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Sample records for oahu island hawaii

  1. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  2. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  3. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  12. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  13. Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, Hawaii on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of Hawaii and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct volcano. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.

    The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties

  14. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point,...

  19. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  20. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  1. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  2. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu,...

  11. STS-65 Earth observation of island wake at Oahu, Hawaii, taken from OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Oahu, Hawaii. The island wake emerging to the lower left side of Oahu is caused by wind currents blowing from the northeast being obstructed by the northwest-southeast trending, cloud covered, Koolau mountain range. The lighter colored water indicates a more smooth surface with a slower water current that the darker, rougher, faster moving water current. Pearl Harbor is visible to the south of the Koolau Range. To the right, or east, of Pearl Harbor is the city of Honolulu. The circular, brown feature to the east of Honolulu is the dormant volcano Diamond Head.

  12. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off...

  13. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  14. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  15. Preliminary geothermal evaluation of the Mokapu Peninsula on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    Preliminary geological, geochemical, and geophysical field surveys have been conducted on Mokapu Peninsula on the island of Oahu in an effort to determine whether sufficient indications of geothermal potential exist within or adjacent to the peninsula to justify further, more detailed, exploratory efforts. An evaluation of existing geologic data as well as recently completed mapping on Mokapu indicate that the peninsula is located on the edge of or immediately adjacent to the inferred caldera of Koolau volcano. Geochemical surveys conducted within and around the Mokapu Peninsula included mercury and radon ground gas surveys as well as a limited evaluation of groundwater chemistry. Groundwater sampling on Mokapu Peninsula was severely restricted due to the absence of wells within the study area and thus water chemistry analyses were limited to the Nuupia fish ponds. Schlumberger resistivity soundings were completed in three locations on the peninsula: KVS1, in the northeast quadrant within the Ulupau crater, KVS2 in the northwest quadrant along the main jet runway, and KVS3 in the southeast along Mokapu Road. KVS1 encountered a relatively high resistivity to a depth of approximately 20 meters below sea level which was underlain by a basement resistivity of about 2 to 3 ohm meters. KVS2 and KVS3 detected similar resistivities of 2 to 3 ohm meters at much shallower depths (approximately equivalent to local sea level) below a thin, moderately resistive layer having an impedance ranging from 15 to 118 ohm meters.

  16. Development of Invertebrate Community Indexes of Stream Quality for the Islands of Maui and Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.

    2012-01-01

    rating. Additionally, quantitative macroinvertebrate samples collected from 31 randomly selected sites on Oʻahu in 2006-07 as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Wadeable Stream Assessment (WSA) were used to refine and develop an ICI of stream quality for Oʻahu. The set of metrics that were included in the revised index were: total invertebrate abundance, Class Insecta relative abundance, the ratio of Trichoptera abundance to nonnative Diptera abundance, turbellarian relative abundance, amphipod relative abundance, nonnative mollusk abundance, and nonnative crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and/or red cherry shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata sinensis) presence or absence. The Oʻahu ICI classified 10 of the 31 sites (32.3 percent) as "good" quality communities, 16 of the sites (51.6 percent) as "fair" quality communities, and 5 of the sites (16.1 percent) as "poor" quality communities. A reanalysis of 18 of the Oʻahu macroinvertebrate sites used to develop the P-HBIBI resulted in the reclassification of 3 samples. The beginning of a statewide ICI was developed on the basis of a combination of metrics from the Maui and Oʻahu ICIs. This combined ICI is intended to help identify broad problem areas so that the Hawaii State Department of Health (HIDOH) can prioritize their efforts on a statewide scale. Once these problem areas are identified, the island-wide ICIs can be used to more accurately assess the quality of individual stream reaches so that the HIDOH can prioritize their efforts on the most impaired streams. By using the combined ICI, 70 percent of the Maui sites and 10 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "good" quality sites; 25 percent of the Maui sites and 45 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "fair" quality sites; and 5 percent of the Maui sites and 45 percent of the Oʻahu WSA sites were designated as "poor" quality sites.

  17. The Denudation Of Oahu, Hawaii USA By Ground And Surface Waters: The Effects Of Climate, Soil Thickness, And Water Contact Times On Ocean Island Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. T.; Tingey, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Access, size, basalt as the dominant bedrock, and climate variation (rainfall varies by 10x) make Oahu, Hawaii, USA an ideal locality for investigating chemical weathering driven denudation rates. New and compiled surface and groundwater solute data permit calculation of mass balances for solutes from Oahu, revealing that groundwater solute fluxes dominate surface water by a factor of 3 to 12, neglecting if biogenic silica removal by streams. Weathering reactions consistent with the observed mineralogy of Oahu soils and the calculated mineralogy of shield-forming tholeiitic basalts permit denudation rates to be partitioned between dissolved and suspended loads where long term erosion via streams and soil formation rates are assumed to be in a steady state. Aerially averaged denudation rates, indexed to the leaching of SiO2, vary from 0.016 to 0.063 m/ka, with about 70% of denudation due to dissolved fluxes. Thus, groundwater appears to be the single most important source of mass flux to the ocean from ocean islands. Dry regions of Oahu have distinctly lower denudation rates, and areas with thick soil profiles have suppressed solute loads in streams because laterites and subjacent saprolites have already been largely depleted in mobile elements. However, systematic differences also exist due to different contact times between groundwater and aquifer materials. The short, shallow circulation of stream base flows permits less extensive reaction with basalt resulting in lower solute loads even in areas where thick soils are largely absent. In addition to larger total water fluxes, deep groundwaters exhibit elevated solute loads across Oahu. Indexing denudation in basaltic terranes to dissolved SiO2, a minor component in seawater, rather than other solutes leads to improved estimates of weathering rates in ocean islands. Other approaches require correction for the atmospheric depositions of sea salts based on Cl- abundances in waters that are assumed to derive solely

  18. NASA Surfs the Skies Above Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Video Gallery

    This flyover of the Hawaiian island of Oahu was made by draping Jan. 13, 2010, image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra ...

  19. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  20. Space Radar Image of Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island, along the bottom of this image. Diamond Head, an extinct volcanic crater, is seen in the lower right. The bright white strip left of Diamond Head is the Waikiki Beach area. Further west are the downtown area and harbor. Runways of the airport can be seen in the lower left. The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. The steep cliffs on the north side of the range are thought to be remnants of massive landslides that ripped apart the volcanic mountains that built the island thousands of years ago. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu peninsula and Kaneohe Bay. Densely vegetated areas appear green in this radar image, while urban areas generally appear orange, red or white. Images such as this can be used by land use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on October 6, 1994.The image is 20.6 kilometers by 31.0kilometers (12.8 miles by 19.2 miles) and is centered at 21.4degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radarfrequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR,a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  1. Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides in Stream Bed Sediment and Fish From Selected Streams on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, Anne M.; Anthony, Stephen S.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were heavily used from the mid-1940s to the mid-1980s. The persistence of organochlorine pesticides, their tendency to accumulate in soil, sediment, and biota, and their harmful effects on wildlife brought this class of compounds into disfavor and eventually resulted in restriction or cancellation of most of them in the United States (Nowell and others, 1999). Despite use restrictions, these compounds continue to be detected in sediment and fish tissue samples. This study was undertaken as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NAWQA program assesses watersheds as integrated systems, focusing on chemical concentrations, physical conditions, and biological status in streams. One component of NAWQA is an occurrence survey of organic contaminants and trace elements in stream bed sediment and fish tissue. The goal of the Oahu stream bed sediment and fish tissue occurrence survey was to determine which organochlorine contaminants are present in streams around the island, and with which land uses they are associated. An understanding of relations between land use and organochlorine compounds will allow land management practices to be designed to reduce the loading of contaminants to streams and nearshore waters.

  2. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  3. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for drought conditions, 1998-2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of drought conditions (1998-2002 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5010. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model subareas were generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets that characterize the spatial distribution of rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, direct runoff, soil type, and land cover. These spatial data sets characterize the spatial distribution of hydrologic and physical conditions that the model uses to compute groundwater recharge and other water-budget components.The model-subarea data set (387,533 polygons) was subsequently intersected with the 0-ft elevation contour of the top of the basalt aquifer to produce the 395,955 polygons in this shapefile. This metadata file describes the process of merging these spatial data sets, The shapefile attribute information associated with each polygon present an estimate of mean annual rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, runoff, canopy evaporation, actual evapotranspiration, storm-drain capture, net precipitation, total evapotranspiration, recharge, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. This shapefile also includes select geographic and land-cover attributes of the polygons. Brief descriptions of the water-budget components and attributes are included in this metadata file. Refer to USGS SIR 2015-5010 (doi:10.3133/sir20155010) for further details of the methods and sources used to determine these components and attributes.

  4. Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for average climate conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of average climate conditions (1978-2007 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as described in USGS Scientific Investigations Report (SIR) 2015-5010. The model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge and other water-budget components for each subarea of the model. The model subareas were generated using Esri ArcGIS software by intersecting (merging) multiple spatial data sets that characterize the spatial distribution of rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, direct runoff, soil type, and land cover. These spatial data sets characterize the spatial distribution of hydrologic and physical conditions that the model uses to compute groundwater recharge and other water-budget components.The model-subarea data set (387,533 polygons) was subsequently intersected with the 0-ft elevation contour of the top of the basalt aquifer to produce the 395,955 polygons in this shapefile. This metadata file describes the process of merging these spatial data sets, The shapefile attribute information associated with each polygon present an estimate of mean annual rainfall, fog interception, irrigation, septic-system leachate, runoff, canopy evaporation, actual evapotranspiration, storm-drain capture, net precipitation, total evapotranspiration, recharge, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. This shapefile also includes select geographic and land-cover attributes of the polygons. Brief descriptions of the water-budget components and attributes are included in this metadata file. Refer to USGS SIR 2015-5010 (doi:10.3133/sir20155010) for further details of the methods and sources used to determine these components and attributes.

  5. The denudation of ocean islands by ground and surface waters: The effects of climate, soil thickness, and water contact times on Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Stephen T.; Tingey, David G.; Selck, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Ease of access, size, and basalt as the dominant bedrock make Oahu an ideal locality for investigating chemical weathering-driven denudation rates as a function of climate (rainfall varies by an order of magnitude), water-rock contact time, and soil thickness. New and compiled surface and groundwater solute data permit calculation of mass balances for solute fluxes from Oahu, revealing that groundwater dominates surface water solute fluxes by a factor of 3-12. Weathering reactions were written consistent with the mineralogy of Oahu soils, permitting denudation rates to be partitioned between dissolved and suspended loads. Total denudation rates, indexed to the leaching of SiO2, vary from 0.016 to 0.063 m/ka, with about 70% of Si transport due to dissolved loads. Drier regions of Oahu have distinctly lower denudation rates, and areas with thick weathering profiles have suppressed surface-water solute loads. Indexing denudation in basaltic terranes to dissolved SiO2 rather than other solutes leads to improved estimates of weathering rates. Other approaches require correction for the atmospheric depositions of sea salts based on Cl- abundances in waters that are assumed to derive solely from the ocean via atmospheric deposition. Recent work indicates that Oahu is tectonically emerging at 0.060 m/ka. As long as this uplift continues, the net size of the island will slowly increase and the Koolau Range should persist as an orographic trap to precipitation, maintaining relative aridity in the Waianae Range. Comparing emergence and denudation rates suggests that growth of the island will be non-uniform, with arid regions experiencing the greatest emergence with wet regions in balance with denudation. More importantly, however, this work offers an increased appreciation of the controls on the rates and mechanisms of denudation in basaltic and intermediate composition terranes in the tropics.

  6. The Role of Dissolved Loads Partitioned Between Surface and Ground Waters in the Chemical Weathering Rates of Tropical Islands Under Varied Climates: A Preliminary Assessment from Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaistre, M. J.; Nelson, S.; Tingey, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    The island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the role of climate, surface waters, and ground waters in the erosion and ultimate disappearance of ocean islands. This island is in a post-constructional phase, is composed entirely (or nearly so) of a single rock type (tholeiitic basalt), and rainfall totals vary by about an order of magnitude. On portions of the windward Koolau Range, rain exceeds 7 m annually, whereas portions of the southern island receive less than 0.8 m per year. There is considerable variability in the geochemical facies and total dissolve solid (TDS) content of surface and groundwaters, even among samples from similar climatic settings. Most waters tend to be of the Na-Mg-Cl type. However, ground waters tend to have higher TDS loads than surface waters, indicative of longer contact times with rock. 3H contents of wells average 0.6 TU, streams 1.2 TU, and rain 1.7 TU. Thus, the mean residence of groundwater may be on the order of 15-20 yr. Portions of Oahu such as the north central agricultural region have extremely well-developed soils, and TDS contents are very low on average (<70 mg/L) and similar to rainwater. Ground waters exhibit elevated solute loads, but when corrected for solutes in precipitation, only 50 to 60 additional mg/L have been acquired through water-rock interaction. By contrast, windward Oahu is dominated by the steep slopes of the Koolau Range where thick soils cannot accumulate, and relatively fresh rock is continuously exposed to weathering. When corrected for the contribution of rain, windward ground waters average >600 mg/L derived from water-rock interaction. Oahu has been subdivided into 5 major hydrographic regions and existing water budgets for Oahu can be coupled with mean solute loads for ground and surface water to estimate denudation rates via dissolved loads. Weathering products removed by surface waters are not considered here. Windward and south central Oahu are eroding at

  7. Hydrology and Water and Sediment Quality at James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge near Kahuku, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.; De Carlo, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    The James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge occupies two lowland marsh and pond complexes on the northern coastal plain of Oahu: the mostly natural ponds and wetlands of the Punamano Unit and the constructed ponds of the Kii Unit. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the Refuge primarily to protect and enhance habitat for four endangered species of Hawaiian waterbirds. Kii Unit is fed by artesian wells and rainfall, whereas Punamano Unit is fed naturally by rainfall, runoff, and ground-water seepage. Streams drain from the uplands into lowland ditches that pass through Kii Unit on their way to the ocean. A high-capacity pump transfers water from the inner ditch terminus at Kii to the ocean outlet channel. Stormwaters also exit the inner ditch system over flood-relief swales near the outlet pump and through a culvert with a one-way valve. A hydrologic investigation was done from November 1996 through February 1998 to identify and quantify principal inflows and outflows of water to and from the Refuge, identify hydraulic factors affecting flooding, document ground-water/surface-water interactions, determine the adequacy of the current freshwater supply, and determine water and sediment quality. These goals were accomplished by installing and operating a network of stream-gaging stations, meteorology stations, and shallow ground-water piezometers, by computing water budgets for the two Refuge units, and by sampling and analyzing water and pond-bottom sediments for major ions, trace metals, and organic compounds. Streamflow during the study was dominated by winter stormflows, followed by a gradual recession of flow into summer 1997, as water that had been stored in alluvial fans drained to lowland ditches. Outflow at the ditch terminus in 1997 was 125 million gallons greater than measured inflow to the coastal plain, mainly reflecting gains from ground water along the ditches between outlying gages and the ditch terminus. Of the measured 1997 outflow, 98 percent

  8. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  9. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This perspective view, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Features of interest in this scene include downtown Honolulu (right), Honolulu Harbor (right), Pearl Harbor (center), and offshore reef patterns (foreground). The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay (upper right). Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat 7 satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated about six times vertically. The Landsat 7 image was acquired on February 12, 2000, and was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS)Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The

  10. View of Oahu, Hawaii from STS-67 Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an unusually full view of the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian chain of islands. Oahu's volcanic origins are hinted at by the volcanic crater at Diamond Head, clearly visible on the southern shore. The city of Honolulu stretches from Diamond Head to the inlet of Pearl Harbor. Honolulu's large international airport can be seen off the shore. The dense forestation of the highlands is visible below the cloud cover, and waves can be seen breaking along the northern shore where famous surfing beaches, such as Pipeline, are found.

  11. Hillslope soil erosion estimated from aerosol concentrations, North Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; Fuller, C.C.; DeCarlo, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of aerosolic quartz and 137Cs were used to estimate rates of hillslope soil erosion during 1990-91 in the North Halawa Valley on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Fluvial transport of quartz was estimated to be 6.1 Mg in 1990 and 14.9 Mg in 1991. Fluvial transport of 137Cs from North Halawa Valley was estimated to be 1.29 ?? 109 pCi in 1991. Results were used with quartz contents, 137Cs activities, and bulk densities of hillslope soils to compute rates of basinwide hillslope soil erosion ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 mm yr-1. These rates are within the range of previous estimates of denudation computed for drainage basins on Oahu. The aerosol-concentration approach, therefore, is a useful method for assessing basinwide soil erosion.

  12. Environmental monitoring at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii for OTEC pilot-plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, A.T.; Harms, V.; Hartwig, E.O.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.; Wilde, P.

    1982-08-01

    Two 40 MWe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant programs are in the initial phase of development near Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii. The two options being examined are: (1) a shelf-seated artificial island, connected via a causeway to Oahu, using stainless steel heat exchangers, with the thermal resource enhanced by effluent from a near-by power plant, ammonia working fluid and biocide (chlorine) cleaning; and (2) a shelf mount tower 1 mile off shore using submerged aluminum heat exchangers, R-22 working fluid, and slurry cleaning with biocide (chlorine) backup. Environmental Technical Requirements are described including: siting criteria; environmental design, and operational criteria; thermal resource evaluation and variability; physical, chemical, and biological data requirements; and regulatory requirements. Due to siting, design, and operational differences the proposed two pilot plant options have individual environmental monitoring criteria and requirements. Due to the close spatial proximity of the proposed pilot plants they also have required environmental data which are common to both.

  13. Data report: geology of reef-front carbonate sediment deposits around Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, Monty A.; Blay, Charles T.; Murray, Christopher; Torresan, Laura Z.; Frazee, Cathy S.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.

    2003-01-01

    This Open-File Report presents data and derivative products from an investigation of carbonate sediment deposits on the reef front in four areas around the island of Oahu, Hawaii - in Kailua Bay off Oahu's windward (east) side, off the leeward (west) coast from Makua to Kahe Point, off the north coast from Waimea to Camp Erdman, and off the south coast around Waikiki (Figure 1). The primary purpose of the investigation was to assess the resource potential of the deposits, particularly as a source of sand for beach nourishment. This work builds on previous studies by researchers from the University of Hawaii (Moberly et al., 1975; Coulbourn et al., 1988; Barry, 1995). The field program included collection of high-resolution acoustic-reflection profiles and vibracore sediment samples in Kailua Bay and off the leeward and north coasts. In a related project, in collaboration with the Hawaii State Department of Land and Natural Resources and the University of Hawaii, sidescan images and vibracores were collected in the Halekulani channel and on the adjacent Makua Terrace off Waikiki along the south coast.

