

    PubMed

    Sić, Siniša; Maier, Norbert M; Rizzi, Andreas M

    2015-08-21

    Investigation of oligosaccharides attached to proteins as post-translational modification remains an important research field in the area of glycoproteomics as well as in biotechnology. The development of new tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycans has gained high importance in recent years. This is particularly true with O-glycans for which quantitative data are still underrepresented in literature. This fact is probably due to the absence of an enzyme for general release of O-linked saccharides from glycoproteins and due to their low ionization yield in mass spectrometry (MS). In this paper, a method is established aimed at improved qualitative and quantitative analysis of mucin-type O-glycans. A chemical reaction combining release and derivatization of O-glycans in one step is combined here with mass spectrometric quantification. For the purpose of improved quantitative analysis, stable-isotope coded labeling by d0/d5 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolidone (PMP) was performed. The "heavy"-version of this label, penta-deutero (d5)-PMP, was synthesized for this purpose. Beneath improving the reproducibility of quantitation, PMP derivatization contributed to an enhancement of ionization yields in MS. By introducing an internal standard (e.g. GlcNAc3) the reproducibility for quantification can be improved. For higher abundant O-glycans a mean coefficient of variation (CV) less than 6% could be attained, for very low abundant CV values between 15 and 20%. For the determination of O-glycan profiles in mixtures, a HPLC separation was combined with a high resolution Qq-oaTOF instrument. RP-type stationary phases were successful in separating glycan species including some of isomeric ones. This separation step was particularly useful for removing of salts avoiding so the presence of various sodium clusters in the MS spectrum. PMID:26184710

  4. Evidence for a Functional O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) System in the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermobaculum terrenum*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Adam; Gundogdu, Mehmet; Ferenbach, Andrew T.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins is a ubiquitous mechanism of signal transduction in all kingdoms of life. One such modification is addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues, known as O-GlcNAcylation. This unusual type of glycosylation is thought to be restricted to nucleocytoplasmic proteins of eukaryotes and is mediated by a pair of O-GlcNAc-transferase and O-GlcNAc hydrolase enzymes operating on a large number of substrate proteins. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is responsive to glucose and flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Thus, a close relationship is thought to exist between the level of O-GlcNAc proteins within and the general metabolic state of the cell. Although isolated apparent orthologues of these enzymes are present in bacterial genomes, their biological functions remain largely unexplored. It is possible that understanding the function of these proteins will allow development of reductionist models to uncover the principles of O-GlcNAc signaling. Here, we identify orthologues of both O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in the genome of the thermophilic eubacterium Thermobaculum terrenum. The O-GlcNAcase and O-GlcNAc-transferase are co-expressed and, like their mammalian orthologues, localize to the cytoplasm. The O-GlcNAcase orthologue possesses activity against O-GlcNAc proteins and model substrates. We describe crystal structures of both enzymes, including an O-GlcNAcase·peptide complex, showing conservation of active sites with the human orthologues. Although in vitro activity of the O-GlcNAc-transferase could not be detected, treatment of T. terrenum with an O-GlcNAc-transferase inhibitor led to inhibition of growth. T. terrenum may be the first example of a bacterium possessing a functional O-GlcNAc system. PMID:26491011

  5. Phosphorylation of TET Proteins Is Regulated via O-GlcNAcylation by the O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase (OGT)*

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Göbel, Klaus; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Colantuoni, Christian; Wang, Mengxi; Müller, Udo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Rottach, Andrea; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine and thus provide a possible means for active DNA demethylation in mammals. Although their catalytic mechanism is well characterized and the catalytic dioxygenase domain is highly conserved, the function of the regulatory regions (the N terminus and the low-complexity insert between the two parts of the dioxygenase domains) is only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that TET proteins are subject to a variety of post-translational modifications that mostly occur at these regulatory regions. We mapped TET modification sites at amino acid resolution and show for the first time that TET1, TET2, and TET3 are highly phosphorylated. The O-linked GlcNAc transferase, which we identified as a strong interactor with all three TET proteins, catalyzes the addition of a GlcNAc group to serine and threonine residues of TET proteins and thereby decreases both the number of phosphorylation sites and site occupancy. Interestingly, the different TET proteins display unique post-translational modification patterns, and some modifications occur in distinct combinations. In summary, our results provide a novel potential mechanism for TET protein regulation based on a dynamic interplay of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation at the N terminus and the low-complexity insert region. Our data suggest strong cross-talk between the modification sites that could allow rapid adaption of TET protein localization, activity, or targeting due to changing environmental conditions as well as in response to external stimuli. PMID:25568311

  6. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  7. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  8. Location of sugars in multilamellar membranes at low hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Garvey, Christopher J.; Keiderling, Uwe; Koster, Karen L.

