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Sample records for oak quercus suber

  1. Effects of cadmium on cork oak (Quercus suber L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Gogorcena, Yolanda; Larbi, Ajmi; Andaluz, Sofia; Carpena, Ramón O; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an autochthonous tree species that is being used for reforestation in heavy-metal-contaminated areas in Spain. A hydroponics experiment was carried out to characterize the effects of Cd on several morphological and physiological parameters in this species, including shoot length, nutrient concentrations and allocation in different organs, leaf pigment concentrations, photosynthetic efficiency, root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap. Four different Cd treatments were applied, adding Cd chelated with EDTA or as chloride salt at two different concentrations (10 and 50 µM Cd). After 1 month of Cd treatment, plant growth was significantly inhibited in all treatments. Results indicate that Cd accumulates in all organs 7- to 500-fold when compared with control plants. The highest Cd concentration was found in the 50 µM CdCl(2) treatment, which led to concentrations of ~30, 123 and 1153 µg Cd g(-1) dry weight in leaves, stems and roots, respectively. In the strongest Cd treatments the concentrations of P and Ca decreased in some plant parts, whereas the Mn leaf concentrations decreased with three of the four Cd treatments applied. The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids on an area basis decreased, whereas the (zeaxanthin plus antheraxanthin)/(total violaxanthin cycle carotenoids) ratio and the non-photochemical quenching increased significantly in all Cd treatments. Cadmium treatments caused significant increases in the activity of the enzyme FCR in roots and in the concentrations of organic acids in xylem sap. Some of the physiological changes found support the fact that Cd induces a deficiency of Fe in cork oak, although the plant Fe concentrations were not reduced significantly. At higher concentrations the effects of Cd were more pronounced, and were more marked when Cd was in the free ion form than when present in the form of Cd-EDTA. PMID:22121153

  2. Sewage sludge effects on mesofauna and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaves decomposition in a Mediterranean forest firebreak.

    PubMed

    Pernin, Céline; Cortet, Jérôme; Joffre, Richard; Le Petit, Jean; Torre, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Effects of sewage sludge on litter mesofauna communities (Collembola and Acari) and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaf litter decomposition have been studied during 18 mo using litterbags in an in situ experimental forest firebreak in southeastern France. The sludge (2.74 t DM ha(-1) yr(-1)) was applied to fertilize and maintain a pasture created on the firebreak. Litterbag colonization had similar dynamics on both the control and fertilized plots and followed a typical Mediterranean pattern showing a greater abundance in spring and autumn and a lower abundance in summer. After 9 mo of litter colonization, Collembola and Acari, but mainly Oribatida, were more abundant on the sludge-fertilized plot. Leaf litter decomposition showed a similar pattern on both plots, but it was faster on the control plot. Furthermore, leaves from the fertilized plot were characterized by greater nitrogen content. Both chemical composition of leaves and sludges and the decomposition state of leaves have significantly affected the mesofauna community composition from each plot. PMID:17071899

  3. Ancient and current gene flow between two distantly related Mediterranean oak species, Quercus suber and Q. ilex

    PubMed Central

    Lumaret, Roselyne; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Quercus suber and Q. ilex are distantly related and their distributions partially overlap. They hybridize occasionally, but the complete replacement of Q. suber chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) by that of Q. ilex was identified in two specific geographical areas. The objective of this study was to determine whether the contrasting situation reflected current or recent geographical interspecies gene flow variation or was the result of ancient introgression. Methods cpDNA PCR-RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) and variation at ten nuclear microsatellite loci were analysed in populations of each species, in 16 morphologically intermediate individuals and the progeny of several of them. Interspecies nuclear introgression was based on individual admixture rates using a Bayesian approach with no a priori species assignment, and on a maximum-likelihood (ML) method, using allele frequencies in the allopatric populations of each species as controls. Gene flow was compared specifically between populations located within and outside the specific areas. Key Results High interspecies nuclear genetic differentiation was observed, with twice the number of alleles in Q. ilex than in Q. suber. According to Bayesian assignment, approx. 1 % of individuals had a high probability of being F1 hybrids, and bidirectional nuclear introgression affected approx. 4 % of individuals in each species. Hybrid and introgressed individuals were identified predominantly in mixed stands and may have a recent origin. Higher proportions including allospecific genes recovered from past hybridization were obtained using the ML method. Similar rates of hybridization and of nuclear introgression, partially independent of cpDNA interspecies transfer suggestive of gene filtering, were obtained in the populations located within and outside the areas of complete cpDNA replacement. Conclusions The results did not provide evidence for geographical variation in interspecies gene flow. In

  4. Effects of partial defoliation on carbon and nitrogen partitioning and photosynthetic carbon uptake by two-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) saplings.

    PubMed

    Cerasoli, S; Scartazza, A; Brugnoli, E; Chaves, M M; Pereira, J S

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the growing season in late July, 20-month-old cork oak (Quercus suber L.) saplings were partially defoliated (63% of leaf area) to evaluate their ability to recover leaf area after defoliation. At 18 and 127 days after defoliation, changes in starch and nitrogen pools were determined in leaves and perennial organs, and variations in photosynthetic carbon uptake were investigated. To determine the role of stored nitrogen in regrowth after defoliation, plant nitrogen was labeled in the previous winter by enriching the nutrient solution with 15N. Plants recovered the lost leaf area in 127 days. Although there was remobilization of starch and nitrogen from leaves and perennial organs, the availability of resources for growth in the following spring was not decreased by defoliation. On the contrary, starch concentration in coarse roots was higher in defoliated saplings than in control saplings, presumably as a result of the higher net CO2 exchange rate in newly developed leaves compared with pre-existing leaves. PMID:14652217

  5. Effects of fire temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of the ash from two plots of Cork oak (Quercus Suber)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ubeda, X.; Pereira, P.; Outeiro, L.; Martin, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cork oak, (Quercus suber) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, an area subject to frequent fires. The ash produced by burning can have impacts on the soil status and water resources that can differ according to the temperature reached during fire and the characteristics of the litter, defined as the dead organic matter accumulated on the soil surface prior to the fire. The aim of this work is to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of ash produced in laboratory experiments to approximate conditions typical of fires in this region. The litter of Quercus suber collected from two different plots on the Iberian Peninsula, Mas Bassets (Catalonia) and Albufeira (Portugal), was combusted at different temperatures for 2h. We measured Mass Loss (ML per cent), ash colour and CaCO3 content, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and the major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) released from ash slurries created by mixing ash with deionized water. The results showed that ML per cent is higher at all temperatures in Albufeira samples compared to Mas Bassets samples, except at 550??C, and the rate of loss increases faster with temperature than the Mas Bassets samples. At 150??C the ash colour is yellowish, becoming reddish at 200- 250??C and black at 300??C. Above 400??C the ash is grey/white. This thermal degradation is mostly observed in Albufeira litter. The formation of CaCO3 was identified at a lower temperature in Albufeira litter. At temperatures <300??C, pH and EC values are lower, rising at higher temperatures, especially in Albufeira slurries. The concentration of cations at lower temperatures does not differ substantially from the unburned sample except for Mg2+. The cation concentration increases at medium temperatures and decrease at higher temperatures, especially the concentration of divalent cations. The monovalent cations showed a larger concentration at moderate temperatures, mainly in Albufeira ash slurries. The analysis of the Ca:Mg ratio

  6. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems. PMID:26646258

  7. A Neighborhood Analysis of the Consequences of Quercus suber Decline for Regeneration Dynamics in Mediterranean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Beatriz; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Stoll, Peter; Ávila, José M.; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber). Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis) were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species’ relative abundance and canopy trees’ health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current forests to shift

  8. Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, P.; beda, X.; Martin, D.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Guerrero, C.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO2) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40??70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO2 and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed

  9. Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Guerrero, César

    2011-02-01

    Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO(2)) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40×70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO(2) and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity

  10. Studies on the ectomycorrhizal community in a declining Quercus suber L. stand.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Enrico; Franceschini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    This survey was carried out in a Quercus suber L. stand with many trees affected by the disease "oak decline". Its aim was to obtain information about both the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a declining Q. suber stand as a whole, and the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of individual tree (EFT) detected in healthy and diseased plants. To this end, we first categorized the trees into four different decline classes (one for healthy plants and three for diseased plants) and then, by using morphological and molecular tools, we identified the ectomycorrhizas isolated from samples collected near the trees with different declining classes. The ectomycorrhizal community as a whole was seen to be composed of numerous ectomycorrhizal fungal species, only some of which appeared to be dominant (Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and some species of Tomentella genus), while most occurred sporadically. Results show that all root tips observed are mycorrhized and that decline class does not influence the number of ectomycorrhizal root tips found in the EFTs, thus oak decline does not impact the investment in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, some statistical differences can be observed in the values of evenness and taxonomic distinctness in the EFT associated with trees with different states of health. Finally, both the analysis of similarity test and the ordination technique highlight a compositional difference between the EFT associated with trees in different health conditions, but also suggest that other factors may play a role in causing these differences. PMID:23503869

  11. Evaluation of the presence of arabinogalactan proteins and pectins during Quercus suber male gametogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Mário Luís; Sobral, Rómulo; Costa, Maria Manuela Ribeiro; Amorim, Maria Isabel; Coimbra, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Quercus suber (cork oak) is a dominant tree of the Fagaceae in forests of the south-west Iberian Peninsula. It is monoecious with a long progamic phase that provides a comprehensive system for comparative studies in development and sexual reproduction. In this study the distribution of arabinogalactan protein (AGPs) and pectin epitopes in anthers of Q. suber was assessed to map these hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins and the galacturonate-rich acidic polysaccharides during pollen development. Methods Immunolocalization in male flowers was performed with a set of monoclonal antibodies directed against the carbohydrate moiety that recognizes AGPs and pectins. To identify AGP genes involved in cork oak male flower development, a search was conducted for annotated AGP genes in the available transcriptome data of the Cork Oak EST Consortium database (www.corkoakdb.org). Key Results Ubiquitous labelling in all cell types was obtained with anti-homogalacturan antibodies for methyl-esterified pectins. In contrast, the antibody that labelled non-methyl-esterified homogalacturans had a preferential presence in microsporocyte cells walls at the beginning of pollen development. Intense labelling was obtained with anti-AGP antibodies both in the tapetum and in the intine wall near the pollen apertures and later in the generative cell wall and vegetative cell. Evaluation of the putative AGPs highly expressed in the male gametophyte was achieved by quantitative RT-PCR analysis in male and female cork oak flowers. Conclusions Four putative AGP genes were identified that are preferentially expressed in the male flower compared with the female flower. The putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues of these genes are associated with preferential expression in pollen, suggesting that the AGPs probably play a significant role in cork oak reproduction. PMID:25452249

  12. Purification of a new isoform of laccase from a Marasmius quercophilus strain isolated from a cork oak litter (Quercus suber L).

    PubMed

    Farnet, A M; Criquet, S; Pocachard, E; Gil, G; Ferre, E

    2002-01-01

    A new isoform of laccase from Marasmius quercophilus is described in this study. The strain of this white-rot fungus was isolated for the first time on a cork oak litter. This isoform exhibited certain common properties of laccases (a molecular weight of 65 Kda, an optimum pH of 6.2 with syringaldazine). But this laccase has also particularly novel features: the best activity measured was observed at high temperatures (80 C) and this isoform was not inhibited with EDTA. Furthermore, this induced laccase was able to transform most of the aromatic compounds tested without the addition of mediators to the reaction mixture, and the transformation of certain chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) by a laccase isoform from M. quercophilus is reported here for the first time. We also demonstrate the importance of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as a mediator since it allowed veratryl alcohol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid transformation. Moreover, new products of transformation were observed using the combination of ABTS with this isoform of laccase. PMID:21156546

  13. Iowa's oldest oaks. [Quercus alba

    SciTech Connect

    Duvick, D.N.; Blasing, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis revealed 33 living white oaks (Quercus alba) in Iowa that began growing before 1700. Core of wood 4 mm in diameter, each extracted from a radius of a tree trunk were analyzed. The oldest white oak, found in northeastern Warren County, began growing about 1570 and is thus over 410 years old. A chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) was also found which was more than 300 years old. Ring widths from the white oaks are well correlated with total precipitation for the twelve months preceding completion of ring formation in July. Reconstructions of annual (August-July) precipitation for 1680-1979, based on the tree rings, indicate that the driest annual period in Iowa was August 1799-July 1800, and that the driest decade began about 1816. Climatic information of this kind, pre-dating written weather records, can be used to augment those records and provide a longer baseline of information for use by climatologists and hydrologic planners.

  14. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-time PCR Normalization in Quercus suber

    PubMed Central

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P.; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks. PMID:22529976

  15. Quercus suber range dynamics by ecological niche modelling: from the Last Interglacial to present time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessella, Federico; Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2015-07-01

    Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) is widely used to depict species potential occurrence according to environmental variables under different climatic scenarios. We tested the ENM approach to infer past range dynamics of cork oak, a keystone species of the Mediterranean Biome, from 130 ka to the present time. Hindcasting implications would deal with a better species risk assessment and conservation management for the future. We modelled present and past occurrence of cork oak using seven ENM algorithms, starting from 63,733 spatially unique presence points at 30 arc-second resolution. Fourteen environmental variables were used and four time slices were considered (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and present time). A threshold-independent evaluation of the goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated by means of ROC curve and fossil or historical evidences were used to validate the results. Four weighted average maps depicted the dynamics of area suitability for cork oak in the last 130 ka. The derived species autoecology allowed its long-term occurrence in the Mediterranean without striking range reduction or shifting. Fossil and historical post-processing validation support the modelled past spatial extension and a neglected species presence at Levantine until the recent time. Despite the severe climatic oscillation since the Last Glacial Maximum, cork oak potential distribution area experienced limited range changes, confirming its strong link with the Mediterranean Basin. The ecological amplitude of Quercus suber could be therefore adopted as a reference to trace the Mediterranean bioclimate area. A better knowledge of the past events of Mediterranean vegetation, a wider range of study species and environmental determinants are essential to inform us about its current state, its sensitivity to human impact and the potential responses to future changes.

  16. Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Khennouf, Seddik; Benabdallah, Hassiba; Gharzouli, Kamel; Amira, Smain; Ito, Hideyuki; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoshida, Takashi; Gharzouli, Akila

    2003-02-26

    The gastroprotective effects of 70% acetone extracts of Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves and of tannins (pedunculagin, castalagin, phillyraeoidin A, and acutissimin B) purified from these extracts were examined in the mouse using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Both extracts (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), given orally, prevented the formation of ethanol-induced lesions in the stomach. The percent protection varied between 68 and 91%. Purified tannins (50 mg/kg) were also effective in protecting the stomach against ethanol, and the percent protection varied from 66 to 83%. Castalagin was the most potent. Both extracts and all of the tannins tested (10, 25, and 50 microg/mL) strongly inhibited (55-65%) the lipid peroxidation of rabbit brain homogenate. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of extracts of Q. suber and Q. coccifera leaves and the purified tannins in this experimental model are related to their anti-lipoperoxidant properties. PMID:12590500

  17. Differences in fine-scale genetic structure and dispersal in Quercus ilex L. and Q. suber L.: consequences for regeneration of mediterranean open woods.

    PubMed

    Soto, A; Lorenzo, Z; Gil, L

    2007-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and holm oak (Q. ilex L.) are among the most important tree species (economically and ecologically) in the Western Mediterranean region, where they define unique open woods (created and maintained by man) known as 'dehesas' in Spain. However, these formations are under increasing threat due to the lack of regeneration. We have analysed spatial genetic structure in a mixed parkland; inferences about gene dispersal have also been performed, according to the isolation by distance model. Noticeable differences have been detected between the species, despite their similar ecological roles. Restricted effective dispersal leads to kin structures in cork oak, up to 70 m, while no genetic structure is observed in holm oak. Our results suggest a very effective dispersal for the latter, with a local historical gene flow estimated between 55 and 95 m. This is the first time regeneration of Mediterranean oak parklands has been assessed from a genetic perspective. Effective gene flow detected for holm oaks allows us to discount the risk of inbreeding over successive generations. Thus, regeneration of Q. ilex dehesas will just require action directed to help the settlement of the saplings (such as limiting grazing). However, in those cases where densities are too low, more intense forestation (such as plantation and/or establishment of appropriate shelter) will be needed. The 'density threshold' for initiating regeneration will probably be higher for cork oak, due to its more limited dispersal and minor full-light tolerance. PMID:17971829

  18. Proteomic analysis from haploid and diploid embryos of Quercus suber L. identifies qualitative and quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Aranzazu; López, Juan Antonio; Pintos, Beatriz; Camafeita, Emilio; Bueno, Ma Angeles

    2009-09-01

    Quercus suber L. is a Mediterranean forest species with ecological, social and economic value. Clonal propagation of Q. suber elite trees has been successfully obtained from in vitro-derived somatic and gametic embryos. These clonal lines play a main role in breeding and genetic studies of Q. suber. To aid in unravelling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach is proposed. The proteomic analysis of Q. suber somatic and gametic in vitro culture-derived embryos, based on DIGE and MALDI-MS, has produced for the first time proteomic data on this species. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins have been identified which display significantly altered levels between gametic and somatic embryos. These proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, most of which had been neither previously associated with embryo development nor identified in the genus Quercus. Some of these proteins are involved in stress and pollen development and others play a role in the metabolism of tannins and phenylpropanoids, which represent two of the major pathways for the synthesis of cork chemical components. Furthermore, the augmented expression levels found for specific proteins are probably related to the homozygous state of a doubled-haploid sample. Proteins involved in synthesis of cork components can be detected at such early stages of development, showing the potential of the method to be useful in searching for biomarkers related to cork quality. PMID:19662628

  19. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber

    PubMed Central

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I.; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species. PMID:25414713

  20. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family. PMID:24893289

  1. The impact of drought on leaf physiology of Quercus suber L. trees: comparison of an extreme drought event with chronic rainfall reduction.

    PubMed

    Grant, Olga M; Tronina, Lukasz; Ramalho, José Cochicho; Kurz Besson, Cathy; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Santos Pereira, João; Jones, Hamlyn G; Chaves, M Manuela

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the responses of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to actual and predicted summer conditions is essential to determine the future sustainability of cork oak woodlands in Iberia. Thermal imaging may provide a rapid method for monitoring the extent of stress. The ecophysiology of cork trees was studied over three years. Three treatments were applied by means of rainfall capture and irrigation, with plots receiving 120%, 100%, or 80% of natural precipitation. Despite stomatal closure, detected using both thermal imaging and porometry, leaf water potential fell during the summer, most drastically during the third year of accumulative stress. The quantum efficiency (ΦPSII) and the maximum efficiency Fv' /FM' of photosystem II also fell more intensely over the third summer, while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased. The reduced precipitation treatment sporadically further reduced leaf water potential, stomatal conductance (gs), IG (an index of gs derived from thermal imaging), ΦPSII, and Fv' /FM', and increased leaf temperature and NPQ. It is concluded that these are very resilient trees since they were only severely affected in the third year of severe drought (the third year registering 45% less rainfall than average), and removing 20% of rainfall had a limited impact.. PMID:20685731

  2. Drought impact on carbon and water cycling in a Mediterranean Quercus suber L. woodland during the extreme drought event in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piayda, Arndt; Dubbert, Maren; Rebmann, Corinna; Kolle, Olaf; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; Correia, Alexandra; Pereira, João S.; Werner, Christiane; Cuntz, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Savannah-type ecosystems account for 26-30% of global gross primary productivity GPP, with water being one of the major driving factors. In Europe, savannah-type woodlands cover an area of about 1.5 million ha. Here, the recent past has shown a significant decrease in precipitation P in winter and spring as well as a decrease in total annual precipitation. Strong effects on local water balance and carbon sink strength have thus been reported due to changes in precipitation regime. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of the extreme drought event in 2012 on the water balance, gross primary productivity and carbon sink strength of a typical Portuguese cork-oak woodland (montado) compared to the wet year of 2011. Physiological responses of the dominant tree species Quercus suber (L.) are disentangled employing combined photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modelling. Precipitation effectiveness ET/P increased from 86% in 2011 to 122% in the 2012 dry year due to deep soil or groundwater access of the Q. suber trees leaving no water for groundwater replenishment. Understorey and overstorey GPP were strongly reduced, by 53 and 28%, respectively, in 2012 compared to 2011, due to the late onset of the autumn rains in 2011 and an additional severe winter/spring drought. However, the ecosystem was still a carbon sink in both years, but with a 38% reduced sink strength under extreme drought in 2012 compared to 2011. The combined photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model yielded the best results if it was allowed to adjust photosynthetic and stomatal parameters simultaneously. If stomatal response was modelled with the Leuning approach, which allows for a different sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit, the stomatal model parameters were highly coupled. A change in either of the parameters needed to be compensated by the other to guarantee a stable sensitivity of stomatal conductance to assimilation, independent of variations in vapour pressure deficit. The

  3. Drought impact on carbon and water cycling in a Mediterranean Quercus suber L. woodland during the extreme drought event in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piayda, A.; Dubbert, M.; Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O.; Silva, F. Costa e.; Correia, A.; Pereira, J. S.; Werner, C.; Cuntz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Savannah-type ecosystems account for 26-30% of global gross primary productivity GPP, with water being one of the major driving factors. In Europe, savannah-type woodlands cover an area of about 1.5 million ha. Here, the recent past has shown a significant decrease in precipitation P in winter and spring as well as a decrease in total annual precipitation. Strong effects on local water balance and carbon sink strength have thus been reported due to changes in precipitation regime. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of the extreme drought event in 2012 on the water balance, gross primary productivity and carbon sink strength of a typical Portuguese cork-oak woodland (montado) compared to the wet year of 2011. Physiological responses of the dominant tree species Quercus suber (L.) are disentangled employing combined photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modelling. Precipitation effectiveness ET/P increased from 86% in 2011 to 122% in the 2012 dry year due to deep soil or groundwater access of the Q. suber trees leaving no water for groundwater replenishment. Understorey and overstorey GPP were strongly reduced, by 53 and 28%, respectively, in 2012 compared to 2011, due to the late onset of the autumn rains in 2011 and an additional severe winter/spring drought. However, the ecosystem was still a carbon sink in both years, but with a 38% reduced sink strength under extreme drought in 2012 compared to 2011. The combined photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model yielded the best results if it was allowed to adjust photosynthetic and stomatal parameters simultaneously. If stomatal response was modelled with the Leuning approach, which allows for a different sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit, the stomatal model parameters were highly coupled. A change in either of the parameters needed to be compensated by the other to guarantee a stable sensitivity of stomatal conductance to assimilation, independent of variations in vapour pressure deficit. The

  4. Drought impact on carbon and water cycling in a Mediterranean Quercus suber L. woodland during the extreme drought event in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piayda, A.; Dubbert, M.; Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O.; Silva, F. Costa e.; Correia, A.; Pereira, J. S.; Werner, C.; Cuntz, M.

    2014-07-01

    Savannah-type ecosystems account for 26-30% of global gross primary productivity GPP with water being one of the major driving factors. In Europe, savannah-type woodlands cover an area of about 1.5 million ha. Here, the recent past has shown a significant decrease of precipitation P in winter and spring as well as decrease of total annual precipitation. Strong effects on local water balance and carbon sink strength have thus been reported due to changes in precipitation regime. The objective of this study is to quantify the impact of the extreme drought event in 2012 on the water balance, gross primary productivity and carbon sink strength of a typical Portuguese cork-oak woodland (montado) compared to the wet year 2011. Physiological responses of the dominant tree species Quercus suber (L.) are disentangled, employing combined photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modelling. Precipitation effectiveness ET / P increased from 86% in 2011 to 122% in the dry year 2012 due to deep soil or ground water access of the Q. suber trees leaving no water for ground water replenishment. Understorey and overstorey GPP were strongly reduced by 53% and 28%, respectively, in 2012 compared to 2011 due to the late onset of the autumn rains in 2011 and an additional severe winter/spring drought. However, the ecosystem was still a carbon sink in both years but with a 38% reduced sink strength under extreme drought in 2012 compared to 2011. The combined photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model yielded best results if it was allowed to adjust photosynthetic and stomatal parameters simultaneously. If stomatal response was modelled with the Leuning approach, which allows for a different sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit, the stomatal model parameters were highly coupled. A change in either of the parameters needed to be compensated by the other to guarantee a stable sensitivity of stomatal conductance to assimilation, independently from variations in vapour pressure deficit. The Q

  5. Regeneration Patterns of European Oak Species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in Dependence of Environment and Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  6. Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  7. Acute renal failure in 2 adult llamas after exposure to Oak trees (Quercus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Manuel F.; Passler, Thomas; Joiner, Kellye; Poppenga, Robert H.; Bayne, Jenna; Walz, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult llamas (Lama glama) previously exposed to oak trees (Quercus spp.) were presented with a history of depression and anorexia. Clinicopathological abnormalities included severe gastroenteritis, acute renal failure, and increased liver enzymes. This is believed to be the first report of oak toxicosis in South American camelids. PMID:23814303

  8. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  9. Complete chloroplast genome of the Oriental white oak: Quercus aliena Blume.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sihai; Hou, Meng; Du, Fang K; Li, Junqing; Yin, Kangquan

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of the Oriental white oak: Quercus aliena Blume, the first sequenced member of the section Quercus, is reported in this study. The length of cp genome size is 160,921 bp, with 36.9% GC content. A pair of 25,841 bp inverted repeat regions (IRs) is separated by a 90,258 bp large single copy region (LSC) and an 18,980 bp small single copy region (SSC). This genome contains 115 unique genes, including 89 coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 39 tRNA genes. Border analysis of cp genome of Quercus aliena and other 10 most closely related cp genomes revealed that most Fagaceae species have high similarity either in structure or distribution of these genes except for Trigonobalanus doichangensis. PMID:26114324

  10. Function of defensive volatiles in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) is tricked by the moth Tortrix viridana.

    PubMed

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Heller, Werner; Fladung, Matthias; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Schroeder, Hilke

    2012-12-01

    The indirect defences of plants are comprised of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that among other things attract the natural enemies of insects. However, the actual extent of the benefits of HIPV emissions in complex co-evolved plant-herbivore systems is only poorly understood. The observation that a few Quercus robur L. trees constantly tolerated (T-oaks) infestation by a major pest of oaks (Tortrix viridana L.), compared with heavily defoliated trees (susceptible: S-oaks), lead us to a combined biochemical and behavioural study. We used these evidently different phenotypes to analyse whether the resistance of T-oaks to the herbivore was dependent on the amount and scent of HIPVs and/or differences in non-volatile polyphenolic leaf constituents (as quercetin-, kaempferol- and flavonol glycosides). In addition to non-volatile metabolic differences, typically defensive HIPV emissions differed between S-oaks and T-oaks. Female moths were attracted by the blend of HIPVs from S-oaks, showing significantly higher amounts of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and (E)-β-ocimene and avoid T-oaks with relative high fraction of the sesquiterpenes α-farnesene and germacrene D. Hence, the strategy of T-oaks exhibiting directly herbivore-repellent HIPV emissions instead of high emissions of predator-attracting HIPVs of the S-oaks appears to be the better mechanism for avoiding defoliation. PMID:22632165

  11. Genetic differentiation of oak populations within the Quercus robur/Quercus petraea complex in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Gömöry, D; Yakovlev, I; Zhelev, P; Jedináková, J; Paule, L

    2001-05-01

    Genetic structure of 25 indigenous populations of sessile and pedunculate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur), originating from three geographical regions: Slovakia, Bulgaria and the Republic Mari-El (Russia), was investigated using isozyme markers. Mean number of alleles per locus ranged between 1.8 and 2.6 in Q. robur populations and from 2.0 to 3.0 in Q. petraea populations; slightly higher expected heterozygosity values were found in Q. robur compared to Q. petraea. One locus, coding for a substrate-nonspecific dehydrogenase, differentiated the two species. The interspecific component of gene diversity was 46.7% at this locus, compared to 0.4-7.8% at the remaining loci. PMID:11554972

  12. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  13. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions. PMID:23793955

  14. Probable toxicosis in cattle in Israel caused by the oak Quercus calliprinos.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Perl, S; Yakobson, B; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bogin, E

    1998-12-01

    A probable outbreak of oak (Quercus calliprinos) toxicosis in a herd of beef cattle--heifers and first-calving cows--grazing in the Judean foothills of Israel is described. Toxicosis probably occurred because of the consumption of oak leaves and buds during a period of pasture scarcity without any feed supplementation. A progressive syndrome of wasting, dullness, anorexia, polyuria, nephrosis, constipation and recumbency, culminating in death, was seen. A high mortality rate of 83% (38/46 animals) was noted. The clinical-pathological findings revealed increases in blood urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inorganic phosphorus. Decreases were found in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and chloride (CI). The main pathological findings were severe nephrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, and occasional intestinal ulceration. On the basis of epidemiology, clinical signs, clinical-pathological and pathological findings and renal histology, a tentative diagnosis of oak toxicosis was made. PMID:9830693

  15. An evaluation of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) decline in the urban forest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catton, H.A.; St., George, S.; Remphrey, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, has a large, indigenous population of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.). In the 1980s, many of these trees were showing signs of decline, a disease caused by a complex of abiotic and secondary biotic stressing agents. Potential causal factors were investigated by comparing various aspects of 120 bur oaks visually rated as healthy or declined based on crown dieback levels. The results indicated that many selected bur oak trees predated surrounding urban development and that declined trees were significantly older with more severe stem wounds and competition from surrounding trees than healthy specimens. Average annual growth ring widths of healthy and declined trees were similar in the early part of the 20th century. However, decline actually began decades before symptoms were noticed, coinciding with a period of in tense city-wide urban development, as growth of declined trees was slower than that of healthy trees beginning sporadically in the 1940s and consistently from 1974 to 2001. During the early years of decline, the year-by-year separation in ring width between the two categories was significantly positively related to precipitation levels. This suggested that in wet years, declined trees may have been surrounded by unfavorable water-logged soils, possibly as a result of natural drainage patterns being impeded by urban development. ?? 2007 International Society of Arboriculture.

  16. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'--one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.--are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:26496958

  17. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  18. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wrońska-Pilarek, Dorota; Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  19. Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.

  20. Net Photosynthesis and Early Growth Trends of a Dominant White Oak (Quercus alba L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Phillip M.; Teskey, Robert O.; Phelps, John E.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between photosynthesis and growth of a dominant white oak (Quercus alba L.) tree has shown that most growth processes were either completed or well underway before the establishment of significant positive rates of net photosynthesis. Growth was initiated first in the root system (March 3), followed by stem cambial growth (March 26) and later by flower, leaf, and branch growth (April 10). During the period of rapid leaf and branch growth, root and cambial growth ceased and then resumed as the leaves approached maturity. The rapid rate of leaf maturation, the early appearance of positive rates of net photosynthesis in leaves (15% of final size) and the CO2-refixing capability of elongating branch tissue reduced the period of time that this white oak tree was dependent on stored reserves. Lower temperature optima and compensation points in developing leaves and stems indicated that the growth-temperature response was optimized for the lower seasonal temperatures observed during the spring. This temperature adaptation further reduced the time that this tree was dependent on stored reserves. Images PMID:16661108

  1. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  2. UV light impact on ellagitannins and wood surface colour of European oak ( Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahri, S.; Belloncle, C.; Charrier, F.; Pardon, P.; Quideau, S.; Charrier, B.

    2007-03-01

    Two European oak species ( Q. petraea and Q. robur) have a high content of phenols which may participate in the alteration of colour upon UV irradiation. To study the photodegradation process of oak surfaces, the two oak species extractives, vescalagin, castalagin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were analysed quantitatively by HPLC before and after UV irradiation. Irradiation time was altered between 3, 24, 72, 96, 120, 144, 192 and 216 h. In parallel, any colour changes of Oak wood surface was followed after 120 h of UV-irradiation by measuring CIELAB parameters (DL*, Da*, Db* and DE*). We observed that 60% of total phenol content of extractives decreased after the maximal exposure time. Our findings also showed that castalagin and gallic acid were destroyed after 216 h and vescalagin and ellagic acid after 72 h. This study proves the photosenibility of oakwood extractives which, supplementary to lignin degradation, would strongly result in the discolouration of oak heartwood.

  3. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14th days, ulcer index in mm2 and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use. PMID:25276198

  4. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae), a novel spider species associated with Holm Oaks (Quercus ilex).

    PubMed

    Morano, Eduardo; Bonal, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel species Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae) collected in the province of Toledo (Central Spain). It was found during a systematic sampling campaign carried out in an agricultural landscape with isolated Holm oaks Quercus ilex and small forest patches. Its morphology and affinities with other species of the genus are discussed. Furthermore, one mitochondrial gene was sequenced to confirm species membership and its differentiation from other Cheiracanthium species. The molecular phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed a close relationship of Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei, with which it also shares morphological similarities. Nonetheless, the sparse sampling of the phylogeny, due to the low number of sequences available, impedes drawing any definitive conclusion about these relationships; it is first necessary to perform an extensive review of the genus worldwide and more thorough phylogenies. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. also shares certain ecological and phenological characteristics with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei. Like them, Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. is an obligate tree dweller that prefers a tree canopy habitat and reproduces primarily in late spring and summer. From a conservation perspective, the present study suggests the need to preserve isolated trees in agricultural landscapes. They are not only the refuge of common forest organisms but also of novel species yet to be discovered. PMID:27551185

  5. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae), a novel spider species associated with Holm Oaks (Quercus ilex)

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Eduardo; Bonal, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a novel species Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae) collected in the province of Toledo (Central Spain). It was found during a systematic sampling campaign carried out in an agricultural landscape with isolated Holm oaks Quercus ilex and small forest patches. Its morphology and affinities with other species of the genus are discussed. Furthermore, one mitochondrial gene was sequenced to confirm species membership and its differentiation from other Cheiracanthium species. The molecular phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed a close relationship of Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei, with which it also shares morphological similarities. Nonetheless, the sparse sampling of the phylogeny, due to the low number of sequences available, impedes drawing any definitive conclusion about these relationships; it is first necessary to perform an extensive review of the genus worldwide and more thorough phylogenies. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. also shares certain ecological and phenological characteristics with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei. Like them, Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. is an obligate tree dweller that prefers a tree canopy habitat and reproduces primarily in late spring and summer. From a conservation perspective, the present study suggests the need to preserve isolated trees in agricultural landscapes. They are not only the refuge of common forest organisms but also of novel species yet to be discovered. PMID:27551185

  6. Paenibacillus shirakamiensis sp. nov., isolated from the trunk surface of a Japanese oak (Quercus crispula).

    PubMed

    Tonouchi, Akio; Tazawa, Daisuke; Fujita, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    A novel bacterial strain designated P-1T was isolated from the trunk surface of a Japanese oak (Quercus crispula) growing in the Shirakami Mountains in Japan. Cells of strain P-1T were Gram-stain-negative, ellipsoidal endospore-forming, aerobic, slightly acidophilic rods, 0.8×2-5 µm, and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Various carbohydrates could be used as growth substrates, but none of the organic acids tested were used. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15:0, which accounted for 64.2% of the total fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). Strain P-1T contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminolipids, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. Strain P-1T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Paenibacillus pini S22T (96.6%), followed by Paenibacillus chibensis JCM 9905T (96.1%) and Paenibacillus anaericanus MH21T (95.9%). The DNA G+C content was 43.9 mol%. These data indicate that strain P-1T represents a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which we propose the name Paenibacillus shirakamiensis sp. nov. The type strain is P-1T (NBRC 109471T=DSM 26806T=KCTC 33126T=CIP 110571T). PMID:24556633

  7. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

  8. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) germination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Guangquan; Li, Qingmei; Liu, Yong; Hou, Longyu; Li, Guolei

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) (STO), mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS), removing the pericarp (RP), and cutting off 1/2 (HC) and 2/3 (TC) cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis) seeds (CCS) were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1) methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns. PMID:23133517

  9. French Oak Wood (Quercus robur) Extract (Robuvit) in Primary Lymphedema: A Supplement, Pilot, Registry Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Hu, Shu; Ledda, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this pilot supplement study was the evaluation of an oak wood extract (Robuvit, Quercus robur [QR], Horphag Research) in an 8-week registry study on lymphatic signs in primary lymphedema. Subjects with primary lymphedema confined to a single leg without skin changes or ulcerations were followed for at least 8 weeks. Lymphedema was mainly present distally (below the knee). Three groups were formed: one group used only the standard management for lymphedema; one used the same management plus 300 mg Robuvit; and one used the standard management plus 600 mg of Robuvit. The three groups were comparable. After 8 weeks the variation in leg volume was on average -6.2% with standard management, -15% in the QR 300 mg group, and -18.9% in the 600 mg group. The edema score was also significantly lower at 8 weeks in the two QR groups. The variation in proteins in the interstitial fluid in comparison with initial values was -14.8% in controls in comparison with -29.9% in QR 300 mg group and -36.9% in QR 600 mg group. Skin flux significantly improved (increased) in the two QR groups. Ultrasound pretibial skin thickness was decreased on average 6% in controls versus 10.3% in the low-dose QR group and 11.8% in the higher dose group. Perimalleolar thickness was decreased 7% in controls and more in the two QR groups. Ankle circumference was decreased 4.4% in controls and more in the two supplement groups. This pilot registry indicates that Robuvit can be effective in the management of primary lymphedema. More patients and longer evaluation periods are needed. PMID:25780327

  10. French Oak Wood (Quercus robur) Extract (Robuvit) in Primary Lymphedema: A Supplement, Pilot, Registry Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Hu, Shu; Ledda, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot supplement study was the evaluation of an oak wood extract (Robuvit, Quercus robur [QR], Horphag Research) in an 8-week registry study on lymphatic signs in primary lymphedema. Subjects with primary lymphedema confined to a single leg without skin changes or ulcerations were followed for at least 8 weeks. Lymphedema was mainly present distally (below the knee). Three groups were formed: one group used only the standard management for lymphedema; one used the same management plus 300 mg Robuvit; and one used the standard management plus 600 mg of Robuvit. The three groups were comparable. After 8 weeks the variation in leg volume was on average −6.2% with standard management, −15% in the QR 300 mg group, and −18.9% in the 600 mg group. The edema score was also significantly lower at 8 weeks in the two QR groups. The variation in proteins in the interstitial fluid in comparison with initial values was −14.8% in controls in comparison with −29.9% in QR 300 mg group and −36.9% in QR 600 mg group. Skin flux significantly improved (increased) in the two QR groups. Ultrasound pretibial skin thickness was decreased on average 6% in controls versus 10.3% in the low-dose QR group and 11.8% in the higher dose group. Perimalleolar thickness was decreased 7% in controls and more in the two QR groups. Ankle circumference was decreased 4.4% in controls and more in the two supplement groups. This pilot registry indicates that Robuvit can be effective in the management of primary lymphedema. More patients and longer evaluation periods are needed. PMID:25780327

  11. Soil transfers from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Berman, J T; Bledsoe, C S

    1998-02-01

    Soils from valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) riparian areas of the Cosumnes River Nature Conservancy Preserve near Sacramento, California were added to growth medium of valley oak seedlings grown in a greenhouse or in agricultural fields at Cosumnes which probably once supported valley oak trees and are now replanted with native riparian vegetation or allowed to revegetate naturally. Agricultural field soil from the Cosumnes River Preserve was presumed to be low or lacking in ectomycorrhizal inoculum. The study was designed to (1) determine whether valley oak stand soil transfer could cause mycorrhizal infection on valley oak seedlings in an agricultural field and in a greenhouse, (2) describe ectomycorrhizal morphological types formed on valley oak seedlings, and (3) determine whether seedling growth is enhanced more by transfer of natural valley oak stand soil than agricultural field soil. In the field study, transfer of forest soil increased average ectomycorrhizal diversity (2.4 types) more than transfer of agricultural field soil (1.2 types). Valley oak seedlings were responsive to ectomycorrhizal infection in the field study. With increase in mycorrhizal infection there was an increase in shoot growth at the expense of root growth. In the greenhouse study, both percent mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal diversity were increased more by transfer of oak forest and woodland soils than agricultural field soil. Eight morphotypes occurred on seedlings in forest and woodland soils but only three morphotypes in agricultural soil. This result strongly suggests that the agricultural field also harbors ectomycorrhizal propagules but forest and woodland soils support a more abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizal flora. PMID:24578047

  12. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus).

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Hilke; Cronn, Richard; Yanbaev, Yulai; Jennings, Tara; Mader, Malte; Degen, Bernd; Kersten, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber. PMID:27352242

  13. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Hilke; Cronn, Richard; Yanbaev, Yulai; Jennings, Tara; Mader, Malte; Degen, Bernd; Kersten, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber. PMID:27352242

  14. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant. PMID:19508503

  15. Seasonal photosynthate allocation and leaf chemistry in relation to herbivory in the coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia

    SciTech Connect

    Mauffette, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee) is an evergreen tree species distributed along the coastal range of California. The seasonal photosynthate allocation and leaf chemistry were studied on fifteen oak trees from spring 1982 to spring 1984. Branches of Q. agrifolia were labeled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ at monthly intervals, to determine photosynthate allocation to growth and to defensive compounds throughout the year. Labeled leaves were chemically analyzed to determine the activity present in various metabolic fractions (sugar, lipid, starch, phenolic, tannin, protein, organic and amino acid, and cell wall material). The utilization of photosynthate for the different chemical fractions varied during the seasons. New leaves allocated a significant proportion of carbon to phenolics early in the growing season, whereas later in the season more carbon was allocated to cell wall material. Old leaves maintained more consistent allocation patterns throughout seasons, and a large proportion of carbon was devoted to storage products.

  16. Sensitivity of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) seedlings to sodium salts in solution culture.

    PubMed

    Thorton, F C; Schaedle, M; Raynal, D J

    1988-06-01

    Sodium salt sensitivity of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) was evaluated in solution culture. Both species showed symptoms of salt injury when grown in the presence of less than 10 mM Na. In red oak, leaf symptoms first appeared at a sodium concentration of 6.0 mM and leaf weight was significantly reduced at 7.5 mM Na. Leaf, stem and root dry weights of American beech were significantly reduced in the presence of 4.0 mM sodium. In both species, browning of leaf margins and necrosis were evident in the Na-treated plants. The observed symptoms were associated with high concentrations of sodium in the tissues. Neither species appears to have control over sodium uptake and translocation. PMID:14972826

  17. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  18. Unusually limited pollen dispersal and connectivity of Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) refugial populations at the species' southern range margin.