  14. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  15. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  16. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  17. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  18. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  19. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. (Continued) 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED)...

  20. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  1. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 17.99 Section 17.99 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING,...

  2. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  3. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  4. A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu and assessment of potential impacts to waterbirds from the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.; Woodside, D.; Bruegmann, M.

    1994-08-01

    A survey of endangered waterbirds on Maui and Oahu was conducted during August and September 1993 to identify potential waterbird habitats within the general area of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission corridor and to assess the potential impacts to endangered waterbird of installing and operating a high voltage transmission line from the Island of Hawaii to the islands of Oahu and Maui. Annual waterbird survey information and other literature containing information on specific wetland sites were summarized. Literature describing impacts of overhead transmission lines on birds was used to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed project on endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. On Oahu, five wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within 2.5 miles of the proposed transmission line corridor. On Maui, three wetland habitats supporting endangered Hawaiian waterbirds were identified within the general area of the proposed transmission line corridor. Several of the wetlands identified on Oahu and Maui also supported resident wading birds and migratory shorebirds and waterfowl. Endangered waterbirds, resident wading birds, and migratory birds may collide with the proposed transmission lines wires. The frequency and numbers of bird collisions is expected to be greater on Oahu than on Maui because more wetland habitat exists and greater numbers of birds occur in the project area on Oahu. In addition, the endangered Hawaiian goose and the endangered Hawaiian petrel may be impacted by the proposed segment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project transmission line on Maui.

  5. An analysis of the magnitude and frequency of floods on Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakahara, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of available peak-flow data for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, was made by using multiple regression techniques which related flood-frequency data to basin and climatic characteristics for 74 gaging stations on Oahu. In the analysis, several different groupings of stations were investigated, including divisions by geographic location and size of drainage area. The grouping consisting of two leeward divisions and one windward division produced the best results. Drainage basins ranged in area from 0.03 to 45.7 square miles. Equations relating flood magnitudes of selected frequencies to basin characteristics were developed for the three divisions of Oahu. These equations can be used to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods for any site, gaged or ungaged, for any desired recurrence interval from 2 to 100 years. Data on basin characteristics, flood magnitudes for various recurrence intervals from individual station-frequency curves, and computed flood magnitudes by use of the regression equation are tabulated to provide the needed data. (USGS)

  6. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  7. Geology and Stream Infiltration of North Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    1992-01-01

    A geohydrologic investigation of North Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, and its stream was undertaken in response to concern that runoff from the H-3 highway draining into the stream might seep into the ground and seriously contaminate potable water pumped at a nearby skimming well. North Halawa Stream flows over highly weathered alluvium or highly weathered basaltic basement for almost its entire course. Measurements of discharge at selected points along the stream indicate that infiltration occurs along some reaches. The infiltration of water from North Halawa Stream varies with season and stage. Water lost by the stream probably passes into and out of a perched aquifer in the alluvium of North Halawa Valley. Some of the water could pass from the alluvium to the basal aquifer from which the skimming well draws its water.

  8. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  9. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land

  10. Spatially distributed groundwater recharge for 2010 land cover estimated using a water-budget model for the island of O'ahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engott, John A.; Johnson, Adam G.; Bassiouni, Maoya; Izuka, Scot K.

    2015-01-01

    Owing mainly to projected population growth, demand for freshwater on the Island of Oʻahu is expected to increase by about 26 percent between 2010 and 2030, according to the City and County of Honolulu. Estimates of groundwater recharge are needed to evaluate the availability of fresh groundwater. For this study, a water-budget model with a daily computation interval was developed and used to estimate the spatial distribution of recharge on Oʻahu for average climate conditions (1978–2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover) and for drought conditions (1998–2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover). For average climate conditions, mean annual recharge for Oʻahu is 661 million gallons per day, or about 36 percent of precipitation (rainfall and fog interception). Recharge for average climate conditions is about 34 percent of total water inflow, which consists of precipitation, irrigation, septic leachate, water-main leakage, and seepage from reservoirs and cesspools. Recharge is highest along the crest of the Koʻolau Range, reaching as much as about 180 inches per year in the north-central part of the range. Recharge is much lower outside of the mountainous areas of the island, commonly less than 5 inches per year in unirrigated areas. The islandwide estimate of groundwater recharge for average climate conditions from this study is within 1 percent of the recharge estimate used in the 2008 State of Hawaiʻi Water Resource Protection Plan, which divides the Island of Oʻahu into 23 aquifer systems for groundwater management purposes. To facilitate direct comparisons with this study, these 23 aquifer systems were consolidated into 21 aquifer systems. Recharge estimates from this study are higher for 12 of the aquifer-system areas and lower for 9. Differences in mean rainfall distribution and the inclusion of irrigation in this study are the primary reasons for discrepancies in recharge estimates between this study and the 2008 Hawaiʻi Water Resources Protection Plan. For

  11. Coliphage and indigenous phage in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S C; London, P; Xhou, X; Kellogg, C

    1997-01-01

    Public concern over the discharge of primarily treated sewage by two offshore outfalls in Mamala Bay, Oahu, prompted a multidisciplinary study to determine the impact of such activities on the water quality in the bay and at adjacent recreational beaches. As part of this study, we determined the abundance of coliphage as an indicator of fecal pollution along with total viral direct counts and phages infective for Vibrio parahaemoltyicus 16 at stations in Mamala Bay in four quarterly samplings over 13 months. Coliphage (< 1 to 1.2 x 10(3)/liter) were found during each quarterly sampling along an offshore transect to the Sand Island waste treatment facility outfall. The nonpoint coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ala Wai Canal, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) had high levels of coliphage during the storm event sampling in February 1994 but much lower levels or none when sampled during dry weather. Coliphage were absent at all samplings at Waikiki Beach and at the control station off Diamond Head. Viral direct counts in eutrophic coastal stations (Pearl Harbor, Ke'ehi Lagoon, Ala Moana Beach, and Ala Wai canal) averaged 10(9)/liter, while counts at offshore stations ranged from 9 x 10(7) to 1 x 10(9) viruses/liter, values similar to those for other marine environments. Vibriophage were found mainly in eutrophic coastal environments (Ala Wai Canal, Pearl Harbor, and Ke'ehi Lagoon) and at the Sand Island Transect stations D1 and D2. The greatest abundance was found during the storm event (February 1994) sampling. These results suggest that the Sand Island outfall influenced the water quality of the immediate surrounding waters but had little effect on the quality of the recreational beaches. Nonpoint discharge sources appeared to be more important in the distribution of fecal indicators in the coastal zone. PMID:9065272

  12. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  13. Ecological Assessment of Wadeable Streams on O`ahu, Hawai'i, 2006-2007: A Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.; Koch, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006-07, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Islands Water Science Center (PIWSC), in cooperation with the Hawai'i Department of Health (HDOH), conducted a pilot study as a participant in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) program. Forty randomly selected sites on perennial streams on O'ahu, Hawai'i, were surveyed for habitat characteristics, water chemistry, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Of the original sampling frame of approximately 505.2 miles of perennial stream, roughly 96.7 +or- 30.7 miles were found to be nonperennial or estuarine and another 200.5 +or- 64.7 miles were judged to be inaccessible. The scope of this report presents an assessment of the remaining 208 +or- 57.6 miles of accessible, wadeable, perennial stream length on O'ahu. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were used to determine the ecological condition at each site. Components of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed using the multimetric Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) developed by Wolff (2005). Based on the P-HBIBI scores, an estimated 5.8 +or- 5.8 percent of the island's total stream length is in most disturbed condition, 56 +or- 13.5 percent is in intermediately disturbed condition, and 38.2 +or- 13.2 percent is in least disturbed condition. Windward O'ahu had the highest percentage of stream length in least disturbed biological condition at 56.7 +or- 20.8 percent. Using the relative abundance of insects, one of the core metrics that make up the P-HBIBI, 43.4 +or- 14.2 percent of the islandwide stream length was classified in the most disturbed condition - 52 +or- 31.2 percent of the Honolulu region stream length and 51.4 +or- 23.3 percent of the windward O'ahu stream length. An analysis of total nitrogen (N) estimated approximately 41.1 +or- 13.7 percent of the stream length on O'ahu was in most disturbed condition. Regionally, the Honolulu region had the largest

  14. Hf-Nd isotope decoupling in the oceanic lithosphere: constraints from spinel peridotites from Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, Michael; Sen, Gautam; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed geochemical investigation on the Hf, Nd and Sr isotope compositions and trace and major element contents of clinopyroxene mineral separates from spinel lherzolite xenoliths from the island of Oahu, Hawaii. These peridotites are believed to represent the depleted oceanic lithosphere beneath Oahu, which is a residue of a MORB-related melting event some 80-100 Ma ago at a mid-ocean ridge. Clinopyroxenes from peridotites from the Salt Lake Crater (SLC) show a large range of Hf isotopic compositions, from ɛHf=12.2 (similar to the Honolulu volcanics series) to extremely radiogenic, ɛHf=65, at nearly constant 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios ( ɛNd=7-8). None of these samples show any isotopic evidence for interaction with Koolau-type melts. A single xenolith from the Pali vent is the only sample with Hf and Nd isotopic compositions that falls within the MORB field. The Hf isotopes correlate positively with the degree of depletion in the clinopyroxene (e.g. increasing Mg#, Cr#, decreasing Ti and heavy REE contents), but also with increasing Zr and Hf depletions relative to the adjacent REE in a compatibility diagram. The Lu/Hf isotope systematics of the SLC clinopyroxenes define apparent ages of 500 Ma or older and these compositions cannot be explained by mixing between any type of Hawaiian melts and the depleted Pacific lithosphere. Metasomatism of an ancient (e.g. 1 Ga or older) depleted peridotite protolith can, in principle, explain these apparent ages and the Nd-Hf isotope decoupling, but requires that the most depleted samples were subject to the least amount of metasomatism. Alternatively, the combined isotope, trace and major element compositions of these clinopyroxenes are best described by metasomatism of the 80-100 Ma depleted oceanic lithosphere by melts products of extensive mantle-melt interaction between Honolulu Volcanics-type melts and the depleted lithosphere.

  15. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  16. Pb Isotopic Evolution of Koolau Volcano (Oahu, Hawaii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Abouchami, W.

    2003-12-01

    High precision Pb isotopes in Hawaiian shield lavas have revealed the existence of source heterogeneities between volcanoes, as well as within a single volcano during its temporal evolution, e.g. Mauna Kea [1, 2]. The Koolau Scientific Drilling Project (KSDP) was initiated in order to evaluate the long-term evolution of Koolau volcano (Oahu), whose subaerial Makapuu stage lavas define the isotopically enriched endmember of Hawaiian shield lavas. We report Pb triple spike data on KSDP main shield-stage lavas (depth range: 304-632 mbsl) and post-erosional Honolulu volcanics. KSDP lavas show a small range of Pb isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pb=18.02-18.15; 207Pb/204Pb=15.44-15.46; 208Pb/204Pb=37.82-37.87). Pb isotope ratios increase with depth until ˜450 m and then decrease again to a depth of 616 m. Superimposed on this "bell" trend, 206Pb/204Pb ratios oscillate at depth intervals of ˜10m. The Honolulu volcanics display, at a given 206Pb/204Pb ratio, similar 207Pb/204Pb but lower 208Pb/204Pb ratios than KSDP lavas. In 208Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb space, KSDP and Honolulu lavas define two distinct linear arrays which converge at the radiogenic end. However, in 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb space, KSDP and Honolulu lavas form a single array, with Honolulu lying at the radiogenic end of the array. While KSDP lavas have more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions than Makapuu stage lavas [1], they show close resemblance to Nuuanu 1 and Nuuanu 2 landslide blocks [3]. The distinct Pb isotopic features of subaerial, main-shield and post-erosional lavas reflect compositional source changes during the growth of Koolau volcano. The mixing lines defined by KSDP and Honolulu lavas in 208Pb-206Pb space require the presence of three distinct Pb isotopic components. While the enriched "Koolau" component is predominantly sampled during the subaerial stage, its contribution during the main shield building stage has been waxing and waning. The radiogenic Pb endmember common to Honolulu and KSDP

  17. Spatio-temporal changes in trophic categories of infaunal polychaetes near the four wastewater ocean outfalls on Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xiufu; Bailey-Brock, Julie H; Lin, David T

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the effect of sewage discharge on benthic polychaete assemblages in the context of their functional trophic categories. We present data spanning 20 years of monitoring benthic invertebrate assemblages and sediment properties at all 4 primary- and secondary-treatment wastewater outfalls servicing Honolulu and the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Samples collected within mandated zones of initial dilution (ZIDs) near outfall discharge sites were compared to samples collected at reference stations at varying distances away. Our findings indicate that sediment properties were not affected by the outfall discharge rate or distance from each ZID. The number of polychaete species in 4 functional trophic categories (carnivore, detritivore, omnivore, and suspension feeder) did not change with the outfall solid loading rate or with distance from each ZID, thus suggesting relatively little organic enrichment. We find no evidence of heavy organic enrichment beyond the designated ZIDs at these 4 wastewater outfalls. PMID:24735911

  18. Strontium Isotopic Variations in the Koolau Volcanic Series, Oahu, Hawaii: Results from KSDP Drill Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. M.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    Surface samples of the Koolau tholeiite series, from the eastern side of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, have long been noted for their unusually high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (up to 0.7042) and other extreme geochemical parameters, as compared to both earlier and later Oahu lavas, values from other Hawaiian islands, and lavas from the Waianae volcano on west Oahu. It has been assumed that the geochemistry of the surface samples of Koolau applied to most of the volcano and that the extreme features were a relatively long-lived characteristic of the Hawaiian mantle plume at the time that the Koolau lavas were being erupted about 3 million years ago. The Koolau Scientific Drilling Project, which returned nearly continuous core from depths of 350 to 670 meters below sea level, provided an opportunity to probe deeper into the Koolau edifice (Haskins and Garcia, CMP, 147, 2004). We present new Sr isotope data on thirty whole rock samples from KSDP, which complement other isotopic data that have been reported recently (Salters and Blichert-Toft, submitted). The KSDP samples have variable, but generally significant, amounts of post-eruption weathering and hence the samples were strongly acid-leached before TIMS isotopic analysis in order to remove any seawater-derived strontium. The 87Sr/86Sr values in the core samples vary from values near 0.7040 at the top of the core to 0.7035 near the bottom. There is a general trend of increasing 87Sr/86Sr upsection as well as oscillations with peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.0003. The Sr isotope ratios correlate reasonably well with Nd and Hf isotope ratios. The data show that the Koolau surface samples are not representative of the volcano as a whole, and that the extreme geochemistry of the surface samples may represent only a minor component of the Hawaiian plume. The normal trend of Sr isotope ratios in the waning stages of shield building is from high values to low (as in Mauna Kea, Kohala, East Molokai and Haleakala). A trend toward higher

  19. Shelf stratigraphy and the influence of antecedent substrate on Holocene reef development, south Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, E.E.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Hart, P.; Richmond, B.M.; Field, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Paired analyses of drill cores and high-resolution seismic reflection data show that development of Holocene framework reefs on the Oahu (Hawaii) shelf is limited to settings of low wave energy and to the period 8000 to 3000 yr BP. A prominent bounding surface that is mapped across much of the Oahu shelf is an erosion surface cut into Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 7 limestones that show extensive loss of primary porosity, aragonite, and MgCO3 owing to meteoric and vadose-zone diagenesis. This acoustic reflector is found exposed at the surface where wave energy is high or in the shallow subsurface below Holocene reef and sand sheet deposits where energy is low. Ship-towed video along 30 km of the shelf reveals a steady decrease in limestone accumulation from offshore of Honolulu southeast to Koko Head where the seafloor is characterized by volcanic pavement and/or thin sand deposits. This may reflect the build-up of late Pleistocene volcanics associated with the Hanauma Bay eruption (30,000-7000 yr BP) that now comprise the substrate in depths shallow enough to limit reef accretion. The absence of significant Holocene reef build-up on the south Oahu shelf is consistent with observations from north-facing coasts that lack Holocene reefs, indicating that Holocene reef formation in Hawaii is complex and patchy. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbonate sediment deposits on the reef front around Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Blay, C.T.; Murray, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Large sediment deposits on the reff front around Oahu are a possible resource for replenishing eroded beaches. High-resolution subbottom profiles clearly depict the deposits in three study areas: Kailua Bay off the windward coast, Makua to Kahe Point off the leeward coast, and Camp Erdman to Waimea off the north coast. Most of the sediment is in water depths between 20 and 100 m, resting on submerged shelves created during lowstands of sea level. The mapped deposits have a volume of about 4 ?? 108 m3 in water depths less than 100 m, being thickest off the mouth of channels carved into the modern insular shelf, from which most of the sediment issues. Vibracore samples contain various amounts of sediment of similar size to the sand on Oahu beaches, with the most compatible prospects located off Makaha, Haleiwa, and Camp Erdman, and the least compatible ones located in Kailua Bay. Laboratory tests show a positive correlation of abrasion with Halimeda content: samples from Kailua Bay suffered high amounts of attrition, but others were comparable to tested beach samples. The common gray color of the offshore sediment, aesthetically undesirable for sand on popular tourist beaches, was diminished in the laboratory by soaking in heated hydrogen peroxide. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  1. Carbonate Sediment Deposits on the Reef Front Around Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M A.; Blay, Charles T.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2004-06-01

    Large sediment deposits on the reef front around Oahu are a possible resource for replenishing eroded beaches. High-resolution subbottom profiles clearly depict the deposits in three study areas: Kailua Bay off the windward coast, Makua to Kahe Point off the leeward coast, and Camp Erdman to Waimea off the north coast. Most of the sediment is in water depths between 20 and 100 m, resting on submerged shelves created during lowstands of sea level. The mapped deposits have a volume of about 400 million cubic meters in water depths less than 100 m, being thickest off the mouth of channels carved into the modern insular shelf, from which most of the sediment issues. Vibracore samples contain various amounts of sediment of similar size to the sand on Oahu beaches, with the most compatible prospects located off Makaha, Haleiwa, and Camp Erdman and the least compatible ones located in Kailua Bay. Laboratory tests show a positive correlation of abrasion with Halimeda content; samples from Kailua Bay suffered high amounts of attrition but others were comparable to tested beach samples.