    2006-11-01

    Severe dehydration is lethal for most biological species. However, there are a number of organisms which have evolved mechanisms to avoid damage during dehydration. One of these mechanisms is the accumulation of small solutes (e.g. sugars), which have been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. Specifically, sugars reduce the gel to fluid phase transition temperatures of model lipid/water mixtures. However, there is a debate about the precise mechanism, the resolution of which hinges on the location of the sugars. In excess water, it has been observed using contrast variation SANS that the sugar concentration in the excess phase is higher than in the interlamellar region [Demé and Zemb, J. Appl. Crystallog. 33 (2000) 569]. This raises two questions regarding the location of the sugars at low hydrations: first, does the system phase separate to give a sugar/water phase in equilibrium with a lipid/water/sugar lamellar region (with different sugar concentrations); and second, is the sugar in the interlamellar region uniformly distributed, or does it concentrate preferentially either in close proximity to the lipids, or towards the center of the interbilayer region. In this paper we present the preliminary results of measurements using contrast variation SANS to determine the location of sugars in lipid/water mixtures.

  9. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns. PMID:26652250

  10. Porous HMX initiation studies -- Sugar as an inert simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.A.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Alcon, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    For several years the authors have been using magnetic particle velocity gauges to study the shock loading of porous HMX (65 and 73% TMD) of different particle sizes to determine their compaction and initiation characteristics. Because it has been difficult to separate the effects of compaction and reaction, an inert simulant was needed with properties similar to HMX. Sugar was selected as the simulant for several reasons: (1) the particle size distribution of C and H granulated sugar is similar to the coarse HMX the authors have been using (120 {micro}m average size), (2) the particle size of C and H confectioners (powdered) sugar is similar to the fine HMX in the studies (10 {micro}m average size), (3) it is an organic material, and (4) sugar was readily available. Because the densities of HMX and sugar are somewhat different, the authors chose to do the experiments on sugar compacts at 65 and 73% TMD. As expected, no reaction was observed in the sugar experiments. Compaction wave profiles were similar to those measured earlier for the HMX, i.e., the compaction waves in the coarse sugar were quite disperse while those in the fine sugar were much sharper. This indicates that the compaction wave profiles are controlled by particle size and not reaction. Also, the coarse sugar gauge signals exhibited a great deal of noise, thought to the be result of fracto-emission.

  11. Preparation and reactions of sugar azides with alkynes: synthesis of sugar triazoles as antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Biswajit Kumar; Yadav, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Brijesh; Gaikwad, A; Sinha, Sudhir Kumar; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Tripathi, Rama Pati

    2008-05-19

    5-azido-5-deoxy-xylo-, ribo-, and arabinofuranoses were prepared by the reaction of the respective 5-O-(methanesulfonyl) or p-toluenesulfonyl derivatives with NaN3 in DMF. The intermediate 5-azido-5-deoxy glycofuranoses on 1,3-cycloaddition with different alkynes in the presence of CuSO4 and sodium ascorbate gave the corresponding sugar triazoles in very good yields. The synthesized sugar triazoles were evaluated for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, where one of the compounds displayed mild antitubercular activity in vitro with MIC 12.5 microg/mL. PMID:18346719

  12. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives. PMID:20873031

  13. Mutations in p53 change phosphatidylinositol acyl chain composition

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Adam; Bencze, Gyula; Engle, Dannielle; Chio, Iok I. C.; Herzka, Tali; Watrud, Kaitlin; Bencze, Szilvia; Tuveson, David A.; Pappin, Darryl J; Trotman, Lloyd C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) second messengers relay extracellular growth cues through the phosphorylation status of the inositol sugar, a signal transduction system that is deregulated in cancer. In stark contrast to PIP inositol head group phosphorylation, changes in phosphatidylinositol (PI) lipid acyl chains in cancer have remained ill-defined. Here, we apply a mass spectrometry-based method capable of unbiased high-throughput identification and quantification of cellular PI acyl chain composition. Using this approach we find that PI lipid chains represent a cell-specific fingerprint and are unperturbed by serum-mediated signaling in contrast to the inositol head group. We find that mutation of Trp53 results in PIs containing reduced-length fatty acid moieties. Our results suggest that the anchoring tails of lipid second messengers form an additional layer of PIP signaling in cancer that operates independently of PTEN/PI3-Kinase activity, but is instead linked somehow to p53. PMID:25543136

  14. Ribose Sugars Generate Interrnal Glycation Cross-links in Horse Heart Myoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Bokiej, Magdalena; Livermore, Andrew T.; Harris, Andrew W.; Onishi, Anne C.; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Glycation of horse heart metmyoglobin with D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), D-2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (dR5P), and D-ribose with inorganic phosphate at 37 °C generates an altered protein (Myo-X) with increased SDS PAGE mobility. The novel protein product has been observed only for reactions with the protein myoglobin and it is not evident with other common sugars reacted over a one week period. Myo-X is first observed at 1-2 days at 37 °C along with a second form that is consistent in mass with that of myoglobin attached to several sugars. MALDI mass spectrometry and other techniques show no evidence of the cleavage of a peptide from the myoglobin chain. Apomyoglobin in reaction with R5P also exhibited this protein form suggesting its occurrence was not heme-related. While significant amounts of O2− and H2O2 are generated during the R5P glycation reaction, they do not appear to play roles in the formation of the new form. The modification is likely due to an internal cross-link formed during a glycation reaction involving the N-terminus and an internal amine group; most likely the neighboring Lys133. The study shows the unique nature of these common pentose sugars in spontaneous glycation reactions with proteins. PMID:21376016