    PubMed

    Moracho, E; Moreno, G; Jordano, P; Hampe, A

    2016-07-01

    Low-latitudinal range margins of temperate and boreal plant species typically consist of scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial habitats affect patterns of gene flow and connectivity, key components for their long-term viability and evolution. We examine landscape-scale patterns of historical and contemporary gene flow in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at the species' southwestern range margin. We sampled all adult trees (n = 135) growing in a 20 km long valley and genotyped 724 acorns from 72 mother trees at 17 microsatellite loci. The ten oak stands that we identified were highly differentiated and formed four distinct genetic clusters, despite sporadic historical dispersal being detectable. By far most contemporary pollination occurred within stands, either between local mates (85.6%) or through selfing (6.8%). Pollen exchange between stands (2.6%) was remarkably rare given their relative proximity and was complemented by long-distance pollen immigration (4.4%) and hybridization with the locally abundant Quercus pyrenaica (0.6%). The frequency of between-stand mating events decreased with increasing size and spatial isolation of stands. Overall, our results reveal outstandingly little long-distance gene flow for a wind-pollinated tree species. We argue that the distinct landscape characteristics of oaks' refugial habitats, with a combination of a rugged topography, dense vegetation and humid microclimate, are likely to increase plant survival but to hamper effective long-distance pollen dispersal. Moreover, local mating might be favoured by high tree compatibility resulting from genetic purging in these long-term relict populations. PMID:27146553

  19. Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne christiei Golden and Kaplan, 1986 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae) Topotype Population Infecting Turkey Oak (Quercus laevies) in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Subbotin, S. A.; Han, H.; Stanley, J. D.; Dickson, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne christiei isolated from turkey oak, Quercus laevies, from the type locality in Florida was characterized using isozyme profiles and ribosomal and mitochondrial gene sequences. The phenotype N1a detected from a single egg-laying female of M. christiei showed one very strong band of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity; however, no esterase (EST) activity was identified from macerate of one or even 20 females per well. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Meloidogyne as inferred from Bayesian analysis of partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII)-16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene fragments showed that M. christiei formed a separate lineage within the crown group of Meloidogyne and its relationships with any of three Meloidogyne clades were not resolved. PMID:26527837

  20. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12

  1. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant’s oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant’s oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet

  2. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  3. The Roles of Dispersal, Fecundity, and Predation in the Population Persistence of an Oak (Quercus engelmannii) under Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Conlisk, Erin; Lawson, Dawn; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Franklin, Janet; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Regan, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    A species’ response to climate change depends on the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors that define future habitat suitability and species’ ability to migrate or adapt. The interactive effects of processes such as fire, dispersal, and predation have not been thoroughly addressed in the climate change literature. Our objective was to examine how life history traits, short-term global change perturbations, and long-term climate change interact to affect the likely persistence of an oak species - Quercus engelmannii (Engelmann oak). Specifically, we combined dynamic species distribution models, which predict suitable habitat, with stochastic, stage-based metapopulation models, which project population trajectories, to evaluate the effects of three global change factors – climate change, land use change, and altered fire frequency – emphasizing the roles of dispersal and seed predation. Our model predicted dramatic reduction in Q. engelmannii abundance, especially under drier climates and increased fire frequency. When masting lowers seed predation rates, decreased masting frequency leads to large abundance decreases. Current rates of dispersal are not likely to prevent these effects, although increased dispersal could mitigate population declines. The results suggest that habitat suitability predictions by themselves may under-estimate the impact of climate change for other species and locations. PMID:22623955

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P < 0.05) better than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control sample. Results showed that these three natural extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT. PMID:26139926

  5. Spatial heterogeneity in the relative impacts of foliar quality and predation pressure on red oak, Quercus rubra, arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Stodola, Kirk W; Cooper, Robert J; Hunter, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Predation pressure and resource availability often interact in structuring herbivore communities, with their relative influence varying in space and time. The operation of multiple ecological pressures and guild-specific herbivore responses may combine to override simple predictions of how the roles of plant quality and predation pressure vary in space. For 2 years at the Coweeta LTER in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, we conducted a bird exclosure experiment on red oak (Quercus rubra) saplings to investigate the effects of bird predation on red oak arthropod communities. We established bird exclosures at six sites along an elevational gradient and estimated variation in foliar nitrogen and bird predation pressure along this gradient. Foliar nitrogen concentrations increased with elevation while our index of bird predation pressure was variable across sites. Greater arthropod densities were detected inside exclosures; however, this result was mainly driven by the response of phloem feeders which were much more prevalent inside exclosures than on control trees. There was little evidence for an effect of bird predation on the other arthropod guilds. Consequently, there was no evidence of a trophic cascade either in terms of leaf damage or tree growth. Finally, we found more variation in arthropod density among trees within sites than variation in arthropod density among sites, indicating the importance of micro-site variation in structuring arthropod communities. PMID:20711610

  6. [Mycobiota of Quercus robur L. from the oak forest in the Zhytomyr region].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Orlov, O O; Iur'ieva, O M; Ivaniuk, T M

    2009-01-01

    Different organs of 155 samples of conditionally healthy and sick oaks were examined for mycological contamination. The isolated microscopic fungi belonged to 129 species of different taxonomic groups. The pathogenic complex was represented by 30 fungi species, however most of these species were isolated in single cases. Roots, wood, bast and bark were not affected by the phytopathogenic fungi species that can cause the death of the trees. Mycobiota of branches and sprouts was similar to that ofbark and wood. But frequency of occurence of phytopathogenic fungi was higher on the branches and leaves of drying out and dried oaks. Phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata, Ceratocystis sp. and Trichothecium roseum were isolated more often than others. More often occurrence of Ceratocystis sp.was observed during last two years, they could not be the basic cause of the oak drying. That is also confirmed by similarity of mycobiota of conditionally healthy and drying oaks. PMID:20458934

  7. Road systems, land use, and related patterns of valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) populations, seedling recruitment, and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Bill Ahlering

    This research investigates the interactions of road systems and land use on the population dynamics and recruitment of a long-lived tree in Mediterranean climate California. In the case of Valley oak (Quercus lobata), habitat conversion and limited recruitment of new individuals has resulted in widespread declines throughout Santa Barbara County and California. This pattern contrasts with high recruitment rates along roadsides, offering a unique opportunity to examine the effects of roads on the population dynamics of a native species. The pattern of roadside recruits is described, mapped, and a complete survey of the biophysical environment along 109 kilometers of road was conducted. The biophysical factors of the road and road system were of four types: (1) the general roadside environment; (2) the acorn supply; (3) a measure of ungulate deterrence; and, (4) roadside management. Seven individual or aggregate factors were then related to the pattern of seedling and sapling densities along roads. Univariate analysis and regression trees determined that acorn supply and total woody cover within the roadside plots explained 49% of the variation in Valley oak seedling densities. These results support the conclusion that the recruitment pattern is due to the roadsides serving as refugia from browsers (cattle and deer). The change in Valley oak populations within roadsides, croplands, rangelands, and urban/suburban lands over a 59 year period is examined using georeferenced aerial photos from 1938 and 1997. While population per capita growth rates were less than one (declining) within both rangelands and croplands, rates were greater than one (increasing) in urban/suburban populations. While roadside growth rates were even higher than those in urban/suburban areas, high variance resulted in a rate neither positive nor negative. Finally, seedlings were planted along roadsides and within adjacent grazed and ungrazed uplands to test browsing pressure. Seedlings within

  8. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    PubMed

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide. PMID:19148681

  9. Response of sessile oak seedlings (Quercus petraea) to flooding: an integrated study.

    PubMed

    Folzer, Hélène; Dat, James F; Capelli, Nicolas; Rieffel, Dominique; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2006-06-01

    Sessile oak is a species of great ecological and silvicultural importance in Europe; however, increased frequency and severity of flooding of forested areas pose a threat to its regeneration. We monitored water relations, root anatomical changes and the expression of two calmodulin genes (QpCaM) in sessile oak seedlings during a 14-day flooding treatment. The response followed two characteristic sequences. The first phase, in response to between 1 h and 3 days of flooding, was characterized by a dramatic but transient decline in water relations parameters followed by a recovery towards control values with no noticeable change in root cell morphology. During the second phase, in response to 3 to 14 days of flooding, water relations parameters gradually and continuously declined and hypertrophied lenticels developed at the base of the shoot. Concurrently, root cortical cells became larger and less spherical and the root cortex more porous. These cellular changes were accompanied by a transient rise in root transcript levels of QpCaM-2. We conclude that sessile oak seedlings are capable of withstanding a 3-day period of flooding without significant morphological alterations. In contrast, exposure to flooding for more than 3 days resulted in anatomical and morphological changes in the root system. These changes are, however, insufficient to provide sessile oak with long-term tolerance to flooding. PMID:16510391

  10. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus Rubra L.) seed orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score between 304 and 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and place clones into early, middle, and late phenology groups. While the absolute number of clones in ea...

  11. Patterns of stomatal conductance among blue oak (Quercus douglasii) size classes and populations: implications for seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Steven L; Rice, Kevin J; Richards, James H

    2003-08-01

    Quercus douglasii Hook. & Arn. (blue oak) is a deciduous white oak that is currently failing to regenerate throughout much of its range in California, USA. Patterns of water use were observed in adult trees, saplings and seedlings to determine if ontogenetic changes in water use occur, which might be important in the establishment of this long-lived perennial species in a Mediterranean-type system. Seasonal and diurnal stomatal conductance (g(s)), late-season predawn xylem water potentials (Psi(pre)), carbon isotopic ratio (delta(13)C) and soil water status were compared among the three size classes at three sites differing in mean precipitation and soil water characteristics. Comparisons were also made between microsites with and without regeneration (defined by the presence or absence of saplings). Overall patterns of water use were consistent among the three sites, except that, at the site with the highest rainfall, Q. douglasii plants had higher g(s) and more positive Psi(pre) values. Although no differences in water use patterns were found between regeneration and non-regeneration microsites, the observed ontogenetic differences in water use may have important implications for Q. douglasii establishment. Compared with adult trees and saplings, seedlings had higher gas exchange rates during periods of high soil water content (early in the season and in the morning). Seedling g(s) was correlated with percent extractable soil water (ESW) throughout the season; adult tree and sapling g(s) was correlated with ESW between June and September. Despite experiencing greater water stress (indicated by more negative Psi(pre) values) than older trees, seedlings had more negative delta(13)C values, implying lower water-use efficiencies. PMID:12839731

  12. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species. PMID:26241912

  13. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea).

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  14. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea)

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V.

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  15. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities of edible red oak (Quercus spp.) infusions in rat colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jimenez, Martha Rocío; Trujillo-Esquivel, Fátima; Gallegos-Corona, Marco A; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2015-06-01

    Red oak (Quercus spp.) leaves are traditionally used as food in Mexico, and some of their infusions have potential anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects; however, these properties have not yet been scientifically tested. The aim of this work was to explore the anti-inflammatory activity in HT-29 cells and anticarcinogenic effect in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis of red oak infusions. Quercus infusions were prepared and administered as the sole source of drink to male Sprague-Dawley rats (1% w/v) for the entire 26-week experimental period. On week 4, rats received 8 subcutaneous injections of DMH (21 mg/kg body weight) once a week. The results showed that mean tumor (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3) and multiplicity (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 2.0 ± 0.23), and β-catenin protein level (2.2-fold) in adenocarcinomas were significantly lower in Quercus  sideroxyla-treated group compared with DMH group. By contrast, Quercus  durifolia and Quercus  eduardii infusions had no protective effect. Additionally, the experiments in HT-29 cells confirmed that Q. sideroxyla infusion effectively decreased the levels of the inflammatory markers COX-2 and IL-8 by modulating the expression of NF-κB. These results highlight some of the molecular mechanisms related to the chemopreventive effect of Q. sideroxyla infusion and its potential value as a source of bioactive compounds. PMID:25795146

  16. A method to quantify infection and colonization of holm oak (Quercus ilex) roots by Phytophthora cinnamomi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. is an important root rot pathogen widely distributed in the north hemisphere, with a large host range. Among others diseases, it is known to be a principal factor in the decline of holm oak and cork oak, the most important tree species in the “dehesa” ecosystem of south-western Spain. Previously, the focus of studies on P. cinnamomi and holm oak have been on molecular tools for identification, functional responses of the host, together with other physiological and morphological host variables. However, a microscopic index to describe the degree of infection and colonization in the plant tissues has not yet been developed. A colonization or infection index would be a useful tool for studies that examine differences between individuals subjected to different treatments or to individuals belonging to different breeding accessions, together with their specific responses to the pathogen. This work presents a methodology based on the capture and digital treatment of microscopic images, using simple and accessible software, together with a range of variables that quantify the infection and colonization process. PMID:22974221

  17. The bark of holm oak (Quercus ilex, L.) for airborne Cr(VI) monitoring.

    PubMed

    Minganti, Vincenzo; Drava, Giuliana; De Pellegrini, Rodolfo; Anselmo, Marco; Modenesi, Paolo; Malaspina, Paola; Giordani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the bark of holm oak was used as a bioindicator to study the atmospheric distribution of Cr(VI). The chosen method (alkaline extraction and atomic absorption determination) was found in the literature, adapted for use with the matrix involved, and validated. The method had some limits, but provided an excellent estimation of Cr(VI) concentrations with good sensitivity and a reasonable time of analysis and cost. Thirty-four samples of holm oak collected in three areas characterised by different possible sources of pollution (the area near a former chromate production plant, an urban area, and a rural "reference" area) were analysed, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.54 to 502 μg g(-1) near the industrial plant, ranging from 0.22 to 1.35 μg g(-1) in the urban area, and mostly below the detection limit (0.04 μg g(-1)) in the rural area. The bark of holm oak proved to be a good bioindicator to detect Cr(VI) in the environment. The extraction procedure followed by atomic absorption analysis is simple, provides good sensitivity, and it is suitable for environmental studies. PMID:24630451

  18. Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) induced volatile emissions scale with the degree of infection in Quercus robur

    PubMed Central

    Copolovici, Lucian; Väärtnõu, Fred; Estrada, Miguel Portillo; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) is a major foliar pathogen of Quercus robur often infecting entire tree stands. In this study, foliage photosynthetic characteristics and constitutive and induced volatile emissions were studied in Q. robur leaves asking whether the changes in foliage physiological traits are quantitatively associated with the degree of leaf infection, and whether infection changes the light responses of physiological traits. Infection by E. alphitoides reduced net assimilation rate by 3.5-fold, and isoprene emission rate by 2.4-fold and increased stomatal conductance by 1.6-fold in leaves with the largest degree of infection of ca. 60%. These alterations in physiological activity were quantitatively associated with the fraction of leaf area infected. In addition, light-saturation of net assimilation and isoprene emission was reached at lower light intensity in infected leaves, and infection also reduced the initial quantum yield of isoprene emission. Infection-induced emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles and monoterpenes were light-dependent and scaled positively with the degree of infection. Overall, this study indicates that the reduction of foliage photosynthetic activity and constitutive emissions and the onset of stress volatile emissions scales with the degree of infection, but also that infection modifies the light responses of foliage physiological activities. PMID:25428827

  19. The effect of drought stress on heterozygosity–fitness correlations in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    PubMed Central

    Vranckx, Guy; Jacquemyn, Hans; Mergeay, Joachim; Cox, Karen; Janssens, Pieter; Gielen, Bie An Sofie; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The interaction between forest fragmentation and predicted climate change may pose a serious threat to tree populations. In small and spatially isolated forest fragments, increased homozygosity may directly affect individual tree fitness through the expression of deleterious alleles. Climate change-induced drought stress may exacerbate these detrimental genetic consequences of forest fragmentation, as the fitness response to low levels of individual heterozygosity is generally thought to be stronger under environmental stress than under optimal conditions. Methods To test this hypothesis, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which various transpiration and growth traits of 6-month-old seedlings of Quercus robur differing in multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) were recorded for 3 months under a well-watered and a drought stress treatment. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFC) were examined by correlating the recorded traits of individual seedlings to their MLH and by studying their response to drought stress. Key Results Weak, but significant, effects of MLH on several fitness traits were obtained, which were stronger for transpiration variables than for the recorded growth traits. High atmospheric stress (measured as vapour pressure deficit) influenced the strength of the HFCs of the transpiration variables, whereas only a limited effect of the irrigation treatment on the HFCs was observed. Conclusions Under ongoing climate change, increased atmospheric stress in the future may strengthen the negative fitness responses of trees to low MLH. This indicates the necessity to maximize individual multilocus heterozygosity in forest tree breeding programmes. PMID:24638819

  20. Provenance-specific growth responses to drought and air warming in three European oak species (Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens).

    PubMed

    Arend, Matthias; Kuster, Thomas; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    Provenance-specific growth responses to experimentally applied drought and air warming were studied in saplings of three European oak species: Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens. Four provenances of each species were grown in large open-top chambers and subjected to four climates: control, periodic drought, air warming or their combination in 3 subsequent years. Overall growth responses were found among species and provenances, with drought reducing shoot height growth and stem diameter growth and air warming stimulating shoot height growth but reducing stem diameter growth and root length growth. Differential growth responses in shoots, stems and roots resulted in altered allometric growth relations. Root length growth to shoot height growth increased in response to drought but decreased in response to air warming. Stem diameter growth to shoot height growth decreased in response to air warming. The growth responses in shoots and stems were highly variable among provenances indicating provenance-specific sensitivity to drought and air warming, but this response variability did not reflect local adaptation to climate conditions of provenance origin. Shoot height growth was found to be more sensitive to drought in provenances from northern latitudes than in provenances from southern latitudes, suggesting that genetic factors related to the postglacial immigration history of European oaks might have interfered with selective pressure at provenance origins. PMID:21422189

  1. Severe winter rings of oak trees ( Quercus robur L.) from Central European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, B. F.

    2013-11-01

    Oak trees were sampled in a flood plain forest in the valley of the Zapadnaya Dvina (Daugava) river (Tver region, Russia). Annual rings of the time period from 1826 to 2010 were studied. Anatomically distinct rings with a stripe of small-sized cells in the innermost part and narrow earlywood vessels located in three to four rows occurred in 1861, 1862, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1956 and 1979. Deviations of earlywood development were associated with the drop of winter temperature below -42 °C. The percentage of severe winter ring (SWR) occurrence depends upon tree age and decreases from 75.6 % in younger specimens (under 41 years old at the time of the severe winter) to 27.1 % in middle-aged ones (from 41 to 80 years) to 3.5 % in trees older than 80 years. Described anatomical features can be used in the reconstruction of severe winter frequency in the past.

  2. Seasonal trends in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liukang; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2003-09-01

    Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO2 and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine Vcmax. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in Vcmax. The maximum value of Vcmax, 127 micromol m(-2) s(-1), was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, Vcmax declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 degrees C. The decline in Vcmax was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials (Psipd, approximately -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in Vcmax were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (Rd, 5-6 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, Rd remained low, around 0.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1). In contrast to the strong seasonality of Vcmax, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain (partial partial differential E/ partial partial differential A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf Psipd dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of partial partial differential E/ partial partial differential A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere. PMID:14532010

  3. Leaf-age effects on temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration of an alpine oak, Quercus aquifolioides, in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoran; Xu, Ming; Pan, Hongli; Yu, Xiubo

    2015-11-01

    Temperature responses and sensitivity of photosynthesis (A(n_)T) and respiration for leaves at different ages are crucial to modeling ecosystem carbon (C) cycles and productivity of evergreen forests. Understanding the mechanisms and processes of temperature sensitivity may further shed lights on temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration with leaf aging. The current study examined temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration of young leaves (YLs) (fully expanded in current growth season) and old leaves (OLs) (fully expanded in last growth season) of Quercus aquifolioides Rehder and E.H. Wilson in an alpine oak forest, southwestern China. Temperature responses of dark respiration (R(dark)), net assimilation (A(n)), maximal velocity of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) were significantly different between the two leaf ages. Those differences implied different temperature response parameters should be used for leaves of different ages in modeling vegetation productivity and ecosystem C cycles in Q. aquifolioides forests and other evergreen forests. We found that RuBP carboxylation determined the downward shift of A(n_)T in OLs, while RuBP regeneration and the balance between Rubisco carboxylation and RuBP regeneration made little contribution. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit changed in OLs and compensated part of the downward shift. We also found that OLs of Q. aquifolioides had lower An due to lower stomatal conductance, higher stomatal conductance limitation and deactivation of the biochemical processes. In addition, the balance between R(dark) and A(n) changed between OLs and YLs, which was represented by a higher R(dark)/A(n) ratio for OLs. PMID:26452765

  4. Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, DD

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, R{sub d} remained low, around 0.5 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In contrast to the strong seasonality of V{sub cmax}, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain ({partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf {Psi}{sub pd} dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of {partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  5. Precipitation, throughfall, soil solution and streamwater chemistry in a holm-oak ( Quercus ilex) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodà, Ferran; Avila, Anna; Bonilla, David

    1990-08-01

    Bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil solution at 20 and 40 cm depths, and stream water were monitored for 2-4 years in a holm-oak forest on schists in the Montseny Mountains (NE Spain). Bulk precipitation was mildly acidic, with Ca 2+ and SO 2-4 as dominant ions. Canopy interactions produced a throughfall less acidic than bulk precipitation and enriched in all other ions. Large amounts of K + were leached from the canopy. Magnesium in net throughfall behaved similarly to K +, and it is concluded that leaching makes a major contribution to Mg 2+ enrichment beneath the canopy. Judging from the moderate increase of Na + and Ca 2+ in throughfall, dry deposition rates for both marine and continental aerosols were low in the studied stand, probably because of its sheltered topographic position within a well-vegetated massif, coupled with moderate tree height and low canopy roughness. Soil solution in the mineral soil was less acidic than throughfall. In common with most temperate forests, SO 2-4 was the dominant mobile anion in the soil water, being largely accompanied by Ca 2+. Potassium and NO -3 were depleted within the soil water with respect to throughfall, probably owing to biological uptake and cation exchange, and incorporation of K + into clay lattices. Subsurface flow dominated the hydrology of the small forested catchment studied. Stream water was basic and rich in bicarbonate. Its chemistry revealed fast rates of weathering of sodium- and magnesium-bearing silicates (mainly albite and chlorite, respectively). Soil respiration and silicate hydrolysis resulted in HCO -3 being the dominant mobile anion in stream water. Calcium to chloride ratios were similar in bulk precipitation and in stream water, indicating that Ca 2+ release from weathering has been counteracted by plant uptake. Nutrient uptake by this aggrading forest strongly influences the solution dynamics of K +, NO 3 and Ca 2+. It is concluded that: (1) this forest does not currently receive acidic

  6. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak. PMID:18778067

  7. Stomatal patchiness in the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) under water stress in the nursery and in the forest.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, Mercè; Fernàndez, Jordi; Elena, Georgina; Fleck, Isabel

    2012-07-01

    The evergreen holm oak Quercus ilex L. is the most representative tree in Mediterranean forests. Accurate estimation of the limiting factors of photosynthesis for Q. ilex and the prediction of ecosystem water-use efficiency by mechanistic models can be achieved only by establishing whether this species shows heterogenic stomatal aperture, and, if so, the circumstances in which this occurs. Here, we collected gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence data in Q. ilex leaves from a nursery to measure the effects of stomatal oscillations on PSII quantum yield (Φ(PSII)) under water stress. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was used as an integrative indicator of the degree of water stress. Images of chlorophyll fluorescence showed heterogeneous Φ(PSII) when g(s) was <50 mmol H(2)O m(-2) s(-1), representative of severe drought and corresponding to a container capacity <45%. Stomatal patchiness was related to a coefficient of variation (CV) of Φ(PSII) values >2.5%. A parallel study in the forest confirmed heterogeneous Φ(PSII) values in leaves in response to declining water availability. Three kinds of Q. ilex individuals were distinguished: those resprouting after a clear-cut (resprouts, R); intact individuals growing in the same clear-cut area as resprouts (controls, C); and intact individuals in a nearby, undisturbed area (forest controls, CF). Patchiness increased in C and CF in response to increasing drought from early May to late July, whereas in R, Φ(PSII) values were maintained as a result of their improved water relations since the pre-existing roots were associated with a smaller aerial biomass. Patchiness was related to a % CV of Φ(PSII) values >4 and associated in the summer with mean g(s) values of 30 mmol H(2)O m(-2) s(-1). Under milder drought in spring, Φ(PSII) patchiness was less strictly related to g(s) variations, pointing to biochemical limitants of photosynthesis. The occurrence of heterogenic photosynthesis caused by patchy stomatal closure in Q

  8. An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming

    PubMed Central

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Adıyaman, Elif; İnce, Duygu; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g∗m−1) and dry matter yield (kg∗ha−1) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head∗ha∗yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

  9. Climatic origins predict variation in photoprotective leaf pigments in response to drought and low temperatures in live oaks (Quercus series Virentes).

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Valiente, Jose A; Koehler, Kari; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-05-01

    Climate is a major selective force in nature. Exploring patterns of inter- and intraspecific genetic variation in functional traits may explain how species have evolved and may continue evolving under future climate change. Photoprotective pigments play an important role in short-term responses to climate stress in plants but knowledge of their long-term role in adaptive processes is lacking. In this study, our goal was to determine how photoprotective mechanisms, morphological traits and their plasticity have evolved in live oaks (Quercus series Virentes) in response to different climatic conditions. For this purpose, seedlings originating from 11 populations from four live oak species (Quercus virginiana, Q. geminata, Q. fusiformis and Q. oleoides) were grown under contrasting common environmental conditions of temperature (tropical vs temperate) and water availability (droughted vs well-watered). Xanthophyll cycle pigments, anthocyanin accumulation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and leaf anatomical traits were measured. Seedlings originating from more mesic source populations of Q. oleoides and Q. fusiformis increased the xanthophyll de-epoxidation state under water-limiting conditions and showed higher phenotypic plasticity for this trait, suggesting adaptation to local climate. Likewise, seedlings originating from warmer climates had higher anthocyanin concentration in leaves under cold winter conditions but not higher de-epoxidation state. Overall, our findings suggest that (i) climate has been a key factor in shaping species and population differences in stress tolerance for live oaks, (ii) anthocyanins are used under cold stress in species with limited freezing tolerance and (iii) xanthophyll cycle pigments are used when photoprotection under drought conditions is needed. PMID:25939867

  10. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in long-lived tree species: the case of the mediterranean Holm Oak (Quercus ilex, L.).

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Bonal, Raúl; Muñoz, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale forest fragmentation can increase interpopulation genetic differentiation and erode the genetic variability of remnant plant populations. In this study, we analyze the extent of clonality and the genetic variability and structure within a holm oak (Quercus ilex) population from Central Spain at 3 patches showing different degrees of fragmentation. For this purpose, we have typed 191 individuals (105 adults and 86 saplings) at 9 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite markers revealed an extensive clonal structure in this species, with most analyzed clumps constituting a single "genet", which in some cases extended over a considerable area (up to 318 m(2)). The maximum distance between "ramets" tended to be higher in the extremely fragmented patch, suggesting that intensive management and environmental perturbation has favored clonal propagation. We have also found evidence that fragmentation has contributed to reduce genetic variability and increase genetic differentiation in holm oak saplings, indicating that the younger cohorts are suffering some negative genetic consequences of long-term population fragmentation. Finally, analyses of fine spatial genetic structure have revealed significant kinship structures up to 20-50 m that were particularly patent in the 2 less fragmented patches. Overall, our findings point to long-term genetic shifts in population structure of holm oaks in fragmented landscapes; however, further research is required on pollen dispersal and gene flow in this species. PMID:20624756

  11. A flux-based assessment of above and below ground biomass of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings after one season of exposure to high ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Fusaro, Lina; Monga, Robert; Finco, Angelo; Fares, Silvano; Manes, Fausto; Marzuoli, Riccardo

    2015-07-01

    Young plants of Holm oak (Quercus ilex) were exposed in non-limiting water conditions to four different levels of ozone (O3) concentrations in Open-Top Chambers during one growing season to evaluate biomass losses on roots, stems and leaves in relation to O3 exposure (AOT40) and phytotoxical ozone dose (POD1) absorbed. The exposure-effect and dose-effect relationships for the total biomass were statistically significant and indicated a reduction of 4% and 5.2% of the total biomass for each increase step of 10000 ppb h of AOT40 and 10 mmol m-2 of POD1, respectively. The results indicate a critical level for Holm oak protection of 7 mmol m-2 of POD1, which corresponds to 4% of total biomass reduction. The linear regressions based on the POD1 were significant for roots and stem biomass losses, but not significant for leaf biomass. The biomass loss rate at increasing POD1 was higher for roots than for stems and leaves, suggesting that stem growth under high levels of O3 is less affected than root growth. Because of the scarcity of data from the Mediterranean area, these results can be relevant for the O3 risk assessment models and for the definition of new O3 critical levels for forests in Europe.

  12. Gene movement and genetic association with regional climate gradients in California valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in the face of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sork, Victoria L.; Davis, Frank W.; Westfall, Robert; Flint, Alan L.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Wang, Hongfang; Grivet, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Rapid climate change jeopardizes tree populations by shifting current climate zones. To avoid extinction, tree populations must tolerate, adapt, or migrate. Here we investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata N??e, to assess how underlying genetic structure of populations might influence this species' ability to survive climate change. First, to understand how genetic lineages shape spatial genetic patterns, we examine historical patterns of colonization. Second, we examine the correlation between multivariate nuclear genetic variation and climatic variation. Third, to illustrate how geographic genetic variation could interact with regional patterns of 21st Century climate change, we produce region-specific bioclimatic distributions of valley oak using Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) models based on downscaled historical (1971-2000) and future (2070-2100) climate grids. Future climatologies are based on a moderate-high (A2) carbon emission scenario and two different global climate models. Chloroplast markers indicate historical range-wide connectivity via colonization, especially in the north. Multivariate nuclear genotypes show a strong association with climate variation that provides opportunity for local adaptation to the conditions within their climatic envelope. Comparison of regional current and projected patterns of climate suitability indicates that valley oaks grow in distinctly different climate conditions in different parts of their range. Our models predict widely different regional outcomes from local displacement of a few kilometres to hundreds of kilometres. We conclude that the relative importance of migration, adaptation, and tolerance are likely to vary widely for populations among regions, and that late 21st Century conditions could lead to regional extinctions. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Differences in photosynthesis and isoprene emission in post oak (Quercus stellata) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees along an urban-to-rural gradient in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossett, C.; Lahr, E.; Haas, G.; Schade, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Many plants produce isoprene, a volatile organic compound that can mitigate damage to photosynthetic systems during short- or long-term increases in leaf temperature. After its production within leaves, isoprene is emitted to the atmosphere and influences regional atmospheric chemistry. Here, we use an urban-to-rural gradient to explore future effects of climate change on tree eco-physiology and feedbacks to atmospheric chemistry. Urban areas mimic many of the conditions expected to occur in the future; in particular, cities have warmer temperatures due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and less water availability relative to rural areas. Along a 90 km urban-to-rural gradient, we measured photosynthesis and isoprene emission from trees at three sites in eastern Texas: Houston (urban), The Woodlands (suburban) and Sam Houston National Forest (rural). Isoprene emission from post oak (Quercus stellata) was higher in Houston than the other sites, and when leaf temperatures were increased above ambient conditions, trees produced more isoprene. Leaves produced more isoprene at high leaf temperatures in early summer than in late summer, suggesting gradual acclimation of photosynthetic processes over the course of the summer. We also found that sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) emitted more isoprene than post oak, but when leaf temperatures were increased, isoprene emission was exhausted more quickly in sweetgum relative to post oak. At the same time, post oak maintained higher levels of photosynthesis seasonally and during short-term temperature increases. Both post oak and sweetgum are significant isoprene emitters and represent approximately two and four percent crown cover in the United States, respectively. Our results suggest that in a warming climate, we can expect trees to produce more isoprene seasonally and in response to short-term temperature extremes, and that species-specific differences in photosynthesis and isoprene emission may play an important role

  14. Effects of growth irradiance, nitrogen nutrition and watering regime on photosynthesis, leaf conductance and isoprene emission in leaves of Post Oak, Quercus stellata

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, P.; Archer, S.; Guenther, A. Texas A M Univ., College Station )

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of Post Oak (Quercus stellata), the dominant woody species of oak savannas of east-central Texas, were grown outside in College Station, TX from April to November 1993. Plants were randomly placed in one cell of a 3 [times] 2 [times] 2 factorial experiment, employing 3 nitrogen fertilization (25, 100 and 225 ppm NH[sub 4]NO[sub 23]), 2 light levels (70% and 20% of full sun) and 2 watering regimes (to maintain 80-100% or 30-50% of field capacity). In November, net photosynthesis, leaf conductance and leaf isoprene emission rates at 30[degrees]C and PPFD=1000 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] were determined for two mature leaves on each of four plants from eight growth treatments and data were analyzed stastically. For plants grown under the lower watering regime, photosynthesis and isoprene emission increased with both increasing PPFD and nitrogen (effects significant at p<0.01). For plants grown at 70% full sun, effects of nitrogen treatment on photosynthesis, conductance and isoprene emission were significant (p<0.0001) while effects of watering treatment were not significant (p<0.2). Although watering treatment did not lead to significant differences between treatments, in a short-term drying experiment conducted on four plants, isoprene emissions increased through the drying period in previously well-watered plants, but decreased in previously droughted plants. Measurements were also made on two leaves to determine the effects of varying PPFD and temperature on rates of isoprene emission.

  15. RNA-Seq and Gene Network Analysis Uncover Activation of an ABA-Dependent Signalosome During the Cork Oak Root Response to Drought

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Alexandre P.; Verde, Nuno; Reis, Francisca; Martins, Inês; Costa, Daniela; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Castro, Pedro H.; Tavares, Rui M.; Azevedo, Herlânder

    2016-01-01

    Quercus suber (cork oak) is a West Mediterranean species of key economic interest, being extensively explored for its ability to generate cork. Like other Mediterranean plants, Q. suber is significantly threatened by climatic changes, imposing the need to quickly understand its physiological and molecular adaptability to drought stress imposition. In the present report, we uncovered the differential transcriptome of Q. suber roots exposed to long-term drought, using an RNA-Seq approach. 454-sequencing reads were used to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome, and mapping of reads allowed the identification of 546 differentially expressed unigenes. These were enriched in both effector genes (e.g., LEA, chaperones, transporters) as well as regulatory genes, including transcription factors (TFs) belonging to various different classes, and genes associated with protein turnover. To further extend functional characterization, we identified the orthologs of differentially expressed unigenes in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, which then allowed us to perform in silico functional inference, including gene network analysis for protein function, protein subcellular localization and gene co-expression, and in silico enrichment analysis for TFs and cis-elements. Results indicated the existence of extensive transcriptional regulatory events, including activation of ABA-responsive genes and ABF-dependent signaling. We were then able to establish that a core ABA-signaling pathway involving PP2C-SnRK2-ABF components was induced in stressed Q. suber roots, identifying a key mechanism in this species’ response to drought. PMID:26793200

  16. - A case study for sessile oak (Quercus petraea) distribution - Preliminarly results of a Decision Support System for climate impact analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála; Berki, Imre; Czimber, Kornél

    2014-05-01

    Rainfed sectors of forestry are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. To initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses, a Decision Support System is under development, which provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts. The case study will focus on the following aspects: • For the time period 1961-2010, precipitation and temperature means and extreme events have been analyzed in the Carpathian basin, using gridded station data from the EU-project CARPATCLIM (http://www.carpatclim-eu.org). • The climate indicators have been identified that characterize and determine the distribution, healty status and vitality of sessile oak. • As a product of the Decision Support System a distribution model is under development, which describes the connection between climate conditions and the distribution of sessile oak. The case study shows, how climate data can be used for impact analyses in the forestry sector. Applying different climate change scenarios, the expected distribution of tree species can be simulated. Acknowledgements: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change, decision support system, distribution model, sessile oak

  17. Determination of the natural mortality age of an holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.) stand in Corsica (Mediterranean Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaïotis, Christophe; Carcaillet, Christopher; M'Hamedi, Myriam

    Determination of old forest stand age and forestry history is problematic due to the difficulties which arise in obtaining core samples from trees. In the present paper, the natural mortality age and forestry history of a Corsican holm oak stand are estimated using the methods described below. Firstly, the correlation between stem age estimated from healthy stump count in fellings and stem diameter is determined using a second order polynomial equation. Secondly, the distribution of stand diameter classes is analyzed by the BHATTACHARYA (1967) method. This method allows the identification of cohorts as well as the estimation of cohort mean diameters and theoretical tree count numbers. Using cohort mean diameters, we are able to estimate their age and discuss stand forestry history. Finally, the analysis of thirty broken stumps originating from senescent holm oak natural falls, is used to determine the mean natural mortality age of trees based on their mean diameter. This natural mortality is estimated to occur at 170±46 years of age. The causes of holm oak mortality and the capacity of old stumps to renew the ecosystem are discussed in order to contribute to the conservation and management of these woodland communities.

  18. Effect of the administration of young leaves of Quercus pyrenaica on rumen fermentation in relation to oak tannin toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Doce, R R; Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Frutos, P

    2013-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of the administration of young leaves of Quercus pyrenaica (OL) on in vivo ruminal fermentation in relation to oak tannin toxicosis in cattle. In Experiment 1, six bulls were fed up to 5 kg fresh matter (FM) of OL per animal and day for 14 days. In Experiment 2, another six bulls were first subjected to severe feed restriction for 8 days and then fed a higher amount of OL (approximately 10 kg FM daily) for 3 days. In Experiment 3, three bulls received the same amount of OL as in Experiment 1 for 6 days, but adding a severe feed restriction as in Experiment 2. In situ DM disappearance of grass hay and OL, and pH and ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were recorded throughout the three assays. Daily administration of up to 5 kg OL did not considerably affect ruminal fermentation, unless it was preceded by a severe feed restriction period. Administration of 10 kg OL preceded by undernutrition triggered a critical reduction in rumen fermentation activity concomitantly with an acute intoxication. Interestingly, some results differ from those observed previously in vitro, which highlights the importance of validating in vitro data with in vivo measurements, given the complexity of extrapolation in ruminants. PMID:21992033

  19. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Meinzer, Frederick C; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Brooks, J Renée; Guyette, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    Tree-ring characteristics are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables, but divergence from the assumption of a single biophysical control may reduce the accuracy of these reconstructions. Here, we present data from bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) sampled within and beyond the current species bioclimatic envelope to identify the primary environmental controls on ring-width indices (RWIs) and carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13) C) in tree-ring cellulose. Variation in Δ(13) C and RWI was more strongly related to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) at the centre and western edge of the range compared with the northern and wettest regions. Among regions, Δ(13) C of tree-ring cellulose was closely predicted by VPD and light responses of canopy-level Δ(13) C estimated using a model driven by eddy flux and meteorological measurements (R(2)  = 0.96, P = 0.003). RWI and Δ(13) C were positively correlated in the drier regions, while they were negatively correlated in the wettest region. The strength and direction of the correlations scaled with regional VPD or the ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration. Therefore, the correlation strength between RWI and Δ(13) C may be used to infer past wetness or aridity from paleo wood by determining the degree to which carbon gain and growth have been more limited by moisture or light. PMID:24004466

  20. Differential radial growth patterns between beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on periodically waterlogged soils.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, Tobias; Manthey, Michael; Wilmking, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions. To test this, we investigated general growth patterns and climate-growth relationships in four mature stands of beech and oak growing on hydromorphic soils (Stagnosols) in northeast Germany using dendrochronological methods. Our results confirmed the expected tolerance of oak to strong water-level fluctuations. Neither extremely wet conditions during spring nor summer droughts significantly affected its radial growth. Oak growth responded positively to warmer temperatures during previous year October and March of the current year of ring formation. Contrary to our expectations, also beech showed relatively low sensitivity to periods of high soil water saturation. Instead, summer drought turned out to be the main climatic factor influencing ring width of beech even under the specific periodically wet soil conditions of our study. This became evident from general climate-growth correlations over the last century as well as from discontinuous (pointer year) analysis with summer drought being significantly correlated to the occurrence of growth depressions. As ring width of the two species is affected by differing climate parameters, species-specific chronologies show no coherence in high-frequency variations even for trees growing in close proximity. We assume differences in rooting depth as the main reason for the differing growth patterns and climate correlations of

  1. Identification and sensory evaluation of dehydro- and deoxy-ellagitannins formed upon toasting of oak wood (Quercus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2007-05-16

    Traditionally, spirits such as whiskey are matured in toasted wood barrels to improve the sensory quality of the final beverage. In order to gain first insight into the puzzling road map of thermal ellagitannin transformation chemistry and provide evidence for the changes in sensory active nonvolatiles in oak wood during toasting, the purified oak ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, their corresponding dimers roburin A and roburin D, and 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin were thermally treated in model experiments. Besides mouth-coating and golden-brown colored melanoidin-type polymers, individual major reaction products were produced as transient intermediates which were identified for the first time by means of LC-MS/MS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy. Depending strongly on the stereochemistry, castalagin is oxidized to the previously unreported dehydrocastalagin, whereas its diastereomer vescalagin, differing only in the stereochemistry at carbon C-1, is most surprisingly converted into deoxyvescalagin. Comparative model experiments with 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin revealed castalagin, vescalagin, dehydrocastalagin, and deoxyvescalagin as typical reaction products, thus indicating decarboxylation as a key step in the thermal degradation of that ellagitannin. Similar to the ellagitannin monomers, LC-MS/MS analyses gave strong evidence that the corresponding dimer roburin A, containing the vescalagin configuration at C-1, was converted into the deoxyroburin A, whereas roburin D, exhibiting the castalagin configuration at C-1, was oxidized to give the dehydroroburin D. Human sensory experiments revealed that the ellagitannin derivatives imparted an astringent mouth-coating sensation with threshold concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 126.0 micromol/L, depending strongly on their chemical structure. PMID:17444655

  2. Water use Efficiency in a Blue oak ( Quercus douglasii) Savanna - a Combined Analysis of Stable Isotopes and Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambelli, S.; Tu, K. P.; Knohl, A.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Dawson, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between carbon assimilation and water consumption by natural vegetation is needed to assess how changes in climate will affect plant carbon and water exchange as well as the energy fluxes of ecosystems. While climate change is expected to cause significant warming, most models also suggest changes in the timing and amount of precipitation received; thus implications of this type of change are particularly acute in Mediterranean regions of the world. Blue oak savannas are already exposed to broad variation in water availability and to severe droughts during the summer months. Our objective was to evaluate the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss (Water Use Efficiency) in this ecosystem at both the leaf and at the ecosystem scales. We monitored the ratio of the partial pressures of CO2 inside the leaf (Ci) and in the outside air (Ca) or Ci/Ca, during the summer months of three subsequent years. This ratio is determined by the balance between photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance to water loss. Leaf-level estimates for individual trees were based on the carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of bulk leaf tissue and of recently fixed carbohydrates (leaf soluble sugars). These leaf and individual tree based estimates were then compared with canopy-level estimates derived from continuous eddy covariance measurements of fluxes of CO2, water vapor and meteorological variables from two eddy covariance systems, one above (23m) and one below (2m) the tree canopy. We found that savanna Blue oak trees cope with severe drought through coordinated down-regulation of carbon and water fluxes, i.e. the ratio Ci/Ca remained stable over four summer months, despite decreasing soil water content and leaf water potentials. Stable C isotope composition of leaf soluble sugars is the most robust measure of Ci/Ca because it reflects the initial discrimination of photosynthetic products, without the confounding effects ascribed to storage, tissue

  3. Critical factors in the limited occurrence of the Japanese tree sap mite Hericia sanukiensis (Acari: Astigmata: Algophagidae) inhabiting the sap of the oak Quercus acutissima.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyohei; Ichikawa, Toshihide; Yasui, Yukio

    2011-08-01

    Hericia sanukiensis (Astigmata: Algophagidae) is a semi-aquatic mite inhabiting fermented sap flux of the Japanese sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and utilizes Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) as the dispersal (phoretic) carrier. Although nitidulid beetles are commonly found in sap flux, the occurrence of H. sanukiensis has been extremely limited to a few trees in Shikoku Island, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. To elucidate the critical factors limiting the occurrence of this species, we compared several physical and biological characteristics of sap-exudation points, including the structure and temperature of tree trunks, period and abundance of sap exudation, and seasonal occurrence and dispersal behavior of nitidulid beetles between environments with and without mites. During the two consecutive years of field research, we found that only sap-exudation points with obvious tree holes (ringent area >10 cm², depth >10 cm) had sustained mite populations throughout the observation period. In contrast, for the sap-exudation points lacking tree holes, H. sanukiensis temporally (from spring to autumn) colonized only when the sap production was considerably high. Thus, we suggest that the settlement of H. sanukiensis populations requires tree holes as an overwintering habitat. Nitidulid beetles also concentrated in areas with high sap production and did not disperse from such habitats during the sap flow season. This indicates that H. sanukiensis mites may only disperse and colonize new habitats at very limited opportunities, such as drastic habitat deterioration, which may promote the movement of their carrier. Taken together, these findings may explain the limited occurrence of this mite species. PMID:21479774

  4. Field monoterpene emission of Mediterranean oak (Quercus ilex) in the central Iberian Peninsula measured by enclosure and micrometeorological techniques: Observation of drought stress effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, J.; NúñEz, L.; Pujadas, M.; PéRez-Pastor, R.; Bermejo, V.; GarcíA-Alonso, S.; Elvira, S.