  2. Susceptibility assessment of shallow landslides on Oahu, Hawaii, under extreme-rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Sanjit K.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2009-07-01

    The deterministic Stability INdex MAPping (SINMAP) model, which integrates a mechanistic infinite-slope stability model and a hydrological model, was applied to assess susceptibility of slopes in 32 shallow-landslide-prone watersheds of the eastern to southern areas of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Input to the model includes a 10-m Digital Elevation Model (DEM), an inventory of storm-induced landslides that occurred from 1949 to 2006, and listings of soil-strength and hydrological parameters including transmissivity and steady-state recharge. The study area of ca. 384 km 2 was divided into four calibration regions with different geotechnical and hydrological characteristics. All parameter values were separately calibrated using observed landslides as references. The study used a quasi-dynamic scenario of soil wetness resulting from extreme daily rainfall events with a return period of 50 years. The return period was based on almost-90-year-long (1919-2007) daily rainfall records from 26 raingauge stations in the study area. Output of the SINMAP model includes slope-stability-index-distribution maps, slope-versus-specific-catchment-area charts, and statistical summaries for each region. The SINMAP model assessed susceptibility at the locations of all 226 observed shallow landslides and classified these susceptible areas as unstable. About 55% of the study area was predicted as highly unstable, highlighting a critical island problem. The SINMAP predictions were compared to an existing debris-flow-hazard map. Areas classified as unstable in the current study were classified as low-to-moderate and moderate-to-high debris-flow hazard risks by the prior mapping. The slope-stability maps provided by this study will aid in explaining the causes of known landslides, making emergency decisions, and, ultimately mitigating future landslide risks. The maps may be further improved by incorporating heterogeneous and anisotropic soil properties and spatial and temporal variation of

  3. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  4. Flood-Frequency Estimates for Streams on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i, State of Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Rosa, Sarah N.; Yeung, Chiu W.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of the magnitude and frequency of peak stream discharges in Hawai`i. Annual peak-discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during and before water year 2008 (ending September 30, 2008) at stream-gaging stations were analyzed. The existing generalized-skew value for the State of Hawai`i was retained, although three methods were used to evaluate whether an update was needed. Regional regression equations were developed for peak discharges with 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals for unregulated streams (those for which peak discharges are not affected to a large extent by upstream reservoirs, dams, diversions, or other structures) in areas with less than 20 percent combined medium- and high-intensity development on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i. The generalized-least-squares (GLS) regression equations relate peak stream discharge to quantified basin characteristics (for example, drainage-basin area and mean annual rainfall) that were determined using geographic information system (GIS) methods. Each of the islands of Kaua`i,O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and Hawai`i was divided into two regions, generally corresponding to a wet region and a dry region. Unique peak-discharge regression equations were developed for each region. The regression equations developed for this study have standard errors of prediction ranging from 16 to 620 percent. Standard errors of prediction are greatest for regression equations developed for leeward Moloka`i and southern Hawai`i. In general, estimated 100-year peak discharges from this study are lower than those from previous studies, which may reflect the longer periods of record used in this study. Each regression equation is valid within the range of values of the explanatory variables used to develop the equation. The regression equations were developed using peak-discharge data from streams that are mainly unregulated, and they should not be used to

  5. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  6. Rainfall, Plant Communities and Methane Fluxes in the Ka`au Crater Wetland, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, M.; Gaidos, E.

    2003-12-01

    Tropical wetlands constitute a major source of methane, an atmospheric greenhouse gas. Net methane emission in freshwater settings is the result of organic matter decomposition under anaerobic conditions modulated by aerobic methane oxidation and is thus also an indicator of wetland ecosystem processes. This study is monitoring the methane flux from the Ka`au crater wetland on the island of Oahu (Hawaii) and correlating it with environmental parameters such as precipitation and sunlight. We are obtaining precipitation, Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR), and water table level data with data loggers and are correlating these data with static chamber methane flux measurements and measurements of soil methane production potential. Additionally, our research is studying the effects of changes in vegetation type, i.e., of the invasive strawberry guava tree (Psidium Cattleianum) on the wetland methane emissions. Changes in soil chemistry and in the transport of gases by roots that accompany such vegetation change are a potential driver of methane flux modifications that have not been previously examined. Strawberry guava forms dense mats of surface roots that may change soil gas exchange and prolific fruiting may raise the soil organic content. We collected soil samples along a 30 meter transect that extends through two vegetation patterns; the strawberry guava canopy and the sedge meadow (Cladium Leptostachyum). Samples were incubated for 24 hours to estimate their methane generation potential. Our preliminary results show that methane generation potential is greater under the strawberry guava canopy. However, 2 of the 15 samples collected in the sedge meadow section of the transect did not match this pattern. Soil organic carbon content is slightly higher in the strawberry guava than in the sedge. We recorded a 90% decrease in methane generation potential in sedge meadow soils during a dry period relative to a wet period 2 months earlier. We propose that this change

  7. National assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, and often are surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Working with researchers from the University of Hawaii, investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline-change rates for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and rate-calculation methods vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment was to develop a standardized method for measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for Kauai, Maui, and Oahu that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  8. Disease dynamics of Montipora white syndrome within Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii: distribution, seasonality, virulence, and transmissibility.

    PubMed

    Aeby, G S; Ross, M; Williams, G J; Lewis, T D; Works, T M

    2010-07-26

    We report on an investigation of Montipora white syndrome (MWS), which is a coral disease reported from Hawaii, U.S.A., that results in tissue loss. Disease surveys of Montipora capitata within Kaneohe Bay (Oahu) found colonies that were affected by MWS on 9 reefs within 3 regions of Kaneohe Bay (south, central, north). Mean MWS prevalence ranged from 0.02 to 0.87% and average number of MWS cases per survey site ranged from 1 to 28 colonies. MWS prevalence and number of cases were significantly lower in the central region as compared to those in the north and south regions of Kaneohe Bay. There was a positive relationship between host abundance and MWS prevalence, and differences in host abundance between sites explained approximately 27% of the variation in MWS prevalence. Reefs in central Kaneohe Bay had lower M. capitata cover and lower MWS levels. MWS prevalence on reefs was neither significantly different between seasons (spring versus fall) nor among 57 tagged colonies that were monitored through time. MWS is a chronic and progressive disease causing M. capitata colonies to lose an average of 3.1% of live tissue mo(-1). Case fatality rate was 28% after 2 yr but recovery occurred in some colonies (32%). Manipulative experiments showed that the disease is acquired through direct contact. This is the first study to examine the dynamics of MWS within Hawaii, and our findings suggest that MWS has the potential to degrade Hawaii's reefs through time. PMID:20853736

  9. Thorium-230 ages of corals and duration of the last interglacial sea-level high stand on Oahu, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; Ludwig, K.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1994-10-07

    Thorium-230 ages of emergent marine deposits on Oahu, Hawaii, have a uniform distribution of ages from {approximately}114,000 to {approximately}131,000 years, indicating a duration for the last interglacial sea-level high stand of {approximately}17,000 years, in contrast to a duration of {approximately}8000 years inferred from the orbitally tuned marine oxygen isotope record. Sea level on Oahu rose to {>=}1 to 2 meters higher than present by 131,000 years ago or {approximately}6000 years earlier than inferred from the marine record. Although the latter record suggests a shift back to glacial conditions beginning at {approximately}119,000 years ago, the Oahu coral ages indicate a near present sea level until {approximately}114,000 years ago.

  10. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  11. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  12. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  13. The legacy of lead (Pb) in fluvial bed sediments of an urban drainage basin, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Veronica K; Sutherland, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    The study of fluvial bed sediments is essential for deciphering the impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and drainage basin integrity. In this study, a systematic sampling design was employed to characterize the spatial variation of lead (Pb) concentrations in bed sediment of urban streams in the Palolo drainage basin, southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. Potentially bioavailable Pb was assessed with a dilute 0.5 N HCl extraction of the <63 μm grain-size fraction from the upper bed sediment layer of 169 samples from Palolo, Pukele, and Waiomao streams. Contamination of bed sediments was associated with the direct transport of legacy Pb from the leaded gasoline era to stream channels via a dense network of storm drains linked to road surfaces throughout the basin. The Palolo Stream had the highest median Pb concentration (134 mg/kg), and the greatest road and storm drain densities, the greatest population, and the most vehicle numbers. Lower median Pb concentrations were associated with the less impacted Pukele Stream (24 mg/kg), and Waiomao Stream (7 mg/kg). The median Pb enrichment ratio values followed the sequence of Palolo (68) > Pukele (19) > Waiomao (8). Comparisons to sediment quality guidelines and potential toxicity estimates using a logistic regression model (LRM) indicated a significant potential risk of Palolo Stream bed sediments to bottom-dwelling organisms. PMID:26573308

  14. Tsunami deposits at MIS Stages 5e and 9 on Oahu, Hawaii: implications for sea level at interglacial stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, G. M.; Campbell, J. F.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.; Fietzke, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sandy, basalt-coral conglomerates associated with both beachrock and coral reefs are found at high elevations on Oahu, Hawaii. They have been attributed to either brief, sea level high-stands or storms. The Kahe Point conglomerates are at 12.5 m elevation, whereas the main stage MIS-5e reef at this location has a maximum elevation of 8.2 m. They are loosely consolidated and poorly cemented, graded, poorly sorted, and with varying amounts of basalt and coral clasts ranging from cobble to boulder size. Coral in these deposits has been U-series dated by us at between 120-125 ka (n=5). Four distinct beds, with a gently seaward tilt, are recognized in a road cut section, with each bed composed of a few cm-thick topset bed of fine-grained, shelly, calcareous sand to silt. Similar high elevation conglomerates and 5e reefs are also described at Mokapu and Kaena Points on Oahu, indicating an island-wide deposit. Older coral clasts, dated at 130 to 142 ka (n=6; oldest by alpha spectrometry) found in association with the stage 5e corals suggest reworking and incorporation of older low-stand reef material. The coarse grain size of the conglomerates indicates deposition from a high-energy event; thus a high-stand source is ruled out. We also consider that the overall lithology and up to 0.5 m bed thickness not to be the result of storms; a series of high frequency storm events is considered unlikely. The weight of the evidence in our opinion clearly indicates deposition by a series of tsunami waves. If correct, this has implications for “probabilistic” models of sea level peaks at least 6.6 m higher than present at stage 5e that use such data in their models (e. g., Kopp et al., 2009), at least for Oahu. Within about 2 km of the Kahe deposit, in a road cut at Ko Olina, there is another markedly similar high-energy, sandy basalt-bearing coral conglomerate sequence at 21 to 25 m elevation. There are at least two distinct beds about one meter in thickness, both gently seaward

  15. Statistical Summary of Hydrologic and Water-Quality Data from the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Michael F.; Young, Stacie T.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides statistical summaries of rainfall, streamflow, suspended-sediment, and water-quality data collected in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe drainage basins before, during, and after construction of the H-3 Highway on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Methods of data collection also are described. Data collected during water years 1983 through 1999 at eight streamflow and six stream water-quality gaging stations, and two water-quality stations located in Waimaluhia Reservoir are included. Physiographic data for all basins contributing to the 14 stream stations as well as brief land-use descriptions of the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe drainage basins are provided.

  16. Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic evidence of multiple sources for Oahu, Hawaii basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stille, P.; Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of Oahu volcanics indicate that the three principal volcanic series on Oahu Koolau, Honolulu and Waianae - were derived from isotopically distinct sources. Honolulu and Waianae basalts plot on the Nd-Pb-Sr 'mantle plane' whereas Koolau data plot distinctly below the plane.

  17. Geochemistry of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaii: implications for Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roden, M.F.; Frey, F.A.; Clague, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Lavas of the post-erosional, alkalic Honolulu Volcanics have significantly lower 87Sr 86Sr and higher 143Nd 144Nd than the older and underlying Koolau tholeiites which form the Koolau shield of eastern Oahu, Hawaii. Despite significant compositional variation within lavas forming the Honolulu Volcanics, these lavas are isotopically (Sr, Nd, Pb) very similar which contrasts with the isotopic heterogeneity of the Koolau tholeiites. Among Hawaiian tholeiitic suites, the Koolau lavas are geochemically distinct because of their lower iron contents and Sr and Nd isotopic ratios which range to bulk earth values. These geochemical data preclude simple models such as derivation of the Honolulu Volcanics and Koolau tholeiites from a common source by different degrees of melting or by mixing of two geochemically distinct sources. There may be no genetic relationship between the origin and evolution of these two lava suites; however, the trend shown by Koolau Range lavas of increasing 143Nd 144Nd and decreasing 87Sr 86Sr with decreasing eruption age and increasing alkalinity also occurs at Haleakala, East Molokai and Kauai volcanoes. A complex mixing model proposed for Haleakala lavas can account for the variations in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios and incompatible element abundances found in lavas from the Koolau Range. This model may reflect mixing and melting processes occurring during ascent of relatively enriched mantle through relatively depleted MORB-related lithosphere. Although two isotopically distinct components may be sufficient to explain Sr and Nd isotopic variations at individual Hawaiian volcanoes, more than two isotopically distinct materials are required to explain variations of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios in all Hawaiian lavas. ?? 1984.

  18. Stratigraphy, paleoenvironment and emplacement mechanisms of the Koko fissure craters, O'ahu, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, I. P.; Bluth, J.; Simoneau, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Koko fissure craters are aligned and nested basanitic tuff cones and rings at the SE corner of O'ahu, Hawai'i. There are no published studies of their stratigraphy, emplacement mechanisms or depositional paleoenvironments. This study focuses on a tuff cone complex (Koko Crater) and a younger adjacent nested tuff ring (Hanauma Bay). A detailed stratigraphy with logged sections for both Koko Crater and the Hanauma Bay craters are presented and discussed. Koko Crater is dominated by wet fallout deposits on steep proximal slopes, commonly resedimented by hot (vesiculated) and cold (unvesiculated) debris flows, slumps and slides, but with an increasing percentage of wet (low temperature) low concentration PDC deposits preserved in the shallowly-dipping flanking apron deposits, and in the uppermost proximal deposits. At least two earlier cone or ring rims are preserved along its southern margin. The deposits of Hanauma Bay overlie the Koko deposits and are dominated by a mix of wet low concentration PDC, wet fallout and synchronous PDC, and fallout deposits in proximal settings, and by low concentration, probably drier, PDC deposits in more distal settings. The Hanauma Bay rings were emplaced before the Koko Crater tephra was consolidated, as steep-sided rills incised into Koko tephra are locally filled with tephra of mixed Koko and Hanauma sources. The onset of Hanauma Bay eruptions is marked by a horizon that is very rich in rounded coral sand clasts. Discontinuous horizons and lenses of coral block fallout are also very common in the Hanauma tephra. Coral sand is absent and coral blocks are much rarer in the Koko tephra. These observations, and probably also the dominance of wet fallout at Koko, imply that Koko was erupted in deeper water than the nearshore coral beach environment of the Hanauma rings. A faster rate of water recharge into the conduit in deeper open water is probably the most important factor in the generation of a cone rather than a ring at this

  19. Kaua'i 'O'o; O'ahu 'O'o; Hawai'i 'O'o; Bishop's 'O'o; Kioea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.; Scott, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Hawai'i 'O'o was the first Hawaiian honeyeater discovered by westerners, described from a specimen obtained in 1779 during Captain James Cook's third voyage; the other 4 species were not known to the scientific community until the mid- to late 1800's. The O'ahu and Hawai'i 'o'o and the Kioea are now definitely extinct, and the Kaua'i and Bishop's 'o'o are probably extinct.

  20. Three-dimensional variable-density flow simulation of a coastal aquifer in southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, S.B.; Voss, C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, southern Oahu, Hawaii, shows that the readjustment of the freshwater-saltwater transition zone takes a long time following changes in pumping, irrigation, or recharge in the aquifer system. It takes about 50-years for the transition zone to move 90% of the distance to its new steady position. Further, the Ghyben-Herzberg estimate of the freshwater/saltwater interface depth occurred between the 10 and 50% simulated seawater concentration contours in a complex manner during 100-years of the pumping history of the aquifer. Thus, it is not a good predictor of the depth of potable water. Pre-development recharge was used to simulate the 1880 freshwater-lens configuration. Historical pumpage and recharge distributions were used and the resulting freshwater-lens size and position were simulated through 1980. Simulations show that the transition zone moved upward and landward during the period simulated. Previous groundwater flow models for Oahu have been limited to areal models that simulate a sharp interface between freshwater and saltwater or solute-transport models that simulate a vertical aquifer section. The present model is based on the US Geological Survey's three-dimensional solute transport (3D SUTRA) computer code. Using several new tools for pre- and post-processing of model input and results have allowed easy model construction and unprecedented visualization of the freshwater lens and underlying transition zone in Hawaii's most developed aquifer. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  1. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  2. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  3. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  4. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  5. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  6. Tunnels and dikes of the Koolau Range, Oahu, Hawaii, and their effect on storage depletion and movement of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirashima, George Tokusuke

    1971-01-01

    Ground water impounded by dikes in the Koolau Range is a major source of water for the island of Oahu, Hawaii, and many tunnels have been bored into the range to develop it. All water-development tunnels, except Waihee tunnel, have depleted storage in the rocks they penetrate and are now discharging at rates that are but fractions of the rates possible at full storage. Rocks above the floor of the water-development part of Waihee tunnel have never been completely dewatered, and storage can be manipulated by regulating outflow. Thus, storage for this tunnel can be increased during periods of low demand and discharged at high rates during periods of high demand. A measure of the rate of drainage or depletion of storage is the recession constant b in the recession-curve equation Qt=Q0e-b t. The higher the value of b, the faster water can be drawn from storage or returned to storage through artificial recharge. Mathematical analysis of the flow-recession curve of Waihee tunnel shows that (1) its recession constant is 0.00401, (2) net storage (exclusive of recharge) is 2,200 million gallons (6,800 acre-feet), and (8) initial discharge from full storage would be about 19 million gallons per day. Analysis of flow-recession curves for Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and Haiku tunnel shows that these tunnels have drainage characteristics that are similar to those of Waihee tunnel. The composite recession constant computed for the four tunnels north of Waiahole is about one-third as large as that computed for the Waiahole ditch tunnel (main bore) and the tunnels to the south. The difference is due to an abrupt change in spacing of dikes north of Waiahole. At and south of Waiahole Stream, dikes are spaced tens or hundreds of feet apart; north of Waiahole, they are spaced inches or a few feet apart. Storage could be restored by bulkheading at the controlling dike or dikes after an analysis is made of the flow-recession curve for each tunnel. Such analyses will show which