  15. Ribose sugars generate internal glycation cross-links in horse heart myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Bokiej, Magdalena; Livermore, Andrew T; Harris, Andrew W; Onishi, Anne C; Sandwick, Roger K

    2011-04-01

    Glycation of horse heart metmyoglobin with d-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), d-2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (dR5P), and d-ribose with inorganic phosphate at 37°C generates an altered protein (Myo-X) with increased SDS-PAGE mobility. The novel protein product has been observed only for reactions with the protein myoglobin and it is not evident with other common sugars reacted over a 1 week period. Myo-X is first observed at 1-2 days at 37°C along with a second form that is consistent in mass with that of myoglobin attached to several sugars. MALDI mass spectrometry and other techniques show no evidence of the cleavage of a peptide from the myoglobin chain. Apomyoglobin in reaction with R5P also exhibited this protein form suggesting its occurrence was not heme-related. While significant amounts of O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2) are generated during the R5P glycation reaction, they do not appear to play roles in the formation of the new form. The modification is likely due to an internal cross-link formed during a glycation reaction involving the N-terminus and an internal amine group; most likely the neighboring Lys133. The study shows the unique nature of these common pentose sugars in spontaneous glycation reactions with proteins. PMID:21376016

  16. SUMO chains: polymeric signals.

    PubMed

    Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-02-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are conjugated to a wide variety of target proteins that play roles in all biological processes. Target proteins are conjugated to ubiquitin monomers or to ubiquitin polymers that form via all seven internal lysine residues of ubiquitin. The fate of these target proteins is controlled in a chain architecture-dependent manner. SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) shares the ability of ubiquitin to form chains via internal SUMOylation sites. Interestingly, a SUMO-binding site in Ubc9 is important for SUMO chain synthesis. Similar to ubiquitin-polymer cleavage by USPs (ubiquitin-specific proteases), SUMO chain formation is reversible. SUMO polymers are cleaved by the SUMO proteases SENP6 [SUMO/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3)-specific peptidase 6], SENP7 and Ulp2 (ubiquitin-like protease 2). SUMO chain-binding proteins including ZIP1, SLX5/8 (synthetic lethal of unknown function 5/8), RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) and CENP-E (centromere-associated protein E) have been identified that interact non-covalently with SUMO chains, thereby regulating target proteins that are conjugated to SUMO multimers. SUMO chains play roles in replication, in the turnover of SUMO targets by the proteasome and during mitosis and meiosis. Thus signalling via polymers is an exciting feature of the SUMO family. PMID:20074033

  17. Just a Spoonful of Sugar Will Land You Six Feet Underground: Should the Food and Drug Administration Revoke Added Sugar's GRAS Status?

    PubMed

    Card, Melissa Marie; Abela, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses whether added sugar meets FDA's standard to be generally recognized as safe ("GRAS"). If added sugar is not GRAS, then manufacturers are subject to premarket approval prior to using added sugar in their products. This article advocates that FDA should issue a Federal Register notice determining that added sugar is not GRAS, allowing FDA to regulate the amount of added sugar used in processed foods, decreasing the health adversities that stem from added sugar consumption. PMID:26630822

  18. Sugar-coated signaling in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Strout, Matthew P

    2015-10-15

    In this issue of Blood, complementary studies by Amin et al and Linley et al demonstrate that sugar moieties linked to surface immunoglobulin (sIg) of follicular lymphoma (FL) cells directly interact with endogenous lectins within the lymphoma niche and lead to activation of downstream B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways. In addition to providing further insight into the role of the microenvironment in lymphomagenesis, these findings expose a unique molecular interaction that may represent a viable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26472734

  19. O-linked glycosylation of the mucin domain of the herpes simplex virus type 1-specific glycoprotein gC-1 is temporally regulated in a seed-and-spread manner.

    PubMed

    Nordén, Rickard; Halim, Adnan; Nyström, Kristina; Bennett, Eric P; Mandel, Ulla; Olofsson, Sigvard; Nilsson, Jonas; Larson, Göran

    2015-02-20

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gC-1, participating in viral receptor interactions and immunity interference, harbors a mucin-like domain with multiple clustered O-linked glycans. Using HSV-1-infected diploid human fibroblasts, an authentic target for HSV-1 infection, and a protein immunoaffinity procedure, we enriched fully glycosylated gC-1 and a series of its biosynthetic intermediates. This fraction was subjected to trypsin digestion and a LC-MS/MS glycoproteomics approach. In parallel, we characterized the expression patterns of the 20 isoforms of human GalNAc transferases responsible for initiation of O-linked glycosylation. The gC-1 O-glycosylation was regulated in an orderly manner initiated by synchronous addition of one GalNAc unit each to Thr-87 and Thr-91 and one GalNAc unit to either Thr-99 or Thr-101, forming a core glycopeptide for subsequent additions of in all 11 GalNAc residues to selected Ser and Thr residues of the Thr-76-Lys-107 stretch of the mucin domain. The expression patterns of GalNAc transferases in the infected cells suggested that initial additions of GalNAc were carried out by initiating GalNAc transferases, in particular GalNAc-T2, whereas subsequent GalNAc additions were carried out by followup transferases, in particular GalNAc-T10. Essentially all of the susceptible Ser or Thr residues had to acquire their GalNAc units before any elongation to longer O-linked glycans of the gC-1-associated GalNAc units was permitted. Because the GalNAc occupancy pattern is of relevance for receptor binding of gC-1, the data provide a model to delineate biosynthetic steps of O-linked glycosylation of the gC-1 mucin domain in HSV-1-infected target cells. PMID:25548287