    2005-02-01

    An experimental characterization of biogenic emission from Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia in a forest near Madrid, Spain, was carried out in the early autumn of the years 2000-2003. A dynamic branch enclosure technique was implemented to determine the monoterpene emission rates of this evergreen oak species during the 2000 and 2001 campaigns. Major compounds emitted during both measurement periods were limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, and myrcene. In the 2000 field campaign the light- and temperature-dependent model of [1993] did not fit the data due to drastic reductions of emission rates (and leaf gas exchange related parameters) observed at high air temperature and low air humidity (high water vapor pressure deficit). This plant physiological activity depletion and the subsequent emission reduction were attributed to severe water soil deficit conditions, as precipitation was very scarce during the growing season. In contrast, during the 2001 field campaign, neither emission nor physiological activity showed strong decreases in hot days. A good fit of experimental data to Guenther model was achieved in this field campaign (r2 = 0.90), and linear regression gave a standard emission factor (ES) of 14.0 μg gdw-1 h-1 (gdw is grams dry weight). Soil moisture was presumably higher than during the 2000 campaign due to recent rain events. With the purpose of documenting the drought stress effect at canopy level, monoterpene oak fluxes were measured by the modified Bowen ratio micrometeorological technique throughout the 2001 field campaign and in the late summer of 2002 and 2003. The measured emission by both techniques showed a reasonably good correlation, although micrometeorological fluxes were, in general, lower than upscaled branch emission rates. According to Guenther's parameterization, standard emission fluxes (FS) of 0.30 μg m-2 s-1 (r2 = 0.61) and 0.28 μg m-2 s-1 (r2 = 0.67) were derived for the 2001 and 2002 field campaigns, respectively. However

  5. Human contribution to trace elements in urban areas as measured in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) bark.

    PubMed

    Minganti, Vincenzo; Drava, Giuliana; Giordani, Paolo; Malaspina, Paola; Modenesi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The effect of human activities on the presence of trace elements in the atmosphere was evaluated by analyzing samples of holm oak bark, collected in Italy in a large city, in a small town, and in a reference area, scarcely inhabited. In all cases, point sources of pollution were excluded (e.g., industries and incinerators). The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The element concentrations in the small town are not different from the reference area, except for Pb and Cu, while the samples collected in the large city show higher concentrations of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn with respect to the rural area. In particular, the Pb levels in the large city are approximately 16 times higher than in the reference site, and five times higher than in the small town. Most element concentrations are correlated in the large city, while in the reference site, only a few significant correlations between elements were found. Even in the absence of specific sources of pollution, populations living in big cities are exposed to higher concentrations of trace elements than those living in rural environments or in small urban centers. PMID:27000118

  6. Spatial pattern analysis in Persian oak (Quercus brantii var. persica) forests on B&W aerial photographs.

    PubMed

    Erfanifard, Yousef; Feghhi, Jahangir; Zobeiri, Mahmoud; Namiranian, Manouchehr

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a method to determine the spatial pattern of trees as a robust indicator to monitor changes from B&W aerial photographs in Persian oak forests of Zagros, Iran. A 500 x 600 m study area was selected in Servak forests next to Yasuj city in Kohgiluyeh-Va-BuyerAhmad Province. All the trees were tagged in the study area and the point map of stems were prepared. The spatial distribution of trees was determined as "dispersed" using nearest neighbour technique. Then the index of "C" calculated by T-square sampling method was applied to the point map of the study area in 30 systematic sample points in a 100 x 100 m network. Comparing the results of this method with the true spatial pattern of the study area showed that "C" can detect the spatial arrangement of trees. Thereafter the index was used on the air photo of the study area that was made of B&W aerial photographs. The method suggested in this study provides a suitable approach for detecting the spatial pattern of trees in Zagros forests on B&W air photos. PMID:18351437

  7. Habitat Fragmentation can Modulate Drought Effects on the Plant-soil-microbial System in Mediterranean Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) Forests.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Dulce; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Rincón, Ana; Brearley, Francis Q; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Ecological transformations derived from habitat fragmentation have led to increased threats to above-ground biodiversity. However, the impacts of forest fragmentation on soils and their microbial communities are not well understood. We examined the effects of contrasting fragment sizes on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities from holm oak forest patches in two bioclimatically different regions of Spain. We used a microcosm approach to simulate the annual summer drought cycle and first autumn rainfall (rewetting), evaluating the functional response of a plant-soil-microbial system. Forest fragment size had a significant effect on physicochemical characteristics and microbial functioning of soils, although the diversity and structure of microbial communities were not affected. The response of our plant-soil-microbial systems to drought was strongly modulated by the bioclimatic conditions and the fragment size from where the soils were obtained. Decreasing fragment size modulated the effects of drought by improving local environmental conditions with higher water and nutrient availability. However, this modulation was stronger for plant-soil-microbial systems built with soils from the northern region (colder and wetter) than for those built with soils from the southern region (warmer and drier) suggesting that the responsiveness of the soil-plant-microbial system to habitat fragmentation was strongly dependent on both the physicochemical characteristics of soils and the historical adaptation of soil microbial communities to specific bioclimatic conditions. This interaction challenges our understanding of future global change scenarios in Mediterranean ecosystems involving drier conditions and increased frequency of forest fragmentation. PMID:25724140

  8. Using a down-scaled bioclimate envelope model to determine long-term temporal connectivity of Garry oak (Quercus garryana) habitat in western North America: implications for protected area planning.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, Marlow G; Goring, Simon J; Bodtker, Karin M; Cannon, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    Under the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA), Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystems are listed as "at-risk" and act as an umbrella for over one hundred species that are endangered to some degree. Understanding Garry oak responses to future climate scenarios at scales relevant to protected area managers is essential to effectively manage existing protected area networks and to guide the selection of temporally connected migration corridors, additional protected areas, and to maintain Garry oak populations over the next century. We present Garry oak distribution scenarios using two random forest models calibrated with down-scaled bioclimatic data for British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon based on 1961-1990 climate normals. The suitability models are calibrated using either both precipitation and temperature variables or using only temperature variables. We compare suitability predictions from four General Circulation Models (GCMs) and present CGCM2 model results under two emissions scenarios. For each GCM and emissions scenario we apply the two Garry oak suitability models and use the suitability models to determine the extent and temporal connectivity of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat within protected areas from 2010 to 2099. The suitability models indicate that while 164 km(2) of the total protected area network in the region (47,990 km(2)) contains recorded Garry oak presence, 1635 and 1680 km(2) of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat is currently under some form of protection. Of this suitable protected area, only between 6.6 and 7.3% will be "temporally connected" between 2010 and 2099 based on the CGCM2 model. These results highlight the need for public and private protected area organizations to work cooperatively in the development of corridors to maintain temporal connectivity in climatically suitable areas for the future of Garry oak ecosystems. PMID:22350431

  9. Diplopyrone, a new phytotoxic tetrahydropyranpyran-2-one produced by Diplodia mutila, a fungus pathogen of cork oak.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Maddau, Lucia; Spanu, Emanuela; Franceschini, Antonio; Lazzaroni, Silvia; Motta, Andrea

    2003-02-01

    A new phytotoxic monosubstituted tetrahydropyranpyran-2-one, named diplopyrone (1), was isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of Diplodia mutila, a plant pathogenic fungus causing a form of canker disease of cork oak (Quercus suber). Diplopyrone was characterized, using spectroscopic and chemical methods, as 6-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2,4a,6,8a-tetrahydropyran[3,2-b]pyran-2-one. The absolute stereochemistry of the chiral secondary hydroxylated carbon (C-9), determined by application of Mosher's method, proved to be S. Diplopyrone assayed at a 0.01-0.1 mg/mL concentration range caused necrosis and wilting on cork oak cuttings. On a nonhost plant, tomato, diplopyrone caused brown discoloration or stewing on the stem. PMID:12608876

  10. Repeated Summer Drought and Re-watering during the First Growing Year of Oak (Quercus petraea) Delay Autumn Senescence and Bud Burst in the Following Spring

    PubMed Central

    Vander Mijnsbrugge, Kristine; Turcsán, Arion; Maes, Jorne; Duchêne, Nils; Meeus, Steven; Steppe, Kathy; Steenackers, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    Climate change predicts harsher summer droughts for mid-latitudes in Europe. To enhance our understanding of the putative impacts on forest regeneration, we studied the response of oak seedlings (Quercus petraea) to water deficit. Potted seedlings originating from three locally sourced provenances were subjected to two successive drought periods during the first growing season each followed by a plentiful re-watering. Here, we describe survival and phenological responses after the second drought treatment, applying general linear mixed modeling. From the 441 drought treated seedlings 189 subsisted with higher chances of survival among smaller plants and among single plants per pot compared to doubles. Remarkably, survival was independent of the provenance, although relatively more plants had died off in two provenances compared to the third one with mean plant height being higher in one provenance and standard deviation of plant height being higher in the other. Timing of leaf senescence was clearly delayed after the severe drought treatment followed by re-watering, with two seedlings per pot showing a lesser retardation compared to single plants. This delay can be interpreted as a compensation time in which plants recover before entering the subsequent developmental process of leaf senescence, although it renders seedlings more vulnerable to early autumn frosts because of the delayed hardening of the shoots. Onset of bud flush in the subsequent spring still showed a significant but small delay in the drought treated group, independent of the number of seedlings per pot, and can be considered as an after effect of the delayed senescence. In both phenological models significant differences among the three provenances were detected independent from the treatment. The only provenance that is believed to be local of origin, displayed the earliest leaf senescence and the latest flushing, suggesting an adaptation to the local maritime climate. This provenance also

  11. Comparative anatomical analysis of the cotyledonary region in three Mediterranean Basin Quercus (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Pascual, Gemma; Molinas, Marisa; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2002-03-01

    Anatomical changes at the cotyledonary node from the embryo to the seedling stage in Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex, and Q. humilis were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Mature embryos of Q. humilis possess 2-3 pairs of leaf primordia and a pair of cotyledonary buds, whereas in Q. coccifera and Q. ilex there are two incipient primordia, and cotyledonary buds are not observed until 1 wk after germination. In all three species the cotyledonary buds multiply, forming bud clusters, and a vascular connection is well established within 5-6 wk after germination. As development proceeds, the cotyledonary region becomes woody, but buds, which are exogenous in origin, never become embedded in the periderm. In comparison with Q. suber, another native Mediterranean Basin oak, the cotyledonary node is short and axillary buds are not present below the insertion of cotyledons. In addition, starch accumulation in the cotyledonary region is not observed from histological analysis in the three oaks. Therefore, in Q. coccifera, Q. ilex, and Q. humilis seedlings the cotyledonary node can be considered to be an important regenerative structure enabling them to resprout after the elimination of the shoot above the cotyledons, despite the absence of a lignotuberous structure. PMID:21665633

  12. Cork Oak Vulnerability to Fire: The Role of Bark Harvesting, Tree Characteristics and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Catry, Filipe X.; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G.; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3–4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems. PMID:22787521

  13. [Tree-ring growth responses of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) to climate change in southern northeast: a case study in Qianshan Mountains].

    PubMed

    Teng, Li; Xing-Yuan, He; Zhen-Ju, Chen

    2014-07-01

    Mongolian oak is one of the most important broad-leaved tree species in forests, Northeast China. Based on the methodology of dendrochronology, the variations of tree ring radial growth of Mongolian oak in Qianshan Mountains, south of Northeast China, were analyzed. Combined with the temperature and precipitation data from meteorological stations since 1951, the relationships between standardized tree ring width chronology and main climatic factors were analyzed. In this region, the precipitation between April and July of the current year had an significant relationship with the tree ring width of Mongolian oak, and was the main factor limiting the radial growth. The extreme maximum temperature of May was also a key factor influencing the tree ring width, which had a significant on the tree ring width of Mongolian oak. The precipitation in April had a significant and stable relationship with the growth of Mongolian oak since the 1950s. The 'divergence problem' was found in the study area, which the sensitivity of tree growth to summer temperature reduced since the 1980s. The tree growth response to temperature showed a seasonal change from summer to spring. PMID:25345030

  14. The description of Zapatella davisae, new species, (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) a pest gall wasp of black oak (Quercus velutina) in New England

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of gall wasp (Cynipidae) essentially co-exist with their host oak tree species. Occasionally, the association becomes destructive to the tree, as is the case with Zapatella davisae, new species. This species is a twig galler, and as such, in the cases of heavy infestation, cause flagg...

  15. Desiccation sensitivity of white and black (red) oak embryonic axes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Quercus is the most important aggregation of hardwoods found on the North American and European continents. Quercus is generally divided into two categories black (red) and white oak groups though a third category of live oaks is sometimes recognized as well. Natural populations of oaks a...

  16. Identification of Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) resistant to the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum in native stands using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Anna O.; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E.; McPherson, Brice A.; Wood, David L.; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades coast live oak (CLO) dominance in many California coastal ecosystems has been threatened by the alien invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death. In spite of high infection and mortality rates in some areas, the presence of apparently resistant trees has been observed, including trees that become infected but recover over time. However, identifying resistant trees based on recovery alone can take many years. The objective of this study was to determine if Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, a chemical fingerprinting technique, can be used to identify CLO resistant to P. ramorum prior to infection. Soft independent modeling of class analogy identified spectral regions that differed between resistant and susceptible trees. Regions most useful for discrimination were associated with carbonyl group vibrations. Additionally, concentrations of two putative phenolic biomarkers of resistance were predicted using partial least squares regression; >99% of the variation was explained by this analysis. This study demonstrates that chemical fingerprinting can be used to identify resistance in a natural population of forest trees prior to infection with a pathogen. FT-IR spectroscopy may be a useful approach for managing forests impacted by sudden oak death, as well as in other situations where emerging or existing forest pests and diseases are of concern. PMID:25352852

  17. Analysis of the expression of putative heat-stress related genes in relation to thermotolerance of cork oak.

    PubMed

    Correia, Barbara; Rodriguez, José Luis; Valledor, Luis; Almeida, Tânia; Santos, Conceição; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Pinto, Glória

    2014-03-15

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a research priority in the Mediterranean area and because of cork oaks' distribution these stands are experiencing daily stress. Based on projections of intensifying climate change and considering the key role of exploring the recovery abilities, cork oak seedlings were subjected to a cumulative temperature increase from 25°C to 55°C and subsequent recovery. CO2 assimilation rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, anthocyanins, proline and lipid peroxidation were used to evaluate plant performance, while the relative abundance of seven genes encoding for proteins of cork oak with a putative role in thermal/stress regulation (POX1, POX2, HSP10.4, HSP17a.22, CHS, MTL and RBC) was analyzed by qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction). A temperature change to 35°C showed abundance alterations in the tested genes; at 45°C, the molecular changes were associated with an antioxidant response, possibly modulated by anthocyanins. At 55°C, HSP17a.22, MTL and proline accumulation were evident. After recovery, physiological balance was restored, whereas POX1, HSP10.4 and MTL abundances were suggested to be involved in increased thermotolerance. The data presented here are expected to pinpoint some pathways changes occurring during such stress and further recovery in this particular Mediterranean species. PMID:24594391

  18. Seasonal variation of leaf wax n-alkane production and δ(2)H values from the evergreen oak tree, Quercus agrifolia.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Dirk; Dawson, Todd E; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of leaf wax synthesis in higher plants, we analysed the variability in leaf wax n-alkane concentration, composition (expressed as average chain length (ACL)), and δ(2)Hwax values as well as plant source water δ(2)H values (xylem and leaf water) in the evergreen tree Quercus agrifolia over a period of 9 months, beginning with leaf flush. We identified three distinct periods of leaf development with the first month following leaf flush being characterized by de novo synthesis and possibly removal of n-alkanes. During the following 3 months, n-alkane concentrations increased sevenfold and δ(2)Hwax and ACL values increased, suggesting this period was the major leaf wax n-alkane formation period. During the remaining 4 months of the experiment, stable values suggest cessation of leaf wax n-alkane formation. We find that n-alkane synthesis in Q. agrifolia takes place over 4 months, substantially longer than that observed for deciduous trees. PMID:25704898

  19. Mapping the Distribution of Sand Live Oak (Quercus geminata) and Determining Growth Responses to Hurricane Katrina (2005) on Cat Island, Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funderburk, W.; Carter, G. A.; Harley, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    William R. Funderburk, Gregory A. Carter, Grant Harley Gulf Coast Geospatial Center, University of Southern Mississippi Department of Geography and Geology Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 U.S.A. william.funderburk@usm.edu The Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands serve to buffer mainland coastal areas from the impacts of hurricanes and other extreme weather events. On August 29, 2005, they were impacted heavily by the wind, waves, and storm surges of Hurricane Katrina. The purpose of this study is to determine the growth responses of Quercus geminata, a dominant tree species on Cat Island, MS, in relation to the impact of Hurricane Katrina. Remotely sensed data was utilized in conjunction with ground data to assess growth response post Hurricane Katrina. The main objectives of this study were: 1) determine growth response of Q. geminata through tree ring analysis; 2) understand how Q. geminata adapted to intense weather and climatic phenomena on Cat Island. The hypotheses tested were: 1) growth rates of Q. geminata on Cat Island were decreased by the impact of Hurricane Katrina 2) trees at higher elevations survived or recovered while trees at lower elevations did not recover or died. Decadal scale stability is required for forest stand development on siliciclastic barrier islands. Thus, monitoring the distribution of forest climax community species is key to understanding siliciclastic, subsiding, barrier island geomorphic processes and their relationships to successional patterns and growth rates. Preliminary results indicate that Q. geminata produces a faint growth ring, survive for at least two to three hundred years and is well-adapted to frequent salt water flooding. Cat Island: False color Image

  20. Did the late spring frost in 2007 and 2011 affect tree-ring width and earlywood vessel size in Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) in northern Poland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchałka, Radosław; Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Julia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Dąbrowski, Henryk P.

    2015-11-01

    Trees are sensitive to extreme weather and environmental conditions. This sensitivity is visible in tree-ring widths and cell structure. In our study, we hypothesized that the sudden frost noted at the beginning of May in both 2007 and 2011 affected cambial activity and, consequently, the number and size of vessels in the tree rings. It was decided to test this hypothesis after damage to leaves was observed. The applied response function model did not show any significant relationships between spring temperature and growth. However, this method uses average values for long periods and sometimes misses the short-term effects. This is why we decided to study each ring separately, comparing them with rings unaffected by the late frost. Our study showed that the short-term effect of sudden frost in late spring did not affect tree rings and selected cell parameters. The most likely reasons for this are (i) cambial activity producing the earlywood vessels before the occurrence of the observed leaf damage, (ii) the forest micro-climate protecting the trees from the harsh frost and (iii) the temperature decline being too short-lived an event to affect the oaks. On the other hand, the visible damage may be occasional and not affect cambium activity and tree vitality at all. We conclude that oak is well-adapted to this phenomenon.

  1. Did the late spring frost in 2007 and 2011 affect tree-ring width and earlywood vessel size in Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) in northern Poland?

    PubMed

    Puchałka, Radosław; Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Julia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Dąbrowski, Henryk P

    2016-08-01

    Trees are sensitive to extreme weather and environmental conditions. This sensitivity is visible in tree-ring widths and cell structure. In our study, we hypothesized that the sudden frost noted at the beginning of May in both 2007 and 2011 affected cambial activity and, consequently, the number and size of vessels in the tree rings. It was decided to test this hypothesis after damage to leaves was observed. The applied response function model did not show any significant relationships between spring temperature and growth. However, this method uses average values for long periods and sometimes misses the short-term effects. This is why we decided to study each ring separately, comparing them with rings unaffected by the late frost. Our study showed that the short-term effect of sudden frost in late spring did not affect tree rings and selected cell parameters. The most likely reasons for this are (i) cambial activity producing the earlywood vessels before the occurrence of the observed leaf damage, (ii) the forest micro-climate protecting the trees from the harsh frost and (iii) the temperature decline being too short-lived an event to affect the oaks. On the other hand, the visible damage may be occasional and not affect cambium activity and tree vitality at all. We conclude that oak is well-adapted to this phenomenon. PMID:26607274

  2. Did the late spring frost in 2007 and 2011 affect tree-ring width and earlywood vessel size in Pedunculate oak ( Quercus robur) in northern Poland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchałka, Radosław; Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Julia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Dąbrowski, Henryk P.

    2016-08-01

    Trees are sensitive to extreme weather and environmental conditions. This sensitivity is visible in tree-ring widths and cell structure. In our study, we hypothesized that the sudden frost noted at the beginning of May in both 2007 and 2011 affected cambial activity and, consequently, the number and size of vessels in the tree rings. It was decided to test this hypothesis after damage to leaves was observed. The applied response function model did not show any significant relationships between spring temperature and growth. However, this method uses average values for long periods and sometimes misses the short-term effects. This is why we decided to study each ring separately, comparing them with rings unaffected by the late frost. Our study showed that the short-term effect of sudden frost in late spring did not affect tree rings and selected cell parameters. The most likely reasons for this are (i) cambial activity producing the earlywood vessels before the occurrence of the observed leaf damage, (ii) the forest micro-climate protecting the trees from the harsh frost and (iii) the temperature decline being too short-lived an event to affect the oaks. On the other hand, the visible damage may be occasional and not affect cambium activity and tree vitality at all. We conclude that oak is well-adapted to this phenomenon.

  3. Relevance of genetics for conservation policies: the case of Minorcan cork oaks

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Zaida; Burgarella, Concetta; de Heredia, Unai López; Lumaret, Roselyne; Petit, Rémy J.; Soto, Álvaro; Gil, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Marginal populations of widely distributed species can be of high conservation interest when they hold a significant or unique portion of the genetic diversity of the species. However, such genetic information is frequently lacking. Here the relevance of genetic surveys to develop efficient conservation strategies for such populations is illustrated using cork oak (Quercus suber) from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) as a case study. Cork oak is highly endangered on the island, where no more than 67 individuals live in small, isolated stands in siliceous sites. As a consequence, it was recently granted protected status. Methods Two Bayesian clustering approaches were used to analyse the genetic structure of the Minorcan population, on the basis of nuclear microsatellite data. The different groups within the island were also compared with additional island and continental populations surrounding Minorca. Key Results Very high genetic diversity was found, with values comparable with those observed in continental parts of the species' range. Furthermore, the Minorcan oak stands were highly differentiated from one another and were genetically related to different continental populations of France and Spain. Conclusions The high levels of genetic diversity and inter-stands differentiation make Minorcan cork oak eligible for specific conservation efforts. The relationship of Minorcan stands to different continental populations in France and Spain probably reflects multiple colonization events. However, discrepancy between chloroplast DNA- and nuclear DNA-based groups does not support a simple scenario of recent introduction. Gene exchanges between neighbouring cork oak stands and with holm oak have created specific and exceptional genetic combinations. They also constitute a wide range of potential genetic resources for research on adaptation to new environmental conditions. Conservation guidelines that take into account these findings are provided

  4. Adsorption of Disperse Orange 30 dye onto activated carbon derived from Holm Oak (Quercus Ilex) acorns: A 3(k) factorial design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Ates, Funda; Erginel, Nihal; Ozcan, Oznur; Oduncu, Emre

    2015-05-15

    In this study, samples of activated carbon were prepared from Holm Oak acorns by chemical activation with H3PO4, ZnCl2 and KOH as activating agents. The samples were characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR and elemental analysis, and were then evaluated for the removal of Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) dyes from aqueous solutions. A 3(k) factorial design was used to determine the interaction effects of carbonization temperature, pH, dosage of adsorbent and type of activating agent on the amount of dye removal. Also, level of effectiveness factors were determined by conducting regression models for maximum adsorption efficiency. Of all the samples, the sample generated using ZnCl2 as an activating agent showed a maximum dye removal efficiency of 93.5% at a carbonization temperature of 750 °C, a pH of 2 and an adsorbent dosage of 0.15 g/25 ml. The analysis shows that the adsorption process depends significantly on the type of activating agent used in the preparation of activated carbon. PMID:25776797

  5. Why Is Seed Production So Variable among Individuals? A Ten-Year Study with Oaks Reveals the Importance of Soil Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V.; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species – the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  6. Use of an airborne lidar system to model plant species composition and diversity of Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Simonson, William D; Allen, Harriet D; Coomes, David A

    2012-10-01

    Airborne lidar is a remote-sensing tool of increasing importance in ecological and conservation research due to its ability to characterize three-dimensional vegetation structure. If different aspects of plant species diversity and composition can be related to vegetation structure, landscape-level assessments of plant communities may be possible. We examined this possibility for Mediterranean oak forests in southern Portugal, which are rich in biological diversity but also threatened. We compared data from a discrete, first-and-last return lidar data set collected for 31 plots of cork oak (Quercus suber) and Algerian oak (Quercus canariensis) forest with field data to test whether lidar can be used to predict the vertical structure of vegetation, diversity of plant species, and community type. Lidar- and field-measured structural data were significantly correlated (up to r= 0.85). Diversity of forest species was significantly associated with lidar-measured vegetation height (R(2) = 0.50, p < 0.001). Clustering and ordination of the species data pointed to the presence of 2 main forest classes that could be discriminated with an accuracy of 89% on the basis of lidar data. Lidar can be applied widely for mapping of habitat and assessments of habitat condition (e.g., in support of the European Species and Habitats Directive [92/43/EEC]). However, particular attention needs to be paid to issues of survey design: density of lidar points and geospatial accuracy of ground-truthing and its timing relative to acquisition of lidar data. PMID:22731687

  7. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  8. Not all oak gall wasps gall oaks: the description of Dryocosmus rileypokei, a new, apostate species of Cynipini from California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cynipini gall wasps are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly1000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from a host plant other than Quercus. These three species are known from western chinqu...

  9. Monitoring drought impact on Mediterranean oak savanna vegetation using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Dugo, Maria P.; Carpintero, Elisabet; Andreu, Ana

    2015-04-01

    A holm oak savanna, known as dehesa in Spain and montado in Portugal, is the largest agroforest ecosystem in Europe, covering about 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Papanastasis et al., 2004). It is considered an example of sustainable land use, supporting a large number of species and diversity of habitats and for its importance in rural development and economy (Plieninger et al., 2001). It is a combination between an agricultural and a naturally vegetated ecosystem, consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus Ilex and Quercus suber) combined with a sub-canopy composed by crops, annual grassland and/or shrubs. It has a Mediterranean climate with severe periodic droughts. In the last decades, this system is being exposed to multiple threats derived from socio-economic changes and intensive agricultural use, which have caused environmental degradation, including tree decline, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes, and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al., 2004). Soil water dynamics plays a central role in the current decline and reduction of forested areas that jeopardizes the preservation of the system. In this work, a series of remotely sensed images since 1990 to present was used to evaluate the effect of several drought events occurred in the study area (1995, 2009, 2010/2011) on the tree density and water status. Data from satellites Landsat and field measurements have been combined in a spectral mixture model to assess separately the evolution of tree, dry grass and bare soil ground coverage. Only summer images have been used to avoid the influence of the green herbaceous layer on the analysis. Thermal data from the same sensors and meteorological information are integrated in a two source surface energy balance model to compute the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) and evaluate the vegetation water status. The results have provided insights about the severity of each event and the spatial distribution of

  10. Population variation and natural selection on leaf traits in cork oak throughout its distribution range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Valiente, José Alberto; Valladares, Fernando; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Delgado, Antonio; Aranda, Ismael

    2014-07-01

    A central issue in evolutionary biology is the exploration of functional trait variation among populations and the extent to which this variation has adaptive value. It was recently proposed that specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen concentration per mass (Nmass) and water use efficiency in cork oak play an important role in adaptation to water availability in the environment. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we explored, first, whether there was population-level variation in cork oak (Quercus suber) for these functional traits throughout its distribution range; if this were the case, it would be consistent with the hypothesis that different rainfall patterns have led to ecotypic differentiation in this species. Second, we studied whether the population-level variation matched short-term selection on these traits under different water availability conditions using two fitness components: survival and growth. We found high population-level differentiation in SLA and Nmass, with populations from dry places exhibiting the lowest values for SLA and Nmass. Likewise, reduced SLA had fitness benefits in terms of growth for plants under dry conditions. However, contrary to our expectations, we did not find any pattern of association between functional traits and survival in nine-year-old saplings despite considerable drought during one year of the study period. These results together with findings from the literature suggest that early stages of development are the most critical period for this species. Most importantly, these findings suggest that cork oak saplings have a considerable potential to cope with dry conditions. This capacity to withstand aridity has important implications for conservation of cork oak woodlands under the ongoing climate change.

  11. Pre-exposure to ozone predisposes oak leaves to attacks by Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Elena; Anselmi, Naldo; Franceschini, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    One-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber) and turkey oak (Q. cerris) seedlings were exposed to ozone (110 ppb, 5 h day(-1), for 30 days) and were inoculated with Diplodia corticola and Biscogniauxia mediterranea, respectively, by spraying a suspension of spores on the leaves. Both fungi are endophytic and may act as weak parasites, contributing to oak decline. Ozone exposure stimulated leaf attacks after inoculation, although the physiological, visible, and structural responses of both oaks to O3 exposure were weak. In fact, steady-state gas exchange, leaf waxes, and wettability were not significantly affected by O3. In Q. cerris, O3 altered the structure of stomata, as observed by scanning microscopy, and reduced the leaf relative water content. No hyphal entry through stomata or growth towards stomata was, however, observed. Inoculations were performed in a humid chamber at low light; stomata were likely to be closed. When Q. cerris was inoculated in natural conditions, i.e., in a forest infected by B. mediterranea, seedlings pre-exposed to the enhanced O3 regime had a higher number of B. mediterranea isolates than the controls. This suggests that pre-exposure to O3 predisposed Q. cerris leaves to attacks by B. mediterranea independent of stomata. The hyphae of both fungi were able to enter the leaf through the cuticle, either by gradual in-growth into the cuticle or erosion of a hollow in the cuticle at the point of contact. The primary cause of increased leaf injury in O3-exposed seedlings appeared to be higher germination of spores than on control leaves. PMID:17450300

  12. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Grimm, Guido W; Papini, Alessio; Vessella, Federico; Cardoni, Simone; Tordoni, Enrico; Piredda, Roberta; Franc, Alain; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks). Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech.) was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris) caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution ranges, that did not

  13. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Guido W.; Papini, Alessio; Vessella, Federico; Cardoni, Simone; Tordoni, Enrico; Piredda, Roberta; Franc, Alain; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks). Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech.) was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris) caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution ranges, that did not

  14. The macromolecular aromatic domain in suberized tissue: a changing paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernards, M. A.; Lewis, N. G.

    1998-01-01

    As a structural feature of specialized cell walls, suberization remains an enigma, despite its obvious importance both during normal growth and development and as a stress response in plants. While it is clear that suberized tissues contain both polyaromatic and polyaliphatic domains, and that each of these has its own unique characteristics, whether there is a contiguous macromolecule that can be called suberin is an open question. From a structural perspective, the aromatic domain is unique and distinct from lignin, and is apparently comprised primarily of (poly)hydroxycinnamates, such as amides (e.g., feruloyltyramine). The aliphatic domain is also unique, being quite distinct from cutin in terms of both its chemical composition and cellular location. In the present paper, histochemical, structural and biochemical data, particularly, regarding the polyaromatic domain of suberized tissues, are critically reviewed. A revised description of the polyaromatic domain of suberized tissues, based on the consensus that is emerging from the current data, is presented and especially includes a spatially distinct (poly)hydroxycinnamoyl-containing macromolecule.

  15. Gene Expression Associated with Tuber Wound-Healing/Suberization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding of potatoes during harvest and handling operations results in tuber shrinkage, market quality defects and infection. Suberization and other wound-healing processes that mitigate these losses are of great agricultural importance. Previously, we determined that suberin poly(phenolics) and s...

  16. The macromolecular aromatic domain in suberized tissue: a changing paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Lewis, N G

    1998-03-01

    As a structural feature of specialized cell walls, suberization remains an enigma, despite its obvious importance both during normal growth and development and as a stress response in plants. While it is clear that suberized tissues contain both polyaromatic and polyaliphatic domains, and that each of these has its own unique characteristics, whether there is a contiguous macromolecule that can be called suberin is an open question. From a structural perspective, the aromatic domain is unique and distinct from lignin, and is apparently comprised primarily of (poly)hydroxycinnamates, such as amides (e.g., feruloyltyramine). The aliphatic domain is also unique, being quite distinct from cutin in terms of both its chemical composition and cellular location. In the present paper, histochemical, structural and biochemical data, particularly, regarding the polyaromatic domain of suberized tissues, are critically reviewed. A revised description of the polyaromatic domain of suberized tissues, based on the consensus that is emerging from the current data, is presented and especially includes a spatially distinct (poly)hydroxycinnamoyl-containing macromolecule. PMID:11536868

  17. Miocene Oaks from Eastern Zhejiang, China and their Paleoenvironmental Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hui; Ferguson, David

    2015-04-01

    The intertrappean fluvial-lacustrine beds belonging to the Upper Miocene Shengxian Formation in eastern China contain many exquisitely preserved plant fossils, e.g., leaves, fruits and seeds as well as plentiful pollen. The Fagaceae is the dominant taxon represented by 5 genera and 15 species, four of which belong to Quercus subgenus Cyclobalanopsis. Quercus species (oaks) are highly sensitive to environmental changes. The correlation between climate and trichome base density of Quercus glauca and Quercus delavayi of subg. Cyclobalanopsis, which are the NLRs of two fossil species, Quercus paraglauca and Quercus aff. delavayi, indicates that the trichome base density of Quercus glauca is comprehensively affected by various climate factors, but most influenced by solar radiation and latitude. The trichome base parametrics of Quercus paraglauca and the comparison of epidermal cell characteristics between Quercus paraglauca and Quercus aff. delavayi and their NLR species of subg. Cyclobalanopsis, show that the climate was warmer and more humid in the late Miocene than that of today in eastern Zhejiang, China. A study of the stomatal index of Quercus glauca and Quercus delavayi, collected in different years, demonstrates that they are very sensitive to the variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration. By comparing the stomatal ratio between the two fossil species and their NLRs, the paleoatmospheric CO2 concentration in the late Miocene is reconstructed as ca. 400 ppmv, i.e. higher than the present natural CO2 concentration eliminating the industrial influence.

  18. [Cytogenetic characteristics of seed progeny of common oak trees (Quercus robur L.) exposed to the irradiation after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station and growing at the territories with different levels of anthropogenic contamination].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, V G; Kalaev, V N

    2005-01-01

    The examination of cytogenetic characteristics (the mitotic activity, the time of passing of the mitotic stages by cells, the level and the spectrum of mitosis disturbances, the nucleoli characteristics) of seed progeny of common oak trees, exposed to the radiation exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station and growing at the territories with different levels of anthropogenic contamination was held. In spite of the normalization of the radioactive level at the examined territories the changes of the cytogenetic characteristics of common oak seed progeny in comparison with the control were noticed. Obtained results are explained from the position of the radiation induced genomic instable and of the wave kinetic of the mutation process. The questions of the advisability and of the validity of using of the seed progeny of the common oak trees, exposed to the radiation exposure, in forest restoration measures are discussed. PMID:16304780

  19. By-products of electrochemical synthesis of suberic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shirobokova, O.I.; Adamov, A.A.; Freidlin, G.N.; Antonenko, N.S.; Grudtsyn, Yu.D.

    1988-05-10

    By-products of the electrochemical synthesis of dimethyl suberate from glutaric anhydride were studied. This is isolated by thermal dehydration of a mixture of lower dicarboxylic acids that are wastes from the production of adipic acid. To isolate the by-products, they used the methods of vacuum rectification and preparative gas-liquid chromatography, and for their identification, PMR, IR spectroscopy, gas-liquid chromatography, and other known physicochemical methods of investigation.

  20. Induced phenylpropanoid metabolism during suberization and lignification: a comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernards, M. A.; Susag, L. M.; Bedgar, D. L.; Anterola, A. M.; Lewis, N. G.

    2000-01-01

    Induction of the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids was monitored at the enzyme level through measurement of the temporal change in the activity of two marker enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, (PAL, E.C. 4.1.3.5) and 4-coumaryl-CoA ligase (4-CL, E.C. 6.2.1.12) and two marker enzymes for hydroxycinnamyl alcohol biosynthesis, cinnamoyl-CoA:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CCR, E.C. 1.2.1.44) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, E.C. 1.1.1.195) in both suberizing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and lignifying loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cell cultures. While measurable activities of PAL, 4-CL and CAD increased upon initiation of suberization in potato tubers, that of CCR did not. By contrast, all four enzymes were induced upon initiation of lignification in pine cell cultures. The lack of CCR induction in potato by wound treatment is consistent with the channelling of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA derivatives away from monolignol formation and toward other hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives such as those that accumulate during suberization.

  1. Analysis of oak tannins by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mämmelä, P; Savolainen, H; Lindroos, L; Kangas, J; Vartiainen, T

    2000-09-01

    Extractable tannins were analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in two oak species, North American white oak (Quercus alba) and European red oak (Quercus robur). They mainly included various glucose gallic and ellagic acid esters. The structures were partially determined, and they included grandinin/roburin E, castalagin/vescalagin, gallic acid, valoneic acid bilactone, monogalloyl glucose, digalloyl glucose, trigalloyl glucose, ellagic acid rhamnose, quercitrin and ellagic acid. PMID:10999626

  2. Identification of a new source of contamination of Quercus sp. oak wood by 2,4,6-trichloroanisole and its impact on the contamination of barrel-aged wines.

    PubMed

    Chatonnet, Pascal; Fleury, Antoine; Boutou, Stéphane

    2010-10-13

    Thanks to practical experience in various wineries in recent years, it is now clear that, similarly to the well-known phenomenon in corks, there are several sources of unpredictable contamination of oak wood by 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA). TCA affects staves in the same barrel very sporadically, with extremely limited contaminated areas on the surface that may reach several millimeters in depth. The precise origin of the TCP and TCA in oak wood is not known at this stage. Available data indicate that the phase where stavewood is naturally dried and seasoned is the source of these undesirable organochlorine contaminants. The strictly chemical formation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), derived from organochlorine biocides, was demonstrated to be impossible under traditional cooperage conditions, and its accumulation remained highly improbable. Similarly to previous discoveries in corks, all the analyses of oak wood suggested that the TCP was of biochemical origin. The capacity to biomethylate chlorophenols is well-known and relatively widespread among the usual microflora in stavewood, but the precise origin of the intermediary leading to TCP formation is still unknown. One probable hypothesis is that this reaction involves chloroperoxidase (CPO). Several ideas have been proposed, but the microorganisms responsible for the formation of the TCA precursor in oak wood have not yet been identified. The extent of this problem is still severely underestimated by coopers and barrel-users, due to the extremely unpredictable, localized contamination of the staves. PMID:20845985

  3. The Physiology of Suberization: Roles in Resistance to Infection During Wound-Healing and in the Pink Eye Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suberized cells of potato native periderm and wound periderm provide broad and durable protection against infection, dehydration and other problems affecting tuber market quality. Suberization and maintenance of the resulting suberin barrier involve complex processes of great economic importanc...

  4. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Howlett, David Scott; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera Losada, Maria Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2011-07-01

    The extent of carbon (C) stored in soils depends on a number of factors including soil characteristics, climatic and other environmental conditions, and management practices. Such information, however, is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 cm) under a Dehesa cork oak (Quercus suber L.) silvopasture at varying distances (2, 5, and 15 m) to trees. Soil C in the whole soil and three soil fractions (<53, 53-250, and 250-2000 μm) was determined. Results showed soil depth to be a significant factor in soil C stocks in all soil particle sizes. Distance to tree was a significant factor determining soil C stocks in the whole soil and the 250-2000 μm soil fraction. To 1 m depth, mean total C storage at 2, 5, and 15 m from cork oak was 50.2, 37, and 26.5 Mg ha(-1), respectively. Taking into account proportions of land surface area containing these C stocks at varying distances to trees to 1 m depth, with a tree density of 35 stems ha(-1), estimated landscape soil C is 29.9 Mg ha(-1). Greater soil C stocks directly underneath the tree canopy suggest that maintaining or increasing tree cover, where lost from disease or management, may increase long term storage of soil C in Mediterranean silvopastoral systems. The results also demonstrate the use of soil aggregate characteristics as better indicators of soil C sequestration potential and thus a tool for environmental monitoring. PMID:21643613

  5. Gene expression profiles of different breast cancer cells compared with their responsiveness to fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador from oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus), white fir (Abies) and apple tree (Malus) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eggenschwiler, Jenny; Patrignani, Andrea; Wagner, Ulrich; Rehrauer, Hubert; Schlapbach, Ralph; Rist, Lukas; Ramos, Mac H; Viviani, Angelika

    2006-06-01

    Cytotoxicity assays in vitro (MTT test) showed that the different breast cancer cell lines Kpl-1, MCF-7 and Mfm-223 respond differently to the mistletoe (Viscum album L.) preparations Iscador. Quercus (Qu), Abies (A), Malus (M) and Pinus (P). In order to determine the differences in the responsiveness of the cells more exactly, the gene expression profiles were determined by cells, which were treated with Mistletoe extracts, compared with untreated control cells. Such differences can be analysed in more detail by looking at the gene expression using Human Whole Genome microarray chips (41,000 genes). The results of the transcriptome analyses suggested that Iscador preparations influenced the overregulation of genes regarding immune defense, stress response, apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion pathways. Within the Mfm-223-Zellen was the Genexpression in MCF-7 and Kpl-1. The MCF-7 cells were affected on the genes which are involved in cell-cell contacts whereas Kpl-1 responded to the mistletoe extracts by changing the mRNA levels of the immune and stress response pathways. Concerning the effects of the mistletoe extract, we conclude that Iscador Qu and M have a greater influence on the immune defense and stress response genes whereas Iscador A tends to affect the cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton pathways. In summary, cDNA microarray analyses give us information on whether a cancer cell is sensitive to mistletoe extracts in relation to how many genes are significantly overrepresented after mistletoe treatment, and whether a particular mistletoe extract is more effective on a specific cancer cell than the other preparation. PMID:16927530

  6. Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Dar, M S; Ikram, M; Fakouhi, T

    1976-12-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), a commonly available plant in Iran, were studied pharmacologically. Two fractions were employed, a dried acetone-treated methanol extract dissolved in water (Fraction A) and a subfraction prepared by chloroform-methanol extraction (Fraction B). Fraction A was active as an analgesic in rats and significantly reduced blood sugar levels in rabbits. Fraction B had CNS depressant activity. Data obtained with a treadmill indicated a decreased activity ratio by Fraction B, suggesting a possible interference in motor coordination. It potentiated the barbiturate sleeping time significantly without changing the onset time or the loss of the righting reflex. In addition, Fraction B exhibited a moderate antitremorine activity by causing a delay in the onset and a decrease in the severity of tremorine-induced tremors. The local anesthetic action of Fraction B was evident due to the complete blockade of the isolated frog sciatic nerve conduction. PMID:1032663

  7. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators. PMID:24455161

  8. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa supsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, U.S.A. is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp with 51.7% G+C content and comprises 2,903 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), and 50 RNA g...