  7. Thermally Enhanced Magnetic Fabrics of Basaltic Dikes from Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    Progressive thermal treatment has been used to investigate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of a wide range of lithologies. Initial results on e.g., red sandstones, glacial tillites, granites and gneisses showed that laboratory stepwise heating resulted in thermal enhancement of AMS, showing the potential of thermal treatment in studying weak AMS and masked or cryptic fabrics. Studies have however shown that heating induced changes in AMS may be more complex that simple enhancement of the magnetic fabric In general, thermal induced magneto-mineralogical alterations are complex and not well understood, and further investigation of heating induced effects in mineralogy, grain size and texture systematically investigated for different lithologies is needed. For our experiment we have used a suite of samples from eight basaltic dikes from the Kappa Quarry, Koolau volcanic range in Oahu, Hawaii. The AMS fabric was determined as part of a study to investigate the influence of hydrothermal alteration by Krasa and Herrero-Bervera (2005). They found that hydrothermal alteration changes the bulk susceptibility and anisotropy degree, but AMS ellipsoid principal axes are not affected. Since hydrothermal alteration transforms the primary Ti-poor titanomagnetites into granular intergrowths of titanomagnetites, titanomaghemite and hematite, and that samples show varying degrees of alteration, the samples react differently to laboratory stepwise heating permitting study of thermal effects on the magnetic mineralogy, and AMS parameters and principal susceptibility axes. Further, thermal treatment results in fabric enhancement with reduced axial scatter associated with weak bulk susceptibilities and anisotropy degrees in the dikes. For the AMS experiment samples were heated progressively to temperatures up to 400° C or 560° C and the AMS measured after each step. AMS parameters and bulk susceptibility show changes with increasing temperature while the AMS

  8. Water in the Oceanic Lithosphere: Salt Lake Crater Xenoliths, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Water can be present in nominally anhydrous minerals of peridotites in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen. Such water in the oceanic upper mantle could have a significant effect on its physical and chemical properties. However, the water content of the MORB source has been inferred indirectly from the compositions of basalts. Direct determinations on abyssal peridotites are scarce because they have been heavily hydrothermally altered. Here we present the first water analyses of minerals from spinel peridotite xenoliths of Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are exceptionally fresh. These peridotites are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. A few have unradiogenic Os and radiogenic Hf isotopes and may be fragments of an ancient (2 Ga) depleted and recycled lithosphere. Water contents in olivine (Ol), orthopyroxene (Opx), and clinopyroxene (Cpx) were determined by FTIR spectrometry. Preliminary H_{2}O contents show ranges of 8-10 ppm for Ol, 151-277 ppm for Opx, and 337-603 ppm for Cpx. Reconstructed bulk rock H_{2}O contents range from 88-131 ppm overlapping estimates for the MORB source. Water contents between Ol minerals of the same xenolith are heterogeneous and individual OH infrared bands vary within a mineral with lower 3230 cm^{-1} and higher 3650-3400 cm^{-1} band heights from core to edge. This observation suggests disturbance of the hydrogen in Ol likely occurring during xenolith entrainment to the surface. Pyroxene water contents are higher than most water contents in pyroxenes from continental peridotite xenoliths and higher than those of abyssal peridotites. Cpx water contents decrease with increasing degree of depletion (e.g. increasing Fo in Ol and Cr# in spinel) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water. However Cpx water contents also show a positive correlation with LREE/HREE ratios and LREE concentrations consistent with refertilization. Opx water

  9. Variations in the Alkalinity of Seawater in Coastal Waters of Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. L.; De Carlo, E. H.; Drupp, P. S.; Terlouw, G.; Guidry, M.; Mackenzie, F. T.; Thompson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important component of the marine inorganic carbon system that, together with one of the other measurable parameters (i.e., pH, dissolved inorganic carbon-CT , pCO2) allows us to calculate the entire CO2-carbonic acid system. By measuring AT continuously at several coastal locations on coral reefs of Oahu, we can calculate a current rate of change in surface water conditions with respect to biogeochemical processes as well as the globally important issue of ocean acidification (OA). Previous work by Drupp et al (2011, 2013) has shown that parameters of the CO2-carbonic acid system display seasonal fluctuations as well as respond to short term rainfall events. This work expands the period of study through July 2014. The three sampling locations are vastly different in geographic and geochemical conditions. Kaneohe Bay is a protected embayment, with large freshwater inputs and long water residence time compared to the nearshore exposed waters at Kilo Nalu and Ala Wai. Variation in coral reef environments affect AT, thus making it crucial to sample multiple environments over an extended period of time to reveal changes in biogeochemistry. A typical sample from Kaneohe Bay (CRIMP-2) can be expected to have a AT value between 2134 umol/kg and 2279 umol/kg, Kilo Nalu: between 2263 umol/kg and 2350 umol/kg, Ala Wai: between 2263 umol/kg and 2335 umol/kg. In general, total alkalinity values from CRIMP-2 are lower than at Kilo Nalu or Ala Wai due to differences in coral reef environments. Our long-term record allows us to compare the behavior of Hawaiian reef waters to those of other tropical marine ecosystems. Furthermore, monitoring of AT over extended multiple years and multiple locations is essential to develop the time-series data necessary for continued evaluation of the impact of OA on coral reefs of the Hawaiian Islands.

  10. Pollen record from Ka'au Crater, Oahu, Hawaii: Evidence for a dry glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, S.C.; Juvik, J.O. Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo )

    1993-06-01

    Fossil pollen from a 3.5 m-long core from Ka'au Crater, Hawaii (elev. 460 m), yields a ca. 23,000-year record of regional vegetation history. Results indicate a full-glacial period drier and possibly cooler than present, a warmer and wetter early Holocene, and a somewhat drier late Holocene; this sequence agrees with earlier work by Selling (1948) on other islands. The oldest zone is donated by pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, Acacia koa, and Dodonaea viscosa; post-glacial pollen assemblages feature high percentages of Myrsine and Coprosma, followed by increases in Lycopodium cernuum Ilex anomala. Freycinetia arborea and Pritchardia. After about 8000 years ago, Chenopodium, Acacia, and Dodonaea increase, suggesting a return to drier conditions. Abundant pollen of Chenopodium oahuense, a plant of dry regions, during the last glacial maximum implies that neither the trade winds nor cyclonic storms were delivering as much moisture to the regional vegetation as they presently do. This suggests that the ocean surface temperature during the last glacial maximum may have been cooler than present, a finding contradictory to the reconstructions of the CLIMAP (1981) group, which show temperatures near Hawaii equal to or even warmer than present.

  11. A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy…

  12. Investigation of Waikele well no 2401-01, Oahu, Hawaii; pumping test, well logs and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Field tests indicate that an abandoned well (No. 2401-01) near the confluence of Waikele and Kipapa Streams, Oahu, Hawaii, can be reactivated to produce potable water at a rate of 400-500 gallons per minute. Previous tests in 1946 and 1954 indicated that the well tapped the brackish transition zone which inderlies the Ghyben-Herzberg lens of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Results of this study, based on geologic and geophysical logs of the wall, as well as on pumping test and water-quality data, indicate that the slightly brackish water produced by the well results from brackish irrigation return water. It does not appear that pumping from this well will cause seawater upconing or intrusion. (USGS)

  13. What factors have influenced implementation of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology program at two elementary schools on O'ahu, Hawai'i?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Lani L.

    This dissertation is a report of two hypothesis-generating qualitative case studies that investigated the factors that affected the successful school-wide implementation of the Developmental Approaches in Science, Health and Technology program, a spiraling, integrated, hands-on program for grades Kindergarten to 6 at two public elementary schools on the island of Oahu, in the state of Hawaii. Four key people were interviewed, 47 classrooms were observed three times each, and 41 of 48 teacher surveys were completed. An author-generated flow-of-influences conceptual framework based on other research findings about variables influencing the implementation of a curricular innovation delineates curricular, organizational, and external variables along with possible teacher-perceived outcomes. The results include 42 tables and 44 figures showing the many factors' positive and negative impacts on the schools' reform efforts. Eighteen hypotheses were generated. Well-planned implementations, strong administrative support and leadership, sustained follow-up support, and frequent collegial planning and sharing times seemed to have the greatest positive influences upon teacher confidence regarding program knowledge and sustained program use. More tenured teachers were using the program at levels equal to or greater than newer teachers until around twenty years of teaching experience, when there was a marked decline in program use.

  14. PROPOSALS FOR EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS, LEEWARD OAHU CAMPUS, HAWAII COMMUNITY COLLEGE SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWENSON, ROBERT E.

    INITIAL ENROLLMENT FOR THE LEEWARD OAHU CAMPUS IS EXPECTED TO BE 2,000 WITH AN ULTIMATE ENROLLMENT OF ABOUT 5,000. THE PROPOSALS SUBMITTED IN THE PLANNING REPORT CONTAIN MOST OF THE NECESSARY INFORMATION ON EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS TO ENABLE THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE STAFF AND THE ARCHITECTS TO PROCEED WITH THE CAMPUS MASTER…

  15. Detailed Directional Analyses of the Reunion Subchron (?) Recorded in the Koolau Volcanic Series, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, E. J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2003-12-01

    In order to investigate the volcanic evolution of the Koolau Volcano (one of the volcanoes that make up the island of Oahu) and the short-term behavior of the geomagnetic field, we have sampled a long volcanic section located on the butressed flank of the Koolau Volcano within the Halawa Valley. Prior paleomagnetic and radiometric investigations of the Koolau Volcano have reported excursional directions within the Koolau Volcanic Series (Site F of Doell and Dalrymple, 1973). The composition of the (100 m) thick sequence of lava flows, easy access, and close geographical proximity to dated flows made these excellent candidates for a detailed paleomagnetic analysis. The flows sampled were bounded between the current K-Ar dates obtained from adjacent lava flows (1.9 ñ 0.1 Ma to 2.2 ñ 0.1 Ma). At least eight samples were taken of each analyzed flow. Specimens of each sample were stepwise demagnetized by both alternating field (5mT to 100mT) and thermal (from 28oC to 575-650oC) methods, and the mean directions were obtained by principal component analysis. All samples have indicated a strong and stable ChRM trending towards the origin based on no less than seven to nine steps, with thermal and AF results agreeing to a very high degree. Low field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) analyses were conducted for individual lava flows, and the majority of them show reversible curves. Curie point determinations revealed a temperature close to or equal to 580oC, indicative of almost pure magnetite for most of the flows. The mean directions of magnetization of the entire section sampled indicate that about 10 m of the section are characterized by excursional directions. The calculated corresponding VGPs are located at equatorial latitudes and on the central and south part of Africa with a few of the other ones close to the west part of Australia. These excursional directions place important constraints to the entire volcanic evolution of the Koolau edifice since they

  16. Geohydrology and Possible Transport Routes of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Haiku Valley, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Hill, Barry R.; Shade, Patricia J.; Tribble, Gordon W.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, seepage runs, water-budget computation, analysis of stream-gaging records, study of stream sediment, and measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was used to investigate the geohydrology and possible routes of PCB transport from areas of possible contamination in the U.S. Coast Guard's Omega Station in Haiku Valley, Oahu, Hawaii. The PCBs were a contaminant in fuel that was sprayed on vegetation and ignited during defoliation efforts at the Omega Station. Haiku Valley is a stream valley eroded into a thick section of dike-intruded, highly permeable lava flows. The valley is partly filled with alluvium, pyroclastics and massive lava flows. A shallow aquifer system is formed by a permeable unit of pyroclastics which is bounded below by less permeable alluvium, massive lava flows, and weathered basalt. A deeper aquifer system is present in the dike-intruded lava flows. Much of the area of suspected PCB-contaminated fuel application in Haiku Valley is situated on the geologic unit that forms the shallow aquifer. A water budget calculated for the drainage area of a stream-gaging station (16275000) at the downgradient boundary of the Omega Station indicates that the shallow and deep aquifers receive recharge of 5.1 cubic feet per second from the 0.98 square-mile drainage area; approximately 10 percent of the drainage area is suspected to have been contaminated by PCBs. Approximately 4 cubic feet per second of water is withdrawn from the aquifers by a well and a water tunnel in the valley, but the geology of the area indicates that some of the water withdrawn by the tunnel also comes from recharge beyond the surface-water divides of Haiku Valley. Base flow to the stream is about 1.2 cubic feet per second. A water-balance calculation between recharge, well and tunnel withdrawals, and stream base flow, indicates that 1.0 cubic feet per second or more of the water recharging the drainage area may travel through the subsurface and

  17. New plant records from Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Bio, Keali'i F.

    2012-01-01

    The following plant records from the island of Hawai'i include 2 new state records, 6 new island records, 3 new records of naturalized species previously known to be present on the island, and 1 range extension of an orchid recently reported as naturalized. All cited voucher specimens are deposited at BISH.

  18. The Islands Are Different: Human Perceptions of Game Species in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Cheryl A.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Johnson, Edwin D.

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs ( Sus scrofa), goats ( Capra hircus), mouflon ( Ovis musimon), axis deer ( Axis axis), turkeys ( Melagris gallopavo), and doves ( Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned ( n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents.

  19. The islands are different: human perceptions of game species in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Johnson, Edwin D

    2014-10-01

    Hawaii's game animals are all non-native species, which provokes human-wildlife conflict among stakeholders. The management of human-wildlife conflict in Hawaii is further complicated by the discrete nature of island communities. Our goal was to understand the desires and perceived values or impacts of game held by residents of Hawaii regarding six game species [pigs (Sus scrofa), goats (Capra hircus), mouflon (Ovis musimon), axis deer (Axis axis), turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), and doves (Geopelia striata)]. We measured the desired abundance of game on the six main Hawaiian Islands using the potential for conflict index and identified explanatory variables for those desires via recursive partitioning. In 2011 we surveyed 5,407 residents (2,360 random residents and 3,047 pre-identified stakeholders). Overall 54.5 and 27.6 % of the emailed and mailed surveys were returned (n = 1,510). A non-respondent survey revealed that respondents and non-respondents had similar interest in wildlife, and a similar education level. The desired abundance of game differed significantly among stakeholders, species, and islands. The desired abundance scores were higher for axis deer, mouflon, and turkeys compared to pigs, goats or doves. Enjoyment at seeing game and the cultural value of game were widespread explanatory variables for desired abundance. Models for Lanai emphasized the economic value of game, whereas models for Maui identified the potential for game to contaminate soil and water. Models for Oahu and Kauai revealed concern for human health and safety. Given our findings we recommend managers design separate management plans for each island taking into consideration the values of residents. PMID:25129387

  20. University of Hawaii Community Colleges Strategic Plan, 2002-2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    This strategic plan for the University of Hawaii Community Colleges (UHCC) addresses the following issues: (1) Philosophy; (2) Mission; (3) State-Wide Reach; (4) Board of Regents Statement on UHCC Mission; and (5) Organization. UHCC consists of seven campuses, four on Oahu, and one each on the islands of Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. Each campus offers…

  1. Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

    2012-08-01

    The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined

  2. Fostering Earth Science Inquiry From Within a Native Hawaiian Cultural Framework In O`ahu (Hawai`i) Through A Multidisciplinary Place-Based High School Summer Enrichment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxey, L.; Dias, R.; Legaspi, E.

    2010-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, twenty-five public high school students from underrepresented communities and ethnicities (Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, Sāmoan, Filipino, Pacific Islander) in O`ahu (Hawai`i) participated in the Mālama Ke Ahupua`a (protecting our watershed) program. This rigorous three-week hands-on, place-based multidisciplinary program provided students with the opportunity of visiting the Mānoa Valley watershed (O`ahu, Hawaii) for learning and experiencing the Earth Science System dynamics that comprises it, while simultaneously exploring the significance of the ahupua`a (watershed) as related to native Hawaiian history and culture. While earning Hawaii DOE-approved academic credit, students utilized GPS/GIS technology, quantitative water quality testing equipment, and environmental monitoring tools for performing a watershed survey and water quality study of Mānoa Stream (Mānoa Valley) from its inception in the mountains, its advance through Honolulu’s urbanized areas, and its convergence with the Pacific Ocean. Through this hands-on field-based study, students documented changes in the watershed’s environment as reflected in declining water quality induced by anthropogenic pollution sources and urbanization. Students also visited relevant native Hawaiian cultural sites in Mānoa, and explored their direct links with the historical sustainable usage of the watershed’s natural resources, both from a cultural and science-based perspective. Finally, traditional wa`a (native Hawaiian outrigger canoes) were used as both cultural resources for discussing ancient Polynesian exploration, as well as scientific research platforms for conducting near-shore reef surveys & assessments. This program served to promote not only Earth Science literacy and STEM skills, but also contributed to further environmental stewardship while fostering native Hawaiian & Polynesian cultural identities.

  3. Cloud patterns lee of Hawaii Island: A synthesis of satellite observations and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Xie, Shang-Ping; Hafner, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Standing well above the trade wind inversion, Hawaii Island (maximum elevation ˜4.2 km) splits the northeast trade winds and induces a westerly reverse flow in the wake. Satellite observations and regional model simulations are used to investigate circulation effects on lee cloud formation during summer. Over the island, the cloud distribution is consistent with orographic-induced vertical motions. Over the lee ocean, our analysis reveals a cloud band that extends southwestward over a few tens of kilometers from the southwest coast of the island. This southwest lee cloud band is most pronounced in the afternoon, anchored by strong convergence and maintained by in situ cloud production in the upward motion. Such an offshore cloud band is not found off the northwest coast, an asymmetry possibly due to the Coriolis effect on the orographic flow. Off the Kona coast, the dynamically induced westerly reverse flow keeps the wake cool and nearly free of clouds during the day. Along the Kona coast, clouds are blown offshore from the island by the easterly trades in the afternoon in a layer above the reverse flow. Deprived of in situ production, these afternoon Kona coast clouds dissipate rapidly offshore. At night, the offshore land/valley breezes converge onto the onshore reverse flow, and a cloud deck forms on and off the Kona coast, bringing nighttime rain as observed at land stations. To illustrate the circulation effect, lee cloud formation is compared between tall Hawaii and short Kauai/Oahu Islands, which feature the flow-around and flow-over regimes, respectively. Effects of trade wind strength on the leeside cloudiness are also studied.