  20. Translocation of reptating chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, S.; Drzewiński, A.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    2011-05-01

    Voltage-driven translocation is modeled with the Rubinstein-Duke rules for hopping reptons in one- and two-dimensional lattices. The chain is driven through the pore by a bias potential promoting the transition of stored length in one direction. Coupling states give a semi-periodicity of the process that enables us to relate the properties to the stationary state of the master equation. The exact solution for short chains and Monte Carlo simulations for longer chains are used to calculate displacements, velocities and the translocation time.

  1. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  2. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study. PMID:26510689

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. PMID:26436847

  4. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols. PMID:26723007

  5. Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, N. M.; Sakeenabi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitutes are even considered to have antimicrobial property against caries producing microbes in oral cavity. Although sweetening agents and sugar substitutes are available in market in various forms, how acceptable are they?, what are the public perceptions regarding their use?, and their use in caries prevention are few areas still very much unclear PMID:24478946

  6. A hexokinase with broad sugar specificity from a thermophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jungdon; Kim, Dooil; Choi, Yongseok; Koh, Sukhoon; Park, Jung Eun; Su Kim, Joong; Moon, Seong Hoon; Park, Bo-Hyun; Park, Miri; Song, Hye-Eun; Hong, Suk-In; Lee, Dae-Sil

    2005-09-01

    A recombinant thermophilic Thermus caldophilus GK24 hexokinase, one of the ROK-type (repressor protein, open reading frames, and sugar kinase) proteins, exists uniquely as a 120 kDa molecule with four subunits (31 kDa), in contrast to eukaryotic and bacterial sugar kinases which are monomers or dimers. The optimal temperature and pH for the enzyme reaction are 70-80 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. This enzyme shows broad specificity toward glucose, mannose, glucosamine, allose, 2-deoxyglucose, and fructose. To understand the sugar specificity at a structural level, the enzyme-ATP/Mg2+-sugar binding complex models have been constructed. It has been shown that the sugar specificity is probably dependent on the interaction energy occurred by the positional proximity of sugars bound in the active site of the enzyme, which exhibits a tolerance to modification at C2 or C3 of glucose. PMID:16053915

  7. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality. PMID:26807950

  8. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on fresh weight and sugar yield of sugar cane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed-piece shoots of four cultivars of sugar cane were transplanted on March 21, 1977 to containers 1.2 m long X 0.6 m wide X 0.6 m deep) in four temperature zones of two temperature-gradient greenhouses at Gainesville, Florida. Each temperature zone had 8 containers. Four containers of each zone ...

  9. Sugar feeding by coccinellids under field conditions: the effects of sugar sprays in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose was applied weekly throughout the growing season at three U.S. locations (SD, MD, and KY), and coccinellids and aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura [Hemiptera: Aphididae]) were sampled 24 h later. Total coccinellid densities were 50-77% greater in sugar-sprayed soybean than in untreated plots. ...

  10. Relationship Between Sugar Structure and Competition for the Sugar Transport System in Bakers' Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Vincent P.

    1968-01-01

    Twenty-five sugars have been compared as inhibitors of l-sorbose or d-xylose transport by the constitutive, monosaccharide transport system in bakers' yeast. d-Glucose showed the highest activity (i.e., apparent Ki = 5 mm). Since all sugars except 2-deoxyglucose showed a decrease in activity relative to glucose (i.e., apparent Ki = 25 − >2,000 mm), an attempt was made to relate the activity of each sugar with the way its structure differs from that of d-glucose. Assuming that the inhibition was the result of sugar-carrier complex formation, the analysis showed that the transport system has a rather broad specificity for pyranoses. Single changes at each of the five carbons of d-glucose (except for the 2-deoxy derivative) result in variable decreases in activity depending upon the carbon number and the alteration. The largest decrease in activity effected by a single change is the methylation or glucosylation of the anomeric hydroxyl. The combination of two or more changes leads to a decrease which is greater than the decrease in activity resulting from the individual changes occurring alone. PMID:5640385

  11. Detection of sugar-lectin interactions by multivalent dendritic sugar functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasu, K. S.; Naresh, K.; Bagul, R. S.; Jayaraman, N.; Sood, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate-protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge-transfer interactions with the SWNTs. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A)-mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 × 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 μM of a non-specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A-mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was characterized further by observing significant shifts in Raman modes of the SWNTs.