  9. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia. PMID:25112733

  10. Competitive suppression of Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) seedling emergence and growth.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D R; Rice, K J

    2000-07-01

    Reduced recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings in California grasslands and woodlands may result from shifts in seasonal soil water availability coincident with replacement of the native perennial herbaceous community by Mediterranean annuals. We used a combination of container and field experiments to examine the interrelationships between soil water potential, herbaceous neighborhood composition, and blue oak seedling shoot emergence and growth. Neighborhoods of exotic annuals depleted soil moisture more rapidly than neighborhoods of a perennial grass or "no-neighbor" controls. Although effects of neighborhood composition on oak seedling root elongation were not statistically significant, seedling shoot emergence was significantly inhibited in the annual neighborhoods where soil water was rapidly depleted. Seedling water status directly reflected soil water potential, which also determined the extent and duration of oak seedling growth during the first year. End-of-season seedling height significantly influenced survival and growth in subsequent years. While growth and survival of blue oak seedlings may be initially constrained by competition with herbaceous species, subsequent competition with adult blue oak trees may further contribute to reduced sapling recruitment. PMID:10898776

  11. Antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier extract.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had

  12. Seed-mass effects in four Mediterranean Quercus species (Fagaceae) growing in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Quero, José Luis; Villar, Rafael; Marañón, Teodoro; Zamora, Regino; Poorter, Lourens

    2007-11-01

    Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the functional relationship between seed mass and seedling performance: the reserve effect (larger seeds retain a larger proportion of reserves after germinating), the metabolic effect (seedlings from larger seeds have slower relative growth rates), and the seedling-size effect (larger seeds produce larger seedlings). We tested these hypotheses by growing four Mediterranean Quercus species under different light conditions (3, 27, and 100% of available radiation). We found evidence for two of the three hypotheses, but none of the four species complied with all three hypotheses at the same time. The reserve effect was not found in any species, the metabolic effect was found in three species (Q. ilex, Q. pyrenaica, and Q. suber), and the seedling-size effect in all species. Light availability significantly affected the relationships between seed size and seedling traits. For Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, a seedling-size effect was found under all three light conditions, but only under the lowest light (3%) for Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica. In all species, the correlation between seed mass and seedling mass increased with a decrease in light, suggesting that seedlings growing in low light depend more upon their seed reserves. A causal model integrates the three hypotheses, suggesting that larger seeds generally produced larger seedlings. PMID:21636374

  13. Self-shading in cork oak seedlings: Functional implications in heterogeneous light environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteso-Martínez, Jordán; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Valladares, Fernando; Morales, Fermín; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2010-07-01

    The high self-shading found in Quercus suber seedlings has been interpreted as a feature common for plants growing in high light environments. But many studies reveal that Q. suber has high survival rates under low-light conditions, so a high degree of self-shading could be the consequence of a foliage composed of many small leaves, with no drawbacks for coping with low light. A characterization of the light environment in a Q. suber stand together with a study of photosynthetic parameters of full sunlight-exposed (FSLE) and self-shaded (SS) leaves were carried out to tackle this apparent contradiction. Although the number of sunflecks longer than 120 min during the 3 months of measurements was low, the occurrence of at least one sunfleck longer than 120 min per day in the understory of the forest studied was very common. Sunflecks shorter than 30 min promoted an increase in net photosynthesis ( A) in FSLE leaves, but not in SS leaves. However, sunflecks longer than 60 min led to a very strong decrease in A and in actual photosystem II efficiency (Φ PSII) in FSLE leaves, when compared to sunflecks shorter than 30 min. In SS leaves, changes were, again, negligible. The multi-layered foliage of Q. suber seedlings allowed i) FSLE leaves to obtain the maximum photosynthetic yield for short sunflecks, and ii) SS leaves to increase their contribution to the photosynthesis of the whole plant for long sunflecks, thus, optimizing the use of light by FSLE and SS leaves during short and long sunflecks respectively. Therefore, shoot architecture of Q. suber seedlings involving high levels of self-shading allows to adequately cope with the low but highly heterogeneous light conditions of the understory, particularly when sunflecks of contrasting durations take place as it is frequently the case for evergreen Mediterranean forests.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Five Quercus Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanci; Zhou, Tao; Duan, Dong; Yang, Jia; Feng, Li; Zhao, Guifang

    2016-01-01

    Quercus is considered economically and ecologically one of the most important genera in the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks are taxonomically perplexing because of shared interspecific morphological traits and intraspecific morphological variation, which are mainly attributed to hybridization. Universal plastid markers cannot provide a sufficient number of variable sites to explore the phylogeny of this genus, and chloroplast genome-scale data have proven to be useful in resolving intractable phylogenetic relationships. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes of four Quercus species were sequenced, and one published chloroplast genome of Quercus baronii was retrieved for comparative analyses. The five chloroplast genomes ranged from 161,072 bp (Q. baronii) to 161,237 bp (Q. dolicholepis) in length, and their gene organization and order, and GC content, were similar to those of other Fagaceae species. We analyzed nucleotide substitutions, indels, and repeats in the chloroplast genomes, and found 19 relatively highly variable regions that will potentially provide plastid markers for further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies within Quercus. We observed that four genes (ndhA, ndhK, petA, and ycf1) were subject to positive selection. The phylogenetic relationships of the Quercus species inferred from the chloroplast genomes obtained moderate-to-high support, indicating that chloroplast genome data may be useful in resolving relationships in this genus. PMID:27446185

  15. Preserving oak (Quercus sp.) germplasm to promote ex situ conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germplasm banks are increasingly used as an ex situ conservation strategy. Germplasm banks are able to maintain extraordinary levels of diversity for long periods at relatively low cost. Studies using seeds – the preferred propagules in plant germplasm banks – have revealed the underlying reasons wh...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianchi; Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

  17. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Rebekah J.; Kaye, Margot W.; Abrams, Marc D.; Hanson, Paul J; Martin, Madhavi Z

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  18. Pb uptake and tolerance in the two selected mangroves with different root lignification and suberization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, You-Shao; Liu, Yong; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Mei-Lin; Sun, Cui-Ci

    2015-10-01

    Metal pollution has been widely reported in mangrove wetlands; however, the mechanisms involved in metal detoxification by mangroves are still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of root lignification/suberization on Pb uptake and tolerance in mangroves. Two mangroves, Acanthus ilicifolius and Rhizophora stylosa with different root lignification/suberization were selected as plant materials; the former exhibits a thin exodermis and low lignification/suberization, while the latter possesses a thick exodermis and high lignification/suberization. A pot trial with addition of Pb was conducted to investigate the differences in Pb uptake and tolerance between the two mangroves. The experiment of rhizobox was designed to explore Pb dynamics and availabilities in the rhizosphere soils, besides, the ability of Pb uptake by the excised roots and X-ray analysis for Pb distribution within roots were also detected. The results revealed that R. stylosa exhibited relatively higher Pb tolerance together with less Pb accumulations when compared to A. ilicifolius. For both species, lower proportion of exchangeable and Carbonate Pb and higher higher Fe-Mn oxides Pb were observed in the rhizosphere zone when compared to the respective non-rhizosphere zone. The results from metal uptake by the excised roots and X-ray analysis clearly showed that the thick lignified/suberized exodermis of R. stylosa could more efficiently delay Pb entering into the roots, leading to less Pb accumulation. In summary, the present study proposes a barrier property of the lignified/suberized exodermis in dealing with the stresses of Pb. PMID:25956982

  19. Susceptibility of sprouted oak acorns to Phytophthora ramorum zoospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora ramorum is a recently emerged pathogen, having established in Europe and several western U.S. states, including California and Oregon. It has a wide host range and is a threat to forest ecology and the nursery industry. In California, coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) is a major host...

  20. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM LIVE OAK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Live-oak plants (Quercus virginia) were subjected to various levels of CO2, water stress or photosynthetic photon flux density to test the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis occurred only under conditions of restricted CO2 availability. Isoprene emission increases as the ambie...

  1. Anatomical and developmental study of petrified Quercus (Fagaceae) fruits from the Middle Miocene, Yakima Canyon, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Borgardt, S J; Pigg, K B

    1999-03-01

    The first reported petrified acorns to show internal anatomical structure are here described from Middle Miocene (∼15.6 million years old) chert of the Columbia River Basalt Group in Yakima Canyon, Washington. Quercus hiholensis Borgardt et Pigg sp. nov. is described from anatomical and morphological fruit features, as well as a little recognized anatomical feature, the umbilical complex. Acorns, each comprising a nut and its cupule, are up to 15.3 mm long and 18.8 mm wide with helically arranged, imbricate, tuberculate cupule scales. They show basal aborted ovules, short styles, broad stigmas, and lack grooves in their cotyledons. These characters and the developmental pattern seen in these fossil acorns demonstrate that Q. hiholensis conforms to genus Quercus (Fagaceae), subgenus Quercus, section Quercus (the white oaks). The correspondence of Q. hiholensis to the modern section Quercus reveals that the derived floral and fruit characters that distinguish section Quercus within the genus had evolved by the Middle Miocene. PMID:10077494

  2. Monoterpene field emission from Quercus ilex near Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, L.; Plaza, J.; Pujadas, M.; Pérez-Pastor, R.; García-Alonso, S.; Bezares, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    A great extension of Quercus ilex natural forest is found in the close vicinity to Madrid metropolitan area. This work presents the results obtained in a three-year field emission experimental study on this evergreen oak species (2000--02). Monoterpene emission has been documented during summer and early autumn seasons using a branch enclosure technique. Main features of this emission study focus on speciation, light and temperature dependence, and relationship with carbon assimilation and water stress. Severe soil water deficit induced a physiological depletion at high temperature in this sclerophyll and monoterpene non-storing oak species, reducing emission at minimum levels. In the opposite, if soil was enough wetted emission was reasonably well described by the isoprene model of Guenther although assimilation was reduced at high temperature. A field experiment designed to ascertain the role of air humidity on emission revealed no influence of this parameter under no soil water deficit conditions. Canopy emission fluxes were calculated from the modified Bowen-ratio technique using a micrometeorological tower deployed within the oak forest. A standard emission flux of 0.3 μg m-2s-1 according to the model of Guenther (30^oC and 1000 μmol m-2s-1 of PAR) was obtained (r^2= 0.67).

  3. Perspective on Open-Access Publishing: An Interview with Peter Suber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Reid; Suber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this edition of Perspectives, Reid Cornwell discusses open-access publishing with Peter Suber, senior researcher at the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, senior research professor of philosophy at Earlham College, and currently visiting fellow at Yale Law School. Open access means that scholarly work is freely and openly…

  4. Antioxidant Characterization of Oak Extracts Combining Spectrophotometric Assays and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Boris M.; Štajner, Dubravka; Orlović, Saša; Galić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia) were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water) extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP) determinations against DPPH•, •NO, and O2•− radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC) was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP), pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy. PMID:24453789

  5. MEASUREMENT OF OAK TREE DENSITY WITH LANDSAT TM DATA FOR ESTIMATING BIOGENIC ISOPRENE EMISSIONS IN TENNESSEE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emissions from oak trees in the eastern USA play an important role in tropospheric ozone pollution. Oak trees (Quercus) emit an order of magnitude more isoprene than most other emitting tree species and are by far the largest source of biogenic isoprene in the eastern US...

  6. A simple method for improved visualization of the lamellated structure of cutinized and suberized plant cell walls by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Heumann, H G

    1990-01-01

    By treating ultrathin sections with H2O2 prior to normal uranyl acetate and lead citrate staining, a strong increase in contrast of cutinized and suberized plant cell walls can be achieved. PMID:1699304

  7. Seasonal variations of isoprene emissions from five oak tree species in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yong-Jae; Armendariz, Al; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2011-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from trees can enhance the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone. Isoprene is one of the most environmentally important BVOCs, since its emission rate from certain tree species can be high and its chemical structure gives it high ozone forming potential. Understanding of isoprene emission rates from many tree species is limited, including influences of tree age, season, and other factors. Five oak species were studied which represent approximately 85 percent of the deciduous trees in South Korean forests. In general, there were obvious seasonal variations of isoprene emissions from five oak trees. Especially, Quercus aliena B. and Quercus mongolica F showed substantial seasonal variations of isoprene emissions; However, Quercus serrata T. and Quercus acutissima C. generally did not. It was found that Q. serrata T. showed the highest isoprene emission rates among the species tested (up to 130.5 μgC gdw -1 h -1) and its emission rates were highest during spring followed by summer and fall. The emission rates from two ( Q. acutissima C., Quercus variabilis B.) of the other tested oak species were lower by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Besides, two oak species, Q. aliena B. and Q. mongolica F. were chosen to determine the effect of tree age on isoprene emissions. Trees at the age of 21˜30 years had significantly higher isoprene emission rates than those at the age of 41˜50.

  8. Isolation of the orthologue of the cerato-ulmin gene in Ophiostoma quercus and characterization of the purified protein.

    PubMed

    Carresi, Lara; Comparini, Cecilia; Bettini, Priscilla P; Pazzagli, Luigia; Cappugi, Gianni; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2008-10-01

    Ophiostoma quercus is an ophiostomatoid fungus strictly related to the Ophiostoma's (O. ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, and O. himal-ulmi) that cause Dutch elm disease (DED). O. quercus has a number of morphological characteristics in common with the DED pathogens, and is a well-known and economically important sapstaining fungus occurring worldwide on hardwoods and commercially produced pines, and causes typical cankers on oak stems. In elm trees O. quercus can survive for months without causing any disease symptoms. DED fungi produce cerato-ulmin (CU), a class II hydrophobin, which is generally considered as the main toxin potentially involved in various phases of the DED pathogenesis. In the present work we isolated and sequenced the orthologue of the cu gene in the O. quercus isolates H988, H1042, and H2053. Moreover the CU protein from O. quercus isolate H988 was also purified and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that there is a pronounced difference between the whole cu gene region of O. quercus and the homologous fragments of the DED-causing species O. ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, and O. himal-ulmi. It also appeared that differences in the structural conformation of the promoter were unlikely to play a role in the modulation of the transcript level and that, for O. quercus, differences in CU production did not result from the potential different regulation levels. Clear differences were shown in the transcriptional unit of the cu genes and in the amino acid sequences among all the CUs. The purified O. quercus CU was separated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry into seven forms of increasing molecular weight from 7190 to 7724Da. The hydrophobicity profiles indicated that two regions of the O. quercus CU protein were more hydrophobic than the corresponding regions of the CUs of the DED fungi. The O. quercus CUs had theoretical isoelectric point values similar to those of the DED fungi. Finally, the contradiction between

  9. Biochemical characterization of the suberization-associated anionic peroxidase of potato.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Fleming, W D; Llewellyn, D B; Priefer, R; Yang, X; Sabatino, A; Plourde, G L

    1999-09-01

    The anionic peroxidase associated with the suberization response in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during wound healing has been purified and partially characterized at the biochemical level. It is a 45-kD, class III (plant secretory) peroxidase that is localized to suberizing tissues and shows a preference for feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates (order of substrate preference: feruloyl > caffeoyl > p-coumaryl approximately syringyl) such as those that accumulate in tubers during wound healing. There was little influence on oxidation by side chain derivatization, although hydroxycinnamates were preferred over the corresponding hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. The substrate specificity pattern is consistent with the natural substrate incorporation into potato wound suberin. In contrast, the cationic peroxidase(s) induced in response to wound healing in potato tubers is present in both suberizing and nonsuberizing tissues and does not discriminate between hydroxycinnamates and hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. A synthetic polymer prepared using E-[8-(13)C]ferulic acid, H(2)O(2), and the purified anionic enzyme contained a significant amount of cross-linking through C-8, albeit with retention of unsaturation. PMID:10482668

  10. Partitioning water and carbon fluxes in a Mediterranean oak woodland using stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Correia, Alexandra; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; Pereira, Joao; Werner, Christiane

    2014-05-01

    Water is a key factor driving ecosystem productivity, especially in water-limited ecosystems. A separation of the component fluxes is needed to gain a functional understanding on the development of net ecosystem water fluxes and their coupling with biogeochemical cycles. Oxygen isotope signatures are valuable tracers for water movements within the ecosystem because of the distinct isotopic compositions of water in soil and vegetation. In the past, determination of isotopic signatures of evaporative or transpirational fluxes has been challenging since measurements of water vapor isotopes were difficult to obtain using cold-trap methods, delivering data with low time resolution. Recent developments in laser spectroscopy now enable direct high frequency measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (δv), evapotranspiration (δET), and its components and allow validations of common modeling approaches for estimating δE and δT based on Craig and Gordon (1965). Here, a novel approach was used, combining a custom build flow-through gas-exchange branch chamber with a Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a Mediteranean cork-oak woodland where two vegetation layers respond differently to drought: oak-trees (Quercus suber L.) avoid drought due to their access to ground water while herbaceous plants survive the summer as seeds. We aimed at 1) testing the Craig and Gordon equation for soil evaporation against directly measured δE and 2) quantifying the role of non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions. Thirdly, we used this approach to quantify the impact of the understory herbaceous vegetation on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes throughout the year and disentangle how ET components of the ecosystem relate to carbon dioxide exchange. We present one year data comparing modeled and measured stable oxygen isotope signatures (δ18O) of soil evaporation, confirming that the Craig and Gordon equation leads to good agreement with measured δ18O of

  11. Impact of herbaceous understory vegetation to ecosystem water cycle, productivity and infiltration in a semi arid oak woodland assessed by stable oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbert, Maren; Piayda, Arndt; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; Correia, Alexandra C.; Pereira, Joao S.; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the key factors driving ecosystem productivity, especially in water-limited ecosystems. Thus a separation of these component fluxes is needed to gain a functional understanding on the development of net ecosystem water and carbon fluxes. Oxygen isotope signatures are valuable tracers for such water movements within the ecosystem because of the distinct isotopic compositions of water in the soil and vegetation. Here, a novel approach was used (Dubbert et al., 2013), combining a custom build flow-through gas-exchange branch chamber with a Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a Mediterranean cork-oak woodland where two vegetation layers respond differently to drought: oak-trees (Quercus suber L.) avoid drought due to their access to ground water while herbaceous plants survive the summer as seeds. We used this approach to quantify the impact of the understory herbaceous vegetation on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes throughout the year and disentangle how ET components of the ecosystem relate to carbon dioxide exchange. Partitioning ecosystem ET and NEE into its three sources revealed that understory vegetation contributed markedly to ecosystem ET and gross primary production (GPP; max. 43 and 51%, respectively). It reached similar water-use efficiencies (WUE) as cork-oak trees and significantly contributed to the ecosystem sink-strength in spring and fall. The understory vegetation layer further strongly inhibited soil evaporation (E) and, although E was large during wet periods, it did not diminish ecosystem WUE during water-limited times (Dubbert et al., 2014a). Although, during most of the year, interactions with trees neither facilitated nor hampered the development of the understory vegetation, strong competition for water could be observed at the end of the growing period, which shortened the life-cycle of understory plants and significantly reduced the carbon uptake of the ecosystem in spring (Dubbert et al., 2014b). Finally, herbaceous understory

  12. Metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) uptake and tolerance by mangroves in relation to root anatomy and lignification/suberization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Liu, Yong; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Mei-Lin; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Fu-Lin; Fei, Jiao; Wang, You-Shao

    2014-06-01

    Metal pollution has been widely reported in mangrove wetlands; however, the mechanisms involved in metal detoxification by mangroves are still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of root anatomy and lignification/suberization on metal uptake and tolerance in seedlings of six species of mangroves. The results revealed that the three rhizophoraceous species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir, Kandelia obovata Sheue, Liu & Yong and Rhizophora stylosa Griff) consistently exhibited higher metal tolerances than the three pioneer species (Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco, Acanthus ilicifolius L. and Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Viern.). Moreover, metal-tolerant species often exhibited a thick exodermis with high lignification and suberization. The tolerance indices of the mangroves were found to be positively correlated with the amounts of lignin and suberin deposition within the exodermal cell walls. The observed metal uptake by the excised roots further illustrated that a lignified/suberized exodermis directly delayed the entry of metals into the roots, and thereby contributed to a higher tolerance to heavy metals. In summary, the present study proposes a barrier property of the lignified/suberized exodermis in dealing with the stresses of heavy metals, such that the mangroves which possessed more extensive lignification/suberization within the exodermis appeared to exhibit higher metal tolerance. PMID:24965807

  13. soil carbon pools within oak forest is endangered by global climate change in central mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Merino, Agustín; González-Rodriguez, Antonio; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Oyama, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Forest soil represents the main C pool in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, temperate forest ecosystems play an important role in the C budget among tropical countries, such as Mexico. For example, the temperate forest ecosystem contains higher C contents on average (295 Mg C ha-1) than the soil C associated with other ecosystems in Mexico (between 56 to 287 Mg C ha-1). At a regional scale, oak forest has the highest C content (460 Mg C ha-1) among the forest ecosystem in Michoacán State at Central Mexico. At the local scale, the soil C content is strongly affected by the composition of organic matter produced by the plant species. The oak species are very diverse in Mexico, distributed within two sections: Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae. The oak species from Quercus s.s. section produced litterfall with lower concentrations of recalcitrant and thermostable compounds than oak species from Lobatae section, therefore the soil under the former species had higher microbial activity and nutrient availability than the soil under the later species. However, the forest fragment with higher amount of oak species from Quercus s.s. section increases the amount of soil C contents. Unfortunately, Quercus species distribution models for the central western region of Mexico predict a decrease of distribution area of the majority of oak species by the year 2080, as a consequence of higher temperatures and lower precipitation expected under climate change scenarios. Additionally to these scenarios, the remnant oak forest fragments suffer strong degradation due to uncontrolled wood extraction and deforestation. For this reason, the conservation of oak forest fragments is a priority to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. In order to enhance the protection of these forest fragments it is required that the society identify the ecosystem services that are provided by these forest fragments.

  14. Propagation container and timing of propagation affects growth and quality of oak seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the container effect and the timeline of seed propagation on germination and subsequent shoot and root development for container-grown oaks. Quercus nigra and Q. texana had equal or better growth and better root ratings when acorns were sown in Anderson t...

  15. Large Drought-Induced Variations in Oak Leaf Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri’s Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower ‐ NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). Ju...

  16. Phenological responses of juvenile pecan and white oak on an upland site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan (Carya illinoiensis) and white oak (Quercus alba) produce multiple products and wildlife values, but their phenological responses to N fertilization have not been well characterized in an mixed species agroforestry practice. We compared tree height at planting and for six consecutive growing ...

  17. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Vicent; Cerveró, Júlia; Calvo, Esperanza; García-Breijo, Francisco-José; Reig-Armiñana, José; Sanz, María José

    2011-01-01

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD1.6) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. PMID:20974507

  18. VOC emissions from beech, birch, and oak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildt, J.; Folkers, A.; Koch, N.; Kleist, E.

    2003-04-01

    VOC emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula pendula), and oak (Quercus robur) were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors. Oak emitted nearly exclusively isoprene. The dependence of these isoprene emissions on temperature and photosynthetic radiation (PAR) could quite well be described with existing algorithms and the emission factors were fairly constant. Beech and birch emitted mainly short chained oxygenated VOC and monoterpenes. Temperature and PAR dependence of monoterpene emissions were superimposed by a slow frequency modulation. Hence, descriptions of these emissions with existing algorithms were not successful. Moreover, in some cases the emission pattern switched drastically. For birch it was observed that the plant switched from a sesquiterpene emitter to a monoterpene emitter. emission pattern plants. Emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and methanol were not affected by PAR. Here, the emission factors are determined by other factors not included in existing algorithms.

  19. Effects of cattle management on oak regeneration in northern Californian Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n = 4) and only with wildlife (n = 4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

  20. Effects of Cattle Management on Oak Regeneration in Northern Californian Mediterranean Oak Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n = 4) and only with wildlife (n = 4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

  1. Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

    2008-01-01

    Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300 Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130 000–115 000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

  2. Process-based modelling of isoprenoid emissions from evergreen leaves of Quercus ilex (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, R.; Mayrhofer, S.; Fischbach, R. J.; Steinbrecher, R.; Staudt, M.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

    Monoterpenes play an important role in regulating the trace gas composition of the lower troposphere. Therefore, realistic estimates of the daily as well as seasonal variations of monoterpene emission source strength on the Earth surface are required. Monoterpenes are emitted by Holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and other species lacking specific foliar terpene storage structures and their development is dependent on light and temperature. In the present work we describe a process-based emission model taking into account the physiological/phenological state of Holm oak leaves and biochemical processes leading to the formation of monoterpenes. The model 'seasonal isoprenoid synthase model-biochemical isoprenoid biosynthesis model' (SIM-BIM2) is developed based on a previous version which was used to simulate isoprene emissions from deciduous oaks. The current model considers additional enzymatic reactions in Holm oak chloroplasts that lead to the formation of monoterpenes. The comparison of simulated and measured biochemical properties as well as emission rates displayed that the ability of the model to dynamically adjust monoterpene biosynthesis capacity by modulating the amount of monoterpene synthase activities in dependence of the weather pattern led to realistic simulations of light-dependent monoterpene emission rates. Differences to simulation results obtained by a widely used alternative model [Guenther, A.B., Zimmerman, P.R., Harley, P.C., Monson, R.K., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability—model evaluations and sensitivity analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research 98, 12609-12617] are discussed.

  3. Wound-induced suberization genes are differentially expressed, patially and temporally, during closing layer and wound periderm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) wounds incurred at harvest and upon seed cutting require rapid suberization as a major part of the healing process to prevent infection and desiccation. However, little is known about the induction and expression of genes that are essential for these processes an...

  4. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    PubMed Central

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  5. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2]. PMID:26543883

  6. Development of oak plantations established for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

  7. Seasonal trends in photosynthesis and electron transport during the Mediterranean summer drought in leaves of deciduous oaks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Osuna, Jessica L.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Dawson, Todd E.

    2015-04-08

    The California Mediterranean savanna has harsh summer conditions with minimal soil moisture, high temperature, high incoming solar radiation and little or no precipitation. Deciduous blue oaks, Quercus douglasii Hook. and Arn., are winter-deciduous obligate phreatophytes, transpiring mostly groundwater throughout the summer drought. Our objective for this work is to fully characterize the seasonal trends of photosynthesis in blue oaks as well as the mechanistic relationships between leaf structure and function.

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of bud development as related to climate in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus species

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Arben Q.; Camarero, J. Julio; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In trees, bud development is driven by endogenous and exogenous factors such as species and climate, respectively. However, knowledge is scarce on how these factors drive changes in bud size across different time scales. Methods The seasonal patterns of apical bud enlargement are related to primary and secondary growth in two coexisting Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit (Quercus ilex, evergreen; Quercus faginea, deciduous) over three years. In addition, the climatic factors driving changes in bud size of the two oak species were determined by correlating bud mass with climatic variables at different time scales (from 5 to 30 d) over a 15-year period. Key Results The maximum enlargement rate of buds was reached between late July and mid-August in both species. Moreover, apical bud size increased with minimum air temperatures during the period of maximum bud enlargement rates. Conclusions The forecasted rising minimum air temperatures predicted by climatic models may affect bud size and consequently alter crown architecture differentially in sympatric Mediterranean oaks. However, the involvement of several drivers controlling the final size of buds makes it difficult to predict the changes in bud size as related to ongoing climate warming. PMID:23179859

  9. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. PMID:26655380

  10. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy of red oaks in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.

    1983-04-01

    Identification of Quercus (oak) pollen taxa could enhance Quaternary palynological interpretations from eastern North America. A first step is to determine a morphological and taxonomic basis for such identifications. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to examine exine-surface features of 266 specimens representing 21 red oak (subgen. Erythrobalanus) species from eastern North America, and two intermediate oak (subgen. Protobalanus) species from the desert southwest. Twenty pollen morphological characteristics defined previously were tabulated for each of 324 pollen grains. The data were subjected to cluster analyses. Cluster diagrams were compared with traditional oak systematics. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy compared poorly with respect to series and species relationships among the red oaks, apparently due as much to high intraspecific and low interspecific variability in pollen-morphological characters as to the uncertain taxonomy of red oaks. Pollen morphology, however, does support the hypothesis of subgeneric oak evolution from intermediate oaks to the series Virentes of white oaks, and from more advanced white oaks to the red oak species. 19 references, 25 figures, 1 table.

  11. Hybridization and Introgression in a Sympatric Pair of Oak Species (Fagaceae) Studied with Morphology and Chloroplast and Nuclear SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast and nuclear SSR markers and morphology were used to study hybridization and introgression between Quercus douglasii and Q. lobata, two sympatric oak species native to California. Chloroplast SSR markers provided strong evidence of gene exchange via ongoing introgression between these sp...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Masuya, Hayato; Manabe, Ri-Ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  14. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. PMID:27263361

  15. Influence of geographical origin and botanical species on the content of extractives in American, French, and East European oak woods.

    PubMed

    Prida, Andrei; Puech, Jean-Louis

    2006-10-18

    The chemical composition of East European (Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania) oaks was investigated profoundly for the first time in the present study and compared with American and French counterparts. Taking into account the high natural variability of oak extractives contents, the wide-ranging sampling was performed for all oak origins: 276 French oaks, 102 East European oaks of both species (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl.), and 56 American oaks (Quercus alba). These oaks were compared with great attention paid to the extractives, which are most important for sensorial impact in wine or spirit maturation, such as ellagitannins and principal odorant substances (aromatic aldehydes, lactones and phenols). The substances in question were studied by application of HPLC and GC-MS techniques. The pattern of all studied extractive contents allowed adequate separation of oak samples according to their geographical origin or botanical species. The highest separation rate was for American and French oaks, whereas East European samples could be partially misclassified in two sets mentioned above. The most important variables for species discrimination were whiskey lactone related variables and ellagitannins, whereas the most important features for distinguishing the origin were eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, vanillin, and syringaldehyde. These substances allowed the distinction of French and East European woods of the same species. With regard to chemical composition, East European wood held the intermediary place between American and French oaks according to their ellagitannin and whiskey lactone levels; nevertheless, it was characterized by specific high values of eugenol, aromatic aldehydes, and 2-phenylethanol. PMID:17032018

  16. Masting in oaks: Disentangling the effect of flowering phenology, airborne pollen load and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Belmonte, Jordina; Maria Espelta, Josep

    2012-08-01

    Quercus species exhibit an extreme inter-annual variability in seed production often synchronized over large geographical areas (masting). Since this reproductive behavior is mostly observed in anemophilous plants, pollination efficiency is suggested as one hypothesis to explain it, although resource-based hypotheses are also suggested as alternatives. We analyzed the effect of flowering phenology, airborne pollen presence and meteorological conditions in the pattern of acorn production in mixed evergreen-deciduous oak forests (Quercus ilex and Quercus pubescens) in NE Spain for twelve years (1998-2009). In both oaks, higher temperatures advanced the onset of flowering and increased the amount of airborne pollen. Nevertheless, inter-annual differences in pollen production did not influence acorn crop size. Acorn production was enhanced by a delay in flowering onset in Q. ilex but not in Q. pubescens. This suggests that in perennial oaks a larger number of photosynthates produced before flowering could benefit reproduction while the lack of effects on deciduous oaks could be because these species flush new leaves and flowers at the same time. Notwithstanding this effect, spring water deficit was the most relevant factor in explaining inter-annual variability in acorn production in both species. Considering that future climate scenarios predict progressive warmer and dryer spring seasons in the Mediterranean Basin, this might result in earlier onsets of flowering and higher water deficits that would constrain acorn production.

  17. High-density linkage mapping and distribution of segregation distortion regions in the oak genome

    PubMed Central

    Bodénès, Catherine; Chancerel, Emilie; Ehrenmann, François; Kremer, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We developed the densest single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage genetic map to date for the genus Quercus. An 8k gene-based SNP array was used to genotype more than 1,000 full-sibs from two intraspecific and two interspecific full-sib families of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. A high degree of collinearity was observed between the eight parental maps of the two species. A composite map was then established with 4,261 SNP markers spanning 742 cM over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak genome. Nine genomic regions from six LGs displayed highly significant distortions of segregation. Two main hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying segregation distortion are discussed: genetic load vs. reproductive barriers. Our findings suggest a predominance of pre-zygotic to post-zygotic barriers. PMID:27013549

  18. High-density linkage mapping and distribution of segregation distortion regions in the oak genome.

    PubMed

    Bodénès, Catherine; Chancerel, Emilie; Ehrenmann, François; Kremer, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We developed the densest single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage genetic map to date for the genus Quercus An 8k gene-based SNP array was used to genotype more than 1,000 full-sibs from two intraspecific and two interspecific full-sib families of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur A high degree of collinearity was observed between the eight parental maps of the two species. A composite map was then established with 4,261 SNP markers spanning 742 cM over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak genome. Nine genomic regions from six LGs displayed highly significant distortions of segregation. Two main hypotheses concerning the mechanisms underlying segregation distortion are discussed: genetic load vs. reproductive barriers. Our findings suggest a predominance of pre-zygotic to post-zygotic barriers. PMID:27013549

  19. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    PubMed

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees. PMID:26904184

  20. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  1. Differential responses of grapevine rootstocks to water stress are associated with adjustments in fine root hydraulic physiology and suberization

    PubMed Central

    Barrios-Masias, F.H.; Knipfer, T.; McElrone, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Water deficits are known to alter fine root structure and function, but little is known about how these responses contribute to differences in drought resistance across grapevine rootstocks. The ways in which water deficit affects root anatomical and physiological characteristics were studied in two grapevine rootstocks considered as low–medium (101-14Mgt) and highly (110R) drought resistant. Rootstocks were grown under prolonged and repeated drying cycles or frequent watering (‘dry’ and ‘wet’ treatments, respectively), and the following parameters were evaluated: root osmotic and hydrostatic hydraulic conductivity (Lp os and Lp hyd, respectively), suberization, steady-state root pressure (P rs), sap exudation rates, sap osmotic potential, and exosmotic relaxation curves. For both rootstocks, the ‘dry’ treatment reduced fine root Lp, elicited earlier root suberization and higher sap osmotic potential, and generated greater P rs after rewatering, but the rootstocks responded differently under these conditions. Lp os, Lp hyd, and sap exudation rates were significantly higher in 110R than in 101-14Mgt, regardless of moisture treatment. Under ‘dry’ conditions, 110R maintained a similar Lp os and decreased the Lp hyd by 36% compared with ‘wet’ conditions, while both parameters were decreased by at least 50% for 101-14Mgt under ‘dry’ conditions. Interestingly, build-up of P rs in 110R was 34% lower on average than in 101-14Mgt, suggesting differences in the development of suberized apoplastic barriers between the rootstocks as visualized by analysis of suberization from fluorescence microscopy. Consistent with this pattern, 110R exhibited the greatest exosmotic Lp os (i.e. Lp os of water flowing from roots to the soil) as determined from relaxation curves under wet conditions, where backflow may have limited its capacity to generate positive xylem pressure. The traits studied here can be used in combination to provide new insights needed for

  2. Differential responses of grapevine rootstocks to water stress are associated with adjustments in fine root hydraulic physiology and suberization.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Masias, F H; Knipfer, T; McElrone, A J

    2015-09-01

    Water deficits are known to alter fine root structure and function, but little is known about how these responses contribute to differences in drought resistance across grapevine rootstocks. The ways in which water deficit affects root anatomical and physiological characteristics were studied in two grapevine rootstocks considered as low-medium (101-14Mgt) and highly (110R) drought resistant. Rootstocks were grown under prolonged and repeated drying cycles or frequent watering ('dry' and 'wet' treatments, respectively), and the following parameters were evaluated: root osmotic and hydrostatic hydraulic conductivity (Lp os and Lp hyd, respectively), suberization, steady-state root pressure (P rs), sap exudation rates, sap osmotic potential, and exosmotic relaxation curves. For both rootstocks, the 'dry' treatment reduced fine root Lp, elicited earlier root suberization and higher sap osmotic potential, and generated greater P rs after rewatering, but the rootstocks responded differently under these conditions. Lp os, Lp hyd, and sap exudation rates were significantly higher in 110R than in 101-14Mgt, regardless of moisture treatment. Under 'dry' conditions, 110R maintained a similar Lp os and decreased the Lp hyd by 36% compared with 'wet' conditions, while both parameters were decreased by at least 50% for 101-14Mgt under 'dry' conditions. Interestingly, build-up of P rs in 110R was 34% lower on average than in 101-14Mgt, suggesting differences in the development of suberized apoplastic barriers between the rootstocks as visualized by analysis of suberization from fluorescence microscopy. Consistent with this pattern, 110R exhibited the greatest exosmotic Lp os (i.e. Lp os of water flowing from roots to the soil) as determined from relaxation curves under wet conditions, where backflow may have limited its capacity to generate positive xylem pressure. The traits studied here can be used in combination to provide new insights needed for screening drought resistance

  3. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching.

  4. Aluminum and temperature alteration of cell membrane permeability of Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Junping Chen; Sucoff, E.I.; Stadelmann, E.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Al toxicity is the major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35 C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+ 32%), urea (+ 9%), and monoethyl urea ({minus}7%) across cell membranes. Above 9 C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7 C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6 C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduced membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.

  5. Tree bark suber-included particles: A long-term accumulation site for elements of atmospheric origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Ayrault, Sophie; Spadini, Lorenzo; Boudouma, Omar; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Ravanel, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    The deposition of atmospheric elements on and into the bark of 4-year-old Fraxinus excelsior L. was studied. The elemental composition of the suber tissue was established through ICP-MS analysis and the presence of solid mineral particles included in this suber was established and described through SEM-EDX. Fractionation of the suber elements mixture was obtained after ashing at 550 °C through successive water (C fraction) and HNO 3 2 M (D fraction) extraction, leading to an insoluble residue mainly composed of the solid mineral particles (E fraction). The triplicated % weight of C, D and E were respectively 34.4 ± 2.7, 64.8 ± 2.7 and 0.8 ± 0.1% of the suber ashes weight. The main component of C was K, of D was Ca. Noticeable amounts of Mg were also observed in D. The E fraction, composed of insoluble particles, was mostly constituted of geogenic products, with elements such as Si, Al, K, Mg, representing primary minerals. E also contained Ca 3(PO 4) 2 and concentrated the main part of Pb and Fe. Moreover, The SEM-EDX analysis evidenced that this fraction also concentrated several types of fly ashes of industrial origin. The study of the distribution between C, D and E was analysed through ICP-MS with respect to their origin. The origin of the elements found in such bark was either geogenic (clay, micas, quartz…), anthropogenic or biogenic (for instance large amounts of solid Ca organic salts having a storage role). As opposed to the E fraction, the C fraction, mainly composed of highly soluble K+ is characteristic of a biological pool of plant origin. In fraction D, the very high amount of Ca++ corresponds to two different origins: biological or acid soluble minerals such as calcite. Furthermore, the D fraction contains the most part of pollutants of anthropic origin such as Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd. As a whole, the fractionation procedure of the suber samples allows to separate elements as a function of their origin but also gives valuable information on

  6. Medium Density Fiberboard from Quercus robur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet; Copur, Yalcin; Guler, Cengiz; Tozluoglu, Ayhan; Buyuksari, Umit

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of oak (Ouercus robur L.) wood fibers from Turkey as a raw material for medium density fiberboard. In this study, some of the oak wood parts that are especially not suitable for other forest industries was utilized to produce fiberboards in laboratory environment. Test panels of varying densities (0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 g cm-3) were produced at 18 mm thickness using urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Mechanical, water resistance and dimensional stability properties of the test panels were determined according to Turkish standards. The results indicated that laboratory MDF panels produced using oak fibers resulted in mechanical properties that exceed (except panel type A) levels specified in the appropriate existing standards for the general propose fiberboards.

  7. Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Dagmar A; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David C; Esper, Jan; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Löffler, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    We analyze interannual to multi-decadal growth variations of 555 oak trees from Central-West Germany. A network of 13 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and 33 sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies is compared with gridded temperature, precipitation, cloud-cover, vapor pressure and drought (i.e., Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) fluctuations. A hierarchic cluster analysis identifies three groups for each oak species differentiated by ecologic settings. When high precipitation is primarily a characteristic for one Q. robur and one Q. petraea cluster, the other clusters are more differentiated by prevailing temperature conditions. Correlation analysis with precipitation and vapor pressure reveals statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) correlations for June (r = 0.51) and annual (r = 0.43) means. Growth of both species at dry sites correlates strongly with PDSI (r = 0.39, P < or = 0.05), and weakly with temperature and cloud-cover. In natural stands, Q. robur responds more strongly to water depletion than Q. petraea. Twenty-one-year moving correlations show positive significant growth response to both PDSI and precipitation throughout the 20th century, except for the 1940s - an anomalously warm decade during which all oak sites are characterized by an increased growth and an enhanced association with vapor pressure and temperature. We suggest that the wider oak rings that are exhibited during this period may be indicative of a nonlinear or threshold-induced growth response to drought and vapor pressure, and run counter to the general response of oak to drought and precipitation that normally would result in suppressed growth in a warmer and drier environment. As the wide rings are formed during the severe drought period of the 20th century, a complex model seems to be required to fully explain the widespread oak growth. Our results indicate uncertainty in estimates of future growth trends of Central European oak forests in a warming and

  8. Oak ecosystem succession of the Northern Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2014-05-01

    English oak (Quercus robur L.) along with its well-known good properties has a high sanitary-hygienic and curative potential. Its volatile metabolites (VM) influence bacteriostatically Staphylococcus aureus 209r, oppressing it in vitro by 85% compared with the control, and Escherichia coli by 45%. There is the least amount of epiphytic microorganisms on the leaves of Q. robur L. compared with some tree species [1]. In addition, VM of Q. robur L. have direct milieu (hypotensive) effects on the organism under its canopy, lowering blood pressure by 20-25 mm Hg [2]. A.P. Kazankin (1993) [4] calculated the prehistoric formula of forest species composition of Caucasian Mineral Waters region (Northern Caucasus): 6Qr3Crp1Fr which was based on the theory of calcium-magnesium absorption complex. According to the theory, underground mineral water, soil, forest litter and the leaves of ground vegetation of the area have the same ratio of the cations Ca and Mg - calcium-magnesium index [3]. Hence oldgrowth in the region consisted of oak (Qr) by 60%, hornbeam (Carpinus-Crp) by 30% and ash (Fraxinus-Fr) only by 10%. Currently, the formula of the forests of the region has been changed by man: 5Fr3Crp2Qr. The proportion of oak forests has decreased to 20%, the proportion of ash has increased by 50%, but the proportion of hornbeam hasn't changed. So it is relevant to restore oak forests of the region in the former ratio to other forest-forming species - ash and hornbeam. Taking into consideration the change of economic formation of society in Russia, it is extremely important to restore natural seed oak forests. Therein the luminance of surface areal is a limiting factor. We have calculated that the natural recovery of oak forests is possible providing observation of optimal moisture standards and soil fertility in combination with solar light within 10-24% from the light of open space. Measures for promotion of oak natural regeneration in mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus

  9. Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.

  10. Genetic Diversity Increases Insect Herbivory on Oak Saplings

    PubMed Central

    Castagneyrol, Bastien; Lagache, Lélia; Giffard, Brice; Kremer, Antoine; Jactel, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence from community genetics studies suggests that ecosystem functions supported by plant species richness can also be provided by genetic diversity within plant species. This is not yet true for the diversity-resistance relationship as it is still unclear whether damage by insect herbivores responds to genetic diversity in host plant populations. We developed a manipulative field experiment based on a synthetic community approach, with 15 mixtures of one to four oak (Quercus robur) half-sib families. We quantified genetic diversity at the plot level by genotyping all oak saplings and assessed overall damage caused by ectophagous and endophagous herbivores along a gradient of increasing genetic diversity. Damage due to ectophagous herbivores increased with the genetic diversity in oak sapling populations as a result of higher levels of damage in mixtures than in monocultures for all families (complementarity effect) rather than because of the presence of more susceptible oak genotypes in mixtures (selection effect). Assemblages of different oak genotypes would benefit polyphagous herbivores via improved host patch location, spill over among neighbouring saplings and diet mixing. By contrast, genetic diversity was a poor predictor of the abundance of endophagous herbivores, which increased with individual sapling apparency. Plant genetic diversity may not provide sufficient functional contrast to prevent tree sapling colonization by specialist herbivores while enhancing the foraging of generalist herbivores. Long term studies are nevertheless required to test whether the effect of genetic diversity on herbivory change with the ontogeny of trees and local adaptation of specialist herbivores. PMID:22937168

  11. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).