  4. Distribution of Parmarion cf. martensi (Pulmonata: Helicarionidae), a New Semi-Slug Pest on Hawai‘i Island, and Its Potential as a Vector for Human Angiostrongyliasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The semi-slug, Parmarion cf. martensi Simroth, 1893, was first discovered on Oahu, Hawaii in 1996 and then on the island of Hawaii in 2004. This species has become abundant in eastern Hawaii island, reportedly displacing the Cuban slug, Veronicella cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1840) in some areas. A survey i...

  5. Results from the Southeast Oahu, Hawaii, Shoreline Erosion Study Utilizing the PX and PXT Shoreline Erosion Rate Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Genz, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Frazer, L. N.; Barbee, M. M.; Lim, S.; Dyer, M.

    2007-12-01

    It is imperative that coastal erosion studies produce valid erosion rates and erosion hazard predictions to aid in the development of public policy and protect coastal resources. Currently, the Single-Transect method is the most common shoreline change model, which calculates a rate at each shore-normal transect without regard to influences of data from adjacent transects along a beach. Improving on Single-Transect, the University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group has developed the PX (Polynomial in distance X) and PXT (Polynomial in distance X and Time) shoreline change rate calculation methods, which model all the shoreline positions within a beach simultaneously using polynomial techniques. PX is a special case of PXT that models shoreline change rates spatially along a beach. PXT not only models the shoreline change spatially, but it lets the rate change with time (acceleration). This is an important advance, as beaches may not erode or accrete at a constant (linear) rate. A linear sum of basis functions characterizes the shoreline change rate for both PX and PXT. These methods are an improvement on previous methods as they produce more meaningful, i.e., statistically significant rates and erosion hazard predictions. We use an information criterion (gMDL) to (1) identify the number of coefficients of the basis functions that are needed to describe shoreline change in PX and PXT, and (2) compare different methods to determine which method best describes shoreline change. The southeast coastline of Oahu, Hawaii, features a range of beach morphologies and littoral dynamics well suited for further testing of the PX and PXT shoreline change rate calculation methods. The PX and PXT methods find significant rates for 70% of the study area versus 28% significant rates with the Single-Transect method. In companion with the work presented by Ayesha Genz on the PX and PXT rate methods, we present results from the Southeast Oahu Shoreline Study as a demonstration of the

  6. Geohydrology of the Central Oahu, Hawaii, Ground-Water Flow System and Numerical Simulation of the Effects of Additional Pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model was developed for the central Oahu flow system, which is the largest and most productive ground-water flow system on the island. The model is based on the computer code SHARP which simulates both freshwater and saltwater flow. The ground-water model was developed using average pumping and recharge conditions during the 1950's, which was considered to be a steady-state period. For 1950's conditions, model results indicate that 62 percent (90.1 million gallons per day) of the discharge from the Schofield ground-water area flows southward and the remaining 38 percent (55.2 million gallons per day) of the discharge from Schofield flows northward. Although the contribution of recharge from infiltration of rainfall and irrigation water directly on top of the southern and northern Schofield ground-water dams was included in the model, the distribution of natural discharge from the Schofield ground-water area was estimated exclusive of the recharge on top of the dams. The model was used to investigate the long-term effects of pumping under future land-use conditions. Future recharge was conservatively estimated by assuming no recharge associated with agricultural activities. Future pumpage used in the model was based on the 1995-allocated rates. Model results indicate that the long-term effect of pumping at the 1995-allocated rates will be a reduction of water levels from present (1995) conditions in all ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system. In the Schofield ground-water area, model results indicate that water levels could decline about 30 feet from the 1995 water-level altitude of about 275 feet. In the remaining ground-water areas of the central Oahu flow system, water levels may decline from less than 1 foot to as much as 12 feet relative to 1995 water levels. Model results indicate that the bottoms of several existing deep wells in northern and southern Oahu extend below the model

  7. Fluvial fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter, and nutrients and potential impacts on tropical coastal water Biogeochemistry: Oahu, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, D.J.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Baseflow and storm runoff fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and nutrients (N and P) were assessed in conservation, urban, and agricultural streams discharging to coastal waters around the tropical island of Oahu, Hawai'i. Despite unusually low storm frequency and intensity during the study, storms accounted for 8-77% (median 30%) of discharge, 57-99% (median 93%) of SPM fluxes, 11-79% (median 36%) of dissolved nutrient fluxes and 52-99% (median 85%) of particulate nutrient fluxes to coastal waters. Fluvial nutrient concentrations varied with hydrologic conditions and land use; land use also affected water and particulate fluxes at some sites. Reactive dissolved N:P ratios typically were ???16 (the 'Redfield ratio' for marine phytoplankton), indicating that inputs could support new production by coastal phytoplankton, but uptake of dissolved nutrients is probably inefficient due to rapid dilution and export of fluvial dissolved inputs. Particulate N and P fluxes were similar to or larger than dissolved fluxes at all sites (median 49% of total nitrogen, range 22-82%; median 69% of total phosphorus, range 49-93%). Impacts of particulate nutrients on coastal ecosystems will depend on how efficiently SPM is retained in nearshore areas, and on the timing and degree of transformation to reactive dissolved forms. Nevertheless, the magnitude of particulate nutrient fluxes suggests that they represent a significant nutrient source for many coastal ecosystems over relatively long time scales (weeks-years), and that reductions in particulate nutrient loading actually may have negative impacts on some coastal ecosystems.

  8. Uncertainty in recharge estimation: impact on groundwater vulnerability assessments for the Pearl Harbor Basin, O'ahu, Hawai'i, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.; Nullet, Michael A.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, uncertainty in recharge estimates is investigated relative to its impact on assessments of groundwater contamination vulnerability using a relatively simple pesticide mobility index, attenuation factor (AF). We employ a combination of first-order uncertainty analysis (FOUA) and sensitivity analysis to investigate recharge uncertainties for agricultural land on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, that is currently, or has been in the past, under sugarcane or pineapple cultivation. Uncertainty in recharge due to recharge component uncertainties is 49% of the mean for sugarcane and 58% of the mean for pineapple. The components contributing the largest amounts of uncertainty to the recharge estimate are irrigation in the case of sugarcane and precipitation in the case of pineapple. For a suite of pesticides formerly or currently used in the region, the contribution to AF uncertainty of recharge uncertainty was compared with the contributions of other AF components: retardation factor (RF), a measure of the effects of sorption; soil-water content at field capacity (ΘFC); and pesticide half-life (t1/2). Depending upon the pesticide, the contribution of recharge to uncertainty ranks second or third among the four AF components tested. The natural temporal variability of recharge is another source of uncertainty in AF, because the index is calculated using the time-averaged recharge rate. Relative to the mean, recharge variability is 10%, 44%, and 176% for the annual, monthly, and daily time scales, respectively, under sugarcane, and 31%, 112%, and 344%, respectively, under pineapple. In general, uncertainty in AF associated with temporal variability in recharge at all time scales exceeds AF. For chemicals such as atrazine or diuron under sugarcane, and atrazine or bromacil under pineapple, the range of AF uncertainty due to temporal variability in recharge encompasses significantly higher levels of leaching potential at some locations than that indicated by the

  9. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    1997-01-01

    People on the Island of Hawai'i face many hazards that come with living on or near active volcanoes. These include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis (giant seawaves). As the population of the island grows, the task of reducing the risk from volcano hazards becomes increasingly difficult. To help protect lives and property, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory closely monitor and study Hawai'i's volcanoes and issue timely warnings of hazardous activity.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1413 - Regulated navigation area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Evacuation; Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Honolulu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the... RNA transits and locations. Operations permitting, the Coast Guard plans to provide on-scene direction... remain inside the RNA must abide by the following stipulations: (1) No person or vessel may enter into...

  11. Evaluation and Optimization of CMIP5 Data using an Artificial Neural Network for Dynamical Downscaling of rainfall on Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Pao-Shin; Holloway, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Understanding long-term changes of rainfall is important for water resources planning and development. General Circulation Models (GCMs) such as those used in CMIP5 have undergone significant improvements since the early development of Numerical Weather Prediction. CMIP5's RCP8.5 experiment was comprised of over 20 different GCM configurations using various parameterization schemes and initial conditions to project the future climate in response to anthropogenic warming. However due to coarse spatial resolution and simple parameterization schemes of GCMs, current rainfall estimates and future rainfall projections are often unrealistic, especially for small islands with complex terrains such as the Hawaiian Islands. Recent advancements in mesoscale meteorology have helped develop limited area Regional Climate Models (RCMs) such as WRF-ARW that have the ability to estimate and project high-resolution rainfall at smaller scales, in our case down to 1.1km. RCMs often use GCM output for their initial lateral boundary conditions and prescribed land surface conditions. In the original WRF system, there is a land surface model but small Hawaiian Islands such as Oahu is not well represented in the land surface datasets of the official WRF model release. Therefore, we made effort to improve land surface characteristics (e.g., albedo, green vegetation fraction) suitable for 1.1 km domain over Oahu. Since high-resolution RCM output is forced by the lateral boundary conditions, we see significant variations in estimated and future projected rainfall depending on which GCM was chosen to force the RCM. To combat this issue we implement an Artificial Neural Network using a simple Sequential Learning Algorithm (SLA) to evaluate the GCM's ability to simulate the current climate, allowing us to choose the optimum lateral boundary conditions that drive the RCM. In our study we use CMIP5's monthly means output from several different models that included both the Historical and RCP8

  12. Site selection for concentrated solar thermal systems in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report identifies ares on the five major islands (Oahu, Maui, Molakai, Hawaii, and Kauai) that have the potential for concentrating solar thermal applications. The locations are based on existing solar insolation (mostly global and some direct normal) data, other meteorological information, land use, potential end-use, and existing facilities. These areas are: - Western coast of Oahu, especially near Kahe Point - Maui plains area - South-Central Molokai - Kona coast of the Big Island, especially Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii - Western and southern areas of Kauai. Monitoring stations are recommended at some of these sites to obtain direct normal insolation data for future evaluation.

  13. Coastal CO2 climatology of Oahu, Hawaii: Six years of high resolution time-series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terlouw, G. J.; Drupp, P. S.; De Carlo, E. H.; Tomlinson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Six years of high resolution pCO2, water quality, and meteorological data were used to calculate air-sea CO2 fluxes on yearly, seasonal and monthly timescales, and relate the temporal and spatial variation in CO2 fluxes to meteorological events and land derived inputs. Three MAPCO2 buoys are deployed in coastal waters of Oahu as part of the NOAA/PMEL Carbon Program, that autonomously collects CO2 and water quality data at 3-hour intervals. The buoys are located on a backreef in Kaneohe Bay and two fringing reef sites on Oahu's south shore, the latter two in open ocean like conditions but with one also influenced by fluvial inputs. Data for this study were collected from June 2008 to July 2014. Mean pCO2 values at the Ala Wai, Kilo Nalu and CRIMP2 buoys were 396, 381 and 447μatm, respectively, with mean daily ranges of 51, 32 and 190 μatm, respectively. The daily range in pCO2 is largest at CRIMP2, reflecting a combination of higher primary production and respiration, vigorous calcification and longer water residence time within the barrier reef environment. Net annualized air-sea CO2 fluxes of the entire study period were 0.083, -0.014 and 1.167 mol C m-2 year-1 for Ala Wai, Kilo Nalu and CRIMP2, respectively. Positive values indicate a CO2 flux from the water to the atmosphere (source behavior), and negative values from the atmosphere to the water (sink behavior). This presentation will also discuss the effects physical and biogeochemical processes on the magnitude and variability of air-sea CO2 fluxes. We observe a negative correlation between CO2 flux and rainfall over monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales. This correlation however, can partly be explained by temperature, because increased rainfall is more common during the colder winter months. Nevertheless, rainfall affects CO2 fluxes, both by rain-induced nutrient and organic matter runoff, as well as the physical effect of raindrops on air-sea gas exchange and the dilution of the air-sea boundary layer

  14. ASTER Images the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the Island of Hawaii were acquired on March 19, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Data are shown from the short wavelength and thermal infrared spectral regions, illustrating how different and complementary information is contained in different parts of the spectrum.

    Left image: This false-color image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 120 kilometers (75 miles) long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region. While, much of the island was covered in clouds, the dominant central Mauna Loa volcano, rising to an altitude of 4115 meters (13,500 feet), is cloud-free. Lava flows can be seen radiating from the central crater in green and black tones. As they reach lower elevations, the flows become covered with vegetation, and their image color changes to yellow and orange. Mauna Kea volcano to the north of Mauna Loa has a thin cloud-cover, producing a bluish tone on the image. The ocean in the lower right appears brown due to the color processing.

    Right image: This image is a false-color composite of three thermal infrared bands. The brightness of the colors is proportional to the temperature, and the hues display differences in rock composition. Clouds are black, because they are the coldest objects in the scene. The ocean and thick vegetation appear dark green because they are colder than bare rock surfaces, and have no thermal spectral features. Lava flows are shades of magenta, green, pink and yellow, reflecting chemical changes due to weathering and relative age differences.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  15. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume II. Infrastructure and community-services requirements, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, G.A.; Buevens, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    The requirements of infrastructure and community services necessary to accommodate the development of geothermal energy on the Island of Hawaii for electricity production are identified. The following aspects are covered: Puna District-1981, labor resources, geothermal development scenarios, geothermal land use, the impact of geothermal development on Puna, labor resource requirments, and the requirements for government activity.

  16. Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    The Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program has succeeded unequivocally in determining the feasibility of deploying a submarine power cable system between the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. Major accomplishments of the program include designing, fabricating and testing an appropriate power cable, developing an integrated system to control all aspects of the cable laying operation, and testing all deployment systems at sea in the most challenging sections of the route.

  17. Evolution of the lithosphere beneath Oahu, Hawaii: rare earth element abundances in mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Gautam; Frey, Frederick A.; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Leeman, William P.

    1993-08-01

    Rare earth element contents of clinopyroxenes in Hawaiian mantle xenoliths from Oahu were determined with an ion microprobe. The analyzed xenoliths are from four vents of the alkali Honolulu Volcanics (HV). Three (Kaau, Pali and Kalihi—KPK) are located close to the caldera of the extinct Koolau shield volcano, and the fourth, Salt Lake Crater (SLC), is on the periphery of the shield volcano. Systematic differences exist in REE contents between clinopyroxenes of the KPK and SLC xenoliths: (1) KPK pyroxenes are typically zoned in REE contents whereas SLC pyroxenes are homogeneous, (2) the LREE-depleted (chondrite-normalized) patterns that characterize many of the KPK xenoliths are not found in SLC xenoliths, and (3) the convex-upward REE patterns that are characteristic of SLC xenoliths are not found in KPK xenoliths. Relative to abyssal peridotites, the LREE-depleted Hawaiian lherzolite pyroxenes (interpreted to be residual oceanic lithosphere) have higher contents of REE, Na 2O, TiO 2 and FeO, and more modal clinopyroxene. These LREE-depleted Hawaiian xenoliths represent deeper, less-depleted parts of the melting column, whereas the abyssal peridotites represent the uppermost, more strongly depleted part of the mantle. The spoon-shaped, LREE-enriched and convex-upward REE patterns in the xenoliths have resulted from metasomatic enrichment of the lithosphere caused by reaction with magmas that formed the Honolulu Volcanics. A model for the evolution of the oceanic lithosphere is presented in which fractures were the main mode of transport of the Honolulu Volcanics. Metasomatic enrichment resulted from interaction between percolating Honolulu Volcanics magmas and wallrock. The differences between SLC and KPK xenoliths are attributed to chromatographic fractionation effects: SLC xenoliths are postulated to have come from a greater depth where they equilibrated to a larger extent with the percolating magmas than the KPK rocks.

  18. Oahu: Perspective from Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gary E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a photograph of the Hawaiian island, Oahu, as taken by the Landsat 2 satellite on February 14, 1978. A description of Landsat 2 remote sensing procedures and discussion of the topographical details shown in the photograph are included. (AM)

  19. Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for volcano boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii is the geologic map of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active volcanoes. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).

  20. Relatively Recent Volcanism on Oahu, Hawaii: New U-series and Paleomagnetic Age Constraints on the Hanauma Bay Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Jurado-Chichay, Z.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Koko Rift Zone (KRZ), eastern Oahu, is generally regarded as among the youngest volcanic features on the island. Previous workers have suggested that the 9 or 10 vents of this rift erupted near-simultaneously. However, K-Ar data in the literature (32-39 ka vs 320 ka) provide only general guidance on the youthfulness of these eruptions. We present new age constraints on KRZ volcanism using deposits of the phreatomagmatic eruption that produced Hanauma Bay (a popular snorkeling spot) and spatially associated lava flows. Numerous continuous basaltic ash units within the walls of Hanauma crater contain lithic fragments of well-preserved coral reef, beach rock, and marine mollusks, indicating that the eruption occurred in a near shore environment. 238U-234U-230Th dating of coral clasts in the deposit demonstrates that the eruption breached reef of MIS stage 7 age (200 +/- 30 ka), thereby ruling out the K-Ar age of 320 ka. U-series nuclides in "normal" MIS 7 coral lithics are indistinguishable from those in the island encircling Waianae Reef of the same age. However, U-series components in some originally aragonitic coral clasts were offset during the eruption when the rims recrystallized to calcite. 87Sr/86Sr, 234U/238U and Sr and U concentration indicate chemical mixing with host basaltic ash during this event, from which potential ages of the eruption can be constructed using isochron methods. More modeling of the data remains to be done but our preliminary estimate places the eruption at less than 100 ka. This result is consistent with new data on paleointensity and paleomagnetic secular variation within the lava flows exposed in or around the crater. This U-series dating approach should prove useful for eruptions in other locales where carbonate bioclast lithics are present in the deposits.

  1. Benthic infaunal communities around two artificial reefs in Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2008-04-01

    Non-fishery use of artificial reefs has been given attention in recent years. The primary concern associated with non-fishery artificial reefs is their effects to the surrounding ecosystems. This study examined the infaunal communities around two non-fishery artificial reefs (the sunken vessels YO257 and Sea Tiger) in Mamala Bay, Hawaii. Infaunal community structures at these artificial reefs were relatively similar to one at a nearly natural patch reef. A large amount of basalt gravel around YO257 associated with its deployment operation possibly had an effect on the surrounding community by increasing pore space. Polychaete assemblages were compared with existing data throughout the bay, and this revealed that the variation in sediment grain sizes and depths seemed to play some role in structuring the polychaete communities. Nevertheless, the infaunal communities around the artificial reefs were typical and within the range of natural variation in Mamala Bay, supporting their beneficial uses in ecotourism. PMID:18158181

  2. Techniques for assessing the wind energy resource in Hawaii and Pacific Islands region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the procedures utilized in preparing the Wind Energy Resource Atlas: Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region and contrasts these methods with those used in the other regional assessments. Techniques generally paralleled those of the northwest wind resource assessment. Quality of data bases differed drastically between Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. For example, research data sets constituted a primary data source for Hawaii, but such sets were nonexistent for the Pacific Islands. Forest Service data had minor impact in Hawaii, none in the Pacific Islands. Many Pacific Island anemometers are poorly exposed since limited open spaces exist on small atolls.