  12. 22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Sorghum Pan. Manufactured by John Nott & Co., Honolulu, Hawaii, 1878. View: Historical view, 1934, T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Oahu, Hawaii. View looking toward east end of sorghum pan and interior of east end of the boiling house. Walls and final compartment of the sorghum pan are still intact. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  13. Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adatom chains, precise structures artificially created on an atomically regulated surface, are the smallest possible candidates for future nanoelectronics. Since all the devices are created by combining adatom chains precisely prepared with atomic precision, device characteristics are predictable, and free from deviations due to accidental structural defects. In this atomic dimension, however, an analogy to the current semiconductor devices may not work. For example, Si structures are not always semiconducting. Adatom states do not always localize at the substrate surface when adatoms form chemical bonds to the substrate atoms. Transport properties are often determined for the entire system of the chain and electrodes, and not for chains only. These fundamental issues are discussed, which will be useful for future device considerations.

  14. Factorialsum Number Chains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes several phenomena in which interesting properties of numbers are demonstrated. Includes discussions of amicable, perfect, and sociable numbers. Presents computer programs for conducting a number chain search. (RT)

  15. Respiratory chain supercomplexes.

    PubMed

    Schägger, H

    2001-01-01

    Respiratory chain supercomplexes have been isolated from mammalian and yeast mitochondria, and bacterial membranes. Functional roles of respiratory chain supercomplexes are catalytic enhancement, substrate channelling, and stabilization of complex I by complex III in mammalian cells. Bacterial supercomplexes are characterized by their relatively high detergent-stability compared to yeast or mammalian supercomplexes that are stable to sonication. The mobility of substrate cytochrome c increases in the order bacterial, yeast, and mammalian respiratory chain. In bacterial supercomplexes, the electron transfer between complexes III and IV involves movement of the mobile head of a tightly bound cytochrome c, whereas the yeast S. cerevisiae seems to use substrate channelling of a mobile cytochrome c, and mammalian respiratory chains have been described to use a cytochrome c pool. Dimeric ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondrial OXPHOS systems. Monomeric complex V was found in Acetobacterium woodii and Paracoccus denitrificans. PMID:11798023

  16. 26. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Ironworks, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1879, 1881. View: Historical view, 1934, from T. T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Once the molasses was separated from the sugar crystals it flowed through the spouts in the base of the centrifugals. The centrifugals' pulleys can be seen underneath the centrifugal. The centrifugal on the right has been reinforced with seven metal bands. The handles for the clutch mechanism are located above the centrifugal. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days. PMID:26176574

  18. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  19. 27. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Centrifugals, 1879, 1881. Manufacturer, Unknown. Supplied by Honolulu Ironworks, Honolulu Hawaii, 1879, 1881. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. With the inner basket of the centrifugal revolving at 1200 rpm molasses flew outward from the granulated sugar, through the holes in the brass lining, and into the stationary outer basket. The molasses drained through the spout at the right and into molasses storage pits below the floor. The centrifugals were underdriven with a belt connected to the pulley beneath the basket. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  20. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Drake; Sizemore, Glen M

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "food addiction" is gaining acceptance among the scientific community, and much is known about the influence of various components of food (e.g. high-fat, sugar, carbohydrate, salt) on behavior and physiology. Most of the studies to date have studied these consequences following relatively long-term diet manipulations and/or relatively free access to the food of interest. It is suggested that these types of studies are primarily tapping into the energy regulation and homeostatic processes that govern food intake and consumption. More recently, the overlap between the neurobiology of "reward-related" or hedonic effects of food ingestion and other reinforcers such as drugs of abuse has been highlighted, contributing to the notion that "food addiction" exists and that various components of food may be the substance of abuse. Based on preclinical animal models of drug addiction, a new direction for this field is using self-administration procedures and identifying an addiction-like behavioral phenotype in animals following various environmental, genetic, pharmacological, and neurobiological manipulations. Here we provide examples from this research area, with a focus on fat and sugar self-administration, and how the sophisticated animal models of drug addiction can be used to study the determinants and consequences of food addiction. PMID:21492084

  1. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  2. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  3. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. )

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  4. Ethylene Formation in Sugar Beet Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Elstner, Erich F.; Konze, Jörg R.; Selman, Bruce R.; Stoffer, Claus

    1976-01-01

    Ethylene production by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf discs is inhibited by white (or red, >610 nm) light or by wounding. In contrast, in wounded leaf discs, ethylene production is stimulated by light. The effect of light on wounded leaf discs has been studied by using an in vitro system which mimics the loss of compartmentation in the wounded leaf. Chlorophyll-free extracts from sugar beet leaves stimulate the production of the superoxide free radical ion (as a prerequisite for ethylene formation) by illuminated chloroplast lamellae. The substance from the crude leaf extracts which is active in stimulating the production of the superoxide free radical ion has been identified as 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine). Exogenous dopamine between 5 μm and 100 μm stimulates ethylene formation by illuminated chloroplast lamellae from methional. It also stimulates the production of the superoxide free radical ion, the formation of which apparently involves both a lamellar phenoloxidase and photosynthetic electron transport as a 1-electron donor, and is cyanide-sensitive. PMID:16659639