  12. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy of white oaks in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.

    1983-04-01

    An evaluation of possible approaches to fossil oak pollen identification utilized scanning electron microscopy to examine exine-surface features of 171 collections, representing 16 Quercus subgenus Lepidobalanus species and varieties of eastern North America. Twenty qualitative pollen morphological characters were defined and tabulated for each of 217 pollen grains. The data were subjected to cluster analysis and cluster diagrams were compared with published white oak taxonomy. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy compared well in series of the subgenus Lepidobalanus due primarily to consistency of character presence and absence within species and varieties. Pollen morphology of white oaks appears to reflect plant systematics above the species level. Use of routine SEM analysis to identify series of white oaks among fossil pollen grains likely will yield valid results. 38 references.

  13. The fauna of cynipid oak gall wasps and their parasitoids in Lorestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, E; Rasoulian, G R; Kharazi-Pakdel, A; Omid, R; Moniri, V R; Melika, G

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in the period 2003-2005 to collect and identify gall wasps and their parasitoids on oak species in Lorestan province. There are two oak species, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria, with different dispersion patterns in the province. Thus, 3 study sampling sites were selected to cover distributional pattern of oak forests. Collected galls maintained in the laboratory condition. Based on results obtained, overall, 26 different galls-formed on various plant parts (catkins, buds, fruits, leaves) were collected on two oak species; of which, 11 gall wasps are active on Q. brantii and 13 gall wasps on Q. infectoria. 19 parasitoid wasps of 12 genera and 6 families belong to Chalcidoidea superfamily with various frequency and dispersal were collected from mentioned galls. PMID:17385504

  14. A Pleistocene Clone of Palmer's Oak Persisting in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    May, Michael R.; Provance, Mitchell C.; Sanders, Andrew C.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background The distribution of Palmer's oak (Quercus palmeri Engelm.) includes numerous isolated populations that are presumably relicts of a formerly larger range that has contracted due to spreading aridity following the end of the Pleistocene. Principal Findings We investigated a recently discovered disjunct population of Palmer's oak in the Jurupa Mountains of Riverside County, California. Patterns of allozyme polymorphism, morphological homogeneity, widespread fruit abortion, and evidence of fire resprouting all strongly support the hypothesis that the population is a single clone. The size of the clone and estimates of annual growth from multiple populations lead us to conclude that the clone is in excess of 13,000 years old. Conclusions The ancient age of the clone implies it originated during the Pleistocene and is a relict of a vanished vegetation community. Range contraction after climate change best explains the modern disjunct distribution of Q. palmeri and perhaps other plants in California. PMID:20041136

  15. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. PMID:27130099

  16. Modeling suberization with peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of hydroxycinnamic acids: cross-coupling and dimerization reactions.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Stark, Ruth E

    2006-04-01

    An anionic potato peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7, APP) thought to be involved in suberization after wounding was isolated from slices of Solanum tuberosum in order to elucidate the first steps of dehydrogenative polymerization between pairs of different hydroxycinnamic acids (FA, CafA, CA and SA) present in wound-healing plant tissues. Use of a commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-H2O2 catalytic system gave the identical major products in these coupling reactions, providing sufficient quantities for purification and structural elucidation. Using an equimolar mixture of pairs of hydroxycinnamic acid suberin precursors, only caffeic acid is coupled to ferulic acid and sinapic acid in separate cross-coupling reactions. For the other systems, HRP and APP reacted as follows: (1) preferentially with ferulic acid in a reaction mixture that contained p-coumaric and ferulic acids; (2) with sinapic acid in a mixture of p-coumaric and sinapic acids; (3) with sinapic acid in a mixture of ferulic and sinapic acids; (4) with caffeic acid in a reaction mixture of p-coumaric and caffeic acids. The resulting products, isolated and identified by NMR and MS analysis, had predominantly beta-beta-gamma-lactone and beta-5 benzofuran molecular frameworks. Five cross-coupling products are described for the first time, whereas the beta-O-4 dehydrodimers identified from the caffeic acid and sinapic acid cross-coupling reaction are known materials that are highly abundant in plants. These reactivity trends lead to testable hypotheses regarding the molecular architecture of intractable suberin protective plant materials, complementing prior analysis of monomeric constituents by GC-MS and polymer functional group identification from solid-state NMR, respectively. PMID:16524605

  17. Oaks were the historical foundation genus of the east-central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Nowacki, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    Foundation tree species are dominant and define ecosystems. Because of the historical importance of oaks (Quercus) in east-central United States, it was unlikely that oak associates, such as pines (Pinus), hickories (Carya) and chestnut (Castanea), rose to this status. We used 46 historical tree studies or databases (ca. 1620-1900) covering 28 states, 1.7 million trees, and 50% of the area of the eastern United States to examine importance of oaks compared to pines, hickories, and chestnuts. Oak was the most abundant genus, ranging from 40% to 70% of total tree composition at the ecological province scale and generally increasing in dominance from east to west across this area. Pines, hickories, and chestnuts were co-dominant (ratio of oak composition to other genera of <2) in no more than five of 70 ecological subsections and two of 20 ecological sections in east-central United States, and thus by definition, were not foundational. Although other genera may be called foundational because of localized abundance or perceptions resulting from inherited viewpoints, they decline from consideration when compared to overwhelming oak abundance across this spatial extent. The open structure and high-light conditions of oak ecosystems uniquely supported species-rich understories. Loss of oak as a foundation genus has occurred with loss of open forest ecosystems at landscape scales.

  18. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  19. Oak Conservation and Restoration on Private Forestlands: Negotiating a Social-Ecological Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoot, Tricia G.; Schulte, Lisa A.; Rickenbach, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the midwestern United States, oak ( Quercus spp.) forests are considered critical habitat for conserving biodiversity and are a declining resource. Ecological conditions, such as deer herbivory and competition from more mesic broad-leaved deciduous species, have been linked to poor oak regeneration. In the Midwest, where up to 90% of forestland is privately owned, a greater understanding of social dimensions of oak regeneration success is especially critical to designing effective restoration strategies. We sought to determine factors that serve as direct and indirect constraints to oak restoration and identify policy mechanisms that could improve the likelihood for restoration success. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 32 natural resource professionals working in the Midwest Driftless Area. We found that most professionals anticipate that oak will remain only a component of the future forest. Furthermore, they identified the general unwillingness of landowners to adopt oak restoration practices as a primary driving force of regional forest change. The professionals pointed to interdependent ecological and social factors, occurring at various scales (e.g., economic cost of management, deer herbivory, and exurban residential development) as influencing landowner oak restoration decisions. Professionals emphasized the importance of government cost-share programs and long-term personal relationships to securing landowner acceptance of oak restoration practices. However, given finite societal resources, ecologically- and socially-targeted approaches were viewed as potential ways to optimize regional success.

  20. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks.

    PubMed

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  1. [Quantitative analysis on sharp-tooth oak stands in Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghua; Lei, Ruide; Jia, Xia; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei

    2003-12-01

    The arbor stratum of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands included two substratums. Phanerophyta synusium was in first position, and hemicryptophyta was inferior to it. The DBH structures of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata and Pinus armandii were sinister normal school, which could finish self-regeneration under the natural conditions. The small DBH class individuals of Pinus tabulaeformis were dominant, their DBH classes being distributed irregularly and absent very much. The large DBH classes of Toxicodendron vernicifluum took biggish proportion, belonging to declining population. Young trees were the principal individuals of Castanea mollissima, and in transitional age stage from the young to the middle. Populus davidiana was in the transitional stage from progressive to stable and young-middle age stands. The stands DBH structure was mainly influenced by the DBH variety of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata population. Quantitative classification (ward's method ward) and ordination (PCA) were used to study the community types of sharp-tooth oak. The results showed that the community could be divided into 6 types: 1. Ass. Smilax stans + Rosa multiflora-Quercus variabilis + Ulmus glaucescens-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata; 2. Ass. Smilax stans + Lespedeza bicolor-Castanea mollissima-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 3. Ass. Corylus mandshurica-Populus davidiana + Dendrobenthamia angustata-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 4. Ass. Prunus pseudoccrasus + Corylus mandshurica-Toxicodendron vernicifluum-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 5. Ass. Corylus mandshurica + Rosa multiflora-Pinus armandii-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; and 6. Ass. Sinarundinaria nitida-Pinus armandii + Pinus tabulaeformis-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. Ward's method ward was better for classifying community types than the other clustering analyses in Qinling Mountains. The PCA results were consistent with the clustering, and demonstrated that the sharp-tooth oak stands were influenced by the altitude, site

  2. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-01

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin. PMID:20687559

  3. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jato, V.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.; Fernandez-González, M.; Aira, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  4. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  5. Morphological and physiological divergences within Quercus ilex support the existence of different ecotypes depending on climatic dryness

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Barrón, Eduardo; Camarero, Julio Jesús; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Several studies show apparently contradictory findings about the functional convergence within the Mediterranean woody flora. In this context, this study evaluates the variability of functional traits within holm oak (Quercus ilex) to elucidate whether provenances corresponding to different morphotypes represent different ecotypes locally adapted to the prevaling stress levels. Methods Several morphological and physiological traits were measured at leaf and shoot levels in 9-year-old seedlings of seven Q. ilex provenances including all recognized morphotypes. Plants were grown in a common garden for 9 years under the same environmental conditions to avoid possible biases due to site-specific characteristics. Key Results Leaf morphometry clearly separates holm oak provenances into ‘ilex’ (more elongated leaves with low vein density) and ‘rotundifolia’ (short and rounded leaves with high vein density) morphotypes. Moreover, these morphotypes represent two consistent and very contrasting functional types in response to dry climates, mainly in terms of leaf area, major vein density, leaf specific conductivity, resistance to drought-induced cavitation and turgor loss point. Conclusions The ‘ilex’ and ‘rotundifolia’ morphotypes correspond to different ecotypes as inferred from their contrasting functional traits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the combined use of morphological and physiological traits has provided support for the concept of these two holm oak morphotypes being regarded as two different species. PMID:24941998

  6. Effect of flooding on C metabolism of flood-tolerant (Quercus robur) and non-tolerant (Fagus sylvatica) tree species.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Eleni; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because-due to a lack of O(2)-mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica, they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plant's carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the trees' flooding tolerance. PMID:22367762

  7. Hydrologic effects on diameter growth phenology for Celtis laevigata and Quercus lyrata in the floodplain of the lower White River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Scott T; Cochran, Wesley; Krauss, Ken W.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests represent an extensive wetland system in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and southeastern USA, and it is currently undergoing widespread transition in species composition. One such transition involves increased establishment of sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and decreased establishment of overcup oak (Quercus lyrata). The ecological mechanisms that control this transition are not well understood. We measured monthly diameter growth with dendrometer bands on 86 sugarberry and 42 overcup oak trees at eight sites in the floodplain of the White River (AR, USA) with differing hydrologic regimes. For both species, growth attenuated earlier at drier sites compared to wetter sites. Overcup oak grew slightly longer through late August, suggesting its growth period extends across both wet and dry periods. In contrast, sugarberry growth rate decreased substantially by mid-July. While these results did not necessarily indicate a mechanism for increased prominence of sugarberry, they suggest sugarberry growing season does not as much coincide with the typically drier period of late summer and may be less affected by these conditions. Overcup oak grows later into the dry season and water table conditions during this period may determine if overcup oak benefits from this relatively extended growth period.

  8. Emission of short chained organic acids, aldehydes and monoterpenes from Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinea L. in relation to physiological activities, carbon budget and emission algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Hofmann, U.; Müller, H.; Schäfer, L.; Wolf, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Foster, P.; Ferrari, C.; Jacob, V.; Fugit, J. L.; Dutaur, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    We report on the emission of monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes from Mediterranean oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and pine (Pinus pinea L.). All studies were done with dynamic cuvettes enclosing intact branches at the top of the canopy flushed with ambient air. Daily trends are compared with the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature and the physiological activities of the enclosed branches, i.e. assimilation and transpiration, with special attention on the carbon budget. Oak emits monoterpenes in high amounts, up to 2% of the assimilated carbon. As compared with monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes are of minor importance for oak. However, on a leaf dry-weight basis equal amounts of acids and aldehydes are released from oak and pine. As pine emitted only low amounts of terpenes (below 0.2% of the assimilated carbon) the release of terpenes and oxygenated compounds is of equal importance for this species. A comparison of a modelled light and temperature driven emission with the observed volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions showed good agreement for monoterpenes as well as for organic acids emitted in the case of oak. For pine only the release of acids showed an adequate relation to the algorithm data, whereas the terpene emissions seemed to be dominated by temperature effects.

  9. Interactions of drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species: physiological and structural leaf responses.

    PubMed

    Quero, José Luis; Villar, Rafael; Marañón, Teodoro; Zamora, Regino

    2006-01-01

    Here, we investigated the physiological and structural leaf responses of seedlings of two evergreen and two deciduous Quercus species, grown in a glasshouse and subjected to contrasted conditions of light (low, medium and high irradiance) and water (continuous watering vs 2-months drought). The impact of drought on photosynthetic rate was strongest in high irradiance, while the impact of shade on photosynthetic rate was strongest with high water supply, contradicting the hypothesis of allocation trade-off. Multivariate causal models were evaluated using d-sep method. The model that best fitted the dataset proposed that the variation in specific leaf area affects photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen concentration, and this trait determines stomatal conductance, which also affects photosynthetic rate. Shade conditions seemed to ameliorate, or at least not aggravate, the drought impact on oak seedlings, therefore, the drought response on leaf performance depended on the light environment. PMID:16684241

  10. Molecular and morphological characterization of a Xiphinema chambersi population from live oak trees in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with a redescription of the species and comments on its morphometric variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences thi...

  11. Episodic migration of oaks to Iceland: Evidence for a North Atlantic "land bridge" in the latest Miocene.

    PubMed

    Denk, Thomas; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard

    2010-02-01

    Dating the subsidence history of the North Atlantic Land Bridge (NALB) is crucial for understanding intercontinental disjunctions of northern temperate trees. Traditionally, the NALB has been assumed to have functioned as a corridor for plant migration only during the early Cenozoic, but recent findings of plant fossils and inferences from molecular studies are challenging this view. Here, we report dispersed pollen of Quercus from Late Miocene sediments in Iceland that shows affinities with extant northern hemispheric white oaks and North American red oaks. Older (15 to 10 Ma) sediments do not contain pollen of Quercus suggesting it arrived after that time. Pollen from the 9-8 Ma Hrútagil locality is indistinguishable from morphotypes common among white and red oaks. In contrast, pollen from the 5.5 Ma Selárgil locality has a tectum that is at present confined to North American white and red oaks, indicating a second episode of migration to Iceland. These findings suggest that transatlantic migration of temperate plant taxa may not have been limited by vast areas of sea or by cold climates during the Miocene. Furthermore, our results offer a plausible explanation for the remarkably low degree of genetic differentiation between modern disjunct European and North American oaks. PMID:21622388

  12. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates.

    PubMed

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Santos, Patricia; Kosma, Dylan K; Joubès, Jérôme; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  13. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Kosma, Dylan K.; Joubès, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  14. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Jato, V; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Fernandez-González, M; Aira, M J

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia. PMID:25108375

  15. Genetic variability and structure of Quercus brantii assessed by ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Leila; Rahmani, Mohammad-Shafie; Shabanian, Naghi; Badakhshan, Hedieh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

    2014-11-15

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) is one of the most important woody species of the Zagros forests in Iran. Three molecular marker techniques: start codon targeted (SCoT), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were compared for fingerprinting of 125 individuals of this species collected from different geographical locations of north-west of Iran. A total of 233 bands were amplified by 18 ISSR primers, of which 224 (96.10%) were polymorphic, and 126 polymorphic bands (97.65%) were observed in 129 bands amplified by 10 IRAP primers. Besides, 118 bands were observed for all 10 SCoT primers, of which 113 were polymorphic (95.71%). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers was 0.30, 0.32 and 0.38, respectively, and this revealed that SCoT markers were more informative than IRAP and ISSR for the assessment of diversity among individuals. Based on the three different molecular types, cluster analysis revealed that 125 individuals taken for the analysis can be divided into three distinct clusters. The Jaccard's genetic similarity based on the combined data ranged from 0.23 to 0.76. These results suggest that efficiency of SCoT, IRAP and ISSR markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of individuals. All molecular marker types revealed a low genetic differentiation among populations, indicating the possibility of gene flow between the studied populations. These results have an important implication for Persian oak (Q. brantii) germplasm characterization, improvement, and conservation. PMID:25241382

  16. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-01

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

  17. Foliage nitrogen turnover: differences among nitrogen absorbed at different times by Quercus serrata saplings

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Miki U.; Mizumachi, Eri; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen turnover within plants has been intensively studied to better understand nitrogen use strategies. However, differences among the nitrogen absorbed at different times are not completely understood and the fate of nitrogen absorbed during winter is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, nitrogen absorbed at different times of the year (growing season, winter and previous growing season) was traced, and the within-leaf nitrogen turnover of a temperate deciduous oak Quercus serrata was investigated. Methods The contributions of nitrogen absorbed at the three different times to leaf construction, translocation during the growing season, and the leaf-level resorption efficiency during leaf senescence were compared using 15N. Key Results Winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen significantly contributed to leaf construction, although the contribution was smaller than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen. On the other hand, the leaf-level resorption efficiency of winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen was higher than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen, suggesting that older nitrogen is better retained in leaves than recently absorbed nitrogen. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nitrogen turnover in leaves varies with nitrogen absorption times. These findings are important for understanding plant nitrogen use strategies and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:21515608

  18. Variations in Quercus sp. pollen seasons (1996-2011) in Poznań, Poland, in relation to meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Grewling, Lukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to supply detailed information about oak (Quercus sp.) pollen seasons in Poznań, Poland, based on a 16-year aerobiological data series (1996-2011). The pollen data were collected using a volumetric spore trap of the Hirst design located in Poznań city center. The limits of the pollen seasons were calculated using the 95 % method. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal variations in airborne pollen was examined using correlation analysis. Start and end dates of oak pollen seasons in Poznań varied markedly from year-to-year (14 and 17 days, respectively). Most of the pollen grains (around 75 % of the seasonal pollen index) were recorded within the first 2 weeks of the pollen season. The tenfold variation was observed between the least and the most intensive pollen seasons. These fluctuations were significantly related to the variation in the sum of rain during the period second fortnight of March to first fortnight of April the year before pollination (r = 0.799; p < 0.001). During the analyzing period, a significant advance in oak pollen season start dates was observed (-0.55 day/year; p = 0.021), which was linked with an increase in the mean temperature during the second half of March and first half of April (+0.2 °C; p = 0.014). Daily average oak pollen counts correlated positively with mean and maximum daily temperatures, and negatively with daily rainfall and daily mean relative humidity. PMID:24817783

  19. Variations in physiological and biochemical traits of oak seedlings grown under drought and ozone stress.

    PubMed

    Cotrozzi, Lorenzo; Remorini, Damiano; Pellegrini, Elisa; Landi, Marco; Massai, Rossano; Nali, Cristina; Guidi, Lucia; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    Despite the huge biodiversity characterizing the Mediterranean environment, environmental constraints, such as high sunlight and high temperatures alongside with dry periods, make plant survival hard. In addition, high irradiance leads to increasing ozone (O3 ) concentrations in ambient air. In this era of global warming, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that allow native species to tolerate these environmental constraints and how such mechanisms interact. Three Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens and Quercus cerris) with different features (drought tolerant, evergreen or deciduous species) were selected to assess their biometrical, physiological and biochemical responses under drought and/or O3 stress (80-100 nl l(-1) of O3 for 5 h day(-1) for 77 consecutive days). Leaf visible injury appeared only under drought stress (alone or combined with O3 ) in all three species. Drought × O3 induced strong reductions in leaf dry weight in Q. pubescens and Q. cerris (-70 and -75%, respectively). Alterations in physiological (i.e. decrease in maximum carboxylation rate) and biochemical parameters (i.e. increase in proline content and build-up of malondialdehyde by-products) occurred in all the three species, although drought represented the major determinant. Quercus ilex and Q. pubescens, which co-occur in dry environments, were more tolerant to drought and drought × O3 . Quercus ilex was the species in which oxidative stress occurred only when drought was applied with O3 . High plasticity at a biochemical level (i.e. proline content) and evergreen habitus are likely on the basis of the higher tolerance of Q. ilex. PMID:26541269

  20. Potential of ultrasonic pulse velocity for evaluating the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Türker; Wang, Xiping; As, Nusret; Avcı, Erkan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of ultrasonic velocity as a rapid and nondestructive method to predict the dimensional stability of oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) that are commonly used in flooring industry. Ultrasonic velocity, specific gravity, and radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkages were measured on seventy-four 20×20×30-mm(3) specimens obtained from freshly cut oak and chestnut stems. The ultrasonic velocities of the specimens decreased with increasing moisture content (MC). We found that specific gravity was not a good predictor of the transverse shrinkages as indicated by relatively weak correlations. Ultrasonic velocity, on the other hand, was found to be a significant predictor of the transverse shrinkages for both oak and chestnut. The best results for prediction of shrinkages of oak and chestnut were obtained when the ultrasonic velocity and specific gravity were used together. The multiple regression models we developed in this study explained 77% of volumetric shrinkages in oak and 72% of volumetric shrinkages in chestnut. It is concluded that ultrasonic velocity coupled with specific gravity can be employed as predicting parameters to evaluate the dimensional stability of oak and chestnut wood during manufacturing process. PMID:26678790

  1. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. PMID:24401783

  2. Integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics decipher differences in the resistance of pedunculate oak to the herbivore Tortrix viridana L.

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The interaction between insect pests and their host plants is a never-ending race of evolutionary adaption. Plants have developed an armament against insect herbivore attacks, and attackers continuously learn how to address it. Using a combined transcriptomic and metabolomic approach, we investigated the molecular and biochemical differences between Quercus robur L. trees that resisted (defined as resistant oak type) or were susceptible (defined as susceptible oak type) to infestation by the major oak pest, Tortrix viridana L. Results Next generation RNA sequencing revealed hundreds of genes that exhibited constitutive and/or inducible differential expression in the resistant oak compared to the susceptible oak. Distinct differences were found in the transcript levels and the metabolic content with regard to tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are compounds involved in the defence against insect pests. The results of our transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses are in agreement with those of a previous study in which we showed that female moths prefer susceptible oaks due to their specific profile of herbivore-induced volatiles. These data therefore define two oak genotypes that clearly differ on the transcriptomic and metabolomic levels, as reflected by their specific defensive compound profiles. Conclusions We conclude that the resistant oak type seem to prefer a strategy of constitutive defence responses in contrast to more induced defence responses of the susceptible oaks triggered by feeding. These results pave the way for the development of biomarkers for an early determination of potentially green oak leaf roller-resistant genotypes in natural pedunculate oak populations in Europe. PMID:24160444

  3. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012.

    PubMed

    Geron, Chris; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong

    2016-03-01

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower - NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus). Quercus stellata (in the white oak subgenus Leucobalanus), on the other hand, increased its isoprene emission rate during August, and showed no decline at high temperatures during June or August, consistent with its high tolerance to drought and adaptation to xeric sites at the prairie-deciduous forest interface. Mid-late October measurements were conducted after soil moisture recharge, but were affected by senescence and cooler temperatures. Isoprene emission rates were considerably lower from all species compared to June and August data. The large differences between the oaks in response to drought emphasizes the need to consider BVOC emissions at the species level instead of just the whole canopy. Monoterpene emissions from Quercus rubra in limited data were highest among the oaks studied, while monoterpene emissions from the other oak species were 80-95% lower and less than assumed in current BVOC emission models. Major monoterpenes from Q. rubra (and in ambient air) were p-cymene, α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, β-ocimene (predominantly1,3,7-trans-β-ocimene, but also 1,3,6-trans-β-ocimene), tricyclene, α-terpinene, sabinene, terpinolene, and myrcene. Results are discussed in the context of canopy flux studies

  4. Fluorescent indices of oak and wheat leaves in dependence on chlorophyll content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmatskaya, Olesya Ð. ń.; Karavaev, Vladimir A.; Gunar, Lyudmila E.

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence spectra and fluorescence induction curves of the leaves of two plant species in dependence on chlorophyll content were studied. Red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves upon the autumn chlorophyll degradation, as well as wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L.) at various stages of ontogenesis showed linear dependence between the ratio ω = F740 / F685 (the ratio of the maximum values of fluorescence at respective wavelengths) and chlorophyll content. In both cases, parameter Fv / Fm (the relative value of the variable fluorescence) remained almost unchanged up to significant reduction of chlorophyll content, indicating on maintaining the high photochemical activity of photosystem 2.

  5. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) consumption and utilization of northern red oak and white oak foliage exposed to simulated acid rain and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, W.N. Jr. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year-old seedlings of white oak, Quercus alba L., and red oak, Q. rubra L., were exposed to ozone (O[sub 3]) fumigations in four continuously stirred tank reactor chambers in the greenhouse for 8 h/d, 3 d/wk for 6 wk. Fumigation treatments were charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and CFA + 0.15 ppm O[sub 3]. Two simulated rain treatments, pH 4.2 and pH 3.0, of-1.25 cm were applied once each week in rain-simulation chambers. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), third instars were allowed to feed on leaf disks from treated seedlings for 24 h. Leaf area consumed, food assimilated, weight gain, and relative growth rate (RGR) were examined. Overall, larvae fed white oak foliage consumed more foliage and gained more weight than those fed red oak foliage. Response to the fumigation and rain treatments was different for each oak species. On white oak foliage, larvae consumed significantly less foliage treated with CFA + pH 3.0 rain, but the lowest RGR occurred with the 0.15 ppm O[sub 3] + pH 4.2 rain treatment. The most food assimilated, greatest weight gain, and highest RGR occurred with the CFA + pH 4.2 rain control. Red oak foliage consumed was equivalent for all treatments, but foliage exposed to CFA + pH 3.0 rain resulted in more food assimilated, greater weight gain, and higher RGR for that species.

  6. Evaluation of wildlife-habitat relationships data base for predicting bird community composition in central California chaparral and blue oak woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, M.L.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1990-01-01

    The California Wildlife-Habitat Relationships (WHR) database can be used to assist resource managers to evaluate effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife. The accuracy of predictions from WHR was evaluated using data from bird surveys conducted during winter and spring 1984 and 1985 in chamise (Adenostema fasciculata) chaparral, mixed chaparral and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodland. Considerable variability between habitat types was found for errors both of commission and of omission.

  7. Mycorrhization of Quercus robur L., Quercus cerris L. and Corylus avellana L. seedlings with Tuber macrosporum Vittad.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Gógán Csorbai, Andrea; Baciarelli Falini, Leonardo; Bencivenga, Mattia; Di Massimo, Gabriella; Donnini, Domizia

    2012-11-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is not a common truffle species, but with remarkable organoleptic qualities and much economic interest. After the addition of truffle spore slurry, 30 seedlings of Quercus robur L., Quercus cerris L. and Corylus avellana L. were grown inside a greenhouse for 11 months before evaluation of the mycorrhizal level. Two different potting mixes were used: a natural soil-based potting mix for Q. robur, Q. cerris and C. avellana and a peat-based potting mix for Q. robur. Quercus robur planted in soil potting mix was the most receptive towards the truffle spore inoculum, with a level of formation of T. macrosporum ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) of approximately 14 %, ranging from a minimum of ∼4 % to a maximum of ∼44 % in different seedlings. No T. macrosporum ECMs developed on Q. cerris (soil potting mix) or on Q. robur (peat potting mix), whereas a low percentage of ECMs was detected on only three C. avellana (soil potting mix) seedlings. The fungus Sphaerosporella brunnea (Alb. & Schwein.) Svrček & Kubička was also detected as a contaminant on almost half the truffle-inoculated seedlings. A new detailed description of the morphological and anatomical characteristics of T. macrosporum ECMs and their DNA-based verification with species-specific markers were also reported. PMID:22565651

  8. The history of widespread decrease in oak dominance exemplified in a grassland-forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Hanberry, Brice B; Dey, Daniel C; He, Hong S

    2014-04-01

    Regionally-distinctive open oak forest ecosystems have been replaced either by intensive agriculture and grazing fields or by denser forests throughout eastern North America and Europe. To quantify changes in tree communities and density in the Missouri Plains, a grassland-forest landscape, we used historical surveys from 1815 to 1864 and current surveys from 2004 to 2008. To estimate density for historical communities, we used the Morisita plotless density estimator and applied corrections for surveyor bias. To estimate density for current forests, we used Random Forests, an ensemble regression tree method, to predict densities from known values at plots using terrain and soil predictors. Oak species decreased from 62% of historical composition to 30% of current composition and black and white oaks historically were dominant species across 93% of the landscape and currently were dominant species across 42% of the landscape. Current forest density was approximately two times greater than historical densities, demonstrating loss of savanna and woodlands and transition to dense forest structure. Average tree diameters were smaller than in the past, but mean basal area and stocking remained similar over time because of the increase in density in current forests. Nevertheless, there were spatial differences; basal area and stocking decreased along rivers and increased away from rivers. Oak species are being replaced by other species in the Missouri Plains, similar to replacement throughout the range of Quercus. Long-term commitment to combinations of prescribed burning and silvicultural prescriptions in more xeric sites may be necessary for oak recruitment. Restoration of open oak ecosystems is a time-sensitive issue because restoration will become increasingly costly as oaks are lost from the overstory and the surrounding matrix becomes dominated by non-oak species. PMID:24496032

  9. Assessing the Cost of an Invasive Forest Pathogen: A Case Study with Oak Wilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, Robert G.; Homans, Frances R.; Horie, Tetsuya; Mehta, Shefali V.; Smith, David J.; Venette, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    Economic assessment of damage caused by invasive alien species provides useful information to consider when determining whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. We estimate the baseline economic damage from an invasive alien pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, a fungus that causes oak wilt, which is a significant disease of oaks ( Quercus spp.) in the central United States. We focus on Anoka County, Minnesota, a 1,156 km2 mostly urban county in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan region. We develop a landscape-level model of oak wilt spread that accounts for underground and overland pathogen transmission. We predict the economic damage of tree mortality from oak wilt spread in the absence of management during the period 2007-2016. Our metric of economic damage is removal cost, which is one component of the total economic loss from tree mortality. We estimate that Anoka County has 5.92 million oak trees and 885 active oak wilt pockets covering 5.47 km2 in 2007. The likelihood that landowners remove infected oaks varies by land use and ranges from 86% on developed land to 57% on forest land. Over the next decade, depending on the rates of oak wilt pocket establishment and expansion, 76-266 thousand trees will be infected with discounted removal cost of 18-60 million. Although our predictions of removal costs are substantial, they are lower bounds on the total economic loss from tree mortality because we do not estimate economic losses from reduced services and increased hazards. Our predictions suggest that there are significant economic benefits, in terms of damage reduction, from preventing new pocket establishment or slowing the radial growth of existing pockets.

  10. Impacts of alternative timber harvest practices on leaf-chewing herbivores of oak.

    PubMed

    Forkner, Rebecca E; Marquis, Robert J; Lill, John T; Le Corff, Josiane

    2006-04-01

    Studies of the effects of logging on Lepidoptera rarely address landscape-level effects or effects on larval, leaf-feeding stages. We examined the impacts of uneven-aged and even-aged logging on the abundance, richness, and community structure of leaf-chewing insects of white (Quercus alba L.) and black (Q. velutina L.) oak trees remaining in unharvested areas by sampling 3 years before and 7 years after harvest. After harvest, white oaks in uneven-aged sites had 32% fewer species of leaf-chewing insects than control sites. This reduction in species richness may have resulted from changes in microclimate (reducing plant quality and/or changing leaf phenology) that affected a much larger total area of each site than did even-aged cuts. For black oak after harvest, species richness in uneven- and even-aged sites increased relative to levels before harvest. Harvesting did not alter total insect density or community structure in the unlogged habitat for either oak species with one exception: insect density on black oak increased in the oldest forest block. Community structure of herbivores of black and white oaks in clearcut gaps differed from that of oaks in intact areas of even-aged sites. Furthermore, both richness and total insect density of black oaks were reduced in clearcut gaps. We suggest that low-level harvests alter herbivore species richness at the landscape level. Treatment effects were subtle because we sampled untreated areas of logged landscapes, only one harvest had occurred, and large temporal and spatial variation in abundance and richness existed. Although the effects of logging were greater in uneven-aged sites, the effects of even-aged management are likely to increase as harvesting continues. PMID:16903104

  11. Countervailing effects on pine and oak leaf litter decomposition in human-altered Mediterranean ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Efrat; Canham, Charles D; Kigel, Jaime; Perevolotsky, Avi

    2015-04-01

    Species affect the dynamics of litter decay through the intrinsic properties of their litter, but also by influencing the environmental conditions imposed by their canopy, roots, and litter layers. We examined how human-induced changes in the relative abundances of two dominant Mediterranean trees-Pinus halepensis and Quercus calliprinos-impact leaf litter decomposition. A reciprocal transplant experiment tested decomposition of pine, oak, and mixed leaf litter in oak woodland and pine forest ecosystems with different relative abundances of pine and oak. Using likelihood methods, we tested the importance and magnitude of the environmental effects of local species abundance, litter layer composition, and soil properties on litter mass loss. Oak litter decomposition was slower than pine, and had an antagonistic effect on mixed litter decay. These results differ from other reported pine-oak associations, and are probably associated with a higher content of tannins and phenols in oak compared to pine litter in our study sites. The environmental effects of the two species were opposite to their litter decomposition dynamics. An increased proportion of pine in the oak woodlands and a higher content of pine needles in the litter layer of pine forests reduced decay rates. The presence of more oak and broadleaf litter in the litter layer accelerated decomposition in pine forests. Our results highlight the importance of considering multidimensional species effects mediated by both chemical and physical properties, and imply that man-made changes in the composition and configuration of plant communities may result in complex unpredicted consequences to ecosystem biogeochemistry. PMID:25680333

  12. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    PubMed

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives. PMID:19290598

  13. Uptake and mobility of uranium in black oaks: implications for biomonitoring depleted uranium-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Edmands, J D; Brabander, D J; Coleman, D S

    2001-08-01

    In a preliminary study, the uptake and the mobility of uranium (U) by black oak trees (Quercus velutina) were assessed by measuring the isotopic composition of tree rings in two mature oak trees in a heavy metal contaminated bog in Concord, MA. The bog is adjacent to a nuclear industrial facility that has been processing depleted uranium (DU) since 1959. Over the past 40 years, DU has been leaking from an onsite holding basin and cooling pond down gradient to the bog where the oaks are located. Because DU has no source outside the nuclear industry, contamination from the industrial facility is readily discernable from uptake of natural U by measuring isotopic compositions. Isotope ratio analysis confirms the occurrence of DU in bark, sapwood and heartwood tree rings dating back to 1937, pre-dating the introduction of DU at the site by at least 20 years. Isotope dilution analysis indicates high concentrations of U (>3 ppb) in sapwood that drop rapidly to relatively constant concentrations (0.3-0.4 ppb) in heartwood. These data indicate that once incorporated into tree cells, U is mobile, possibly by diffusion through the tree wood. Concentrations of U in sapwood are approximately equal to average U concentrations in groundwater onsite over the past 10 years, suggesting that oak trees can be used as present-day bioindicators of U-contaminated groundwater. We suggest that regional sampling of oak bark and sapwood is a reasonable, inexpensive alternative to drilling wells to monitor shallow groundwater U contamination. PMID:11482670

  14. Headspace volatiles from 52 oak species advertise induction, species identity, and evolution, but not defense.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Gee, Wai S; Beck, John J

    2013-01-01

    Leaf volatiles convey information about a plant to other organisms in their proximity. Despite increasing interest in understanding the relevance of volatile emissions for particular ecological interactions, there has been relatively little effort to assess generally what information volatile profiles transmit. We surveyed the volatile profiles of wounded and unwounded leaves of 52 oak (Quercus) species. We used phylogenetic comparison and multivariate techniques to assess in what circumstances oak individuals advertised their species identity, evolutionary history, direct defenses, or damage. We found that both species identity and evolutionary history were advertised when leaves were wounded, but species could not be differentiated by odor when leaves were not wounded. Various fatty-acid derivative compounds showed the strongest phylogenetic signal suggesting that they may best disclose taxonomic affiliations in oaks. We tested whether oak volatile composition or diversity advertised high defensive investment, but we found no evidence for this. Wounded leaves disclose much about an oak species' identity and taxonomic affiliation, but unwounded leaves do not. This is consistent with the idea that volatile information is targeted toward natural enemy recruitment. PMID:23264100

  15. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max). PMID:25509066

  16. Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of tree species, geographic location, and single-tree effects.

    PubMed

    Doussot, Franck; De Jéso, Bernard; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    The chemical composition of cooperage oak wood is highly variable, depending upon the tree species (Quercus robur L. versus Quercus petraea Liebl.), its geographic location, and the single-tree effect. In the process of cask-making, natural seasoning and toasting contribute strongly to the modification of the oak wood chemical composition and therefore influence wine cooperaging. HPLC and GC quantification of ellagitannins and volatile compounds such as whiskey-lactones, eugenol, and vanillin over a sample set of 61 pedunculate oaks and 72 sessile oaks originating from six different forests showed that natural drying leads to a decrease of the ellagitannins and total extractives content level and a quasi constant level of the volatile compounds. Toasting (medium type) drastically enhanced the loss of ellagitannins and the gain in volatile compounds. Statistical treatment showed that the species effect remained significant throughout the process of drying and toasting, but not the provenance. The poor correlation with ring width of extractives levels measured on fresh timber remained unchanged as did the single-tree effect, with high variability found for all chemical parameters. These results provide further evidence that cooperage oak selection should not be based solely on the wood grain or the provenance but rather on a species-provenance combination. PMID:12358465

  17. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes: The Case of Deciduous Oak Woodlands in Lesvos (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9 %. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats.

  18. Land change in eastern Mediterranean wood-pasture landscapes: the case of deciduous oak woodlands in Lesvos (Greece).

    PubMed

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan; Plieninger, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high--especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area remained stable with marginal losses in one study site and gains in the other one. Oak canopy cover increased by 8 and 9%. Spatial hotspots of change were mountainous and peripheral phrygana areas with expanding oak stands, as well as river valleys and near urban areas with expanding olive groves and grass- and shrublands in former complex cultivation and oak stands. We conclude that the parallel processes of abandonment of crop cultivation and intensification of livestock grazing have been less detrimental to oak woodlands than supposed. To ensure long-term persistence of oak woodlands in the face of ongoing rural depopulation and land-use intensification, environmental and agricultural policies should better address their specificities as anthropogenic habitats. PMID:25877458

  19. RNA-Seq Analysis of Quercus pubescens Leaves: De Novo Transcriptome Assembly, Annotation and Functional Markers Development

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Sara; Tattini, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fineschi, Silvia; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco; Sebastiani, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Quercus pubescens Willd., a species distributed from Spain to southwest Asia, ranks high for drought tolerance among European oaks. Q. pubescens performs a role of outstanding significance in most Mediterranean forest ecosystems, but few mechanistic studies have been conducted to explore its response to environmental constrains, due to the lack of genomic resources. In our study, we performed a deep transcriptomic sequencing in Q. pubescens leaves, including de novo assembly, functional annotation and the identification of new molecular markers. Our results are a pre-requisite for undertaking molecular functional studies, and may give support in population and association genetic studies. 254,265,700 clean reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with an average length of 98 bp. De novo assembly, using CLC Genomics, produced 96,006 contigs, having a mean length of 618 bp. Sequence similarity analyses against seven public databases (Uniprot, NR, RefSeq and KOGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) resulted in 83,065 transcripts annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. These annotations and local BLAST allowed identify genes specifically associated with mechanisms of drought avoidance. Finally, 14,202 microsatellite markers and 18,425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were, in silico, discovered in assembled and annotated sequences. We completed a successful global analysis of the Q. pubescens leaf transcriptome using RNA-seq. The assembled and annotated sequences together with newly discovered molecular markers provide genomic information for functional genomic studies in Q. pubescens, with special emphasis to response mechanisms to severe constrain of the Mediterranean climate. Our tools enable comparative genomics studies on other Quercus species taking advantage of large intra-specific ecophysiological differences. PMID:25393112

  20. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for themore » species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).« less

  1. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Quercus fabri (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z Z; Chen, W W; Bao, W; Wang, R; Li, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Quercus fabri is a pioneer species of secondary succession in evergreen broadleaved forests in China. In this study, we isolated and developed 12 polymorphic and 2 monomorphic microsatellite loci for Q. fabri using the biotin-streptavidin capture method. We characterized 12 polymorphic loci in 52 individuals from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 23. The observed and expected heterozygosities per locus were 0.033-0.773 and 0.138-0.924, respectively. These microsatellite loci will facilitate the studies on genetic variation, mating system, and gene flow of Q. fabri. PMID:27420954

  3. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for the Mazouj and Ghalghaf gall extracts against S. mutans were identical. The MIC values ranged from 160 μg/ml to 320 μg/ml, whereas the MBC values ranged from 320 μg/ml to 640 μg/ml. All extracts of Q. infectoria galls significantly (P < 0.05) reduced biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent. PMID:26962315

  4. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  5. Exploring Species Limits in Two Closely Related Chinese Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Liao, Wan-Jin; Petit, Rémy J.; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Background The species status of two closely related Chinese oaks, Quercus liaotungensis and Q. mongolica, has been called into question. The objective of this study was to investigate the species status and to estimate the degree of introgression between the two taxa using different approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings Using SSR (simple sequence repeat) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers, we found that interspecific genetic differentiation is significant and higher than the differentiation among populations within taxa. Bayesian clusters, principal coordinate analysis and population genetic distance trees all classified the oaks into two main groups consistent with the morphological differentiation of the two taxa rather than with geographic locations using both types of markers. Nevertheless, a few individuals in Northeast China and many individuals in North China have hybrid ancestry according to Bayesian assignment. One SSR locus and five AFLPs are significant outliers against neutral expectations in the interspecific FST simulation analysis, suggesting a role for divergent selection in differentiating species. Main Conclusions/Significance All results based on SSRs and AFLPs reached the same conclusion: Q. liaotungensis and Q. mongolica maintain distinct gene pools in most areas of sympatry. They should therefore be considered as discrete taxonomic units. Yet, the degree of introgression varies between the two species in different contact zones, which might be caused by different population history or by local environmental factors. PMID:21152084

  6. Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: “codominance” of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

    2013-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

  7. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  8. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of pedunculate and sessile oak seedlings from bare-root forest nurseries.