  3. Quality of storm-water runoff, Mililani Town, Oahu, Hawaii, 1980-84

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, C.M.; Lum, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The data included results from analyses of 300 samples of storm water runoff. Turbidity, suspended solids, Kjeldahl nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations exceeded the State of Hawaii Department of Health's streamwater standards in more than 50% of the samples. Mercury, lead, and fecal coliform bacteria levels exceeded the US EPAs recommended criteria for either freshwater aquatic life or shellfish harvesting waters in more than half the samples. Other constituents exceeding State or federal standards in at least one sample included pH, cadmium, nitrate plus nitrite, iron, alkalinity, manganese, chromium, copper, zinc, and the pesticides. No statistically significant relationships were found between quantity of runoff and concentration of water quality constituents. A first flush effect was observed for chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, lead, nitrate plus nitrite, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved solids, and mercury. There were significant differences between the two basins for values of discharge, turbidity, specific conductance, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphorus, lead, dissolved solids, and mercury. The larger basin had higher median and maximum values, and wider ranges of values. 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Isotope and trace element characteristics of Waianae Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii: evidence for crustal melting in Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zander, I.; Sinton, J. M.; Mahaoney, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Well-exposed sections within the 3-4 Ma Waianae Volcano of Oahu, Hawaii, encompass much of the Hawaiian volcano "life" cycle, ranging from early or main shield stage (Lualualei) through late shield (Kamaileunu) to postshield (Palehua and Kolekole) stage. New data on 25 samples indicate a relatively restricted range in Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios. 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70352 to 0.70379, \\UpsilonNd from +4.5 to +6.7 and 206Pb/204Pb 17.793 to 18.295. The largest range within the sample suite occurs in the shield stage lavas (Lualualei and Kamaileunu), suggesting less time for homogenization of magma in a magma chamber(s) during this period. The late shield stage contains silicic lavas and dikes (basaltic icelandites, icelandites and rhyodacites). In 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb or ^{208}Pb/204Pb diagrams, most shield and postshield lavas fall on a single array, which may be a binary (or pseudo-binary) mixing array. However, data for the silicic lavas lie well off the array at low 206Pb/204Pb (~17.8). Incompatible-element patterns for these samples are distinct in having peaks at Pb. Greater scatter in Sr-Pb and Nd-Pb isotope diagrams compared to Pb-Pb isotope diagrams suggests that the variations in Sr-Pb and Nd-Pb isotope diagrams are related to fractionation of Sr, Nd and Pb by different degrees of melting of different components. Geochemical modeling of the isotopic and trace element data suggests that the silicic lavas (which are petrographically, chemically and mineralogically calc-alkalic) likely represent hydrous melts of amphibolite in the lower Hawaiian crust. We propose that the occurrence of these lavas in the late shield stage results from deep crustal melting as a consequence of compression and crustal thickening after the accumulation and alteration of a thick pile of lavas earlier in the shield stage. The Koolau Volcano's late shield (Makapuu stage) exhibits similar Pb isotope ratios, perhaps indicating that the "exotic" Koolau component might

  5. Origin of the Honolulu Volcanics Series (Oahu, Hawaii) From High Precision Pb Isotope Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J.; Garcia, M. O.

    2005-12-01

    The origin and sources of rejuvenated volcanism in Hawaii has been long debated with the depleted isotopic features commonly attributed to assimilation of the 110 Ma-old Pacific oceanic lithosphere underlying Hawaii. Alternatively, it has been recently suggested that this depleted component is a long-lived feature intrinsic to the Hawaiian plume [1, 2]. Here, we report triple-spike Pb isotope data on lavas erupted from the different evolutionary stages of Koolau volcano, including the rejuvenated Honolulu Volcanics Series (HVS), the main shield stage lavas, sampled by the Koolau Scientific Drilling Project (KSDP) and late-shield Makapuu subaerial lavas [3]. These data demonstrate the existence of compositional source variations throughout the evolution of the volcano. In addition, we obtained new Pb isotope data on basalts from ODP Site 843, located 225 km southwest of Honolulu which sampled 110 Ma-old Pacific crust. If these data are representative of the local oceanic crust and mantle, then the Hawaiian Pacific lithosphere is not a viable source component for the rejuvenated Honolulu Volcanics. Despite a narrow range in Pb isotope ratios, both the KSDP and HVS lavas define linear isotope arrays in Pb isotope space. While the two arrays have distinct slopes in 208Pb-206Pb space, suggesting the involvement of at least three Pb components, the two datasets overlap in 207Pb-206Pb space due to the extremely limited variation (< 1per mil) in 207Pb/204Pb ratios. By comparison, ODP site 843 basalts have significantly more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions and form a linear Pb isotope array distinct from that of the HVS, although lying within the field of present-day EPR MORB [4]. Thus, there appears to be no major differences in the Pb isotopic character of ''old'' vs. ''young'' Pacific MORB. We infer that three distinct Pb components were involved in the source of Koolau: (1) an EM-type component, corresponding to the so-called ''Koolau component'', predominantly

  6. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., or the Virgin Islands. (a) When is an increased mortgage limit permitted for these areas? For Alaska, Guam, Hawaii or the Virgin Islands, the Commissioner may increase the maximum mortgage amount...

  7. New geologic map of the Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward; Morris, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping on the Island of Hawaii is compiled in a detailed new 1:100,000-scale geologic map. The lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of each volcano are assigned to major lithostratigraphic units based on lithology and stratigraphic relations. However, the emphasis of the map is strongly chronostratigraphic. Lavas of latest Pleistocene and Holocene age, which form almost all of the surface area of the Island's three active volcanoes, Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai, are divided, on the basis of field relations and radiocarbon ages, into six to eight chronostratigraphic groups. The map constitutes a detailed database for geologic analysis and resource assessment.

  8. Hoea Ea: Land Education and Food Sovereignty in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manulani Aluli

    2014-01-01

    This short piece offers two literal and figurative snapshots of what land education looks like in action in Hawaii. The first snapshot depicts a contemporary example of Indigenous Hawaiian taro cultivation in the Limahuli valley on the island of Kauai. The second snapshot illustrates the food sovereignty movement in Waianae, Oahu located at the…

  9. 40-MW(e) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: a case study of potential biological impacts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.T.

    1987-02-01

    Construction and operation of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility will affect marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. The nature and degree of OTEC environmental impacts have been subjects of numerous studies and reports. The proposed 40-MWe OTEC plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii has been the focus of much of the work. The first section provides a summary of pertinent design features of the proposed plant, including standard operating parameters. Next, salient elements of the biological oceanography in the region of the proposed development are summarized. The following sections discuss expected impacts of construction and operation of the plant, and finally, significant aspects of modeling studies conducted in support of the Kahe OTEC plant development are presented.

  10. Volcanic and seismic hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1990-01-01

    The eruptions of volcanoes often have direct, dramatic effects on the lives of people and on their property. People who live on or near active volcanoes can benefit greatly from clear, scientific information about the volcanic and seismic hazards of the area. This booklet provides such information for the residents of Hawaii so they may effectively deal with the special geologic hazards of the island. Identifying and evaluating possible geologic hazards is one of the principal roles of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. When USGS scientists recognize a potential hazard, such as an impending eruption, they notify the appropriate government officials, who in turn are responsible for advising the public to evacuate certain areas or to take other actions to insure their safety. This booklet was prepared in cooperation with the Hawaii County Civil Defense Agency.

  11. Anomalous isotopes and trace element zoning in plagioclase peridotite xenoliths of Oahu (Hawaii): implications for the Hawaiian plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Gautam; Yang, Huai-Jen; Ducea, Mihai

    2003-02-01

    Survival of plagioclase in the residual melting column during melting can have a significant impact on the melting process beneath a mid-oceanic ridge [Asimow et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 355 (1997) 255-281]. Here we investigate the origin of plagioclase that occurs in some rare mantle xenoliths from Oahu, Hawaii. The xenoliths are harzburgitic with less than 2 modal% clinopyroxene and are characterized by strong foliation and porphyroclastic texture. Olivine and orthopyroxene are common porphyroclasts; and only one xenolith (77PAII-9) contains a single large clinopyroxene porphyroclast with thick exsolved orthopyroxene lamellae. The strongly foliated groundmass shows well-developed triple-point junctions and is dominantly composed of olivine (ol 85-90 opx 7-14 cpx <1-2 plag 3-5 spinel trace). Spinel grains are small and dispersed through the groundmass and show extreme variation in Cr/Al ratio within individual thin sections, indicating that they are out of equilibrium with the other phases in these xenoliths. A highly anorthitic plagioclase (An 92-96) occurs only in the groundmass and its modal abundance (˜3-5%) is too high relative to the abundance of clinopyroxene (commonly <1%) for it to be a residual phase, implying that plagioclase may have an exotic origin. The porphyroclasts show strong compositional zoning near the rims and appear to be relict phases (as are all the spinel grains) that had once equilibrated with melts within the stability field of spinel peridotite (pressure ˜1-3 GPa). Clinopyroxene neoblasts and the single porphyroclast in PAII-9 are all characterized by lithosphere-like strongly depleted light rare earth element (chondrite-normalized) patterns. The clinopyroxene porphyroclast in PAII-9 is zoned in Al, Eu, Cr, and Na. The porphyroclastic ortho- and clinopyroxenes give a homogenized (host+exsolution) temperature of 1300°C, which is inferred to be the temperature at which the porphyroclast cores equilibrated with a MORB

  12. Regional Localization with the Hawaii Island Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, A. B.; Garces, M. A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Big Island of Hawaii is home to an extensive network of infrasound arrays, with additional arrays in Maui and Kauai. Four of the six Hawaii arrays are focused on Kilauea volcano. This project examines several methods for estimating source location, onset time, duration, and source energetics from regional infrasonic signals, with an emphasis on improving signal characterization. Diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional sources provide a data set for addressing localization with the Hawaii network. Explosions at the Pohakuloa Training Area, rock falls within the Halema'uma'u vent, and a repetitive unknown signal off the coast of Maui supply transient signals with known and unknown locations. In addition, Halema'uma'u and Pu'u O'o vents both produce infrasonic tremor with known locations. Well-constrained signal discrimination and characterization is essential for good location results. This paper presents progress in signal processing, feature extraction, and event association with standardized, self-similar, logarithmic time-frequency multiresolution algorithms. The Infrasonic Energy, Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite of Garces (2013) is used in conjunction with the PMCC4 array processing algorithm to extract standardized signal features and parameters for improved regional association, localization, and source characterization.

  13. Food-related Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Ages 9-13 and Their Mothers on O'ahu, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Michelle; Delormier, Treena; Banna, Jinan

    2016-04-01

    A number of factors contribute to the development of obesity in adolescents, including various dietary and lifestyle behaviors, and a host of social and environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status, parental education, and culture. Research examining beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in adolescents, such as food intake, can create a better understanding of risk factors for obesity. This study explored beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in 20 early adolescent girls aged 9 to 13 years and their mothers in O'ahu, Hawai'i. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted to elucidate beliefs through discussion of food purchasing, feeding practices, portion control strategies, eating outside the home, and body size perception. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and examined using directed content analysis. Both mothers and daughters believed that diets should consist of fresh foods and be based on principles of variety, balance, and moderation, and had negative perceptions of school lunch. In describing ideal body size, mothers expressed greater concern for overweight, as well as ethno-cultural beauty standards, than daughters. Mothers believed daughters should have a positive relationship with food but also applied various portion control strategies with them. Findings reveal how mothers' and daughters' beliefs may influence daily food-related practices in adolescent girls. Future studies may seek to investigate the role these factors may play in determining weight status in adolescents in Hawai'i, with findings to be used to inform health promotion programs. PMID:27099805

  14. Policy Dialog on the Right of Everyone in Hawaii to Communicate: An Informal Report by and for the Dialog Participants. Communication in Hawaii Series Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, L. S., Ed.; And Others

    In this informal report, all but a few of the pages were written after the dialog sessions of March and April 1976, held on four of the Hawaiian Islands--Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. All of the selections were written by participants in the dialogs. The task of the dialog sessions was to build an understanding of the specific implications of an…

  15. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Maunalua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity, and turbidity; November 2008-February 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Field, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Maunalua Bay, southern Oahu, Hawaii, during the 2008-2009 winter to better understand coastal circulation, water-column properties, and sediment dynamics during a range of conditions (trade winds, kona storms, relaxation of trade winds, and south swells). A series of bottom-mounted instrument packages were deployed in water depths of 20 m or less to collect long-term, high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity, and turbidity. These data were supplemented with a series of profiles through the water column to characterize the vertical and spatial variability in water-column properties within the bay. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal of these studies is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants, and other particles in coral reef settings. Project Objectives The objective of this study was to understand the temporal variations in currents, waves, tides, temperature, salinity and turbidity within a coral-lined embayment that receives periodic discharges of freshwater and sediment from multiple terrestrial sources in the Maunalua Bay. Instrument packages were deployed for a three-month period during the 2008-2009 winter and a series of vertical profiles were collected in November 2008, and again in February 2009, to characterize water-column properties within the bay. Measurements of flow and water-column properties in Maunalua Bay provided insight into the potential fate of terrestrial sediment, nutrient, or contaminant delivered to the marine environment and coral larval transport within the embayment. Such data are useful for providing baseline information for future watershed decisions and for establishing guidelines for

  16. Evaluation of Major Dike-Impounded Ground-Water Reservoirs, Island of Oahu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.; Mink, John Francis

    1985-01-01

    Ground-water reservoirs impounded by volcanic dikes receive a substantial part of the total recharge to ground water on the island of Oahu because they generally underlie the rainiest areas. These reservoirs accumulate the infiltration from rainfall, store it temporarily, and steadily leak it to abutting basal reservoirs or to streams cutting into them. The dike reservoirs have high hydraulic heads and are mostly isolated from saline water. The most important and productive of the dike-impounded reservoirs are in an area of about 135 square miles in the main fissure zone of the Koolau volcano where the top of the dike-impounded water reaches an altitude of at least 1,000 feet. Water is impounded and stored both above and below sea level. The water stored above sea level in the 135 square mile area has been roughly estimated at 560 billion gallons. In comparison, the water stored above sea level in reservoirs underlying a dike-intruded area of about 53 square miles in the Waianae Range has been roughly estimated at 100 billion gallons. Storage below sea level is indeterminable, owing to uncertainties about the ability of the rock to store water as dike density increases and porosity decreases. Tunnels, by breaching dike controls, have reduced the water stored above sea level by at least 50 billion gallons in the Koolau Range and by 5 1/2 billion gallons in the Waianae Range, only a small part of the total water stored. Total leakage from storage in the Koolau Range has been estimated at about 280 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). This estimated leakage from the dike-impounded reservoirs makes up a significant part of the ground-water yield of the Koolau Range, which has been estimated to range from 450 to 580 Mgal/d. The largest unused surface leakage is in the Kaneohe, Kahana, and Punaluu areas, and the largest unused underflow occurs in the Waialee, Hauula-Laie, Punaluu, and Kahana areas. The unused underflow leakage is small in areas near and east of Waialae, but

  17. Recharge Data for the Islands of Kauai, Lanai and Molokai, Hawaii

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for the islands of Kauai, Lanai and Molokai in shapefile format. These data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. (for Kauai, Lanai, Molokai). Shade, P.J., 1995, Water Budget for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4128, 25 p. (for Kauai). Izuka, S.K. and D.S. Oki, 2002 Numerical simulation of ground-water withdrawals in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, U.S. Geologic Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4200, 52 pgs. (for Kauai). Hardy, W.R., 1996, A Numerical Groundwater Model for the Island of Lanai, Hawaii - CWRM Report No., CWRM-1, Commission on Water Resources Management, Department of Natural Resources, State of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI. (for Lanai). Oki, D.S., 1997, Geohydrology and numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Molokai, Hawaii, USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4176, 62 p. (for Molokai).

  18. An assessment of shallow and mesophotic reef brachyuran crab assemblages on the south shore of O`ahu, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Kaleonani K. C.; Timmers, Molly A.; Godwin, L. Scott; Copus, Joshua M.; Skillings, Derek J.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Shallow coral reefs are extensively studied but, although scleractinian corals have been recorded to 165 m, little is known about other mesophotic coral reef ecosystem (MCE) inhabitants. Brachyuran crabs fill many ecological and trophic niches on reefs, making them ideal candidates for evaluating species composition among depths to ask whether MCEs host the same communities as shallower reef communities that have been well studied. Here we deployed autonomous reef monitoring structures for 2 yr on the south shore of O`ahu along a depth gradient (12, 30, 60, and 90 m) to sample and assess brachyuran crab communities. A total of 663 brachyuran crabs representing 69 morphospecies (16 families) were found. Community composition was not significantly different within depths, but was highly stratified by depth. Each depth was distinct, but the 30 and 60 m depths were least dissimilar from one another. We show that deeper reefs host significantly different brachyuran communities, and at much lower total abundance, than shallow reefs in Hawai`i, with 4-27 unique morphospecies per depth and only 3 of 69 morphospecies (~4 %) occurring across the entire depth range sampled.

  19. The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano in Oahu Hawaii, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.