  5. Light chain nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Bettaieb, Ilhem; Aouadia, Raja; Hedri, Hafedh; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Goucha, Rym; Khedher, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is characterized by the tissue deposition of monotypic immunoglobulin light chains of either kappa or lambda isotype. It is the archetypal systemic disease that is most frequently diagnosed on a kidney biopsy, although the deposits may involve several other organs. This brief review focuses on the clinicopathological features of LCDD-associated nephropathy with an emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties related to this elusive condition. PMID:26022011

  6. Effects of cold acclimation on sugar metabolism and sugar-related gene expression in tea plant during the winter season.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chuan; Cao, Hong-Li; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Yan-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bo; Yang, Ya-Jun; Wang, Xin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Sugar plays an essential role in plant cold acclimation (CA), but the interaction between CA and sugar remains unclear in tea plants. In this study, during the whole winter season, we investigated the variations of sugar contents and the expression of a large number of sugar-related genes in tea leaves. Results indicated that cold tolerance of tea plant was improved with the development of CA during early winter season. At this stage, starch was dramatically degraded, whereas the content of total sugars and several specific sugars including sucrose, glucose and fructose were constantly elevated. Beyond the CA stage, the content of starch was maintained at a low level during winter hardiness (WH) period and then was elevated during de-acclimation (DC) period. Conversely, the content of sugar reached a peak at WH stage followed by a decrease during DC stage. Moreover, gene expression results showed that, during CA period, sugar metabolism-related genes exhibited different expression pattern, in which beta-amylase gene (CsBAM), invertase gene (CsINV5) and raffinose synthase gene (CsRS2) engaged in starch, sucrose and raffinose metabolism respectively were solidly up-regulated; the expressions of sugar transporters were stimulated in general except the down-regulations of CsSWEET2, 3, 16, CsERD6.7 and CsINT2; interestingly, the sugar-signaling related CsHXK3 and CsHXK2 had opposite expression patterns at the early stage of CA. These provided comprehensive insight into the effects of CA on carbohydrates indicating that sugar accumulation contributes to tea plant cold tolerance during winter season, and a simply model of sugar regulation in response to cold stimuli is proposed. PMID:26216393

  7. Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.

    PubMed

    Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

  8. Sugar-Mineral Interactions and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubista, L. M.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2007-12-01

    Sugars may have been necessary for the origin of life, specifically in the initial abiological synthesis of RNA. One possible mechanism sugars could have formed on the primitive Earth is the formose reaction, the base-catalyzed polymerization of HCHO. This reaction provides a plethora of sugar products, none of them in particularly high yield relative to the others. Ribose, and its derivative deoxyribose, are the only sugars used in biological nucleic acids, if the formose reaction or something similar was responsible for the initial synthesis of sugars for biology, there must have been some mechanism by which ribose was selectively concentrated in the environment. It is hypothesized that stereochemistry of sugar molecules and their interaction with surrounding minerals may have provided one such mechanism. A formose solution was synthesized through the polymerization of formaldehyde. A technique was developed for the fluorescent derivitization of these sugars using dansyl-hydrazine. The derivitized sugars were then analyzed using an HPLC with UV-vis and fluorescence detection. To see if mineral-sugar interactions could provide some selectivity during fluid migration, formose mixtures were run through mineral columns (CaCO3 or beach sand (mostly quartz)) and the eluant was analyzed. There did appear to be some mild differences in the migration patterns of the various components. Since formose reactions typically must occur in concentrated solution, whereas the bulk concentration of HCHO in the primitive oceans was likely rather low, the eutectic synthesis of sugars, both in the presence and absence of Al2O3 and CaCO3, was performed to determine whether HCHO can be concentrated and reacted via this mechanism. This research provides a procedure for further study of mineral and sugar interactions.

  9. Efficient extraction method to collect sugar from sweet sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is a domesticated grass containing a sugar-rich juice that can be readily utilized for ethanol production. Most of the sugar is stored inside the cells of the stalk tissue and can be difficult to release, a necessary step before conventional fermentation. While this crop holds much promise as an arid land sugar source for biofuel production, a number of challenges must be overcome. One lies in the inherent labile nature of the sugars in the stalks leading to a short usable storage time. Also, collection of sugars from the sweet sorghum stalks is usually accomplished by mechanical squeezing, but generally does not collect all of the available sugars. Results In this paper, we present two methods that address these challenges for utilization of sweet sorghum for biofuel production. The first method demonstrates a means to store sweet sorghum stalks in the field under semi-arid conditions. The second provides an efficient water extraction method that can collect as much of the available sugar as feasible. Operating parameters investigated include temperature, stalk size, and solid–liquid ratio that impact both the rate of sugar release and the maximal amount recovered with a goal of low water use. The most desirable conditions include 30°C, 0.6 ratio of solid to liquid (w/w), which collects 90 % of the available sugar. Variations in extraction methods did not alter the efficiency of the eventual ethanol fermentation. Conclusions The water extraction method has the potential to be used for sugar extraction from both fresh sweet sorghum stalks and dried ones. When combined with current sugar extraction methods, the overall ethanol production efficiency would increase compared to current field practices. PMID:23305036

  10. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  11. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  12. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  13. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  14. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  15. 15 CFR 2011.205 - Application for a specialty sugar certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application for a specialty sugar... SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.205 Application for a specialty sugar certificate. Applicants for certificates for the import of specialty sugars must apply in writing to the...