    PubMed

    Leski, Tomasz; Pietras, Marcin; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we present the detailed molecular investigation of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community of Quercus petraea and Quercus robur seedlings grown in bare-root forest nurseries. In all tested oak samples, mycorrhizal colonization was nearly 100%. Morphological observation and molecular investigations (sequencing of fungal ITS rDNA) revealed a total of 23 mycorrhizal taxa. The most frequent and abundant fungal taxa were Hebeloma sacchariolens, Tuber sp., and Peziza sp.; from the detected fungal taxa, 20 were noted for Q. petraea and 23 for Q. robur. Depending on the nursery, the species richness of identified ECM fungal taxa for both oak species ranged from six to 11 taxa. The mean species richness for all nurseries was 5.36 and 5.82 taxa per Q. petraea and Q. robur sample, respectively. According to the analysis of similarity, ECM fungal communities were similar for Q. petraea and Q. robur (R = 0.019; p = 0.151). On the other hand, detected fungal communities were significantly different between nurseries (R = 0.927; p < 0.0001). Using the Spearman rank correlation, it was determined that the ectomycorrhizal diversity (in terms of richness, the Shannon diversity, evenness, and Simpson dominance indices) is significantly related to the soil parameters of each nursery. We conclude that individual nursery may be considered as separate ecological niches that strongly discriminate diversity of ECM fungi. PMID:19756776

  10. A linkage disequilibrium perspective on the genetic mosaic of speciation in two hybridizing Mediterranean white oaks

    PubMed Central

    Goicoechea, P G; Herrán, A; Durand, J; Bodénès, C; Plomion, C; Kremer, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic mosaic of speciation in two hybridizing Mediterranean white oaks from the Iberian Peninsula (Quercus faginea Lamb. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.). The two species show ecological divergence in flowering phenology, leaf morphology and composition, and in their basic or acidic soil preferences. Ninety expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and eight nuclear SSRs were genotyped in 96 trees from each species. Genotyping was designed in two steps. First, we used 69 markers evenly distributed over the 12 linkage groups (LGs) of the oak linkage map to confirm the species genetic identity of the sampled genotypes, and searched for differentiation outliers. Then, we genotyped 29 additional markers from the chromosome bins containing the outliers and repeated the multilocus scans. We found one or two additional outliers within four saturated bins, thus confirming that outliers are organized into clusters. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was extensive; even for loosely linked and for independent markers. Consequently, score tests for association between two-marker haplotypes and the ‘species trait' showed a broad genomic divergence, although substantial variation across the genome and within LGs was also observed. We discuss the influence of several confounding effects on neutrality tests and review the evolutionary processes leading to extensive LD. Finally, we examine how LD analyses within regions that contain outlier clusters and quantitative trait loci can help to identify regions of divergence and/or genomic hitchhiking in the light of predictions from ecological speciation theory. PMID:25515016

  11. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American, and French oak chips.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-07-22

    The volatile composition of a red wine aged for 2 months with three different Spanish oak chips (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus petraea) from different regions of Castilla y León was compared with that of wines aged with American and French chips. In general, the extraction kinetics showed that the maximum concentration of the volatile compounds extracted from wood can be reached in only 1 month. In the final wines, the levels of furanic aldehydes and eugenol were higher in the wines macerated with Spanish chips, whereas cis-whiskey-lactone, vanillin, and methyl vanillate showed higher levels in wines treated with American chips. Among the wines treated with the different Spanish chips, the differences observed in the volatile composition were more related to the geographical origin of the forest than to the botanical species. In general, the wines macerated with Spanish chips showed levels of oak-related volatile compounds that were more similar to those macerated with French chips than to those macerated with American chips. PMID:19601669

  12. Mutations in UDP-Glucose:sterol glucosyltransferase in Arabidopsis cause transparent testa phenotype and suberization defect in seeds.

    PubMed

    DeBolt, Seth; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Schrick, Kathrin; Auer, Manfred; Beisson, Fred; Bischoff, Volker; Bouvier-Navé, Pierrette; Carroll, Andrew; Hematy, Kian; Li, Yonghua; Milne, Jennifer; Nair, Meera; Schaller, Hubert; Zemla, Marcin; Somerville, Chris

    2009-09-01

    In higher plants, the most abundant sterol derivatives are steryl glycosides (SGs) and acyl SGs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes, UGT80A2 and UGT80B1, that encode UDP-Glc:sterol glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of SGs. Lines having mutations in UGT80A2, UGT80B1, or both UGT80A2 and UGT8B1 were identified and characterized. The ugt80A2 lines were viable and exhibited relatively minor effects on plant growth. Conversely, ugt80B1 mutants displayed an array of phenotypes that were pronounced in the embryo and seed. Most notable was the finding that ugt80B1 was allelic to transparent testa15 and displayed a transparent testa phenotype and a reduction in seed size. In addition to the role of UGT80B1 in the deposition of flavanoids, a loss of suberization of the seed was apparent in ugt80B1 by the lack of autofluorescence at the hilum region. Moreover, in ugt80B1, scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveals that the outer integument of the seed coat lost the electron-dense cuticle layer at its surface and displayed altered cell morphology. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of lipid polyester monomers confirmed a drastic decrease in aliphatic suberin and cutin-like polymers that was associated with an inability to limit tetrazolium salt uptake. The findings suggest a membrane function for SGs and acyl SGs in trafficking of lipid polyester precursors. An ancillary observation was that cellulose biosynthesis was unaffected in the double mutant, inconsistent with a predicted role for SGs in priming cellulose synthesis. PMID:19641030

  13. Lighting intensity of the soilsurface and restocking of oak groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepykh, Victor; Zubko, Anna; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Oak groves of Caucasian Mineral Vody region (CMVR) possess a high ecological and balneological potential which defines the significance of their preservation and reproduction [1]. The role assessment of lighting intensity on renewal of oak groves was carried out on four trial squares (ts) in natural sixty-seven years old forest stand with prevalence of English oak (Quercus robur L.) with unimodal sity (type of the habitat - C1). The illumination was measured at the grass level by the universal measuring instrument of meteoparameters ATT-9508 with an illumination sensor of ATA-1591. The assessment of reforestation was carried out according to the established standards [2]. In the winter of 2005 there was conducted a selecting cutting cabin of the forest stand according to a local method on ts2 with intensity 30%, on ts4 - 50% after which the illumination on the soil surface in relation to illumination of an open place in the summer of 2005 increased from 4.9% to 33.9% on ts2, and from 5.9% to 24.4% on ts4. But by 2014 the illumination decreased till 3.0% on ts2, till 5.4% on ts4 because of an intensive soil grassing down. The control was carried out by ts1 and ts3 on which from 2005 to 2014 the illumination of the soil surface decreased from 4 to 2% as a result of the development of all storeys. As a result due to an intensive soil grassing-down, the total quantity of young oak trees decreased from 2005 to 2014 from 25.6 thousand pcs/ha to 5.9 thousand pcs/ha on ts2; on from 17.3 thousand pcs/ha to 4.0 thousand pcs/ha on ts4. At the same time the total quantity of young oak trees on control squares increased respectively for 1.4% (from 18.8 thousand pcs/ha to 19.1 thousand pcs/ha) on ts1, for 38.7% (from 25.2 thousand pcs/ha to 41.1 thousand pcs/ha). The experiment showed that small young oak trees perishes in the first years of their life from a lack of light and competition from grasland vegetation without providing successful reforestation. Conclusion. So it is

  14. Historical introgression among the American live oaks and the comparative nature of tests for introgression.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Deren A R; Hipp, Andrew L; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-10-01

    Introgressive hybridization challenges the concepts we use to define species and infer phylogenetic relationships. Methods for inferring historical introgression from the genomes of extant species, such as ABBA-BABA tests, are widely used, however, their results can be easily misinterpreted. Because these tests are inherently comparative, they are sensitive to the effects of missing data (unsampled species) and nonindependence (hierarchical relationships among species). We demonstrate this using genomic RADseq data sampled from all extant species in the American live oaks (Quercus series Virentes), a group notorious for hybridization. By considering all species and their phylogenetic relationships, we were able to distinguish true hybridizing lineages from those that falsely appear admixed. Six of seven species show evidence of admixture, often with multiple other species, but which is explained by introgression among a few related lineages occurring in close proximity. We identify the Cuban oak as the most admixed lineage and test alternative scenarios for its origin. The live oaks form a continuous ring-like distribution around the Gulf of Mexico, connected in Cuba, across which they could effectively exchange alleles. However, introgression appears highly localized, suggesting that oak species boundaries and their geographic ranges have remained relatively stable over evolutionary time. PMID:26299374

  15. Oak tree canker disease supports arthropod diversity in a natural ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-03-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

  16. Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

  17. Rapid radiosynthesis of [11C] and [14C]azelaic, suberic, and sebacic acids for in vivo mechanistic studies of systemic acquired resistance in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Best M.; Fowler J.; Best, M.; Gifford, A.N.; Kim, S.W.; Babst, B.; Piel, M.; Roesch, F.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-11-25

    A recent report that the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, azelaic acid (1,9-nonanedioic acid) but not related acids, suberic acid (1,8-octanedioic acid) or sebacic (1,10-decanedioic acid) acid induces systemic acquired resistance to invading pathogens in plants stimulated the development of a rapid method for labeling these dicarboxylic acids with {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C for in vivo mechanistic studies in whole plants. {sup 11}C-labeling was performed by reaction of ammonium [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the corresponding bromonitrile precursor followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. Total synthesis time was 60 min. Median decay-corrected radiochemical yield for [{sup 11}C]azelaic acid was 40% relative to trapped [{sup 11}C]cyanide, and specific activity was 15 GBq/{micro}mol. Yields for [{sup 11}C]suberic and sebacic acids were similar. The {sup 14}C-labeled version of azelaic acid was prepared from potassium [{sup 14}C]cyanide in 45% overall radiochemical yield. Radiolabeling procedures were verified using {sup 13}C-labeling coupled with {sup 13}C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C-labeled azelaic acid and related dicarboxylic acids are expected to be of value in understanding the mode-of-action, transport, and fate of this putative signaling molecule in plants.

  18. Comparison of the carbon stock in forest soil of sessile oak and beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bene, Zsolt; Bidló, András

    2016-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are the most important carbon sinks. The forest soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle, because the global climate change or the increase of atmospheric CO2 level. We do not have enough data about the carbon stock of soils and its change due to human activities, which have similar value to carbon content of biomass. In our investigation we measured the carbon stock of soil in 10 stands of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica. We took a 1.1 m soil column with soil borer and divided to 11 samples each column. The course organic and root residues were moved. After evaluation, we compared our results with other studies and the carbon stock of forests to each other. Naturally, the amount of SOC was the highest in the topsoil layers. However, we found significant difference between forest stands which stayed on the same homogenous bedrock, but very close to each other (e.g. distance was 1 or 2 km). We detected that different forest utilizations and tree species have an effect on the forest carbon as the litter as well (amount, composition). In summary, we found larger amount (99.1 C t/ha on average) of SOC in soil of stands, where sessile oak were the main stand-forming tree species. The amount of carbon was the least in turkey oak-sessile oak stands (85.4 C t/ha on average). We found the highest SOC (118.3 C t/ha) in the most mixed stand (silver lime-beech-red oak). In the future, it will be very important: How does climate change affect the spread of tree species or on carbon storage? Beech is more sensitive, but even sessile oak. These species are expected to replace with turkey oak, which is less sensitive to drought. Thus, it is possible in the future that we can expect to decrease of forest soil carbon stock capacity, which was confirmed by our experiment. Keywords: carbon sequestration, mitigation, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, litter Acknowledgements: Research is supported by the "Agroclimate.2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) EU

  19. Influence of environmental factors and air composition on the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Loreto, F.; Tricoli, D.; Ciccioli, P.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves. Only the abaxial side of the hypostomatous Q. ilex leaf emits {alpha}-pinene. Light induced photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission. However, the response of photosynthesis to dark-to-light transitions was faster than that of {alpha}-pinene, suggesting that ATP controls the emission. The emission was higher at 30 than at 20{degrees}C, whereas photosynthesis did not change. Therefore, the relationship between photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission does not always hold. When CO{sub 2} was removed from the air, transpiration was stimulated and transpiration was reduced, but {alpha}-pinene emission was unaffected. Therefore, the emission depends on the availability of photosynthetic carbon, is not saturated at ambient CO{sub 2}, and is not dependent on stomatal opening. The pattern of {alpha}-pinene emission from Q. ilex is different from that of plants having specialized structures for storage and emission of terpenes. We suggest that {alpha}-pinene emitted by Q. ilex leaves is synthesized in the chloroplasts and shares the same biochemical pathway with isoprene emitted by isoprene-emitting oak species. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Ameye, Maarten; Wertin, Timothy M; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of different heat-wave intensities applied at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on seedlings of two tree species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seedlings were assigned to treatment combinations of two levels of [CO2] (380 or 700 μmol mol(-1)) and four levels of air temperature (ambient, ambient +3°C, or 7-d heat waves consisting of a biweekly +6°C heat wave, or a monthly +12°C heat wave). Treatments were maintained throughout the growing season, thus receiving equal heat sums. We measured gas exchange and fluorescence parameters before, during and after a mid-summer heat wave. The +12°C heat wave, significantly reduced net photosynthesis (Anet) in both species and [CO2] treatments but this effect was diminished in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in Anet was accompanied by a decrease in Fv'/Fm' in P. taeda and ΦPSII in Q. rubra. Our findings suggest that, if soil moisture is adequate, trees will experience negative effects in photosynthetic performance only with the occurrence of extreme heat waves. As elevated [CO2] diminished these negative effects, the future climate may not be as detrimental to plant communities as previously assumed. PMID:22897414

  1. Comparison of ectomycorrhizas of Quercus garryana (Fagaceae) on serpentine and non-serpentine soils in southwestern Oregon.

    PubMed

    Moser, A Mariah; Petersen, Carolyn A; D'Allura, Jad A; Southworth, Darlene

    2005-02-01

    The diversity of ectomycorrhizal communities associated with Quercus garryana on and off serpentine soils was compared and related to landscape-level diversity. Serpentine soils are high in magnesium, iron, and heavy metals and low in fertility. In plant communities on serpentine soils, a high proportion of flowering plant species are endemic. At three sites with paired serpentine and nonserpentine soils in southwestern Oregon, we sampled Q. garryana roots and categorized ectomycorrhizas by morphotyping and by restriction fragment length patterns. Ectomycorrhizas were abundant at all sites; no single fungal species dominated in the ectomycorrhizas. Of 74 fungal species characterized by morphotype and pattern of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, 46 occurred on serpentine soils, and 32 were unique to serpentine soil. These species are potentially endemic to serpentine soil. Similarities in species composition between paired serpentine and nonserpentine soils were not significantly lower than among three serpentine sites or among three nonserpentine sites. We conclude that mycorrhizal communities associated with oaks on serpentine soil do not differ in species richness or species evenness from those on neighboring nonserpentine soil. PMID:21652399

  2. Developmental stages during the rooting of in-vitro-cultured Quercus robur shoots from material of juvenile and mature origin.

    PubMed

    Vidal, N; Arellano, G; San-José, M C; Vieitez, A M; Ballester, A

    2003-12-01

    In-vitro-cultured shoots of clones initiated from shoots of the basal parts (BS) and the crown (C) of two mature Quercus robur L. trees were subjected to rooting experiments to relate rooting with shoot topophysical origin. The BS shoots exhibited morphologically juvenile characteristics and rooted more easily after indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) treatment than C shoots. When naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) was applied to BS shoots, rooting capacity decreased and root emergence was delayed at least 2 days compared with shoots treated with IBA only. During the first days of the rooting process, endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration was higher in C shoots than in BS shoots, regardless of whether the shoots were treated with NPA. Mitotic figures were observed in cells from the basal part of both BS and C shoots 24 h after IBA treatment. After 4 days of IBA treatment, the occurrence of histological events differed between BS shoots and C shoots. Cells of BS shoots became meristematic, giving rise to meristemoids and root primordia, whereas no differentiation of root meristemoids occurred in cells of C shoots. Thus, although adult oak material (C shoots) is capable of responding to the initial stimulus of auxin during the adventitious rooting process, the endogenous IAA concentration is not the factor limiting rooting in adult material. PMID:14652224

  3. Paisang ( Quercus griffithii): A Keystone Tree Species in Sustainable Agroecosystem Management and Livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T.; Zander, Kerstin K.; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang ( Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.

  4. Paisang (Quercus griffithii): a keystone tree species in sustainable agroecosystem management and livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjay K; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T; Zander, Kerstin K; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang (Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods. PMID:25343981

  5. Osmotic potential of several hardwood species as affected by manipulation of throughfall precipitation in an upland oak forest during a dry year.

    PubMed

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Gebre, G. Michael; Shirshac, Terri L.

    1998-05-01

    Components of dehydration tolerance, including osmotic potential at full turgor (Psi(pio)) and osmotic adjustment (lowering of Psi(pio)), of several deciduous species were investigated in a mature, upland oak forest in eastern Tennessee. Beginning July 1993, the trees were subjected to one of three throughfall precipitation treatments: ambient, ambient minus 33% (dry treatment), and ambient plus 33% (wet treatment). During the dry 1995 growing season, leaf water potentials of all species declined to between -2.5 and -3.1 MPa in the dry treatment. There was considerable variation in Psi(pio) among species (-1.0 to -2.0 MPa). Based on Psi(pio) values, American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), dogwood (Cornus florida L.), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were least dehydration tolerant, red maple (A. rubrum L.) was intermediate in tolerance, and white oak (Quercus alba L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) were most tolerant. During severe drought, overstory chestnut oak and understory dogwood, red maple and chestnut oak displayed osmotic adjustment (-0.12 to -0.20 MPa) in the dry treatment relative to the wet treatment. (No osmotic adjustment was evident in understory red maple and chestnut oak during the previous wet year.) Osmotic potential at full turgor was generally correlated with leaf water potential, with both declining over the growing season, especially in species that displayed osmotic adjustment. However, osmotic adjustment was not restricted to species considered dehydration tolerant; for example, dogwood typically maintained high Psi(pio) and displayed osmotic adjustment to drought, but had the highest mortality rates of the species studied. Understory saplings tended to have higher Psi(pio) than overstory trees when water availability was high, but Psi(pio) of understory trees declined to values observed for overstory trees during severe drought. We conclude that Psi(pio) varies among deciduous hardwood species and is dependent on canopy

  6. Learning experiences at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) of DOE has organized an Environmental Restoration Program to handle environmental cleanup activitis for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) following General Watkins' reorganization at DOE Headquarters. Based on the major facilities and locations of contamination sites, the Environmental Restoration Program is divided into five subprograms: Oak Ridge, National Laboatory (ORNL) sites, y-12 Plant sites, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) sites, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) sites and off-site areas. The Office of Risk Analysis at ORNL was established under the auspices of the Environmental Restoration Program to implement Superfun legislation in the five subprograms of DOE-ORO. Risk assessment must examine protetial human health and ecological impacts from contaminant sources that range from highly radioactive materials to toxic chemicals and mixed wastes. The remedial alternatives we are evaluating need to reach acceptable levels of risk effectively while also being cost-efficient. The purpose of this paper is to highlight areas of particular interest and concern at Oak Ridge and to discuss, where possible, solutions implemented by the Oak Ridge Environmental Restoation Program.

  7. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, M.; Lhoutellier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs). Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc) accounted for about 90% of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m-2 projected leaf area s-1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g-1 leaf dry weight h-1) and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C), but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all experiments

  8. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, M.; Lhoutellier, L.

    2011-06-01

    Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs). Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc) accounted for about 90 % of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m-2 projected leaf area s-1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g-1 leaf dry weight h-1) and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C), but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked already around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all experiments

  9. Stomatal limitation to CO2 assimilation and down-regulation of photosynthesis in Quercus ilex resprouts in response to slowly imposed drought.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rojas, Karen; Aranda, Xavier; Fleck, Isabel

    2004-07-01

    Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) is native to hot, dry Mediterranean forests where limited water availability often reduces photosynthesis in many species, and forest fires are frequent. Holm oaks resprout after a disturbance, with improved photosynthetic activity and water relations compared with unburned plants. To better understand the role of water availability in this improvement, watering was withheld from container-grown plants, either intact (controls) or resprouts after excision of the shoot, to gradually obtain a wide range of soil water availabilities. At high water availability, gas exchange rates did not differ between controls and resprouts. At moderate soil dryness, net photosynthesis of control plants decreased as a result of increased stomatal limitation, whereas gas exchange rates of resprouts, which had higher midday and predawn leaf water potentials, were unchanged. Under severe drought, resprouts showed a less marked decline in gas exchange than controls and maintained photosystem II integrity, as indicated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Photosynthesis was down-regulated in both plant types in response to reduced CO2 availability caused by high stomatal limitation. Lower non-stomatal limitations in resprouts than in control plants, as evidenced by higher carboxylation velocity and the capacity for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, conferred greater drought resistance under external constraints similar to summer conditions at midday. PMID:15123453

  10. Holocene semi-arid oak woodlands in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia: natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asouti, Eleni; Kabukcu, Ceren

    2014-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that, following the end of the Pleistocene, semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands did not spread in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia as quickly as they did in the Levantine Mediterranean littoral, despite the fact that climatic improvement occurred broadly at the same time in both regions. Prehistoric impacts on woodland vegetation (such as woodcutting, burning and clearance for cultivation), the harsh continental climate of inland Southwest Asia and its distance from late Pleistocene arboreal refugia have all been discussed in the literature as likely causes of the delay. In this paper we argue that semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands should not be viewed as part of the “natural” vegetation of the Irano-Anatolian region that has been progressively destroyed by millennia of human activities since the Neolithic. They represent instead one of the earliest anthropogenic vegetation types in Southwest Asia, one that owes its very existence to prehistoric landscape practices other scholars commonly label as “destructive”. Drawing on anthracological, pollen and modern vegetation data from central Anatolia we describe how the post-Pleistocene species-rich and structurally diverse temperate semi-arid savanna grasslands were gradually substituted by low-diversity, even-aged Quercus-dominated parklands and wood pastures in the course of the early Holocene. Economic strategies that encouraged the establishment and spread of deciduous oaks included sheep herding that impacted on grass and forb vegetation, the controlling of competing arboreal vegetation through woodcutting, and woodland management practices such as coppicing, pollarding and shredding that enhanced Quercus vegetative propagation, crown and stem growth. Understanding the origin and evolution of the Irano-Anatolian semi-arid oak woodlands of Southwest Asia is of critical importance for reconstructing the changing ecologies and geographical distributions of the progenitors of

  11. Effects of Drought Stress and Ozone Exposure on Isoprene Emissions from Oak Seedlings in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, M. B.; Harte, A.; Schade, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene is the dominant hydrocarbon emitted by plants to the atmosphere with an approximate global emission of 550 Tg C yr-1. Isoprene emission studies have elucidated plants' isoprene production capacity, and the controlling factors of instantaneous emissions. However, it is not yet well understood how long-term climatic factors such as drought and increasing ozone concentrations affect isoprene emission rates. Drought reduces photosynthetic activity and is thus expected to reduce isoprene emission rate, since isoprene production relies on photosynthates. On the other hand, ozone is also known to negatively affect photosynthesis rates, but can instead increase isoprene emissions. These apparent inconsistencies and a lack of experimental data make it difficult to accurately parameterize isoprene emission responses to changing environmental conditions. The objective of this work is to reduce some of these uncertainties, using oak seedlings as a study system. Our project focuses on isoprene emission responses of oak trees to typical summer drought and high ozone conditions in Texas. We report on experiments conducted using a laboratory whole-plant chamber and leaf-level data obtained from greenhouse-grown seedlings. The chamber experiment studied the effects of ozone and drought on isoprene emissions from >3 year old oak seedlings under controlled conditions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature, soil-moisture and the chamber's air composition. Stress in plants was induced by manipulating potted soil-moisture and ozone concentration in the chamber. The greenhouse study focused on understanding the effects of drought under Texas climatic conditions. For this study we used two year old seedlings of water oak (Quercus nigra) and post oak (Quercus stellata). Temperature, humidity and light in the greenhouse followed local conditions. Leaf-level conductance, photosynthesis measurements and isoprene sampling were carried out under controlled leaf

  12. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  13. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  14. Decoding the oak genome: public release of sequence data, assembly, annotation and publication strategies.

    PubMed

    Plomion, Christophe; Aury, Jean-Marc; Amselem, Joëlle; Alaeitabar, Tina; Barbe, Valérie; Belser, Caroline; Bergès, Hélène; Bodénès, Catherine; Boudet, Nathalie; Boury, Christophe; Canaguier, Aurélie; Couloux, Arnaud; Da Silva, Corinne; Duplessis, Sébastien; Ehrenmann, François; Estrada-Mairey, Barbara; Fouteau, Stéphanie; Francillonne, Nicolas; Gaspin, Christine; Guichard, Cécile; Klopp, Christophe; Labadie, Karine; Lalanne, Céline; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Le Provost, Grégoire; Leroy, Thibault; Lesur, Isabelle; Martin, Francis; Mercier, Jonathan; Michotey, Célia; Murat, Florent; Salin, Franck; Steinbach, Delphine; Faivre-Rampant, Patricia; Wincker, Patrick; Salse, Jérôme; Quesneville, Hadi; Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The 1.5 Gbp/2C genome of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) has been sequenced. A strategy was established for dealing with the challenges imposed by the sequencing of such a large, complex and highly heterozygous genome by a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) approach, without the use of costly and time-consuming methods, such as fosmid or BAC clone-based hierarchical sequencing methods. The sequencing strategy combined short and long reads. Over 49 million reads provided by Roche 454 GS-FLX technology were assembled into contigs and combined with shorter Illumina sequence reads from paired-end and mate-pair libraries of different insert sizes, to build scaffolds. Errors were corrected and gaps filled with Illumina paired-end reads and contaminants detected, resulting in a total of 17,910 scaffolds (>2 kb) corresponding to 1.34 Gb. Fifty per cent of the assembly was accounted for by 1468 scaffolds (N50 of 260 kb). Initial comparison with the phylogenetically related Prunus persica gene model indicated that genes for 84.6% of the proteins present in peach (mean protein coverage of 90.5%) were present in our assembly. The second and third steps in this project are genome annotation and the assignment of scaffolds to the oak genetic linkage map. In accordance with the Bermuda and Fort Lauderdale agreements and the more recent Toronto Statement, the oak genome data have been released into public sequence repositories in advance of publication. In this presubmission paper, the oak genome consortium describes its principal lines of work and future directions for analyses of the nature, function and evolution of the oak genome. PMID:25944057

  15. Fuel wood properties of some oak tree species of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Meetei, Shougrakpam Bijen; Singh, E J; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Five indigenous oak tree species, i.e., Castanopsis indica (Roxb. ex Lindl.) A.DC., Lithocarpus fenestratus (Roxb.) Rehder, Lithocarpus pachyphyllus (Kurz) Rehder, Lithocarpus polystachyus (Wall. ex A.DC.) Rehder and Quercus serrata Murray were estimated for their wood properties such as calorific value, density, moisture content and ash content from a sub-tropical forest of Haraothel hill, Senapati District, Manipur. Wood biomass components were found to have higher calorific value (kJ g(-)) than bark components. The calorific values for tree species were found highest in L. pachyphyllus (17.99 kJ g(-1)) followed by C. indica (17.98 kJ g1), L. fenestratus (17.96 kJ g"), L. polystachyus (17.80 kJ g(-1)) and Q. serrata (17.49 kJ g(-1)). Calorific values for bole bark, bole wood and branch bark were found significantly different (F > 3.48 at p = 0.05) in five oak tree species. Percentage of ash on dry weight basis was found to be highest in Q. serrata (4.73%) and lowest in C. indica (2.19%). Ash content of tree components gives a singnificant factor in determining fuelwood value index (FVI). Of all the five oak tree species, Q. serrata exhibited highest value of wood density (0.78 g cm-) and lowest was observed in C. indica (0.63 g cm(-3)). There was significant correlation between wood density (p<0.05), ash content (p<0.01) with calorific value in oak tree species. Fuelwood value index (FVI) was in the following order: C. indica (1109.70) > L. pachyphyllus (898.41)> L. polystachyus (879.02)> L. fenestratus (824.61)> Q. serrata (792.50). Thus, the present study suggests that C. indica may be considered as a fuelwood oak tree species in Manipur. PMID:26364482

  16. Vegetation community change in Atlantic oak woodlands along a nitrogen deposition gradient.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Kayla; Aherne, Julian

    2016-09-01

    Atlantic old sessile oak woodlands are of high conservation importance in Europe, listed in the European Union (EU) Habitats Directive Annex I, and known for their rich bryophyte communities. Their conservation status ranges from unfavourable to bad across their known distribution, which is predominantly within the UK and Ireland, but also extends into Iberia and Brittany. The objectives of this study were to determine if nitrogen (N) deposition, a known driver of terrestrial biodiversity loss, was a significant predictor of community composition in old sessile oak woodlands (i.e., EU Habitats Directive Annex I class: 91A0), and to identify significant changes in individual plant species and community-level abundance (i.e., change points) along an N deposition gradient. Relevé data from 260 Irish oak woodland plots were evaluated using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis (TITAN). Nitrogen deposition accounted for 14% of the explainable variation in the dataset (inertia = 0.069, p < 0.005). A community scale change point of 13.2 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) was indicated by TITAN, which falls within the current recommended critical load (CL) range for acidophilous Quercus-dominated (oak) woodlands (10-15 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The results suggest that the current CL is sufficient for maintaining a core group of indicator species in old sessile oak woodlands, but many nutrient sensitive species may disappear even at the CL range minimum. PMID:27244687

  17. Concentrations and 14C age of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plants store photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC), mainly glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch. NSC fuels processes such as respiration and growth. Research suggests that NSC represents a significant fraction of a plant's annual C budget, but temporal dynamics of NSC are poorly understood. We used concentration and radiocarbon (14C) measurements of NSC to investigate how temporal dynamics of NSC vary with life strategy and throughout a species' range. In Mediterranean environments, oaks have developed two strategies (evergreen and deciduous) to cope with drought. Within California, the uncertainty of annual winter rain increases from north to south. We compared two evergreen and deciduous species: Coastal and Interior live oak (Quercus agrifolia and wislizenii) and Valley and Blue oak (Q. lobata and douglasii). Samples (4 mm cores to 20 cm depth at dbh) were taken in 2008 before leaf-out and fall at five sites which represent an inland to coast temperature gradient from high to low summer temperatures as well as a north- south precipitation gradient. Sugars were isolated by shaking in methanol-water and quantified using a spectrometric micro-plate technique. Starch was isolated by boiling in ethanol followed by HCl digestion and quantified manometrically. 14C contents were measured by AMS. Preliminary findings indicate that in live oaks, winter sugar concentrations are constant throughout the tree and across sites, while 14C concentrations increase towards a tree's center. This suggests that the NSC pool oaks is not well mixed. Future work will elucidate whether plants can access these older NSC stores.

  18. Groundlayer vegetation gradients across oak woodland canopy gaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Grundel, R.; Sluis, W.

    2006-01-01

    Frequency of groundlayer plants was measured across oak woodland canopy gaps at three sites in northwest Indiana to examine how vegetation varied with gap size, direction along the gap edge, and microhabitat. Microhabitats were defined as under the canopy adjacent to the gap, along the gap edge, and within the gap. Gap-sites consisted of gaps plus adjacent tree canopy. Gaps were classified as small (16 ± 1 m2), medium (97 ± 8), and large (310 ± 32). Neither richness nor diversity differed among microhabitats, gap sizes, or edges. Similarity between microhabitats wthin a gap-site increased as the distance between plots decreased and as the difference in PAR decreased, the latter explaining twice the variation in percent dissimilarity compared to Mg concentration, A horizon depth, and litter cover. Diervilla lonicera, Frageria virginiana, Helianthus divaricatus, Polygonatum pubescens, Quercus velutina, Smilacena stellata, and Tradescantia ohiensis decreased, whileTephrosia virginiana and legumes increased in frequency, from canopy to gap, and C4 grasses peaked at the gap edge, independent of gap size. Additional species frequency varied across the microhabitat gradient within specific sites. Sorghastrum nutans was three times more frequent in gaps at large sites than elsewhere. The vegetation in medium-sized gap-sites was more variable than within small and large gap-sites, suggesting greater environmental heterogeneity at that scale. Within gap-sites, vegetation was more heterogeneous within edges and canopies than in gaps. Edges were more similar in composition to gaps than to canopy groundlayer within gap-sites. Few species varied significantly in frequency around the gap edge. The oak woodland groundlayer on sandy substrates can be characterized as a mosaic of forb dominated vegetation that varies across light gradients associated with canopy gaps, transitioning to islands of grassland vegetation when gaps exceed 160 m2.

  19. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea)

    PubMed Central

    Case, Ashley E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; Clark, Stacy L.; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Reynolds, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  20. Abundance and Frequency of the Asiatic Oak Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Defoliation on American, Chinese, and Hybrid Chestnut (Castanea).

    PubMed

    Case, Ashley E; Mayfield, Albert E; Clark, Stacy L; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Reynolds, Barbara C

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. (Fagales: Fagaceae), Castanea mollissima Blume (Fagales: Fagaceae), and four hybrid breeding generations were evaluated in 2012 for insect defoliation and C. castaneus abundance and frequency. Defoliation was visually assessed throughout the growing season at two sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee). C. castaneus abundance and frequency were monitored on trees using beat sheets and emergence was recorded from ground traps. Asiatic oak weevils were more abundant and more frequently collected on American chestnut (Ca. dentata) and its most closely related BC3F3 hybrid generation than on the Asian species Ca. mollissima. In most months, C. castaneus colonization of hybrid generations was not significantly different than colonization of parental species. Frequency data for C. castaneus suggested that adults were distributed relatively evenly throughout the study sites rather than in dense clusters. Emergence of C. castaneus was significantly higher under a canopy dominated by Quercus species than under non-Quercus species or open sky. C. castaneus emergence began in May and peaked in late June and early July. These results may be useful for resource managers trying to restore blight-resistant chestnut to the Southern Appalachians while minimizing herbivory by insect pests. PMID:27001964

  1. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  2. Similarities and discrepancies of sessile oak performance along a topographic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Sonia; Heinrich, Ingo; Pohlmann, Silvio; Buras, Allan; Scharnweber, Tobias; van der Maaten, Ernst; Wilmking, Martin; Helle, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, lake level fluctuations have been observed in the lake area of north eastern Germany. However our knowledge on these fluctuations mostly date back until the 1970ies when gauge records were initiated. To deepen our understanding of the observed lake level fluctuations, proxies which provide longer records of measurement would be of help. Here, we dendrochronologically investigate whether sessile oak (Quercus petrea) is a suitable proxy for lake-level fluctuations. Several specimen were investigated at two sites along a steep topographical gradient, ranging from the lake shore of lake Hinnensee to a nearby situated glacial sander deposition. By this, we assume to represent differing tree sensitivities to lake level fluctuations (at the lake shore) and summer droughts (on top of the sander). For the ring porous oak it has been shown in various studies that earlywood vessel structures store different climatic- or ecological information than ring-width or earlywood/latewood-width alone. Therefore in addition to the ring width chronologies (spanning 1750-2010) series of earlywood vessel parameters (number of cells, average lumen area, total lumen area, spanning 1900-2010) were developed and used to compare the growth trends and climate growth relationships between the two topographical positions. Preliminary results indicate a differing low frequency behavior between the two sites in both ring-widths and earlywood vessel parameters. Possible causes (lake level fluctuations, human impact, and climate change) are discussed and the potential of sessile oak as a proxy for lake level fluctuations is evaluated.

  3. Dependence of tree ring stable isotope abundances and ring width on climate in Finnish oak.

    PubMed

    Hilasvuori, Emmi; Berninger, Frank

    2010-05-01

    We measured ring widths and isotopic abundances of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen (delta(13)C, delta(18)O and delta(2)H) from the latewood of tree rings of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in its distributional northern limit in Southern Finland. Ring width was observed to be related to precipitation and relative humidity but not significantly to temperature. delta(13)C and delta(18)O were significantly related to all studied climatic variables, most strongly to cloud cover. Variations in delta(2)H were discovered to be complex combinations of signals from biochemical and physical processes. The results suggest that oaks in Finland can be used as a source of climate information. delta(18)O was discovered to be especially promising as it showed the strongest climate signal and highest common signal between trees. The relationship between climate and ring width indicates that water availability is the main control of ring radial growth. This is supported by the isotope data. High correlation between delta(13)C and delta(18)O time series indicates that photosynthetic carbon assimilation is limited by stomatal control. Therefore, in contrast to the expected temperature limitation, our data indicate that drought limits oak growth more than cold temperatures on the border of its northernmost distribution range. PMID:20357343

  4. Nitrogen partitioning in oak leaves depends on species, provenance, climate conditions and soil type.

    PubMed

    Hu, B; Simon, J; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Siegwolf, R; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    Climate-tolerant tree species and/or provenances have to be selected to ensure the high productivity of managed forests in Central Europe under the prognosticated climate changes. For this purpose, we studied the responses of saplings from three oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) and provenances of different climatic origin (i.e. low or high rainfall, low or high temperature habitats) with regard to leaf nitrogen (N) composition as a measure of N nutrition. Saplings were grown in model ecosystems on either calcareous or acidic soil and subjected to one of four treatments (control, drought, air warming or a combination of drought and air warming). Across species, oak N metabolism responded to the influence of drought and/or air warming with an increase in leaf amino acid N concentration at the expense of structural N. Moreover, provenances or species from drier habitats were more tolerant to the climate conditions applied, as indicated by an increase in amino acid N (comparing species) or soluble protein N (comparing provenances within a species). Furthermore, amino acid N concentrations of oak leaves were significantly higher on calcareous compared to acidic soil. From these results, it can be concluded that seeds from provenances or species originating from drier habitats and - if available - from calcareous soil types may provide a superior seed source for future forest establishment. PMID:22934888

  5. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Asif; Alam, M Sarwar; Athar, Mohammad

    2004-02-01

    Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) possess pleiotropic therapeutic activities, with particular efficacy against inflammatory diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Q. infectoria galls on various in vivo and in vitro experimental models of inflammation. Oral administration of gall extract significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced paw oedemas, while topical application of gall extract inhibited phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced ear inflammation. The extract also inhibited various functions of macrophages and neutrophils relevant to the inflammatory response. In vitro exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to gall extract ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) production and PMA stimulated superoxide (O2*-) production in a dose dependent manner. Gall extract also scavenged NO and O2*-. Probing into mechanism of NO inhibition in macrophages revealed gall extract to ameliorate the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), respectively without any inhibitory effect on its catalytic activities even at higher concentrations. Gall extract also significantly inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated degranulation in neutrophils. These results suggest that alcoholic extract of galls of Q. infectoria exerts in vivo antiinflammatory activity after oral or topical administration and also has the ability to prevent the production of some inflammatory mediators. PMID:15013194

  6. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  7. Interrelationships among life-history traits in three California oaks.

    PubMed

    Barringer, Brian C; Koenig, Walter D; Knops, Johannes M H

    2013-01-01

    Life-history traits interact in important ways. Relatively few studies, however, have explored the relationships between life-history traits in long-lived taxa such as trees. We examined patterns of energy allocation to components of reproduction and growth in three species of California oaks (Quercus spp.) using a combination of annual acorn censuses, dendrometer bands to measure radial increment, and litterfall traps. Our results are generally consistent with the hypothesis that energy invested in reproduction detracts from the amount of energy available for growth in these long-lived taxa; i.e., there are trade-offs between these traits. The relationships between reproduction and growth varied substantially among specific trait combinations and tree species, however, and in some cases were in the direction opposite that expected based on the assumption of trade-offs between them. This latter finding appears to be a consequence of the pattern of resource use across years in these long-lived trees contrasting with the expected partitioning of resource use within years in short-lived taxa. Thus, the existence and magnitude of putative trade-offs varied depending on whether the time scale considered was within or across years. Collectively, our results indicate that negative relationships between fundamental life-history traits can be important at multiple levels of modular organization and that energy invested in reproduction can have measurable consequences in terms of the amount of energy available for future reproduction and both current and future growth. PMID:22707038

  8. 2-DE proteomics analysis of drought treated seedlings of Quercus ilex supports a root active strategy for metabolic adaptation in response to water shortage.

    PubMed

    Simova-Stoilova, Lyudmila P; Romero-Rodríguez, Maria C; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2015-01-01

    Holm oak is a dominant tree in the western Mediterranean region. Despite being well adapted to dry hot climate, drought is the main cause of mortality post-transplanting in reforestation programs. An active response to drought is critical for tree establishment and survival. Applying a gel-based proteomic approach, dynamic changes in root proteins of drought treated Quercus ilex subsp. Ballota [Desf.] Samp. seedlings were followed. Water stress was applied on 20 day-old holm oak plantlets by water limitation for a period of 10 and 20 days, each followed by 10 days of recovery. Stress was monitored by changes in water status, plant growth, and electrolyte leakage. Contrary to leaves, holm oak roots responded readily to water shortage at physiological level by growth inhibition, changes in water status and membrane stability. Root proteins were extracted using trichloroacetate/acetone/phenol protocol and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Coomassie colloidal stained gel images were analyzed and spot intensity data subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Selected consistent spots in three biological replicas, presenting significant changes under stress, were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS). For protein identification, combined search was performed with MASCOT search engine over NCBInr Viridiplantae and Uniprot databases. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002484. Identified proteins were classified into functional groups: metabolism, protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, defense against biotic stress, cellular protection against abiotic stress, intracellular transport. Several enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism decreased in abundance in roots under drought stress while some related to ATP synthesis and secondary metabolism increased. Results point at active metabolic adjustment and mobilization of the defense system in roots to actively counteract drought stress. PMID

  9. 2-DE proteomics analysis of drought treated seedlings of Quercus ilex supports a root active strategy for metabolic adaptation in response to water shortage

    PubMed Central

    Simova-Stoilova, Lyudmila P.; Romero-Rodríguez, Maria C.; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.

    2015-01-01

    Holm oak is a dominant tree in the western Mediterranean region. Despite being well adapted to dry hot climate, drought is the main cause of mortality post-transplanting in reforestation programs. An active response to drought is critical for tree establishment and survival. Applying a gel-based proteomic approach, dynamic changes in root proteins of drought treated Quercus ilex subsp. Ballota [Desf.] Samp. seedlings were followed. Water stress was applied on 20 day-old holm oak plantlets by water limitation for a period of 10 and 20 days, each followed by 10 days of recovery. Stress was monitored by changes in water status, plant growth, and electrolyte leakage. Contrary to leaves, holm oak roots responded readily to water shortage at physiological level by growth inhibition, changes in water status and membrane stability. Root proteins were extracted using trichloroacetate/acetone/phenol protocol and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Coomassie colloidal stained gel images were analyzed and spot intensity data subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Selected consistent spots in three biological replicas, presenting significant changes under stress, were subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS). For protein identification, combined search was performed with MASCOT search engine over NCBInr Viridiplantae and Uniprot databases. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002484. Identified proteins were classified into functional groups: metabolism, protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, defense against biotic stress, cellular protection against abiotic stress, intracellular transport. Several enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism decreased in abundance in roots under drought stress while some related to ATP synthesis and secondary metabolism increased. Results point at active metabolic adjustment and mobilization of the defense system in roots to actively counteract drought stress. PMID

  10. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  11. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paju; 8 species were identified by based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular analyses. Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Candida kashinagacola were found to be the two dominant species. Among the 8 species, Candida homilentoma was a newly recorded yeast species in Korea, and thus, its mycological characteristics were described. The P. koryoensis symbiont R. quercusmongolicae did not show extracelluar CM-cellulase, xylanase and avicelase activity that are responsible for degradation of wood structure; however, C. kashinagacola and M. guilliermondii did show the three extracellular enzymatic activities. Extracelluar CM-cellulase activity was also found in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, C. kashinagacola, and Candida sp. Extracelluar pectinase activity was detected in Ambrosiozyma sp., C. homilentoma, Candida sp., and M. guilliermondii. All the 8 yeast species displayed compatible relationships with R. quercus-mongolicae when they were co-cultivated on yeast extract-malt extract plates. Overall, our results demonstrated that P. koryoensis carries the yeast species as a symbiotic fungal associate. This is first report of yeast diversity associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:26839506

  12. Growth cessation uncouples isotopic signals in leaves and tree rings of drought-exposed oak trees.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Ellen E; Siegwolf, R; Buchmann, N; Dobbertin, M; Kuster, T M; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Arend, M

    2015-10-01

    An increase in temperature along with a decrease in summer precipitation in Central Europe will result in an increased frequency of drought events and gradually lead to a change in species composition in forest ecosystems. In the present study, young oaks (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) were transplanted into large mesocosms and exposed for 3 years to experimental warming and a drought treatment with yearly increasing intensities. Carbon and oxygen isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) patterns were analysed in leaf tissue and tree-ring cellulose and linked to leaf physiological measures and tree-ring growth. Warming had no effect on the isotopic patterns in leaves and tree rings, while drought increased δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Under severe drought, an unexpected isotopic pattern, with a decrease in δ(18)O, was observed in tree rings but not in leaves. This decrease in δ(18)O could not be explained by concurrent physiological analyses and is not supported by current physiological knowledge. Analysis of intra-annual tree-ring growth revealed a drought-induced growth cessation that interfered with the record of isotopic signals imprinted on recently formed leaf carbohydrates. This missing record indicates isotopic uncoupling of leaves and tree rings, which may have serious implications for the interpretation of tree-ring isotopes, particularly from trees that experienced growth-limiting stresses. PMID:26377873

  13. Physiological effects of the Mexico City atmosphere on lichen transplants on oaks

    SciTech Connect

    Zambrano, A.; Nash, T.H. III; Gries, C.