  20. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  1. New and poorly known species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea (Bairdiidae, Ostracoda) from French Frigate Shoals and O'ahu, the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Rosalie F

    2015-01-01

    Bairdoppilata scaura, n. sp. and five species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea in open nomenclature are described from encrusting communities on French Frigate Shoals and Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Some poorly documented anatomical traits (carapace setae, hingement, antennal claws, genitalia) are examined for their potential taxonomic significance, in order to confirm the coherence of the Genus Bairdoppilata and to explore its diversity. PMID:26701564

  2. Estimated Water Use in 1990, Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1995-01-01

    The estimated total quantity of freshwater withdrawn on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, in 1990 was 370.84 million gallons per day of which 46.29 million gallons per day (12 percent) was from ground-water sources, and 324.55 million gallons per day (88 percent) was from surface-water sources. An additional estimated 40.94 million gallons per day of saline water was withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation. Agricultural irrigation was the principal use, accounting for 66 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals. Irrigation accounted for about 40 percent of the fresh ground-water withdrawals, followed by public supply, thermoelectric power generation, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied commercial, and self-supplied industrial withdrawals. Agricultural irrigation accounted for 69 percent of the total fresh surface-water withdrawals, followed by hydroelectric power generation, self-supplied industrial, public-supply and self-supplied livestock withdrawals. A comparison of water-use data for 1980 and 1990 shows total freshwater uses decreased during 1990 by slightly more than 100 million gallons per day because of decreased withdrawals for sugarcane irrigation and processing. During this time, increased domestic, commercial, and thermoelectric power usage reflects increases in the resident population and in tourism on the island.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain OCN003, Isolated from Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Beurmann, Silvia; Videau, Patrick; Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley M; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M; Belcaid, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003 is a marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from a diseased colony of the common Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, found on a reef surrounding Moku o Lo'e in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawaii. Here, we report the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003. PMID:25593253

  4. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  5. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  6. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  7. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; thence along the shoreline to the beginning point. (c) Keehi Lagoon. The waters of Keehi Lagoon bounded... point. (e) Iroquois Point Lagoon. The waters of Iroquois Point Lagoon enclosed by a line beginning at...

  8. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; thence along the shoreline to the beginning point. (c) Keehi Lagoon. The waters of Keehi Lagoon bounded... point. (e) Iroquois Point Lagoon. The waters of Iroquois Point Lagoon enclosed by a line beginning at...

  9. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; thence along the shoreline to the beginning point. (c) Keehi Lagoon. The waters of Keehi Lagoon bounded... point. (e) Iroquois Point Lagoon. The waters of Iroquois Point Lagoon enclosed by a line beginning at...

  10. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; thence along the shoreline to the beginning point. (c) Keehi Lagoon. The waters of Keehi Lagoon bounded... point. (e) Iroquois Point Lagoon. The waters of Iroquois Point Lagoon enclosed by a line beginning at...

  11. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; thence along the shoreline to the beginning point. (c) Keehi Lagoon. The waters of Keehi Lagoon bounded... point. (e) Iroquois Point Lagoon. The waters of Iroquois Point Lagoon enclosed by a line beginning at...

  12. Structure, stratigraphy, and eruption dynamics of a young tuff ring: Hanauma Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottas, K. M.; Houghton, B. F.

    2012-09-01

    The Hanauma Bay-Koko Head complex is one of several young volcanic landforms along the Koko fissure, in southeastern O'ahu. The Hanauma Bay region of the complex comprises two nested tuff rings, inner and outer Hanauma Bay, and multiple smaller vents. The internal structure of the inner tuff ring, well exposed due to subsequent breaching by the ocean and wave erosion, indicates that it formed during a minimum of five distinct phases of deposition that produced five mappable units. Significant inward collapses generated major unconformities that separate the units exposed in the inner wall. The planes of failure are cut by narrow steep-walled, locally overhung channels and gullies, suggesting that the collapse events were each followed by short time breaks during which the deposits were eroded by rainfall runoff. Within each pyroclastic unit, there are many local slump scars and unconformities, suggesting that minor instability of the inner wall was a near-constant feature. From bedding sags and surge bed forms, it is apparent that the vent shifted at least twice during tuff ring growth. Ballistic blocks in the youngest unit indicate that the eruption overlapped in time with a separate eruption to the north, most likely to be that of the Kahauloa tuff ring 880 m away.

  13. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17,1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its notice of intent (Fed. Regis. 575433) of February 14,1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Groundwater quality inside and outside the lower east rift zone (LERZ) of Kilauea is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. The degree of mixing between meteoric water, sea water, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the LERZ also is discussed. Finally, groundwater pathways and use in the Puna District are discussed. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey publications and open-file reports.

  14. Streamflow and Suspended-Sediment Loads Before and During Highway Construction, North Halawa, Haiku, and Kamooalii Drainage Basins, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Barry R.

    1996-01-01

    Concern over potential effects from construction of the H-3 highway on Oahu, Hawaii, prompted a long-term study of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport at a network of five stream-gaging stations along the highway route. This report presents results for 1983-91, which included pre-construction and construction periods at all stream-gaging stations. Annual rainfall, streamflow, and suspended-sediment loads were generally higher during construction than before construction. Data collected before and during construction were compared using analysis of covariance to determine whether streamflow and suspended-sediment loads changed significantly during construction after accounting for effects of increased rainfall. Streamflow at stream-gaging stations was compared with streamflow at an index stream-gaging station unaffected by construction. Streamflow data were divided into low- and high-flow classes, and the two flow classes were analyzed separately. Low flows increased 117 percent during construction at one station. This increase probably was related to the removal of vegetation for highway construction. Low flows decreased 28 percent at another station, probably as a result of increased ground-water withdrawals and highway construction activities. No significant changes in low flows were detected at the other stations, and no significant changes in high flows were detected at any stations. Suspended-sediment loads increased significantly during construction at three stations. Highway construction contributed between 56 and 76 percent of the suspended-sediment loads measured at these stations during construction. Loads did not change significantly at a station downstream of a reservoir, and loads decreased at a station downstream of a drainage basin that was heavily used for agriculture before construction. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to assess compliance with applicable State water-quality standards. State water-quality standards for suspended

  15. Shoreward advection of phytoplankton and vertical re-distribution of zooplankton by episodic near-bottom water pulses on an insular shelf: Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevadjian, J. C.; McManus, M. A.; Benoit-Bird, K. J.; Selph, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Shoreward pulses of cold, high salinity, phytoplankton-rich bottom water represent short time scale changes in nearshore hydrography and biological community structure off the leeward coast of Oahu, Hawaii. A three-week mooring deployment in Spring 2009 revealed that 'cold pulses' occurred over all phases of the semidiurnal surface tide, but that a statistically greater proportion occurred at low slack tide, when the typically along-shore flow rotated and briefly exhibited a more dominant onshore component. Cold pulses were more frequent and propagated farther shoreward when background water-column stratification increased. Targeted shipboard sampling of a cold pulse in Spring 2010 revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence within the cold pulse was 7 standard deviations higher than the 11-h mean outside the cold pulse, phytoplankton concentrations (cells mL-1) were up to a factor of 3 higher within the cold pulse, and phytoplankton entrained within the cold pulse were adapted to habitats with lower light levels and higher nutrient concentrations compared to ambient waters. Analysis of multi-frequency acoustic data collected during two shipboard surveys in 2009 and 2010 indicated that acoustic scattering during cold pulses was predominantly biological, dominated by 1.0-1.5 mm spheroid fluid-like scatterers, both in the waters above the cold pulse and in a strong-scattering feature at the cold-pulse interface. These aggregations of larger organisms at the cold-pulse interface did not appear to migrate downwards into the phytoplankton-rich water during the active passage of the cold pulse. Observations of similar temperature events throughout the tropical Pacific, combined with our multidisciplinary findings, suggest that pulsed deliveries of phytoplankton-rich water to nearshore habitats may be regular occurrences throughout the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

  16. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... periods of darkness, flashing red warning beacons will be displayed on the shore at Ulupau Crater. (4... will be indicated by the absence of any warning flags, pennants, or beacons displayed ashore. (5)...

  1. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Groundwater in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on groundwater during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the withdrawing its notice of intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report were collected for the geothermal resource subzones in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to groundwater in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii. Groundwater quality in and adjacent to Kilauea`s east rift zone (KERZ), is compared with that of meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal fluid. Two segments of KERZ lie within the Puna District. These segments are the middle east rift zone (KERZ) and lower east rift zone (LERZ). The degree of mixing between meteoric water, seawater, and geothermal water in and adjacent to the also is discussed.

  3. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  4. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  5. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  7. Effects of the H-3 Highway Stormwater Runoff on the Water Quality of Halawa Stream, Oahu, Hawaii, November 1998 to August 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Reuben H.; Wong, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Since November 1998, water-quality data have been collected from the H-3 Highway Storm Drain C, which collects runoff from a 4-mi-long viaduct, and from Halawa Stream on Oahu, Hawaii. From January 2001 to August 2004, data were collected from the storm drain and four stream sites in the Halawa Stream drainage basin as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Storm Water Monitoring Program. Data from the stormwater monitoring program have been published in annual reports. This report uses these water-quality data to explore how the highway storm-drain runoff affects Halawa Stream and the factors that might be controlling the water quality in the drainage basin. In general, concentrations of nutrients, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids were lower in highway runoff from Storm Drain C than at stream sites upstream and downstream of Storm Drain C. The opposite trend was observed for most trace metals, which generally occurred in higher concentrations in the highway runoff from Storm Drain C than in the samples collected from Halawa Stream. The absolute contribution from Storm Drain C highway runoff, in terms of total storm loads, was much smaller than at stations upstream and downstream, whereas the constituent yields (the relative contribution per unit drainage basin area) at Storm Drain C were comparable to or higher than storm yields at stations upstream and downstream. Most constituent concentrations and loads in stormwater runoff increased in a downstream direction. The timing of the storm sampling is an important factor controlling constituent concentrations observed in stormwater runoff samples. Automated point samplers were used to collect grab samples during the period of increasing discharge of the storm throughout the stormflow peak and during the period of decreasing discharge of the storm, whereas manually collected grab samples were generally collected during the later stages near the end of the storm. Grab samples were

  8. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  9. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  10. Hip fracture incidence among Caucasians in Hawaii is similar to Japanese. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D; Huang, C

    2000-10-01

    Age-specific hip fracture incidence has been increasing in some parts of the world. The incidence of hip fractures among Japanese on the island of Oahu, Hawaii in 1979-1981 was approximately half that of Caucasians in North America, but similar to the incidence in Japan. We surveyed the incidence on Oahu again in 1991-1995 for all races to compare the incidence among Japanese to the earlier rates, and to other populations, including Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence of hip fracture among Japanese in Hawaii between 1991-1995 had not changed appreciably (compared to 1979-1981), and was similar to that among Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence among Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians was similar to, or lower than Japan overall, and much lower (one-third to one-half) than that reported for Caucasians in North America and Northern Europe, suggesting that the prevalence of certain risk factors may be lower in Hawaii. These findings confirm other studies suggesting that nongenetic factors may be responsible for much of the observed differences in hip fracture incidence between countries, and between races. PMID:11126521

  11. Volatile-Rich Mineral Phases in the Hawaiian Lithosphere: Phlogopites and Carbonates in 0-age Garnet Pyroxenite Xenoliths From Salt Lake Crater, (Oahu, Hawaii).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, M.; Sen, G.; Salters, V. J.

    2003-12-01

    We present the first detailed Hf, Nd, Sr isotope and trace and major element investigation on clinopyroxene (cpx), garnet, phlogopite and carbonate mineral separates from garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the Salt Lake crater, Oahu, Hawaii. These xenoliths are brought to the surface by the post-erosional lavas that mark the last stage of the evolution of a Hawaiian volcano. Previous studies have suggested that these pyroxenites are either high pressure cumulates associated with the Honolulu volcanics (HV) post erosional lavas, or MORB-related cumulates at a 80-100 Ma paleo ridge. In both Nd-Hf and Nd-Sr isotope spaces all cpx and garnet data are within the range of the HV and other Hawaiian post-erosional lavas. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of the cpx - garnet pairs give essentially 0 ages, providing the first direct evidence that these garnet pyroxenites are indeed 0-age high pressure cumulates from melts isotopically similar to the HVs. Some 0-age pyroxenites also contain veins with volatile-rich mineral assemblages (phlogopite, carbonates and associated glass pockets), that have infiltrated and reacted with the cpx-garnet matrix. These phlogopites have identical 143Nd/144Nd ratios as the cpx (0.51303) but significantly more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (0.7032 - 0.7033 in cpx, 0.70365 - 0.70385 in phlogopites, carbonates and glass). These minerals have higher 87Sr/86Sr (for a given 143Nd/144Nd) than MORBs or HVs and fall at the extension of the horizontal displacement of the post shield and post erosional Hawaiian lavas from the Pacific MORB field in Nd-Sr isotope space. Isotopically then, these volatile phases are more similar to the post-erosional lavas than the shield (Koolau) tholeites, providing new evidence for the involvement of volatiles in the generation of the post-erosional volcanism. The association of these volatile-rich phases with garnet pyroxenites and their absence in the more shallow, spinel peridotites points to a deep (i.e. non

  12. Attraction of pest moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Crambidae) to floral lures on the island of Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with floral chemicals on the island of Hawaii captured several pest moth species. Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday)(green garden looper), Autographa biloba (Doubleday)(bi-lobed looper), and Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth)(true armyworm), all Noctuidae, as well as Hymenia recurvalis (L.)(be...

  13. Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    R. Flint Hughes; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in Hawaii began in the 1970s, arguably at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout Hawaii and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in Hawaii are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.

  14. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  15. Update on the Susceptibility of Avocado to Invasive Alien Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) on the Island of Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Avocado Growers Association on the Island of Hawaii requested that the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service reconsider the possibility of approving the export of untreated avocado to the continental United States of America. In response, as part of the Hawaii Area Wide Pest Management Pro...

  16. A Blind Hydrothermal System in an Ocean Island Environment: Humu'ula Saddle, Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Wallin, E.; Lautze, N. C.; Lienert, B. R.; Pierce, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    A recently drilled groundwater investigation borehole, drilled to a depth of 1760 m in the Humu'ula Saddle of Hawaii Island, encountered an unexpectedly high temperature gradient of more than 160 ̊C/km. Although prior MT surveys across the region identified conductive formations of modest extent in the region, there were few surface manifestations of geologic structures likely to host a geothermal system and no evidence of an active, extensive hydrothermal system. Cores recovered from the borehole showed the presence of intrusive formations and moderate hydrothermal alteration at depth with progressive infilling of fractures and vesicles with depth and temperature. Independent modeling of gravity data (Flinders et al., 2013) suggests the presence of a broad intrusive complex within the region that is consistent with the borehole's confirmation of a high-elevation (~1400 m amsl) regional water table. A subsequent MT survey covering much of the western Saddle region has confirmed the presence of highly conductive conditions, consistent with thermal activity, to depths of 4 km and greater. Light stable isotope data for the borehole fluids indicate that the regional water table is derived from recharge from the upper elevations of Mauna Kea; major element chemistry indicates that formation temperatures exceed 200 ̊C. A conceptual model of the hydrothermal system, along with isotopic and fluid chemistry of the thermal fluids will be presented.

  17. Absolute Paleointensity Study of Halawa Excursion (ca. 2.514+/- 0.039 Ma) Recorded on Koolau Volcano at Halawa, Oahu, Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J. K.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Paleointensity determinations coupled with directional analyses and precise 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dating, have rendered a record of an excursion of the geomagnetic field providing an insight of the rapid variation of the short-term behavior of the paleomagnetic field. We have sampled a long volcanic section located on the buttressed flank of the Koolau volcano within the Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii and studied 120 m thick sequence of flows providing an excellent candidate for detailed paleomagnetic analysis. At least eight samples collected from each of 28 successive flow-sites were stepwise demagnetized by both alternating field (5mT to 100mT) and thermal (from 28° C to 575-650°C) methods, and the mean directions obtained by principal component analysis. All samples yielded a strong and stable ChRM trending towards the origin based on no less than seven to nine steps, with thermal and AF results agreeing to a very high degree. Low field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) analyses were conducted for individual lava flows, and the majority of them show reversible curves. Curie point determinations revealed a temperature close to or equal to 580°C, indicative of almost pure magnetite for most of the flows. Magnetic grain sizes analysis indicated SD-PSD sizes. The mean directions of magnetization of the entire section sampled indicate that about 10 m of the section are characterized by excursional directions (5 lava flows). In addition to the directional analyses we performed absolute paleointensity determinations on the 28 lavas sampled. We used the modified Thellier- Coe double heating method to determine paleointensities. pTRM checks were performed systematically one temperature step down the last pTRM acquisition in order to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50° C between room temperature and 500°C and every 25-30° C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope

  18. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  19. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) stock.

    PubMed

    Tyne, Julian A; Pollock, Kenneth H; Johnston, David W; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this Hawai'i Island

  20. Design of the OTEC seacoast test facility at Keahole Point, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, W.; Belvedere, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Seacoast Test Facility (STF), to be constructed at Keahole Pt. on the Kona Coast of the ''Big Island'' of Hawaii, will be a unique land-based laboratory designed for the long-term testing of OTEC equipment and power cycle configurations using ocean water drawn from a depth of 2100 feet. This paper provides an in-depth description of the facility and summarizes the rationale behind the solutions of some design problems. 6 refs.

  1. Monitoring of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii, and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Garcia-Lorenzo, Begoña; Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Luis E.; de la Nuez, Julio; Romero-Ruiz, Maria C.

    2009-09-01

    Future large and extremely large ground-based telescopes will demand stable geological settings.Remote sensing could be an unvaluable tool to analyse the impact of geological activity at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile; the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones, Chile). In this sense, the extent of lava flows, eruptive clouds or ground deformation associated to seismic and/or volcanic activity could be analysed and characterised through remote sensing.

  2. Road guide to geological points of interest on the island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, H. T.; Macdonald, G. A.; Greeley, R.

    1974-01-01

    This road guide briefly describes the points of geologic interest along the main roads on Hawaii. It begins at Hilo and proceeds around the island in a clockwise direction on State Route 11 to Kailua, then returns to Hilo on State Route 19 to Hilo via Waimea, with side excursions on the other principal roads. Minimum excursion time is two days, allowing only very brief time for the various stops. The return to Hilo from Waimea can be made via Route 19 along the Hamakua Coast (wet, leeward side of island, displaying typical tropical erosion) or via Route 20 over the Humuula Saddle (high, relatively dry and cool; young volcanic features).

  3. Impacts of Wildfire on Hawaii Island's Pre-Contact Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. D.; Bishaw, K.; McGeehin, J. P.; Perkins, K. S.; Austin, B.; Kirch, P.