  16. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    PubMed

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  17. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-02-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  18. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  19. High production of plant type levan in sugar beet transformed with timothy (Phleum pratense) 6-SFT genes.

    PubMed

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Tamagake, Hideto; Sato, Yutaka; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-12-20

    Levan, a type of fructan, is an oligomer or polymer with mainly a β(2,6)-linked fructose chain attached to sucrose. We introduced two timothy genes, PpFT1 and PpFT2, coding for two homologous sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. Sugar beet produces a high concentration of sucrose, a starting substrate in fructan synthesis, in the root. Among transgenic T1 lines, we obtained sugar beet transformants that accumulated large amounts of β(2,6)-linked levans (about 20 to 75mgg(-1) FW) in the roots. The transformed sugar beet plants possessing PpFT1 or PpFT2 produced linear levans with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Namely, the PpFT1 transformants accumulated mainly high DP levans including those with DP>40, while the PpFT2 transformants accumulated levans with DP between 3 and 40. Chromatograms showed that PpFT2 produces pure β(2,6)-linked linear levans compared with fructans synthesized by PpFT1. These levans belong to the high DP class of plant fructans, but have much shorter DP than that of levans generally produced by microorganisms. PMID:25305472

  20. Layer-by-layer construction of protein architectures through avidin-biotin and lectin-sugar interactions for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigehiro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2012-02-01

    In this review, the preparation and properties of protein architectures constructed by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition through avidin-biotin and concanavalin A (Con A)-sugar interactions are discussed in relation to their use for optical and electrochemical biosensors. LbL films can be constructed through the alternate deposition of avidin and biotin-labeled enzymes on the surfaces of optical probes and electrodes. The enzymes retain their catalytic activity, resulting in the formation of optical and electrochemical biosensors. Alternatively, Con A can be used to construct enzyme-containing LbL films and microcapsules using sugar-labeled enzymes. Some enzymes such as glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be used for this purpose without labeling with sugar, because these enzymes contain intrinsic hydrocarbon chains on their molecular surfaces. The Con A/enzyme LbL architectures were successfully used to develop biosensors sensitive to specific substrates of the enzyme. In addition, Con A-based films can be used for the optical and electrochemical detection of sugars. PMID:21866404

  1. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    PubMed

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  2. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  3. Bioproduction strategies for rare hexose sugars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumori, Ken

    2002-03-01

    A new strategy for the bioproduction of all ketohexoses was developed using hexitols as intermediates. Biocatalysts used to employ the strategy were D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which epimerizes ketohexoses at the C-3 position, and oxidoreductases, which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions between ketohexoses and the corresponding hexitols. Arranging all the ketohexoses and hexitols in a symmetric ring and connecting them with 20 biochemical reactions, I was able to construct a design for the bioproduction of all the rare ketohexoses. Various aldose isomerases transform ketohexoses into the corresponding aldohexoses, so the strategy is useful for the bioproduction of all the rare hexose sugars. Furthermore, the design revealed that there are four routes to the L-hexose world from the D-hexose one.

  4. Sugar and fat: cravings and aversions.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Susan

    2003-03-01

    Food cravings are extremely common, particularly among women. Cravings are frequently reported for specific types of foods, including chocolate and foods high in both sugar and fat. Cravings for specific macronutrients, such as carbohydrate, have been postulated to result from a physiological need to alter neurotransmitters in such states as eating disorders, affective disorders or obesity. However, studies of such cravings are often confounded by differing sensory properties of high and low carbohydrate foods. There is some evidence that sweet, high fat foods are preferred by women with binge-eating disorders and that those preferences are mediated by the endogenous opioid system. Aversion to fat is seen primarily in women with anorexia nervosa. However, it is possible that changes in fat preference may be achieved through behavioral or pharmacological approaches. An understanding of food cravings and aversions may lead to improved methods for the prevention and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. PMID:12612163

  5. Production of ethanol from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, F.W.

    1982-04-20

    An integrated process is provided for producing ethanol from sugar cane. Harvested cane is chopped and shredded to provide a mass of fiber and juice which is digested in a first digester with a hemicellulase enzyme. Fibrous residue is separated by centrifuge and passed to a second digester for digestion with a mixed culture of a cellulase enzyme and an ethanol-producing culture. Fibrous residue from is pressed to provide a recycle juice extract and then burned to provide at least part of the heat energy requirement of the process. Juice extracts from digesters separated by centrifuges are combined, sterilized, flashed and passed to a fermentor for fermentation with an ethanol-producing microorganism. Ethanol is recovered from the process by separation utilizing a membrane.

  6. Optimization of alpha-amylase application in raw sugar manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there may be a penalty for high starch concentration sin raw sugar if starch control is not improved. Most commercial alpha-amylases used by the U.S. sugar industry to control starch have intermediate temperature stability (up to...

  7. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  8. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  9. Effect of NaCl on Germination of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet is a salt tolerant crop, but is most vulnerable to salinity during germination. The goal of this research is to examine the response to salinity on the germination of sugar beet, ultimately to provide germplasm that has an agronomic use in saline soils around the world. Expanding the char...