    1999-10-01

    Two lichen species, Usnea ceratina Ach. and Everniastrum neocirrhatum (Hale M. Wirth) Hale ex Sipman, were transplanted for 54 d into an oak forest (Quercus rugosa) in the vicinity of Mexico City to assess their ability to survive near a highly polluted urban environment. Net photosynthesis based on dry weight and chlorophyll b decreased respectively ca. 30 and 25% compared with control samples in a less polluted site, ca. 100 km north of Mexico City. There was no interspecific difference in the response of carbon fixation, but E. neocirrhatum was more sensitive to chlorophyll b degradation near Mexico City than U. ceratina. Chlorophyll a was also degradated (ca. 15%) near Mexico City. Changes in total carotenes were mostly dependent on species and time rather than on location. High concurrent levels of ozone and sulfur dioxide in the air are discussed as possible causes of the decline in the lichen photosynthesis and chlorophyll content.

  14. THE RESILIENCE OF UPLAND-OAK FOREST CANOPY TREES TO CHRONIC AND ACUTE PRECIPITATION MANIPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Todd Jr, Donald E; Auge, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Implications of chronic ( 33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12 years of chronic manipulations tree growth remained unaffected by natural or induced rainfall deficits even though severe drought conditions dramatically reduced canopy function in some years. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between tree growth phenology and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited growth reductions from 2003 through 2005. Elimination of lateral root water sources for the acute treatment trees, via trenching midway through the 2004 growing-season, forced the conclusion that deep rooting was a key mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought.

  15. Rapid nitrogen transfer from ectomycorrhizal pines to adjacent ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in a California oak woodland.

    PubMed

    He, Xinhua; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Zasoski, Robert J; Southworth, Darlene; Horwath, William R

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen transfer among plants in a California oak woodland was examined in a pulse-labeling study using 15N. The study was designed to examine N movement among plants that were mycorrhizal with ectomycorrhizas (EM), arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), or both. Isotopically enriched N (K15NO3-) was applied to gray pine (Pinus sabiniana) foliage (donor) and traced to neighboring gray pine, blue oak (Quercus douglasii), buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus) and herbaceous annuals (Cynosurus echinatus, Torilis arvensis and Trifolium hirtum). After 2 wk, needles of 15N-treated pines and foliage from nearby annuals were similarly enriched, but little 15N had appeared in nontreated (receiver) pine needles, oak leaves or buckbrush foliage. After 4 wk foliar and root samples from pine, oak, buckbrush and annuals were significantly 15N-enriched, regardless of the type of mycorrhizal association. The rate of transfer during the first and second 2-wk periods was similar, and suggests that 15N could continue to be mobilized over longer times. PMID:16539611

  16. Oak Bark Allometry and Fire Survival Strategies in the Chihuahuan Desert Sky Islands, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Gaetani, Maria S.; Poulos, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Trees may survive fire through persistence of above or below ground structures. Investment in bark aids in above-ground survival while investment in carbohydrate storage aids in recovery through resprouting and is especially important following above-ground tissue loss. We investigated bark allocation and carbohydrate investment in eight common oak (Quercus) species of Sky Island mountain ranges in west Texas. We hypothesized that relative investment in bark and carbohydrates changes with tree age and with fire regime: We predicted delayed investment in bark (positive allometry) and early investment in carbohydrates (negative allometry) under lower frequency, high severity fire regimes found in wetter microclimates. Common oaks of the Texas Trans-Pecos region (Quercus emoryi, Q. gambelii, Q. gravesii, Q. grisea, Q. hypoleucoides, Q. muehlenbergii, and Q. pungens) were sampled in three mountain ranges with historically mixed fire regimes: the Chisos Mountains, the Davis Mountains and the Guadalupe Mountains. Bark thickness was measured on individuals representing the full span of sizes found. Carbohydrate concentration in taproots was measured after initial leaf flush. Bark thickness was compared to bole diameter and allometries were analyzed using major axis regression on log-transformed measurements. We found that bark allocation strategies varied among species that can co-occur but have different habitat preferences. Investment patterns in bark were related to soil moisture preference and drought tolerance and, by proxy, to expected fire regime. Dry site species had shallower allometries with allometric coefficients ranging from less than one (negative allometry) to near one (isometric investment). Wet site species, on the other hand, had larger allometric coefficients, indicating delayed investment to defense. Contrary to our expectation, root carbohydrate concentrations were similar across all species and sizes, suggesting that any differences in below ground

  17. Patterns of contemporary hybridization inferred from paternity analysis in a four-oak-species forest

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies address the issue of hybridization in a more than two-species context. The species-rich Quercus complex is one of the systems which can offer such an opportunity. To investigate the contemporary pattern of hybridization we sampled and genotyped 320 offspring from a natural mixed forest comprising four species of the European white oak complex: Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, and Q. frainetto. Results A total of 165 offspring were assigned unambiguously to one of the pollen donors within the study plot. The minimum amount of effective pollen originating from outside the plot varied markedly among the seed parents, ranging from 0.18 to 0.87. The majority of the successful matings (64.1%) occurred between conspecific individuals indicating the existence of reproductive barriers between oak species. However, the isolation was not complete since we found strong evidence for both first-generation (8.4%) and later-generation hybrids (27.5%). Only two out of eight seed parents, belonging to Q. petraea and Q. robur, showed a high propensity to hybridize with Q. pubescens and Q. petraea, respectively. Significant structure of the effective pollen pools (Φpt = 0.069, P = 0.01) was detected in our sample. However, no support was found for the isolation by distance hypothesis. The proportion of hybrids was much higher (79%) in the seed generation when compared to the adult tree generation. Conclusion First-generation hybrids were observed only between three out of six possible species combinations. Hybrids between one pair of species preferred to mate with one of their parental species. The observation of first and later-generation hybrids in higher frequency in acorns than in adults might be explained by selection against hybrid genotypes, the history of this uneven-aged forest or past introgression between species. PMID:19968862

  18. Evidence for selection on a CONSTANS-like gene between two red oak species

    PubMed Central

    Lind-Riehl, Jennifer F.; Sullivan, Alexis R.; Gailing, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Hybridizing species such as oaks may provide a model to study the role of selection in speciation with gene flow. Discrete species' identities and different adaptations are maintained among closely related oak species despite recurrent gene flow. This is probably due to ecologically mediated selection at a few key genes or genomic regions. Neutrality tests can be applied to identify so-called outlier loci, which demonstrate locus-specific signatures of divergent selection and are candidate genes for further study. Methods Thirty-six genic microsatellite markers, some with putative functions in flowering time and drought tolerance, and eight non-genic microsatellite markers were screened in two population pairs (n = 160) of the interfertile species Quercus rubra and Q. ellipsoidalis, which are characterized by contrasting adaptations to drought. Putative outliers were then tested in additional population pairs from two different geographic regions (n = 159) to support further their potential role in adaptive divergence. Key Results A marker located in the coding sequence of a putative CONSTANS-like (COL) gene was repeatedly identified as under strong divergent selection across all three geographically disjunct population pairs. COL genes are involved in the photoperiodic control of growth and development and are implicated in the regulation of flowering time. Conclusions The location of the polymorphism in the Quercus COL gene and given the potential role of COL genes in adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation makes this a promising candidate speciation gene. Further investigation of the phenological characteristics of both species and flowering time pathway genes is suggested in order to elucidate the importance of phenology genes for the maintenance of species integrity. Next-generation sequencing in multiple population pairs in combination with high-density genetic linkage maps could reveal the genome-wide distribution of outlier genes

  19. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  20. Factors affecting stress tolerance in recalcitrant embryonic axes from four Quercus (Fagaceae) species native to the US or China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant-seeded Quercus species are often considered “keystone” components of the ecosystems. However, their populations are declining and there is a considerable urgency to develop ex situ conservation strategies. The storage physiology of seeds within Quercus was explored in order to determine...

  1. Soil CO2 efflux in a mixed pine-oak forest in Valsaín (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Inclán, Rosa; De la Torre, Daniel; Benito, Marta; Rubio, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variation were investigated in a southern Mediterranean, mixed pine-oak forest ecosystem on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Spain from February 2006 to July 2006. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux, soil temperatures, and moisture were conducted in nine 1963-m2 sampling plots distributed in a gradient around the ecotone between Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pyrenaica Lam. forest stands. Total soil organic matter, Walkey-Black C, particulate organic matter, organic matter fraction below 53 microm, total soil nitrogen content, total soil organic carbon content, and pH were also measured under three representative mature oak, pine, and mixed pine-oak forest stands. Soil respiration showed a typical seasonal pattern with minimums in winter and summer, and maximums in spring, more pronounced in oak and oak-pine stands. Soil respiration values were highest in pine stands during winter and in oak stands during spring and summer. Soil respiration was highly correlated with soil temperatures in oak and pine-oak stands when soil moisture was above a drought threshold of 15%. Below this threshold value, soil moisture was a good predictor of soil respiration in pine stands. Greater soil organic matter, particulate organic matter, Walkey-Black C, total organic C, and total N content in pine compared to oak sites potentially contributed to the greater total soil CO2 efflux in these stands during the winter. Furthermore, opposing trends in the organic matter fraction below 53 microm and soil respiration between plots suggest that in oak stands, the C forms are less affected by possible changes in use. The effects of soil properties on soil respiration were masked by differences in soil temperature and moisture during the rest of the year. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation even within small geographic areas is essential to assess C budgets at ecosystem level accurately. Thus, this study bears

  2. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus ilex L. measured by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, R.; Sandoval-Soto, L.; Rottenberger, S.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2000-08-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) were investigated using a fast Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instrument for analysis. This technique is able to measure compounds with a proton affinity higher than water with a high time resolution of 1 s per compound. Hence nearly all VOCs can be detected on-line. We could clearly identify the emission of methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid, isoprene, monoterpenes, toluene, and C10-benzenes. Some other species could be tentatively denominated. Among these are the masses 67 (cyclo pentadiene), mass 71 (tentatively attributed to methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and metacrolein (MACR)), 73 (attributed to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)), 85 (C6H12 or hexanol), and 95 (vinylfuran or phenol). The emissions of all these compounds (identified as well as nonidentified) together represent 99% of all masses detected and account for a carbon loss of 0.7-2.9% of the net photosynthesis. Of special interest was a change in the emission behavior under changing environmental conditions such as flooding or fast light/dark changes. Flooding of the root system caused an increase of several VOCs between 60 and 2000%, dominated by the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde, which can be explained by the well described production of ethanol under anoxic conditions of the root system and the recently described subsequent transport and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde within the green leaves. However, ethanol emissions were dominant. Additionally, bursts of acetaldehyde with lower ethanol emission were also found under fast light/dark changes. These bursts are not understood.

  3. Limited Pollen Dispersal Contributes to Population Genetic Structure but Not Local Adaptation in Quercus oleoides Forests of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    Background Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses. Results High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation. Conclusion Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic

  4. Phenotypic Diversification Is Associated with Host-Induced Transposon Derepression in the Sudden Oak Death Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

    PubMed Central

    Kasuga, Takao; Kozanitas, Melina; Bui, Mai; Hüberli, Daniel; Rizzo, David M.; Garbelotto, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for sudden oak death (SOD) in California coastal forests. P. ramorum is a generalist pathogen with over 100 known host species. Three or four closely related genotypes of P. ramorum (from a single lineage) were originally introduced in California forests and the pathogen reproduces clonally. Because of this the genetic diversity of P. ramorum is extremely low in Californian forests. However, P. ramorum shows diverse phenotypic variation in colony morphology, colony senescence, and virulence. In this study, we show that phenotypic variation among isolates is associated with the host species from which the microbe was originally cultured. Microarray global mRNA profiling detected derepression of transposable elements (TEs) and down-regulation of crinkler effector homologs (CRNs) in the majority of isolates originating from coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), but this expression pattern was not observed in isolates from California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). In some instances, oak and bay laurel isolates originating from the same geographic location had identical genotypes based on multilocus simples sequence repeat (SSR) marker analysis but had different phenotypes. Expression levels of the two marker genes analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR were correlated with originating host species, but not with multilocus genotypes. Because oak is a nontransmissive dead-end host for P. ramorum, our observations are congruent with an epi-transposon hypothesis; that is, physiological stress is triggered on P. ramorum while colonizing oak stems and disrupts epigenetic silencing of TEs. This then results in TE reactivation and possibly genome diversification without significant epidemiological consequences. We propose the P. ramorum-oak host system in California forests as an ad hoc model for epi-transposon mediated diversification. PMID:22529930

  5. Stand density, tree social status and water stress influence allocation in height and diameter growth of Quercus petraea (Liebl.).

    PubMed

    Trouvé, Raphaël; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Seynave, Ingrid; Collet, Catherine; Lebourgeois, François

    2015-10-01

    Even-aged forest stands are competitive communities where competition for light gives advantages to tall individuals, thereby inducing a race for height. These same individuals must however balance this competitive advantage with height-related mechanical and hydraulic risks. These phenomena may induce variations in height-diameter growth relationships, with primary dependences on stand density and tree social status as proxies for competition pressure and access to light, and on availability of local environmental resources, including water. We aimed to investigate the effects of stand density, tree social status and water stress on the individual height-circumference growth allocation (Δh-Δc), in even-aged stands of Quercus petraea Liebl. (sessile oak). Within-stand Δc was used as surrogate for tree social status. We used an original long-term experimental plot network, set up in the species production area in France, and designed to explore stand dynamics on a maximum density gradient. Growth allocation was modelled statistically by relating the shape of the Δh-Δc relationship to stand density, stand age and water deficit. The shape of the Δh-Δc relationship shifted from linear with a moderate slope in open-grown stands to concave saturating with an initial steep slope in closed stands. Maximum height growth was found to follow a typical mono-modal response to stand age. In open-grown stands, increasing summer soil water deficit was found to decrease height growth relative to radial growth, suggesting hydraulic constraints on height growth. A similar pattern was found in closed stands, the magnitude of the effect however lowering from suppressed to dominant trees. We highlight the high phenotypic plasticity of growth in sessile oak trees that further adapt their allocation scheme to their environment. Stand density and tree social status were major drivers of growth allocation variations, while water stress had a detrimental effect on height in the

  6. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il

    2011-12-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first. PMID:22217750

  7. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE) via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina) and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata). We also determined environmental drivers [vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture, solar radiation] of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem. PMID:25999966

  8. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest.

    PubMed

    Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE) via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina) and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata). We also determined environmental drivers [vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture, solar radiation] of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem. PMID:25999966

  9. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    PubMed

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening. PMID:25150506

  10. 77 FR 23506 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Region of Three Oaks Museum, Three Oaks, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Region of Three Oaks Museum, Three Oaks, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Region of Three Oaks Museum has... contact The Region of Three Oaks Museum. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribe...

  11. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E.; Pritchard, E.W.

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  12. Exchangeable Cations in the Soils of Quercus Dominated Forests in Northeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bruckman, Viktor J.; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In northeastern Austria there is a growing interest in increased utilisation of forest biomass for energy. This study focuses on soil properties and nutrient pool characteristics in deciduous forests in order to provide advice for forest management. We (i) quantified selected exchangeable cations in the soils of our study area and (ii) identified the effects of stand age, soil type, soil depth and soil pH on exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Nine permanent Quercus petraea dominated plots on sandy, clayey cambisols and calcic chernozem were selected for our study. From each plot 18 soil samples were collected in a systematic grid by means of a soil corer with 70 mm diameter to a maximum depth of 60 cm. Soil pH, exchangeable mineral elements K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, and Fe were determined in five geometric soil horizons. Statistical analysis showed that (i) forest age did not influence the exchangeable K content of the sandy soils; (ii) the exchangeable K content decreased with increasing stand age in clayey cambisols; (iii) exchangeable K, Na and Mg were higher in calcic chernozems and clayey cambisols (iv) exchangeable Fe was significantly higher in sandy forest soils except in the 60-80 years old stand; (v) exchangeable Fe was below detection limit in calcic chernozem soils. A comparison of exchangeable cations revealed that (i) Ca is the key element of base cations (ii) the content of base cations is strongly significantly higher in calcic chernozem soils (iii) calcic chernozem soils have the highest CEC. CEC ranged from 38 to 190 μmol/g in the entire research area. Base cations, acid cations and CEC differ with soil depth as followed (i) in sandy and clayey cambisols, CEC had a minimum in 20 cm depth and then increased with soil depth to 50 cm; (ii) CEC decreased steadily with soil depth in calcic chernozems. As expected, CEC is significantly positively correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.661, P<0.01) with the pH of the soil. The

  13. [Effect of drought stress on apparent resource utilization efficiency of Quercus mongolica].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu

    2002-03-01

    To study the effect of drought stress on the physiological characteristics and resource utilization efficiency of Quercus mongolica, a dominant species in the Korean pine broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain, a comparative experiment was carried out under three soil moisture gradients as 85%-100% (high water, CK), 65%-85% (Medium water, MW), and 45%-65% (low water, LW) of field water-bolding capacity. The results showed that net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conduction, transpiration rate, water utilization efficiency, apparent CO2 utilization efficiency and apparent light utilization efficiency of the seedlings of Quercus mongolica were all significantly influenced by simulated drought stress. Stomatal conduction, water utilization efficiency and net photosynthetic rate of large tress of Quercus mongolica were affected by the soil drought stress, while transpiration rate, apparent CO2 utilization efficiency, and apparent light utilization efficiency were not influenced. Moderate soil water condition could greatly increase gas exchange and water utilization efficiency. These results indicated that the responses of gas exchange and resource utilization efficiency to various water stresses were different. Quercus mongolica was a species with variable resistance to drought stress, and the resistance would be improved by drought stress, especially moderate water stress. PMID:12132152

  14. Barucynips panamensis , a new genus and species of oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) from Panama, and description of one new species of  Coffeikokkos.

    PubMed

    Medianero, Enrique; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Barucynips panamensis Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey, a new genus and species of oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), is described from adults reared from galls on Quercus bumelioides in Panama. The new genus is taxonomically close to the recently described Coffeikokkos from Costa Rica, but differs from it and all of the described genera of Cynipini, by the shape and setation of the projecting part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium and by the sculpture of the propodeum. A new species of Coffeikokkos is also described from the same area, the Volcán Barú in Panama. Diagnostic characters, gall description, distribution, and biological data of the new genus and the two new species are given. The new genus is the first genus of oak gallwasps of the tribe Cynipini described in Panama. PMID:23794822

  15. Mean age, concentrations and usage of nonstructural carbon in California oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Muhr, J.; Xu, X.; Druffel-Rodriguez, K. C.; Trumbore, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that plants transport, accumulate, and store significant amounts of photosynthetic assimilates as nonstructural carbon (NSC). However, the temporal dynamics of the NSC pool and its role as energy source, in particular during times of stress, are not well known. Taking advantage of the bomb radiocarbon (14C) tracer, we determined the mean age (here defined as mean time elapsed since C was initially fixed from the atmosphere) of soluble and insoluble NSC pools within the stem and of stem-emitted CO2 in mature, sympatric deciduous and evergreen oaks in California. In 2008, we quantified the 14C content and concentration of soluble and insoluble NSC in up to 20 cm long stem increment cores of sympatric evergreen (Quercus agrifolia, wislizeni) and deciduous (Q. lobata, douglasii) oaks during the wet (deciduous dormant) and dry (deciduous growing) seasons. Samples were taken along a coastal precipitation gradient at five nature reserves. In 2010 and 2011, we monitored the rate and 14C content of CO2 emissions from tree trunks of sympatric evergreen Q. agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata and douglasii at two of the reserves. In all cores, we found that the NSC associated with a given depth averaged several years younger than the structural C (cellulose) in the wood at the same depth. For example, in wood made of structural C fixed before 1950, we detected modern NSC that was clearly fixed during the decades since the testing of atomic weapons in the atmosphere (peak 1950-1960s). These patterns can be explained by a model in which NSC in a given location in the stem is derived from a component that was fixed in the same year as the structural C, mixed with younger NSC that has been transported inward. Despite differences in growth rates, we found no differences in the mean age of NSC pools between life strategies or locations. Within a given stem core increment, there was no difference between the mean age of soluble and insoluble NSC. Concentrations of

  16. Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest tree species: oak

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated for these species. Here, we describe the development of an EST catalogue that will support ecosystem genomics studies, where geneticists, ecophysiologists, molecular biologists and ecologists join their efforts for understanding, monitoring and predicting functional genetic diversity. Results We generated 145,827 sequence reads from 20 cDNA libraries using the Sanger method. Unexploitable chromatograms and quality checking lead us to eliminate 19,941 sequences. Finally a total of 125,925 ESTs were retained from 111,361 cDNA clones. Pyrosequencing was also conducted for 14 libraries, generating 1,948,579 reads, from which 370,566 sequences (19.0%) were eliminated, resulting in 1,578,192 sequences. Following clustering and assembly using TGICL pipeline, 1,704,117 EST sequences collapsed into 69,154 tentative contigs and 153,517 singletons, providing 222,671 non-redundant sequences (including alternative transcripts). We also assembled the sequences using MIRA and PartiGene software and compared the three unigene sets. Gene ontology annotation was then assigned to 29,303 unigene elements. Blast search against the SWISS-PROT database revealed putative homologs for 32,810 (14.7%) unigene elements, but more extensive search with Pfam, Refseq_protein, Refseq_RNA and eight gene indices revealed homology for 67.4% of them. The EST catalogue was examined for putative homologs of candidate genes involved in bud phenology, cuticle formation, phenylpropanoids biosynthesis and cell wall formation. Our results suggest a good coverage of genes involved in these traits. Comparative orthologous

  17. Different responses to shade of evergreen and deciduous oak seedlings and the effect of acorn size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Guo; Werger, Marinus J. A.

    1999-11-01

    An evergreen oak species, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, and a deciduous oak species, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata were grown from acorns under two light levels (full sunlight and shade at about 18 % of full sunlight, simulating the light intensities in forest clearings and gaps, respectively) for one growing season. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) the deciduous species grows faster than the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings; (ii) the deciduous species responds more strongly in terms of growth and morphology to variation in light climate than the evergreen species; and (iii) seedling size is positively correlated to acorn size. The results showed: (i) at both light levels, the deciduous seedlings gained significantly more growth in biomass and height than the evergreen seedlings; (ii) both species produced significantly more biomass in full sunlight than in shade, without showing any significant difference in height between treatments. Increase in light intensity improved the growth of the deciduous seedlings more strongly; (iii) at a similar age, the deciduous seedlings showed a greater response in leaf morphology and biomass allocation to variation in light levels, but when compared at a similar size, biomass allocation patterns did not differ significantly between species; (iv) bigger acorns tended to produce larger seedlings, larger leaf sizes and more leaf area, between and within species. These differences demonstrate that the deciduous species is gap-dependent and has the advantage over the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings.

  18. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  19. A Phenological Timetable of Oak Growth under Experimental Drought and Air Warming

    PubMed Central

    Kuster, Thomas M.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Schaub, Marcus; Arend, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and decrease summer precipitation in Central Europe. Little is known about how warming and drought will affect phenological patterns of oaks, which are considered to possess excellent adaptability to these climatic changes. Here, we investigated bud burst and intra-annual shoot growth of Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens grown on two different forest soils and exposed to air warming and drought. Phenological development was assessed over the course of three growing seasons. Warming advanced bud burst by 1–3 days °C−1 and led to an earlier start of intra-annual shoot growth. Despite this phenological shift, total time span of annual growth and shoot biomass were not affected. Drought changed the frequency and intensity of intra-annual shoot growth and advanced bud burst in the subsequent spring of a severe summer drought by 1–2 days. After re-wetting, shoot growth recovered within a few days, demonstrating the superior drought tolerance of this tree genus. Our findings show that phenological patterns of oaks are modified by warming and drought but also suggest that ontogenetic factors and/or limitations of water and nutrients counteract warming effects on the biomass and the entire span of annual shoot growth. PMID:24586988

  20. Response of a gall wasp community to genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula: a test using half-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Ozaki, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The structure of a herbivore community may change consistently along the genetic cline of a host plant, change at particular points along the cline, or respond independently of the cline. To reveal such relationships between a gall wasp community and genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula, we examined patterns in the species richness and abundance of gall wasps along a genetic cline of the host plant, using 12 half-sib families from six different regions. The genetic relationships among the half-sib families of Q. crispula were quantified on the basis of leaf morphology, which represented a morphological cline from leaves typical of Q. crispula to leaves resembling another oak species, Q. dentata. The morphological cline could be regarded as a genetic cline caused by a history of hybridization with Q. dentata. The mean numbers of gall types varied among the half-sib families, but did not show a consistent increase or decrease along the genetic cline. This pattern could be explained by the fact that responses to host plant variation differed among the gall wasp species. The half-sib families were classified into three groups based on an ordination analysis of the species composition of the gall wasp community that to some extent also reflected the genetic cline of Q. crispula. This suggests that the species composition of gall wasps changed intermittently along the genetic cline, rather than gradually and consistently along the cline.

  1. Impact of short-term and long-term elevated CO2 on emission of carbonyls from adult Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus trees.

    PubMed

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Rennenberg, Heinz; Steinbrecher, Rainer

    2006-07-01

    The study aimed to elucidate the effect of elevated CO2 in short- and long-term experiments on the emission potential of carbonyls from mature oak (Quercus petraea) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). The trees were investigated using a canopy crane established in a mixed forest in Switzerland. Short-term CO2 experiments were performed on single leaves with a gas exchange measuring unit by increasing CO2 in the enclosure before and during the measurements. Long-term CO2 fumigation was performed for one vegetation period by a webFACE design. Short-term as well as long-term exposure of leaves resulted in no significant changes in carbonyl exchange in neither Q. petraea nor C. betulus. Carbonyl emission was not affected by stomatal closure under elevated CO2 levels. In contrast to the emission of isoprenoids from vegetation which is thought to be reduced at elevated atmospheric CO2, the exchange of carbonyls seems to be generally unaffected under these conditions. PMID:16314012

  2. Time and dose of irrigation impact Tuber melanosporum ectomycorrhiza proliferation and growth of Quercus ilex seedling hosts in young black truffle orchards.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Antoni; Bonet, José Antonio; Oliach, Daniel; Colinas, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    In Mediterranean climate, young truffle-oak orchards are subjected to drought episodes that can compromise the development of Tuber melanosporum. We investigated the responses of T. melanosporum to water supply in three periods: May to July, August to October, and May to October. In each period, five water doses were established: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Five orchards were planted with Quercus ilex inoculated with T. melanosporum, and in each orchard, we arranged a two-factorial design with irrigation period and irrigation dose as main factors to test their combined effects on the development of both T. melanosporum and Q. ilex after 3 years in the field. Irrigation period significantly interacted with irrigation doses for the absolute presence per seedling of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae. Irrigation in May-July increased significantly T. melanosporum colonization in seedlings irrigated with 50% ETo dose compared to the 0% ETo dose. A similar pattern with smaller differences in means was observed in August-October period, but the irrigation doses did not change T. melanosporum colonization when we watered from May to October. We found ectomycorrhizae different from T. melanosporum in 51% of the seedlings studied, but their presence was marginal. Our results suggest that a moderate irrigation dose promotes seedling growth and number of fine root tips per unit of fine root length, which may be potentially colonized by T. melanosporum. PMID:24310929

  3. Response of transglutaminase activity and bound putrescine to changes in light intensity under natural or controlled conditions in Quercus ilex leaves.

    PubMed

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; de Agazio, Marina; Zacchini, Massimo; Santos, Maria Asunción; Torné, Josep Maria; Fleck, Isabel

    2007-09-01

    In order to further study a previously observed relationship between polyamine (PA) content and changes in irradiation, we examined the level of free and bound PAs, the activity of transglutaminase (TGase, EC 2.3.2.13) and chlorophyll fluorescence in holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) leaves in response to different levels of light intensity and amount. A diurnal trend of free and bound putrescine (F-Put and B-Put, respectively) and TGase activity was observed in plants under natural conditions in the forest, with the highest value corresponding to the maximum light intensity and amount of light received by the leaves. In another set of experiments, potted Q. ilex plants in experimental fields were subjected to a range of periods of natural photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) by covering or not covering the whole trees. Under a natural photoperiod (uncovered leaves), B-Put content and TGase activity paralleled the diurnal PPFD pattern, reaching a maximum at the highest PPFD; prior to this maximum, free PAs showed a significant rise. Plants that were in darkness until midday and suddenly exposed to high light intensity showed enhanced TGase activity, resulting in the maximum accumulation of B-Put. The involvement of the accumulation of B-Put reflected in the changes of the B-Put/bound spermidine ratio during the photoprotective responses to high light stress in forest plants is discussed in relation to the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters observed. PMID:18251934

  4. Cryopreservation of embryogenic tissues from mature holm oak trees.

    PubMed

    Barra-Jiménez, Azahara; Aronen, Tuija S; Alegre, Jesús; Toribio, Mariano

    2015-06-01

    The development of a vitrification method for cryopreservation of embryogenic lines from mature holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees is reported. Globular embryogenic clusters of three embryogenic lines grown on gelled medium, and embryogenic clumps of one line collected from liquid cultures, were used as samples. The effect of both high-sucrose preculture and dehydration by incubation in the PVS2 solution for 30-90 min, on both survival and maintenance of the differentiation ability was evaluated in somatic embryo explants with and without immersion into liquid nitrogen. Growth recovery of the treated samples and ability to differentiate cotyledonary embryos largely depended on genotype. Overall, high growth recovery frequencies on gelled medium and increase of fresh weight in liquid medium were obtained in all the tested lines, also after freezing. However, the differentiation ability of the embryogenic lines was severely hampered following immersion into LN. Two of the embryogenic lines from gelled medium were able to recover the differentiation ability, one not. In the lines with reduced or no differentiation ability, variation in the microsatellite markers was observed when comparing samples taken prior to and after cryopreservation. The best results were achieved in the genotype Q8 in which 80% of explants grown on gelled medium differentiated into cotyledonary embryos following cryopreservation when they were precultured on medium with 0.3M sucrose and then incubated for 30 min in the PVS2 solution. Explants of the same genotype from liquid medium were unable to recover the differentiation ability. A 4-weeks storage period both in liquid nitrogen and in an ultra-low temperature freezer at -80°C was also evaluated with four embryogenic lines from gelled medium using the best vitrification treatment. Growth recovery frequencies of all lines from the two storage systems were very high, but their differentiation ability was completely lost. PMID:25748175

  5. Seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall redistribution under Scots pine and Downy oak forests in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Molina, Antonio J.; Llorens, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The large degree of temporal and spatial variability of throughfall input patterns may lead to significant changes in the volume of water that reach the soil in each location, and beyond in the hydrological response of forested hillslopes. To explore the role of vegetation in the temporal and spatial redistribution of rainfall in Mediterranean climatic conditions two contrasted stands were monitored. One is a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and the other is a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both are located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). These plots are representative of Mediterranean mountain areas with spontaneous afforestation by Scots pine as a consequence of the abandonment of agricultural terraces, formerly covered by Downy oaks. The monitoring design of each plot consists of a set of 20 automatic rain recorders and 40 automatic soil moisture probes located below the canopy. 100 hemispheric photographs of the canopy were used to place the instruments at representative locations (in terms of canopy cover) within the plot. Bulk rainfall, stemflow and meteorological conditions above the forest cover are also automatically recorded. Canopy cover as well as biometric characteristics of the plots are also regularly measured. This work presents the first results describing the variability of throughfall beneath each forest stand and compares the persistence of temporal patterns among stands, and for the oaks stand among the leafed and the leafless period. Furthermore, canopy structure, rainfall characteristics and meteorological conditions of rainfall events are evaluated as main drivers of throughfall redistribution.

  6. Wettability, Polarity, and Water Absorption of Holm Oak Leaves: Effect of Leaf Side and Age1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Victoria; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Guzmán, Paula; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil, Luis; Karabourniotis, George; Khayet, Mohamed; Fasseas, Costas; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Heredia, Antonio; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-01-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition, and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of holm oak (Quercus ilex) as a model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops onto abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper leaf side was gained in young and mature leaves. The structure and chemical composition of the abaxial (always present) and adaxial (occurring only in young leaves) trichomes were analyzed by various microscopic and analytical procedures. The adaxial surfaces were wettable and had a high degree of water drop adhesion in contrast to the highly unwettable and water-repellent abaxial holm oak leaf sides. The surface free energy and solubility parameter decreased with leaf age, with higher values determined for the adaxial sides. All holm oak leaf trichomes were covered with a cuticle. The abaxial trichomes were composed of 8% soluble waxes, 49% cutin, and 43% polysaccharides. For the adaxial side, it is concluded that trichomes and the scars after trichome shedding contribute to water uptake, while the abaxial leaf side is highly hydrophobic due to its high degree of pubescence and different trichome structure, composition, and density. Results are interpreted in terms of water-plant surface interactions, plant surface physical chemistry, and plant ecophysiology. PMID:24913938

  7. Do changes in spring phenology affect earlywood vessels? Perspective from the xylogenesis monitoring of two sympatric ring-porous oaks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Lis, Gonzalo; Rossi, Sergio; Vázquez-Ruiz, Rosa Ana; Rozas, Vicente; García-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses relationships between leaf phenology, xylogenesis, and functional xylem anatomy in two ring-porous oak species, the temperate Quercus robur and the sub-Mediterranean Q. pyrenaica. Earlywood vessel (EV) formation and leaf phenology were monitored in 2012 and 2013. Ten individuals per species were sampled at each of three sites located in NW Iberian Peninsula. EV areas measured on microcore sections were used to calculate the hydraulic tree diameter (Dh ), in order to model relationships to phenology. Thermal requirements were evaluated using growing degree days (GDD). A species-specific timing of growth resumption was found. The onset of EV formation and budburst were associated to a particular GDD in each species. The onset and duration of EV enlargement affected Dh (and EV size) in Q. robur, but hardly in Q. pyrenaica. The relationship between the timings of EV formation and xylem structure appears to be stronger for the temperate oak, whose larger vessels may result from thermal-induced earlier resumption. In contrast, the sub-Mediterranean oak would maintain a more conservative hydraulic architecture under warming conditions. PMID:26295692

  8. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Loskotová, Tereza; Horák, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species' responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production. PMID:26793425

  9. Absorption, metabolism, and effects at transcriptome level of a standardized French oak wood extract, Robuvit, in healthy volunteers: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Leoni, Guido; Maldini, Mariateresa; Natarelli, Lucia; Comitato, Raffaella; Schonlau, Frank; Virgili, Fabio; Canali, Raffaella

    2014-01-15

    The consumption of wine and spirits, traditionally aged in oak barrels, exposes humans to roburin ingestion. These molecules belong to a class of ellagitannins (ETs), and their only known source is oak wood. Very little is currently known about roburin bioavailability and biological activity. We reported for the first time human absorption of roburins from a French oak wood (Quercus robur) water extract (Robuvit) by measuring the increase of total phenols (from 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.26 ± 0.18 μg GAE equiv/mL plasma) and the appearance of roburin metabolites (three different glucoronidate urolithins and ellagic acid), in plasma, after 5 days of supplementation. Robuvit supplementation induced also the increase of plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.8 ± 0.05 to 1.9 ± 0.01 nmol Trolox equiv/mL plasma. Moreover, utilizing a combined ex vivo cell culture approach, we assessed the effect of Q. robur metabolites (present in human serum after supplementation) on gene expression modulation, utilizing an Affymetrix array matrix, in endothelial, neuronal, and keratinocyte cell lines. The functional analysis reveals that Robuvit metabolites affect ribosome, cell cycle, and spliceosome pathways. PMID:24354337

  10. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests

    PubMed Central

    Loskotová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species’ responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production. PMID:26793425

  11. Oaks and ice: Linking Continental North American and North Atlantic Climate Proxies Between 9.5 and 14 k yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, M. C.; Guyette, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    Climate and plant growth data from agriculturally important continental regions is often limited in time series length and resolution. Recent work on the dendrochronology of buried sub-fossil oak (Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus bicolor) collected from streams in Missouri and Iowa, USA has yielded climate-sensitive tree-ring data within the last 14 k yr BP. We present the development of the American Long Oak Chronology (ALOC) and report on variations in tree growth and North Atlantic climate between 9.5 and 14 k yr BP. Oaks dated using 14C and density dating methods show decreased growth and depleted δ 13C coincident with North Atlantic climate proxies. The growth (basal area increment) of oak trees was significantly (p = 0.01) less (6.5 cm2 yr-1) during the Younger Dryas compared to growth (11.2 cm2 yr-1) before and after. Mean maximum annual basal area increment (17.0 cm2 yr-1) was reduced by 54 percent during the Younger Dryas. Between-tree growth variance is about 75 percent less during the Younger Dryas than it is during the post glacial period. This variance reduction within a tree population likely reflects limits on growth switching from highly variable endogenous factors (forest competition) to regional exogenous factors (climate). Three point moving averages of the mean ring width of the oak trees and temporally paired δ 18O values from Greenland ice cores (GRIP, GISP2) are correlated (r = 0.57) during the post glacial climate period. Values of δ 13C in oak wood are found to be positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.78) with temporally paired δ 18O values. The termination of the Younger Dryas in mid-continental North America oak was marked by an expected and abrupt increase in the climate sensitive stable isotope δ 13C at about 11,550 yr BP. These results indicate that climate changes during the glacial-Holocene transition in mid- continental North America were approximately synchronous with those in the North Atlantic (~ 4,500 km northeast of

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  13. Hydrological silviculture effects in a natural Quercus ilex forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sanchis, María; del Campo, Antonio; Bautista, Inma; Lidón, Antonio; García, Alberto; Llull, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean forests play a key role in the hydrological cycle regulation. On the one hand, its presence decreases the soil water evaporation, increasing the water availability. However, on the other hand, the forest density reduces the precipitation that reaches the soil, where an excessive forest density could induce water scarcity problems, at the forest itself as well as at the whole catchment. Hence, there should be an equilibrium that protects the soil from excessive evaporation at the same time that reduces the forest water interception. This equilibrium can be reached by means of the Adaptative Forest Management (AFM). AFM aims to adapt the forest to water availability by means of an artificial regulation of the forest structure and density. Hence, areas under water scarcity situations, such as the Mediterranean region, might require this AFM to optimize the hydrological cycle under normal and future global change conditions. The present study enhances the relevance of the hydrological silviculture in Mediterranean regions. A natural Mediterranean oak forest, whose density appears to be decreasing the hydrological contribution to the catchment, was selected. The forest is located in a typical Mediterranean area, at the headwaters of Rambla Espadilla catchment, within the public forest La Hunde, Valencia (NE Spain). Two contiguous plots, control and treatment, of 1800 m2 area respectively were selected. The orientation (NO), slope (30 %) and forest density (861 tree per ha) were the same for both plots. Treatment plot was thinned following the forest nursery requirements, reducing the forest density from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Control plot was not thinned. Then, the thinning effects into the hydrological cycle were characterized by means of comparing throughfall, stemflow, soil moisture and transpiration, of control and treatment plots.

  14. Native leaf-tying caterpillars influence host plant use by the invasive Asiatic oak weevil through ecosystem engineering.

    PubMed

    Baer, Christina S; Marquis, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    We tested the effect of leaf-tying caterpillars, native ecosystem engineers, on the abundance and host feeding of an invasive insect, the Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus (Roelofs). Leaf quality was previously thought to be the sole factor determining host use by C. castaneus, but adult weevils congregate in leaf ties made by lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Adult weevil abundance was naturally higher on Quercus alba and Q. velutina compared to four other tree species tested (Acer rubrum, Carya ovata, Cornus florida, and Sassafras albidum). These differences were associated with more natural leaf ties on the two Quercus species. In the laboratory, weevils fed on all six species but again preferred Q. alba and Q. velutina. When artificial ties were added to all six tree species, controlling for differences in leaf-tie density, adult weevil density increased on all six tree species, damage increased on all species but A. rubrum, and host ranking changed based on both abundance and damage. We conclude that leaf ties increase the local abundance of C. castaneus adults and their feeding. Thus, these native leaf-tying caterpillars engender the success of an invasive species via structural modification of potential host plants, the first described example of this phenomenon. PMID:25039212

  15. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm. PMID:9872015

  16. Throughfall deposition of sulfur to a mixed oak and pine forest in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, A.; Ganor, E.; Fried, M.; Shamay, Y.

    The deposition of sulfur in a forest site on Mt. Carmel was monitored during the years 1989-1992. Wet deposition, bulk deposition and dry deposition were monitored on an open site. Through-fall and stemflow were sampled in a natural, mixed pine ( Pinus halepensis) and oak ( Quercus calliprinos) forest. In more than 65% of the rain events, the pH of wet deposition was acidic (⩽ 5.6) and in nearly 40% of the events it was strongly acidic. The average wet deposition was 12.5 kg ha -1 yr -1 SO 4S. This suggested that the wet deposition of SO 4S on the Carmel was in the upper range of unpolluted areas. Bulk deposition contributed 14.3 kg ha -1 yr -1 SO4S. Coarse-grained dry deposition averaged to 58 kg ha -1 yr -1 and the average deposition rate of gypsum was4.9 kg ha -1 yr -1containing 0.92 kg ha -1 yr -1 sulfur. Pine throughfall contained 38 kg ha -1 yr -1 S and oak throughfall contained 18 kg ha -1 yr -1. Pine throughfall thus contained approximately twice as much S than oak throughfall, probably as a result of the much larger specific surface area of pine. Stemflow was negligible. The total S deposition on Mt. Carmel was considerably larger than in unpolluted forests of U.S. and Canada, but smaller than in polluted forests of Germany. The pine forests on the western slopes of the central mountain range seemed to have the important function of "filtering" the air masses that come from the western coastal area, thus preventing S pollution advancing inland.