    2015-12-01

    The arid western slopes of Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano record pre-historic landscape changes that accompanied occupation by Native Hawaiians. Stratigraphy in the Keamuku area shows that a long (c. 38-42 ka) period of airfall and eolian deposition and pedogenesis was terminated by at least 8 layers of charcoal-rich sediment, interbedded with sand and shells of land snails that were transported by running water. Streams across Keamuku then cut several meters down through these deposits to bedrock of the Hamakua Volcanics. Radiocarbon ages indicate that charcoal-rich layers were deposited from the 13th-14th Century A.D. (e.g., 1207 +/- 48; 1287 +/- 128 A.D.) through the 17th - 18th century (e.g., 1648 +/- 157; 1651 +/- 160 A.D.; mean probability +/- 2 sigma. Stream incision commenced sometime thereafter. We measured saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ksat) with a mean of 56 mm/hour in nearby soils with tree and shrub cover. This value exceeds common hourly rainfall intensities, so runoff from these landscapes is unlikely without disturbance. Work at a wildfire boundary in Molokai, Hawaii, shows that just after fire disturbance, saturated hydraulic conductivities of similar Hawaiian soils are one half to one fifth of unburned equivalents. One interpretation is that during the 13th-19th centuries and later, humans burned shrub- or tree-covered landscapes reducing soil infiltration capacities. Over the course of several hundred years of burning, one or more large storms with sustained hourly rainfall intensities exceeding the infiltration capacity of the altered land surface occurred soon enough after fires to generate runoff in a place that had not previously experienced it. This runoff carved the existing gully network across over 100 km2 of Keamuku area, as wildfires pushed the shrub-/tree-line upslope. This interpretation joins a growing body of thought that pre-historic human's use of fire fundamentally altered landscapes.

  4. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii, 1981 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Mannino, D M; Ruben, S; Holschuh, F C; Holschuh, T C; Wilson, M D; Holschuh, T

    1996-03-01

    This study examined trends in and patterns of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for respiratory disease on the island of Hawaii from 1981 to 1991. We found that emergency department visit rates and hospitalization rates for both asthma and COPD for 1987 to 1991 increased in all regions of the island in comparison with such rates for 1981 to 1986. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD, but not asthma, were significantly higher in the high-exposure Kona side of the island than in the intermittent-exposure Hilo side of the island during 1983 and 1988 to 1990. We also found that during the weeks that winds were from the west, blowing volcanic air pollution toward Hilo, emergency department visits for asthma increased 15%. Some of the results of our study support the hypothesis that volcanic air pollution affects respiratory health on the island of Hawaii, while other results do not. Any future studies should include measurements of air pollutant levels. PMID:8882554

  5. Volcanic Record of the Halawa Excursion (ca 2.514+/-0.039 Ma), Koolau Volcano, Oahu Hawaii, USA: Full Vector Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2007-05-01

    New paleomagnetic measurements (directions and paleointensity determinations), coupled with precise 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dating, are revolutionizing our understanding of the geodynamo by providing detailed terrestrial lava records of the short-term behavior of the paleomagnetic field. As part of an investigation of the evolution of Koolau Volcano (one of the volcanoes comprising Oahu Island) and the short-term behavior of the geomagnetic field, we have sampled a long volcanic section located on the buttressed flank of the volcano within Halawa Valley. Prior paleomagnetic and K-Ar investigations of the Koolau (Volcano) Series revealed excursional directions (Site F of Doell and Dalrymple, 1973). The alkaline composition of lava flows, easy access, and close geographical proximity to K-Ar dated lava flows made this newly studied 120 m thick sequence of flows in Halawa valley an excellent candidate for detailed paleomagnetic analysis. At least eight samples collected from each of 28 successive flow-sites were stepwise demagnetized by both alternating field (5mT to 100mT) and thermal (from 28° C to 575-650°C) methods, and the mean directions obtained by principal component analysis. All samples yielded a strong and stable ChRM trending towards the origin based on no less than seven to nine steps, with thermal and AF results agreeing to a very high degree. Low field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) analyses were conducted for individual lava flows, and the majority of them show reversible curves. Curie point determinations revealed a temperature close to or equal to 580°C, indicative of almost pure magnetite for most of the flows. Magnetic grain sizes analysis indicated SD-PSD sizes. The mean directions of magnetization of the entire section sampled indicate that about 10 m of the section are characterized by excursional directions (5 lava flows). In addition to the directional analyses we performed absolute paleointensity determinations on the 28 lavas

  6. Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Balazs, G.H.; Cray, C.; Chang, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP.

  7. Schlumberger survey of Maui Island, State of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, M.D.; Lienert, B.R.

    1980-09-01

    The results of 21 Schlumberger resistivity soundings made on the island of Maui are presented. The apparent resistivity data was used to estimate electrical resistivities of basalt saturated with seawater for different parts of the island. The values obtained average around 20 ohm-meters, except in one area, Ukumehame canyon, on the south rift zone of West Maui. In this area, which is the site of a warm (33/sup 0/C) water well, the resistivity interpreted for the seawater saturated basalt layer is close to 4 ohm-meters. Using typical Hawaiian basalt porosity values of 15 to 25% the temperature of the seaweed is estimated to be 95 +- 23/sup 0/C at a depth of 273 to 608 feet.

  8. Are beach erosion rates and sea-level rise related in Hawaii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Frazer, L. Neil

    2013-09-01

    The islands of Oahu and Maui, Hawaii, with significantly different rates of localized sea-level rise (SLR, approximately 65% higher rate on Maui) over the past century due to lithospheric flexure and/or variations in upper ocean water masses, provide a unique setting to investigate possible relations between historical shoreline changes and SLR. Island-wide and regional historical shoreline trends are calculated for the islands using shoreline positions measured from aerial photographs and survey charts. Historical shoreline data are optimized to reduce anthropogenic influences on shoreline change measurements. Shoreline change trends are checked for consistency using two weighted regression methods and by systematic exclusion of coastal regions based on coastal aspect (wave exposure) and coastal geomorphology. Maui experienced the greatest extent of beach erosion over the past century with 78% percent of beaches eroding compared to 52% on Oahu. Maui also had a significantly higher island-wide average shoreline change rate at - 0.13 ± 0.05 m/yr compared to Oahu at - 0.03 ± 0.03 m/yr (at the 95% Confidence Interval). Differing rates of relative SLR around Oahu and Maui remain as the best explanation for the difference in overall shoreline trends after examining other influences on shoreline change including waves, sediment supply and littoral processes, and anthropogenic changes; though, these other influences certainly remain important to shoreline change in Hawaii. The results of this study show that SLR is an important factor in historical shoreline change in Hawaii and that historical rates of shoreline change are about two orders of magnitude greater than SLR.

  9. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  10. Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of Hawai'i Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout Hawai`i (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HVNP), and the State of Hawai'i's Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the Hawai`i Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of Hawai`i Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of Hawai`i Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection

  11. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  17. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1430 - Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1430 Section 80.1430 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1430 Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI. A straight...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1420 - Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. 80.1420 Section 80.1420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1420 Mamala Bay, Oahu, HI. A line drawn...

  1. Two Decades of Degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i: Perspectives on Island Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.

    2003-12-01

    The ongoing eruption of Kilauea provides an opportunity to examine how volcanic emissions impact the natural and human environment of the island of Hawai`i. Kilauea has released ˜ 13 megatons of SO2 gas into the troposphere since the current eruption began in 1983, more than any single anthropogenic source in the U.S. During prevailing trade wind conditions, measurements of SO2 gas, aerosol mass, and aerosol acidity downwind of Kilauea document the conversion of SO2 to acid aerosol as the plume propagates to the leeward side of the island. Lidar measurements suggest a gas-to-particle conversion rate (t1/2) of 6 hours. When trade winds are disrupted, ambient SO2 and particle measurements in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park have shown episodes of particle concentrations of ˜ 100 μ g/m3 and SO2 concentrations in excess of 4000 ppb. Federal health standards and WHO guidelines for SO2 have been exceeded repeatedly at this near-source location. Documented effects from volcanic emissions on the island of Hawai`i include the rapid corrosion of metal objects, degradation of domestic water quality, agricultural crop damage, and adverse impacts on human respiratory and pulmonary function. Other impacts may include decreases in local rainfall and increased mortality of asthmatics. For the period 1986 to 1993, after the eruption became continuous, deaths from asthma on the island of Hawai`i increased by a factor of ten. Three current health studies seek to investigate the relationship between exposure to volcanic pollution and health effects. In addition to measuring gas and particle exposures, these studies examine lung development in children around the island, disease prevalence in adults residing in communities downwind of volcanic degassing sources, and acute effects in asthmatic children and healthy children and adults. In the absence of conclusive evidence linking exposure and health effects, the USGS, in collaboration with the National Park Service, has developed a

  2. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  3. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  4. Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

    2009-04-01

    Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island. PMID

  5. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing... the processing of sugar cane into a raw sugar product for those cane sugar factories located on...

  6. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  7. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  8. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  9. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  10. State Perspectives on Health Care Reform: Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Thome, Jean I.; Bianchi, Barbara; Bonnyman, Gordon; Greene, Clark; Leddy, Tricia

    1995-01-01

    The general consensus among States which have had their section 1115 demonstration projects approved is that there is no one best way to implement State health care reform. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), however, wished to discern how States were accomplishing the task of implementing the demonstrations, and solicited responses from State representatives whose section 1115 demonstration waivers had been approved. The resulting article gives an overview of this implementation process from four State perspectives. Written by representatives from Oregon, Hawaii, Tennessee, and Rhode Island, the ideas presented here are indicative of the complex undertaking of State health care reform. PMID:10142573

  11. Toward a comprehensive information system to assist invasive species management in Hawaii and Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Loope, L.

    2004-01-01

    The need for coordinated regional and global electronic databases to assist prevention, early detection, rapid response, and control of biological invasions is well accepted. The Pacific Basin Information Node (PBIN), a node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure, has been increasingly engaged in the invasive species enterprise since its establishment in 2001. Since this time, PBIN has sought to support frontline efforts at combating invasions, through working with stakeholders in conservation, agriculture, forestry, health, and commerce to support joint information needs. Although initial emphasis has been on Hawaii, cooperative work with other Pacific islands and countries of the Pacific Rim is already underway and planned.

  12. Hawaii

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... clouds in the stereo image are the Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, each peaking at about 4.2 km above sea level. The southern face of a ... April to June 2000 - Big Island vegetation and volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  13. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  14. Water Budget for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1995-01-01

    A geographic information system model was created to calculate a monthly water budget for the island of Kauai. Ground-water recharge is the residual component of a monthly water budget calculated using long-term average rainfall, streamflow, and pan-evaporation data, applied irrigation-water estimates, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of the monthly water budget, and spatially by aquifer-system areas, through the use of the geographic information system model. The mean annual islandwide water-budget totals are 2,720 Mgal/d for rainfall plus irrigation; 1,157 Mgal/d for direct runoff; 911 Mgal/d for actual evapotranspiration; and 652 Mgal/d for ground-water recharge. Direct runoff is 43 percent, actual evapotranspiration is 33 percent, and ground-water recharge is 24 percent of rainfall plus irrigation. Ground-water recharge in the natural land-use areas is spatially distributed in a pattern similar to the rainfall distribution. Distinct seasonal variations in the water-budget components are apparent from the monthly water-budget calculations. Rainfall and ground-water recharge peak during the wet winter months with highs in January of 3,698 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) and 981 Mgal/d, respectively; a slight peak in July and August relative to June and September is caused by increased orographic rainfall. Recharge is lowest in June (454 Mgal/d) and November (461 Mgal/d).

  15. Drilling, construction, and aquifer-test data from wells 3-3307-20 and -21, Thompson Corner exploratory wells I and II, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Thompson Corner exploratory wells I and II (State well numbers 3-3307-20 and -21) were drilled near Thompson Corner, about 2.2 miles south-southwest of the town of Haleiwa. The wells are located on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The wells are about 50 feet apart and penetrate about 90 feet into the ground water. Aquifer tests were conducted using well 3-3307-20 as a pumping well and well 3-3307-21 as an observation well. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and aquifer-test data are presented for the wells. The wells are two of twelve exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  16. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3604-01, Kawailoa deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kawailoa deep monitor well (State well number 3-3604-01) was drilled about 1.9 miles east- northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone to an elevation of -392 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, specific-conductance and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  17. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  18. Hawaii and Beyond: Volcanic Islands as Model Systems for Biogeochemical and Human Ecodynamic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide an excellent natural lab for understanding geochemical and ecosystem processes. The most important features are: a) increasing volcano age with distance from the hotspot, b) asymmetric rainfall distribution imposed by the northeasterly trade winds and orographic processes, creating wet windward and dry leeward landscapes, c) an impoverished vegetation assemblage allowing the same species to grow in strongly varying climate and soil conditions, d) the ability to hold topography relatively constant over long time scales by sampling on volcanic shield remnants that are preserved even on the oldest high island, Kauai, and e) a long-term topographic evolution that carves the gently sloping shield surfaces into steep-sided, amphitheater headed, relatively flat floored valleys. Although deeply incised valleys are well represented in Kauai, the later stages of volcanic island evolution are not well expressed in the exposed Hawaiian Islands. Therefore, I also consider examples from the Society and Gambier Islands in French Polynesia to demonstrate the biogeochemical and human ecodynamic impacts of valley expansion and subsidence leading to drowning of all but the highest elevation interfluves. In Hawaii, I and many colleagues have characterized the details of biogeochemical processes such as: a) variations in oxygen isotopes in soil water and soil minerals, b) changing nutrient sources using Sr, Ca, and Mg isotopes, c) mineral - carbon sorption and its implications for carbon storage in soils and for mineral ripening, and d) the development of leaching and redox driven pedogenic thresholds. Here, I address how these biogeochemical features influence human land-use decisions in prehistoric Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. Polynesian radiation into the eastern Pacific occurred rapidly after 1300 y bp. Although they carried with them a kitchen garden each new island presented a different environmental challenge. They were sensitive to

  19. Assessing community vulnerabilities to natural hazards on the Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Chris; Delparte, Donna

    2010-05-01

    The island of Hawaii is susceptible to numerous natural hazards such as tsunamis, flooding, lava flow, earthquakes, hurricanes, landslides, wildfires and storm surge. The impact of a natural disaster on the island's communities has the potential to endanger peoples' lives and threaten critical infrastructure, homes, businesses and economic drivers such as tourism. A Geographic Information System (GIS) has the ability to assess community vulnerabilities by examining the spatial relationships between hazard zones, socioeconomic infrastructure and demographic data. By drawing together existing datasets, GIS was used to examine a number of community vulnerabilities. Key areas of interest were government services, utilities, property assets, industry and transportation. GIS was also used to investigate population dynamics in hazard zones. Identification of community vulnerabilities from GIS analysis can support mitigation measures and assist planning and response measures to natural hazards.

  20. Modeling volcano growth on the Island of Hawaii: deep-water perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of Hawaii, document that evolutionary stages during volcano growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component volcanoes, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for volcano evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual volcanoes are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on volcano life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. Volcano volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about volcano life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant volcano propagation, (2) near-equal volcano durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at Hawaii peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a volcano propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other volcanoes of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older volcanoes. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend volcanoes is reasonably consistent with ages and volcano spacing, but younger Loa volcanoes are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux

  1. Greenhouse gas flux under warm-season perennial C4 grasses across different soil and climate gradients on the Islands of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of

  2. Body image and self-esteem among Asian, Pacific Islander, and White college students in Hawaii and Australia.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Knight, Tess; Illingworth, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    Body image and its relationship to self-esteem was examined among Asian, Pacific Islander, and White women and men from Hawaii and Australia (n = 172). Although Pacific Islander and White participants had higher body mass indices than Asians, Pacific Islanders were more satisfied than Asians with their health and more satisfied than Asians and Whites with their appearance. Thus, higher body weight and greater body satisfaction may co-occur among Pacific Islanders, whereas lower weight and lower body satisfaction may co-occur among Asians. The findings suggest different levels of risk for body image dissatisfaction, and its associated psychological consequences, across ethnic groups. PMID:22352975

  3. Streamflow and Erosion Response to Prolonged Intense Rainfall of November 1-2, 2000, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.; Hill, Barry R.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of several meteorologic and topographic factors produced extreme rainfall over the eastern part of the island of Hawaii on November 1-2, 2000. Storm rainfall was concentrated in two distinct areas, the Waiakea and Kapapala areas, where maximum rainfall totals of 32.47 and 38.97 inches were recorded. Resultant flooding caused damages in excess of 70 million dollars, among the highest totals associated with flooding in the State's history. Storm rainfall had recurrence intervals that ranged from 10 years or less for maximum 1-hour totals to 100 years or more for maximum 24-hour totals As part of this study, peak flow and/or erosion data were collected at 41 sites. Analyses of these data indicated that peak discharges of record occurred at 6 of 12 sites where historic data were available. Peak flows with estimated recurrence intervals from 50 to over 100 years were recorded at 4 of 11 sites. Peak flows were poorly correlated with total storm rainfall. Critical rainfall durations associated with peak flows ranged from 1 to 12 hours and were about 3 hours at most sites. Rainfall-runoff computations and field observations indicated that infiltration-excess overland flow alone was not sufficient to have caused the observed flood peaks and therefore saturation-excess overland flow and subsurface flow probably contributed to peak flows at most sites Most hillslope erosion associated with the storm took place along or near the Kaoiki Pali in the Kapapala area. Hillslope erosion was predominately caused by overland flow.

  4. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  5. 14 CFR 399.34 - Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intra-Hawaii and Intra-Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands fare flexibility. 399.34 Section 399.34 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs §...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... individual basis, by prior arrangement with the Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... individual basis, by prior arrangement with the Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility,...

  8. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...The Corps of Engineers is proposing to amend an existing danger zone in waters of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. The U.S. Navy conducts missile defense activities, test missile launches, and training activities at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The proposed amendment is necessary to protect the public from hazards......

  9. Sea level higher than present 3500 years ago on the northern main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H., III

    1998-04-01

    New data from an emerged coastal bench and associated fossil beach on Kapapa Island (Oahu), Hawaii, preserve a detailed history of middle to late Holocene sea level. These include 29 new calibrated radiocarbon ages and elevations indicating mean sea level reached a maximum position of 2.00 ± 0.35 m ca. 3500 yr B.P. These results correlate with additional evidence from Hawaii and other Pacific islands and provide constraints on Oahu's long-term uplift rate (0.03 0.07 mm/yr), previously based solely on Pleistocene age shorelines. Our sea-level reconstruction is consistent with geophysical model predictions of Earth's geoid response to the last deglaciation and with observations of increased Antarctic ice volume during the late Holocene.

  10. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information by contacting one of the Service regional offices, the addresses of which are listed at 50 CFR 2.2... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Critical habitat; plants on the islands of...) Interagency Cooperation (Continued) § 17.99 Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau,...