  10. Genetic Variability Among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Yellows, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), can lead to significant yield losses for sugar beet growers. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range, and symptoms; and, it is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 – 2003, 8...

  11. Long-term Survival of Cryopreserved Sugar Beet Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hecker and coworkers demonstrated that sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.) pollen could be stored in liquid nitrogen vapor phase (-160°C) (LN) for 1 yr and remained viable. In this study we demonstrate that similar pollen, stored for 17 years in LN was able to successfully pollinate sugar beet and prod...

  12. Fusarium Wilt and Yellows of Sugar Beet and Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central High Plains (Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming) is among the largest producer of dry edible beans and sugar beets in the United States. Sugar beet is an important cash crop in northeastern Colorado with approximately 30,000 acres planted and 944,000 tons harvested in 2012. Approximately 250...

  13. Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

  14. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  15. Investigation of copper sorption by sugar beet processing lime waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the western US, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 megagrams/yr) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairies utilizing copper-based hoof baths ...

  16. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  17. Nectar sugar limits larval growth of solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Burkle, Laura; Irwin, Rebecca

    2009-08-01

    The bottom-up effects of plant food quality and quantity can affect the growth, survival, and reproduction of herbivores. The larvae of solitary bee pollinators, consumers of nectar and pollen, are also herbivores. Although pollen quantity and quality are known to be important for larval growth, little is known about how nectar quality limits solitary bee performance. By adding different levels of nectar sugar directly to solitary bee provisions in the subalpine of Colorado, we tested the degree to which larval performance (development time, mass, and survival) was limited by nectar sugar. We found that larval growth increased with nectar sugar addition, with the highest larval mass in the high nectar-sugar addition treatment (50% honey solution). The shortest larval development time was observed in the low nectar-sugar addition treatment (25% honey solution). Neither low nor high nectar-sugar addition affected larval survival. This study suggests that, in addition to pollen, nectar-sugar concentration can limit solitary bee larval growth and development, and nectar should be considered more explicitly as a currency governing foraging decisions related to producing optimally sized offspring. The availability and sugar content of nectar may scale up to affect bee fitness, population dynamics, and plant-pollinator mutualisms. PMID:19689912

  18. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  19. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...

  20. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...

  1. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  2. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  3. Relationship Between Subsoil Nitrogen Availability and Sugar Beet Processing Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to verify the possibility that undetected amounts of available nitrogen in the deep soil could explain the often observed lowering of sugar content and processing quality during the harvest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris). In 29 field trials carried out on al...

  4. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents. PMID:27092497

  5. Protein abundance changes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in different sugar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Niu, Chen; Liu, Bin; Wei, JianPing; Wang, HuXuan; Yuan, YaHong; Yue, TianLi

    2016-09-16

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a yeast which can cause spoilage in the concentrated juice industries. It exhibits resistance to high sugar concentrations but genome- and proteome-wide studies on Z. rouxii in response to high sugar concentrations have been poorly investigated. Herein, by using a 2-D electrophoresis based workflow, the proteome of a wild strain of Z. rouxii under different sugar concentrations has been analyzed. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and subjected to 2-DE analysis in the pH range 4-7. Differences in growth (lag phase), protein content (13.97-19.23mg/g cell dry weight) and number of resolved spots (196-296) were found between sugar concentrations. ANOVA test showed that 168 spots were different, and 47 spots, corresponding to 40 unique gene products have been identified. These protein species are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, protein transport and vesicle organization, cell morphogenesis regulation, transcription and translation, nucleotide metabolism, amino-sugar nucleotide-sugar pathways, oxidoreductases balancing, and ribosome biogenesis. The present study provides important information about how Z. rouxii acts to cope with high sugar concentration at molecular levels, which might enhance our global understanding of Z. rouxii's high sugar-tolerance trait. PMID:27322723

  6. 18. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House Interior, 1878. View: Detail of floor with molasses pits below floor level. The remaining floor boards indicate the structure of the floor covering the entire inside of the boiling house. In the left background the base of the centrifugals are in view. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. 17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boiling House, 1878. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling House, 1878. View: Southwest corner of boiling house. The amimal-powered cane mill is located in the undergrowth in the right foreground, - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  8. Methods of alcohol production available to the cane sugar refiner

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.C.

    1981-11-01

    The three methods of fermenting sugar feedstocks, namely, batch, batch recycle and continuous culture are described. With the current emphasis on fuel alcohol from sugar cane products, new techniques for dealing with the effuent stillage are required. Other areas for improvement include the fermentation process itself and the various distillation methods. New technology in these areas together with the economic considerations involved are reviewed.

  9. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  10. Postharvest Storage Losses Associated with Rhizomania in Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During storage of sugar beet, respiration and rots consume sucrose and produce invert sugar. Diseases that occur in the field can affect the magnitude of these losses. This research examines the storage of roots with rhizomania (caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus) and the effectiveness of rh...

  11. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  12. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...

  13. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...

  14. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  15. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...

  16. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...

  17. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  18. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  19. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses §...

  20. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups,...