  17. Indirect effects of tending ants on holm oak volatiles and acorn quality

    PubMed Central

    Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The indirect effect of ants on plants through their mutualism with honeydew-producing insects has been extensively investigated. Honeydew-producing insects that are tended by ants impose a cost on plant fitness and health by reducing seed production and/or plant growth. This cost is associated with sap intake and virus transmissions but may be overcompesated by tending ants if they deter or prey on hebivorous insects. The balance between cost and benefits depends on the tending ant species. In this study we report other indirect effects on plants of the mutualism between aphids and ants. We have found that two Lasius ant species, one native and the other invasive, may change the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the holm oak (Quercus ilex) blend when they tend the aphid Lachnus roboris. The aphid regulation of its feeding and honeydew production according to the ant demands was proposed as a plausible mechanism that triggers changes in VOCs. Additionally, we now report here that aphid feeding, which is located most of the time on acorns cap or petiole, significantly increased the relative content of linolenic acid in acorns from holm oak colonized by the invasive ant. This acid is involved in the response of plants to insect herbivory as a precursor or jasmonic acid. No effect was found on acorn production, germination or seedlings quality. These results suggest that tending-ants may trigger the physiological response of holm oaks involved in plant resistance toward aphid herbivory and this response is ant species-dependent. PMID:21494087

  18. The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdú, José R.; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  19. High Rates of Gene Flow by Pollen and Seed in Oak Populations across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Sophie; Chadœuf, Joël; Gugerli, Felix; Lascoux, Martin; Buiteveld, Joukje; Cottrell, Joan; Dounavi, Aikaterini; Fineschi, Silvia; Forrest, Laura L.; Fogelqvist, Johan; Goicoechea, Pablo G.; Jensen, Jan Svejgaard; Salvini, Daniela; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Kremer, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea) distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423), mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51) from several mother trees ([3], [47], 23). Seedlings ([65,387], 178) were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5–8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21–88%). Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20–66%). Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands. PMID:24454802

  20. An Effect of Oak-Wood Extract (Robuvit®) on Energy State of Healthy Adults—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Országhová, Zuzana; Waczulíková, Iveta; Burki, Carolina; Rohdewald, Peter; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the psychological benefits of the treatment with Robuvit® (Horphag Research Ltd.) – polyphenolic extract obtained from the wood of oak Quercus robur – on the healthy elderly individuals using energy subscale scores of the Activation – Deactivation Adjective Check List. Analysis was focused on the comparison of pre-post treatment effect of Robuvit on symptoms of fatigue. In the total group of volunteers, significant increase of average question scores was found in three of four subscales of feelings (energy, tiredness, and tension) after 4 weeks of Robuvit administration. Effects of extract were observed mainly after stratification of total group of volunteers according to the level of feeling at the pre-treatment questionnaire. Our results demonstrate positive effect of Robuvit on mental and energy level in healthy human without any unwanted side effects. © 2015 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25981190

  1. One-step purification of twin-strep-tagged proteins and their complexes on strep-tactin resin cross-linked with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3).

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Konstantin I; Bašić, Marta; Varjosalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Affinity purification of Strep-tagged fusion proteins on resins carrying an engineered streptavidin (Strep-Tactin) has become a widely used method for isolation of protein complexes under physiological conditions. Fusion proteins containing two copies of Strep-tag II, designated twin-Strep-tag or SIII-tag, have the advantage of higher affinity for Strep-Tactin compared to those containing only a single Strep-tag, thus allowing more efficient protein purification. However, this advantage is offset by the fact that elution of twin-Strep-tagged proteins with biotin may be incomplete, leading to low protein recovery. The recovery can be dramatically improved by using denaturing elution with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), but this leads to sample contamination with Strep-Tactin released from the resin, making the assay incompatible with downstream proteomic analysis. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a method whereby resin-coupled tetramer of Strep-Tactin is first stabilized by covalent cross-linking with Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) and the resulting cross-linked resin is then used to purify target protein complexes in a single batch purification step. Efficient elution with SDS ensures good protein recovery, while the absence of contaminating Strep-Tactin allows downstream protein analysis by mass spectrometry. As a proof of concept, we describe here a protocol for purification of SIII-tagged viral protein VPg-Pro from nuclei of virus-infected N. benthamiana plants using the Strep-Tactin polymethacrylate resin cross-linked with BS3. The same protocol can be used to purify any twin-Strep-tagged protein of interest and characterize its physiological binding partners. PMID:24796313

  2. Changes in the dynamics of foliar N metabolites in oak saplings by drought and air warming depend on species and soil type.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Arend, Matthias; Kuster, Thomas M; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming) during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens) were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous). Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens) compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity. PMID:25961713

  3. Changes in the Dynamics of Foliar N Metabolites in Oak Saplings by Drought and Air Warming Depend on Species and Soil Type

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin; Simon, Judy; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Arend, Matthias; Kuster, Thomas M.; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming) during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens) were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous). Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat (Q. pubescens) compared to Q. robur and Q. petraea. Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity. PMID:25961713

  4. Rapid detection of Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood by PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Uzunovic, A; Breuil, C

    1999-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and simple method was developed to detect the sapstain fungi Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood. By using microwave heating for DNA extraction and PCR with internal transcribed spacer-derived-specific primers, detection was feasible within 4 h, even with DNA obtained from a single synnema. This method can easily be extended for the detection of other wood-inhabiting fungi. PMID:9872792

  5. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    PubMed

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  6. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  7. A refined biomonitoring study of airborne particulate matter pollution in Rome, with magnetic measurements on Quercus Ilex tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szönyi, Michael; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Hirt, Ann M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) are a current problem for air quality in many major metropolitan areas. Many European cities have tightened the PM limits in the air, due to advances in monitoring PM levels. In order to establish guidelines for monitoring and curbing anthropogenic PM output, a better understanding of its origin, composition and diffusion is required. Biomonitoring of magnetic properties of tree leaves has been suggested previously to be a good approach to measure pollution levels in cities both in space and time. We report on a magnetic biomonitoring study of PM in the city of Rome, conducted from 2005 October to December. We collected approximately 180 different sample sets of tree leaves of Quercus ilex, an evergreen oak widely distributed in Rome, at 112 different locations. Specific magnetic susceptibility χ of the leaf is used as a fast, easy and cost-effective proxy to assess levels of primary anthropogenic airborne PM pollution. Highly polluted areas correlate with high traffic areas, with an average susceptibility value of χ = 3.2 × 10-7 m3 kg-1. Low traffic zones are characterized by values more than an order of magnitude lower at χ = 1.4 × 10-8 m3 kg-1, and the background magnetic susceptibility is around χ = 2.6 × 10-9 m3 kg-1. The data show that distance dependence from the source is the most significant factor for the concentration of magnetic PM, and that pollution levels and sources can be reliably delineated by measuring magnetic susceptibility values on tree leaf samples of Q. ilex. A new protocol for magnetic susceptibility measurements is proposed, in order to account for changes due to water evaporation in the leaves as a function of time after collection of the samples. Additional magnetic analyses, such as acquisition of artificial remanences and hysteresis properties, were used to characterize the mineralogy and grain size of the magnetic PM. The results indicate that the population of ferrimagnetic

  8. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  11. Water use and carbon exchange of red oak- and eastern hemlock-dominated forests in the northeastern USA: implications for ecosystem-level effects of hemlock woolly adelgid.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Julian L; Kuzeja, Paul S; Daley, Michael J; Phillips, Nathan G; Mulcahy, Thomas; Singh, Safina

    2008-04-01

    Water use and carbon exchange of a red oak-dominated (Quercus rubra L.) forest and an eastern hemlock-dominated (Tsuga canadensis L.) forest, each located within the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts, were measured for 2 years by the eddy flux method. Water use by the red oak forest reached 4 mm day(-1), compared to a maximum of 2 mm day(-1) by the eastern hemlock forest. Maximal carbon (C) uptake rate was also higher in the red oak forest than in the eastern hemlock forest (about 25 versus 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Sap flux measurements indicated that transpiration of red oak, and also of black birch (Betula lenta L.), which frequently replaces eastern hemlock killed by hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand.), were almost twice that of eastern hemlock. Despite the difference between species in maximum summertime C assimilation rate, annual C storage of the eastern hemlock forest almost equaled that of the red oak forest because of net C uptake by eastern hemlock during unusually warm fall and spring weather, and a near-zero C balance during the winter. Thus, the effect on C storage of replacing eastern hemlock forest with a forest dominated by deciduous species is unclear. Carbon storage by eastern hemlock forests during fall, winter and spring is likely to increase in the event of climate warming, although this may be offset by C loss during hotter summers. Our results indicate that, although forest water use will decrease immediately following eastern hemlock mortality due to the hemlock woolly adelgid, the replacement of eastern hemlock by deciduous species such as red oak will likely increase summertime water use over current rates in areas where hemlock is a major forest species. PMID:18244947

  12. Effects of losing keystone oak species on soil microbial community composition in temperate forests in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djukic, Ika; McGuire, Krista; Schuster, Wiliam; Griffin, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Plant communities are closely associated with distinct soil microbial communities by controlling available soil carbon, temperature and water content. In the Eastern North America forests, genus Quercus (Oak) represents one of the foundation tree taxa. However, the future of oak forests is uncertain as forests are impacted by events such as insect herbivory, pathogen introduction and human disturbance; hence, the feedback to nutrients cycling will in part be dependent on changes in the associated microbial communities which in turn may have dramatically impact on the ecosystem services. The main objective of this study was to mimic pathogen-induced cascade mortality of the key taxa and subsequently to evaluate its specific impact on the soil microbial community composition. To this end, a tree-girdling experiment was performed (summer 2008) by excluding oak trees (50% (O50) and all (O)) and non-oak trees (N), respectively. Already one year after the tree-girdling, all soil chemical properties have been affected by the treatment. Soil pH increased from 0.2 to 0.7 units and was coupled with the increase of base cations probably as a result of disturbed absorption. However, a reversed trend was noted for the C:N ratios indicating a limited carbon supply for the soil microorganisms. Principal component analysis (PCA) of phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) patterns revealed that the microbial communities were compositionally distinct among different treatments and their position along the slope, which in turn indicates an important indirect effect of soil chemistry on the microbial composition. The simulated decrease in carbon supply resulted in a considerable reduction of the relative fungal abundance in particular at the all oak girdled plots (by 6% at O50 and 27% at all oak girdled plots). The relative bacterial abundance remains unchanged; however, an increase in cyclopropy fatty acids, an indicator of the stress conditions, could be noted for all treated plots. The

  13. Comparison of Tissue Heat Balance- and Thermal Dissipation-Derived Sap Flow Measurements in Ring-Porous Oaks and a Pine

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, Heidi J.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2012-01-01

    Sap flow measurements have become integral in many physiological and ecological investigations. A number of methods are used to estimate sap flow rates in trees, but probably the most popular is the thermal dissipation (TD) method because of its affordability, relatively low power consumption, and ease of use. However, there have been questions about the use of this method in ring-porous species and whether individual species and site calibrations are needed. We made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using TD sensors and the tissue heat balance (THB) method in two oak species (Quercus prinus Willd. and Quercus velutina Lam.) and one pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). We also made concurrent measurements of sap flow rates using both 1 and 2-cm long TD sensors in both oak species. We found that both the TD and THB systems tended to match well in the pine individual, but sap flow rates were underestimated by 2-cm long TD sensors in five individuals of the two ring-porous oak species. Underestimations of 20–35% occurred in Q. prinus even when a “Clearwater” correction was applied to account for the shallowness of the sapwood depth relative to the sensor length and flow rates were underestimated by up to 50% in Q. velutina. Two centimeter long TD sensors also underestimated flow rates compared with 1-cm long sensors in Q. prinus, but only at large flow rates. When 2-cm long sensor data in Q. prinus were scaled using the regression with 1-cm long data, daily flow rates matched well with the rates measured by the THB system. Daily plot level transpiration estimated using TD sap flow rates and scaled 1 cm sensor data averaged about 15% lower than those estimated by the THB method. Therefore, these results suggest that 1-cm long sensors are appropriate in species with shallow sapwood, however more corrections may be necessary in ring-porous species. PMID:22661978

  14. Tree age-related effects on seasonal dynamics of carbon reserves in Quercus petraea: an in situ experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, Angélique; Bazot, Stéphane; Barthes, Laure; Delpierre, Nicolas; Fresneau, Chantal; Audebert, Louise; Dufrêne, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Forest productivity plays an important role in wood production and forest carbon storage capacity. It is well known that forest productivity declines with tree age (Genet et al., 2009). This decline could result from a carbon assimilation decrease and/or a modification of carbon allocation (Ryan et al., 2006 ; Genet, 2009). Relationships between tree age and leaf surface (Bond-Lamberty et al., 2002 ; Louis et al., 2012), light interception (Niinemets et al., 2005) or hydraulic constraint (Bond, 2000 ; Zaehle, 2006) have been widely studied. Yet, studies of relationships between tree age and carbon storage/remobilization processes are scarce in deciduous trees. Therefore in situ experiments appear necessary to have a better understanding of the carbon functioning of deciduous forest ecosystems. Our objective was to compare the seasonal carbon dynamics of different age oak trees classes. We studied three age categories (8, 20, 100 years) of Quercus petraea in the Barbeau national forest (France) over one leafy season. Leaves, 2010 and 2011 twigs, stem, fine and coarse roots were sampled at different key phenological stages (before budburst, at budburst, maximum leaf area index, maximum leaf mass area, summer, yellowing and winter) for determination of starch concentrations. We observed only differences between classes for 2010 twigs and fine roots. After carbon reserves remobilization during budburst, starch concentrations of 2010 twigs for 8 and 20 years old trees don't increase before the end of wood growth (i.e. end of july). Starch concentrations increase occurs just after budburst for the oldest tree category. Starch concentrations in fine roots in the two oldest trees categories are stable throughout the year. On the contrary, juvenile trees present an enhanced starch concentration in autumn. Nevertheless, for oldest tree coarse roots starch concentration increase from summer to yellowing. These first results highlight that starch storage is different between

  15. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

  16. Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) and lilacs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 1990s, Californians began to notice that native oaks were dying in unusual numbers. By 2001, it was clear that a new pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was causing the stem cankers on oaks and foliar lesions and stem dieback on a number of other plants, in the U.S. and in nurseries in Europe. A...

  17. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  18. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  19. Litter Species Composition and Topographic Effects on Fuels and Modeled Fire Behavior in an Oak-Hickory Forest in the Eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Todd F.; Dietenberger, Mark; Matt, Frederick; Peters, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Mesophytic species (esp. Acer rubrum) are increasingly replacing oaks (Quercus spp.) in fire-suppressed, deciduous oak-hickory forests of the eastern US. A pivotal hypothesis is that fuel beds derived from mesophytic litter are less likely than beds derived from oak litter to carry a fire and, if they do, are more likely to burn at lower intensities. Species effects, however, are confounded by topographic gradients that affect overstory composition and fuel bed decomposition. To examine the separate and combined effects of litter species composition and topography on surface fuel beds, we conducted a common garden experiment in oak-hickory forests of the Ohio Hills. Each common garden included beds composed of mostly oak and mostly maple litter, representative of oak- and maple-dominated stands, respectively, and a mixture of the two. Beds were replenished each fall for four years. Common gardens (N = 16) were established at four topographic positions (ridges, benches on south- and northeast-facing slopes, and stream terraces) at each of four sites. Litter source and topographic position had largely independent effects on fuel beds and modeled fire dynamics after four years of development. Loading (kg m-2) of the upper litter layer (L), the layer that primarily supports flaming spread, was least in more mesic landscape positions and for maple beds, implying greater decomposition rates for those situations. Bulk density in the L layer (kg m-3) was least for oak beds which, along with higher loading, would promote fire spread and fireline intensity. Loading and bulk density of the combined fermentation and humic (FH) layers were least on stream terrace positions but were not related to species. Litter- and FH-layer moistures during a 5-day dry-down period after a rain event were affected by time and topographic effects while litter source effects were not evident. Characteristics of flaming combustion determined with a cone calorimeter pointed to greater fireline

  20. Litter Species Composition and Topographic Effects on Fuels and Modeled Fire Behavior in an Oak-Hickory Forest in the Eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Matthew B; Hutchinson, Todd F; Dietenberger, Mark; Matt, Frederick; Peters, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Mesophytic species (esp. Acer rubrum) are increasingly replacing oaks (Quercus spp.) in fire-suppressed, deciduous oak-hickory forests of the eastern US. A pivotal hypothesis is that fuel beds derived from mesophytic litter are less likely than beds derived from oak litter to carry a fire and, if they do, are more likely to burn at lower intensities. Species effects, however, are confounded by topographic gradients that affect overstory composition and fuel bed decomposition. To examine the separate and combined effects of litter species composition and topography on surface fuel beds, we conducted a common garden experiment in oak-hickory forests of the Ohio Hills. Each common garden included beds composed of mostly oak and mostly maple litter, representative of oak- and maple-dominated stands, respectively, and a mixture of the two. Beds were replenished each fall for four years. Common gardens (N = 16) were established at four topographic positions (ridges, benches on south- and northeast-facing slopes, and stream terraces) at each of four sites. Litter source and topographic position had largely independent effects on fuel beds and modeled fire dynamics after four years of development. Loading (kg m-2) of the upper litter layer (L), the layer that primarily supports flaming spread, was least in more mesic landscape positions and for maple beds, implying greater decomposition rates for those situations. Bulk density in the L layer (kg m-3) was least for oak beds which, along with higher loading, would promote fire spread and fireline intensity. Loading and bulk density of the combined fermentation and humic (FH) layers were least on stream terrace positions but were not related to species. Litter- and FH-layer moistures during a 5-day dry-down period after a rain event were affected by time and topographic effects while litter source effects were not evident. Characteristics of flaming combustion determined with a cone calorimeter pointed to greater fireline

  1. Hydroforming Applications at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    bird, e.l.; ludtka, g.m.

    1999-03-10

    Hydroforming technology is a robust forming process that produces components with high precision and complexity. The goal of this paper is to present a brief description of the sheet hydroforming process with respect to the authors' experience and capabilities. Following the authors' discussion of the sheet-metal forming application, the tubular hydroforming process is described in the context of one of our technology development programs with an automotive industrial partner. After that is a summary of the tubular hydroforming advisor (expert system) development activity, which was a significant part of this overall program based on previous experience in developing a design and manufacturing support hydroforming advisor for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's weapons-component manufacturing needs. Therefore, this paper is divided into three sections: (1) Hydroforming of Stainless Steel Parts, (2) Tubular Hydroforming, and (3) Components of a Tubular Hydroforming Advisor.

  2. Seasonal Variations in Carbon, Water and Energy Fluxes in an Oak/Grass Savanna and in Photosynthetic Capacity of Oak Leaf in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Baldocchi, D.

    2002-12-01

    We present the results of measurements on flux and ecophysiology from two co-existing Ameriflux sites, a grazed annual grassland site and an oak/grass savanna site, located at the foothill of Sierra Nevada in California. The two sites are about 2 km apart, and have a Mediterranean climate with wet, cold winter and dry, hot summer. The predominant tree species is blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and grasses are C3 species. The main objective of the study is to investigate the roles of high temperature, soil moisture and plant functional type on the carbon, water vapor and energy exchanges between ecosystems and atmosphere. Continuous measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes over and under the oak/grass savanna ecosystem started in April 2001 and over the annual grassland ecosystem in October 2000. Meteorological and soil parameters (air temperature, radiation, VPD, precipitation, soil moisture etc.) were also measured. Grass leaf area index (LAI), predawn water potential and gas exchange (A/Ci curve) of oak leaf were measured at 1-2 weeks intervals. The annual grass germinates in late Oct after receiving a substantial rainfall and senesces in early May due to the soil drought development. Flux results show that daytime carbon uptake and latent heat flux (LE) at the grassland and understory of the savanna followed closely grass LAI, which in turn was controlled by soil moisture content. Nighttime ecosystem respiration was found to track closely to the daytime photosynthetic rate, indicating the importance of photosynthetic assimilates allocation for respiration. During the dry summer, when the grass was dead, virtually all the available energy was partitioned into sensible heat (H). Small positive values of FCO2 were observed. We also observed large pulse ecosystem respiration after rain events during non-growing season. In our ecosystems with very low NEP, such rain events might be one of major environment forcings that cause larger inter-annual variability in NEE

  3. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Lazrek, H B; Bouallam, S; Markouk, M; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    2002-02-01

    The present study indicates the efficacy of extracts and fractions of Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.) as larvicidal agents and their possible use in biological control of Culex pipiens, the urban nuisance mosquito. Extracts and fractions were tested against second and fourth instar larvae. The LC(50) values of gallotannins were 335 and 373 ppm, respectively for the 2nd and 4th instar period. The most interesting value of LC(50) (24 h) is obtained with the fraction F(2) (60 ppm). PMID:11801390

  4. alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J K; Kong, T W; Baek, N I; Pyun, Y R

    2000-04-01

    Hexagalloylglucose (3-O-digalloyl-1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D- glucose), which was isolated from the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria, significantly inhibited alpha-glycosidases such as sucrase, maltase and isomaltase. Its inhibitory activity was comparable to acarbose being used as a hypoglycemic agent, while the inhibitory activity on alpha-amylase was approximately 10 times lower than that of acarbose. The results indicate that, when compared to acarbose, hexagalloylglucose might reduce the side effects by reducing inhibition of alpha-amylase. PMID:10821056

  5. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees. PMID:27252112

  6. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees. PMID:27252112

  7. Effects of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; Luxmoore, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of CO/sub 2/. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, CO/sub 2/ enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems. The growth enhancement did not increase the total water use per plant, so water-use efficiency was significantly greater in elevated CO/sub 2/. Total uptake of N, S, and B was not affected by CO/sub 2/, therefore, tissue concentrations of these nutrients were significantly lower in elevated CO/sub 2/. An increase in nutrient-use efficiency with respect to N was apparent in that a greater proportion of the limited N pool in the CO/sub 2/-enriched plants was in fine roots and leaves. The uptake of other nutrients increased with CO/sub 2/ concentration, and P and K uptake increased in proportion to growth. Increased uptake of P by plants in elevated CO/sub 2/ may have been a result of greater proliferation of fine roots and associated mycorrhizae and rhizosphere bacteria stimulating P mineralization. The results demonstrate that a growth response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment is possible in nutrient-limited systems, and that the mechanisms of response may include either increased nutrient supply or decreased physiological demand. 30 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in the cell structure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 following treatment with Quercus infectoria nut galls.

    PubMed

    Suwalak, Sakol; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2009-10-01

    Some information is available on the oak (Quercus infectoria) nut gall as an effective medicinal plant against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7. However, its antibacterial mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In this study, some antibacterial actions against STEC O157:H7 were investigated by observing cell viability as well as morphological and ultrastructural changes. An ethanolic extract of Q. infectoria demonstrated inhibitory and bactericidal effects on all of the strains tested with minimal inhibition concentrations (MICs) at 0.78-1.56 mg ml(-1) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) at 1.56-3.12 mg ml(-1). Cell numbers treated with 4MIC of the extract decreased at least two log-fold within 4 h and were completely killed within 12 h. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated a complete loss of surface appendages and pronounced morphological changes at MIC and 2MIC. The whole cell collapsed at 4MIC. Ultrastructural changes from corresponding transmission electron micrographs further verified that damages in the treated cells increased with the increase in the extract concentrations. At MIC (0.78 mg ml(-1)), there was some evidence that the cytoplasmic membranes of the treated E. coli were bulging and/or ruptured, and the cells appeared to be discharging intracellular materials. At 2MIC, the outer membrane of the treated E. coli which was attached to the cell wall became separated from the wall. Disruption in the outer wall and cytoplasmic membranes, especially at the polar regions of the cells occurred and some vacuolization appeared. At 4MIC, the damage to E. coli cells was extensive, and there was loss of their cellular integrity. PMID:19451663

  9. Carbon-nutrient interactions in response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment: physiological and long-term perspectives. [Quercus alba L

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Pastor, J.; Melillo, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The responses of forest trees to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment will depend in part on carbon-nutrient linkages. Insights into the possible long-term ecological consequences of CO/sub 2/ enrichment can be gained from studying physiological responses in short-term experiments. One-year-old white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were grown in an unfertilized forest soil for 40 weeks in controlled-environment chambers with ambient (362 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) or elevated (690 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) CO/sub 2/. Seedling dry weight was 85% greater in the elevated CO/sub 2/ environment, despite a severe nitrogen deficiency in all seedlings. The increase in growth occurred without a concomitant increase in nitrogen uptake, indicating an increase in nitrogen-use efficiency in elevated CO/sub 2/. The weight of new buds was greater in elevated CO/sub 2/, suggesting that shoot growth in the next year would have been enhanced relative to that of seedlings in ambient CO/sub 2/. However, there was a lower amount of translocatable nitrogen in perennial woody tissue in elevated CO/sub 2/; thus, further increases in nitrogen-use efficiency may not be possible. The leaves that abscised from seedlings in elevated CO/sub 2/ contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and tannin and a lower amount of lignin compared with amounts in abscised leaves in ambient CO/sub 2/. Based on lignin to N and lignin to P ratios, the rates of litter decomposition might not be greatly affected by CO/sub 2/ enrichment, but the total amount of nitrogen returned to soil would be lower in elevated CO/sub 2/.

  10. Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequence in East Asia: Multiple Glacial Refugia and Mainland-Migrated Island Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X.; Liu, Chunjiang

    2012-01-01

    The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (NST = 0.751> GST = 0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu’s FS indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. PMID:23115642

  11. Effect of long-term understory prescribed burning on standing and down dead woody material in dry upland oak forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polo, John A.; Hallgren, S.W.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Dead woody material, long ignored or viewed as a nuisance for forest management, has gained appreciation for its many roles in the forest including wildlife habitat, nutrient storage and cycling, energy for trophic webs, protection of soil, fuel for fire and carbon storage. The growing interest in managing dead woody material has created strong demand for greater understanding of factors controlling amounts and turnover. Prescribed burning, an important management tool, may have strong effects of dead woody material given fire’s capacity to create and consume dead woody material. We determined effects of long-term understory prescribed burning on standing and down woody material in upland oak forests in south-central North America. We hypothesized that as frequency of fire increased in these stands the amount of deadwood would decrease and the fine woody material would decrease more rapidly than coarse woody material. The study was conducted in forests dominated by post oak (Quercus stellata) and blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) in wildlife management areas where understory prescribed burning had been practiced for over 20 years and the range of burn frequencies was 0 (unburned) fires per decade (FPD) to 4.6 FPD. The amount of deadwood was low compared with more productive forests in southeastern North America. The biomass (24.7 Mg ha-1) and carbon stocks (11.7 Mg ha-1) were distributed among standing dead (22%), coarse woody debris (CWD, dia. > 7.5 cm., 12%), fine woody debris (FWD, dia. < 7.5 cm., 23%), and forest floor (43%). There was no evidence that understory prescribed burning influenced the amount and size distribution of standing and down dead woody material. There were two explanations for the lack of a detectable effect. First, a high incidence of severe weather including ice storms and strong winds that produce large amounts of deadwood intermittently in an irregular pattern across the landscape may preclude detecting a strong effect of understory

  12. Climate variation and the stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, D. L.; Switsur, V. R.; Waterhouse, J. S.; Heaton, T. H. E.; Carter, A. H. C.

    1998-02-01

    The relationship between climate parameters and the carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C), of annual tree ring cellulose is examined for three native British tree species; Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The last 100 annual tree rings of six trees, two of each species, were cut into slivers and the a-cellulose extracted. Annual δ13C values of each species were averaged to produce three species δ13C chronologies. These were compared with climate parameters from a nearby meteorological station. The carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ13C) of pine is consistently lower, by approximately 2.5‰, than that of beech and oak. Although the exact cause of this offset cannot be identified, similar differences in carbon isotope ratios have been noted between other gymnosperm and angiosperm species and attributed to inherent physiological differences. As this offset is consistent, once centred around the same mean δ13C and Δ13C chronologies from these 3 species can be combined. Δ13C chronologies of the three species demonstrate strong cross-correlations in both high and low frequency fluctuations. Low frequency fluctuations, although consistent between species, show no direct climate relationship, and may be linked with physiological responses to increasing CO2 concentrations. Significant correlations do exist between the high frequency δ13C fluctuations and climate parameters. The high frequency δ13C series of all three species are most significantly correlated with the same two climate parameters and have the same seasonal timing; July October average maximum temperature and June September average relative humidity. Pine δ13C is the most responsive species to climate changes and displays the most significant correlations with all the climate parameters studied. However, an average series of all three high frequency species δ13C series shows the most significant correlations with

  13. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented. PMID:22675052

  14. High temporal resolution tracing of xylem CO2 transport in oak trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Ingrisch, Johannes; Bahn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation defines the flows of C between plant organs and their storage pools and metabolic processes and is therefore considered as an important determinant of forest C budgets and their responses to climate change. In trees, assimilates derived from leaf photosynthesis are transported via the phloem to above- and belowground sink tissues, where partitioning between growth, storage, and respiration occurs. At the same time, root- and aboveground respired CO2 can be dissolved in water and transported in the xylem tissue, thereby representing a C flux of large magnitude whose role in C allocation yet is unresolved. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the stem base of five year old potted oak (Quercus rubra) trees as a surrogate for respired CO2 to investigate the role of respired CO2 transport in trees in C allocation. We used high-resolution laser-based measurements of the isotopic composition of stem and soil CO2 efflux combined with stem gas probes to monitor the transport of 13C label. The high enrichment of the gas probes in the stem at the bottom of the canopy showed that the label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and lost to the atmosphere at stem level, as was observed using the stem CO2 efflux laser-based measurements. This study is the first to show results from tracing xylem CO2 transport in trees at high temporal resolution using a 13C labeling approach. Moreover, they extend results from previous studies on internal CO2 transport in species with high transpiration rates like poplar to species with lower transpiration rates like oak. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the current concepts of the tree C allocation need to be revisited, as they show that current gas exchange approach to estimating above- and belowground autotrophic respiration is inadequate.

  15. Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 13 years.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Gundersen, Per; Vesterdal, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Chronosequences are commonly used to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration after land-use change, but SOC dynamics predicted by this space-for-time substitution approach have rarely been validated by resampling. We conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) afforested with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) over the past 40 years. The aims of this study were (i) to compare present and previous chronosequence trends in forest floor and top mineral soil (0-25 cm) C stocks; (ii) to compare chronosequence estimates with current rates of C stock change based on resampling at the stand level; (iii) to estimate SOC changes in the subsoil (25-50 cm); and (iv) to assess the influence of two tree species on SOC dynamics. The two chronosequence trajectories for forest floor C stocks revealed consistently higher rates of C sequestration in spruce than oak. The chronosequence trajectory was validated by resampling and current rates of forest floor C sequestration decreased with stand age. Chronosequence trends in topsoil SOC in 2011 did not differ significantly from those reported in 1998, however, there was a shift from a negative rate (1998: -0.3 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ) to no change in 2011. In contrast SOC stocks in the subsoil increased with stand age, however, not significantly (P = 0.1), suggesting different C dynamics in and below the former plough layer. Current rates of C change estimated by repeated sampling decreased with stand age in forest floors but increased in the topsoil. The contrasting temporal change in forest floor and mineral soil C sequestration rates indicate a shift in C source-sink strength after approximately 40 years. We conclude that afforestation of former cropland within the temperate region may induce soil C loss during the first decades followed by a recovery phase of yet unknown duration. PMID:24753073

  16. Beyond CO2: Changes in Limiting Resources in California Oak Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselquist, N.; Allen, M.

    2007-12-01

    As atmospheric CO2 continues to increase, other resources become even more limiting to plants and the wildland ecosystems they support. Traditionally, California Mediterranean-type ecosystems are limited by water, then N. In these ecosystems, CO2 enrichment causes a minor increase in production associated with enhanced water-use efficiency, but N rapidly becomes the limiting factor to both production and to soil organism dynamics. In urbanizing areas, such as southern California, strong gradients in NOx deposition are also created by vehicular pollution. We have studied the regulation of N uptake by mycorrhizae in Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) using information with natural abundance from the early 1900s, current plants and fungi, and modeling change. Contrasts were made from a high NOx deposition site, a low deposition site, and a site where NOx deposition is rapidly increasing. We examined natural abundance δ15 N of current and past plant material (leaves, wood), mycorrhizal and saprobic fungal fruiting bodies, and soil. We modeled relative N uptake, fractionation, and transport between soil, fungus and plant. Our data show complex interactions between increasing NOx deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2 on mycorrhizal-plant interactions. There is a significant shift in N sources and reduction upon mycorrhizae with NOx deposition. However, the elevated CO2 appears to also have created a greater N demand on the trees, increasing dependence on mycorrhizae and the ability of the fungi to acquire organic N and NH4. The individual fungal species differ among sites, but complex trends between fungal genera and trees can be seen. Projections of increasing atmospheric CO2 and regional NOx deposition suggest strong but complex gradients in fungal-oak interactions with decreasing dependence on mycorrhizae near urbanizing areas, mediated by the rate of increasing CO2 and inorganic NOx deposition, and paradoxically, increasing dependency on mycorrhizae and organic

  17. Between-Site Differences in the Scale of Dispersal and Gene Flow in Red Oak

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Emily V.; Clark, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nut-bearing trees, including oaks (Quercus spp.), are considered to be highly dispersal limited, leading to concerns about their ability to colonize new sites or migrate in response to climate change. However, estimating seed dispersal is challenging in species that are secondarily dispersed by animals, and differences in disperser abundance or behavior could lead to large spatio-temporal variation in dispersal ability. Parentage and dispersal analyses combining genetic and ecological data provide accurate estimates of current dispersal, while spatial genetic structure (SGS) can shed light on past patterns of dispersal and establishment. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we estimate seed and pollen dispersal and parentage for two mixed-species red oak populations using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We compare these results to those of a genetic ML parentage model. We also test whether observed patterns of SGS in three size cohorts are consistent with known site history and current dispersal patterns. We find that, while pollen dispersal is extensive at both sites, the scale of seed dispersal differs substantially. Parentage results differ between models due to additional data included in Bayesian model and differing genotyping error assumptions, but both indicate between-site dispersal differences. Patterns of SGS in large adults, small adults, and seedlings are consistent with known site history (farmed vs. selectively harvested), and with long-term differences in seed dispersal. This difference is consistent with predator/disperser satiation due to higher acorn production at the low-dispersal site. While this site-to-site variation results in substantial differences in asymptotic spread rates, dispersal for both sites is substantially lower than required to track latitudinal temperature shifts. Conclusions Animal-dispersed trees can exhibit considerable spatial variation in seed dispersal, although patterns may be surprisingly

  18. Powdery Mildew Decreases the Radial Growth of Oak Trees with Cumulative and Delayed Effects over Years

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Didier; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Capdevielle, Xavier; Dugravot, Aline; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Quercus robur and Q. petraea are major European forest tree species. They have been affected by powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe alphitoides for more than a century. This fungus is a biotrophic foliar pathogen that diverts photosynthetate from the plant for its own nutrition. We used a dendrochronological approach to investigate the effects of different levels of infection severity on the radial growth of young oak trees. Oak infection was monitored at individual tree level, at two sites in southwestern France, over a five-year period (2001–2005). Mean infection severity was almost 75% (infected leaf area) at the end of the 2001 growing season, at both sites, but only about 40% in 2002, and 8%, 5% and 2% in 2003, 2004 and 2005, respectively. Infection levels varied considerably between trees and were positively related between 2001 and 2002. Increment cores were taken from each tree to assess annual ring widths and increases in basal area. Annual radial growth was standardised to take the effect of tree size into account. Annual standardised radial growth was significantly and negatively correlated with infection severity in the same year, for both 2001 and 2002, and at both sites. The decrease in growth reached 70–90% for highly infected trees. The earlywood width was poorly correlated with infection severity, but the proportion of latewood in tree rings was lower in highly infected trees (60%) than in less heavily infected trees (85%). Infection in 2001 and 2002 was found to have a cumulative effect on radial growth in these years, together with a delayed effect detectable in 2003. Thus, even non-lethal pathogens like powdery mildew can have a significant impact on tree functioning. This impact should be taken into account in growth and yield models, to improve predictions of forest net primary production. PMID:27177029

  19. Crown condition dynamics of oak in southern Sweden 1988-1999.

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, Igor; Anderson, Stefan; Sonesson, Kerstin

    2007-11-01

    Crown defoliation of oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) was analysed in 808 trees during three forest condition surveys (1988, 1993, and 1999) in the southern Sweden. From 1988 to 1999 crown defoliation increased by more than 20%. Changes in crown defoliation were related to the pH in the upper 20-30 cm of the mineral soils, which was closely connected to other measures of soil fertility (cation exchange capacity, CEC and C/N ratio). Trees growing on soils with a high pH (> or =4.00, in BaCl2 filtrate), high CEC and low C/N ratio had significantly lower crown defoliation than trees growing on more acid soils (pH <4.00), indicating that less favourable soil conditions may further enhance oak decline. Age did not differentiate trees with respect to crown defoliation, indicating that decline in crown condition was not due to an age-related increase in crown transparency. Considering only trees younger than 100 years, a significant interaction was observed between changes in crown defoliation and soil pH. Trees younger than 100 years old growing on more acidic soils had a greater increase in crown transparency than trees on more basic soils between 1988 and 1999. Trees > or =100 years old had significantly higher defoliation on more acidic than on more basic soils, however defoliation dynamics of these trees over 1988-99 was not related to soil acidity. Two biotic agents (insect and fungal leaf infections) evaluated in this study did not prove to be important drivers of defoliation dynamics. PMID:17294275

  20. Mössbauer studies of subfossil oak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bürck, Uwe; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Lerf, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Subfossil oak wood found in a dried-up bog in Bavaria, Germany, was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The bog oaks contain substantial amounts of iron taken up from the bog waters and presumably forming complexes with the tanning agents in the oak wood. The iron is mainly Fe3 + and much of this exhibits an uncommonly large quadrupole splitting of up to 1.6 mm/s that can tentatively be explained by the formation of oxo-bridged iron dimers. Only rarely, mainly in the dense wood of the roots of bog oaks, was divalent iron found. When the wood was ground to a powder the divalent iron oxidized to Fe3 + within hours. This suggests that iron is taken up from the bog water as Fe2 + and oxidizes only when the wood emerges from the water and comes into contact with air.

  1. Revegetation of a uranium mine dump by using fertilizer treated sessile oaks.

    PubMed

    Lange, Christian A; Böcker, Lutz; Katzur, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The rehabilitation of contaminated sites and the establishment of suitable trees for revegetation purposes is often problematic due to the mostly suboptimal nutrient supply and the poor humus reservoir. For these reasons hydrogels (Stockosorb) and novel humus substitutes (NOVIHUM), serving as long lasting fertilizer (LLF), were recently tested successfully. At the beginning of this multiyear study, those LLFs were administered to the root zone of young sessile oaks (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.), growing in test trials on a uranium mine dump in Schlema (Germany). To quantify the effect of LLFs on plant vitality, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and JIP test analyses were used. The results revealed up to 49% higher average photosynthetic vitality (PI(ABS)) of the LLF treated plants compared to controls. Particularly in the first test year, the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport was strongly increased. This stimulation of photosynthetic activity was supported by direct measurements showing up to 129% increased diameter growth of the treated plants after a four year experimental period. Furthermore an increase of the maximum water holding capacity of the dump soil was attained by using LLFs. Overall, the findings reported here represent a feasible, ecologically justifiable reforestation method with a low environmental hazard potential. PMID:21598765

  2. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Changqu

    2014-01-01

    Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function of shoot clipping, and to examine the resprouting ability in relation to timing of clipping and cotyledon removal. Isotope labeling experiments were also performed to evaluate contribution of the cotyledons and taproots to resprouting. Regardless of timing of shoot clipping, seedlings successfully resprouted provided their cotyledons were not detached. Clipped seedlings were less likely to resprout when cotyledons were removed. Seedlings clipped at earlier development stage exhibited higher resprouting capacity than those clipped at later stage. Cotyledon removal, more than timing of clipping, decreased the dry masses of newly-resprouted shoots. However, no significant influences of cotyledon removal and timing of clipping were found on the dry masses of roots, suggesting the importance of cotyledons for resprouting. Roots became functional and accumulated more soil nitrogen after shoot clipping and cotyledon removal, representing a double security-based strategy for the clipped seedlings to resprout despite the importance of cotyledons. PMID:24888417

  3. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Changqu

    2014-01-01

    Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function of shoot clipping, and to examine the resprouting ability in relation to timing of clipping and cotyledon removal. Isotope labeling experiments were also performed to evaluate contribution of the cotyledons and taproots to resprouting. Regardless of timing of shoot clipping, seedlings successfully resprouted provided their cotyledons were not detached. Clipped seedlings were less likely to resprout when cotyledons were removed. Seedlings clipped at earlier development stage exhibited higher resprouting capacity than those clipped at later stage. Cotyledon removal, more than timing of clipping, decreased the dry masses of newly-resprouted shoots. However, no significant influences of cotyledon removal and timing of clipping were found on the dry masses of roots, suggesting the importance of cotyledons for resprouting. Roots became functional and accumulated more soil nitrogen after shoot clipping and cotyledon removal, representing a double security-based strategy for the clipped seedlings to resprout despite the importance of cotyledons. PMID:24888417

  4. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Noguerales, Víctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  5. Optimization of polysaccharides from Zagros oak leaf using RSM: antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Tahmouzi, Saeed

    2014-06-15

    Ultrasonic assisted-extraction technique was applied to extract the polysaccharide from Zagros oak (Quercus brantii Lindl). The effects of four independent factors (ultrasonic power (X1: 150-300 W), extraction temperature (X2: 50-90°C), extraction time (X3: 30-90 min), and the ratio of water to raw material (X4: 15-45)) on the extraction yield of polysaccharide from the leaves of Q. brantii Lindl (QBLP) were optimized using response surface methodology. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation. The optimal extraction conditions for QBLP were determined as follows: X1: 205.8 W, X2: 81.9°C, X3: 55.6 min and X4: 23.4. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental yield was 19.42 ± 0.53%, which was well matched with the value predicted by the model 19.61%. The results indicated that polysaccharide has strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. In addition, the QBLP showed good antimicrobial activity at 1.5-2.5mg/mL. PMID:24721074

  6. Native Birds and Alien Insects: Spatial Density Dependence in Songbird Predation of Invading Oak Gallwasps

    PubMed Central

    Schönrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N.

    2013-01-01

    Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified spatial patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive spatial density dependence in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive spatial density dependence persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density dependence was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource. PMID:23342048

  7. Phylogenetic Distribution of Leaf Spectra and Optically Derived Functional Traits in the American Oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender-Bares, J.; Meireles, J. E.; Couture, J. J.; Kaproth, M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting functional traits of species, genotypes and phylogenetic lineages is critical in monitoring functional biodiversity remotely. We examined the phylogenetic distribution of leaf spectra across the American Oaks for 35 species under greenhouse conditions as well as genetic variation in leaf spectra across Central American populations of a single species grown in common gardens in Honduras. We found significant phylogenetic signal in the leaf spectra (Blomberg's K > 1.0), indicating similarity in spectra among close relatives. Across species, full range leaf spectra were used in a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) that allowed species calibration (kappa statistic = 0.55). Validation of the model used to detect species (kappa statistic = 0.4) indicated reasonably good detection of individual species within the same the genus. Among four populations from Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Mexico within a single species (Quercus oleoides), leaf spectra were also able to differentiate populations. Ordination of population-level data using dissimilarities of predicted foliar traits, including leaf mass per area (LMA), lignin content, fiber content, chlorophyll a+b, and C:N ratio in genotypes in either watered or unwatered conditions showed significant differentiation among populations and treatments. These results provide promise for remote detection and differentiation of plant functional traits among plant phylogenetic lineages and genotypes, even among closely related populations and species.

  8. California black oak response to nitrogen amendment at a high O3, nitrogen-saturated site.

    PubMed

    Grulke, N E; Dobrowolski, W; Mingus, P; Fenn, M E

    2005-10-01

    In a nitrogen (N) saturated forest downwind from Los Angeles, California, the cumulative response to long-term background-N and N-amendment on black oak (Quercus kelloggii) was described in a below-average and average precipitation year. Monthly measurements of leaf and branch growth, gas exchange, and canopy health attributes were conducted. The effects of both pollutant exposure and drought stress were complex due to whole tree and leaf level responses, and shade versus full sun leaf responses. N-amended trees had lower late summer carbon (C) gain and greater foliar chlorosis in the drought year. Leaf water use efficiency was lower in N-amended trees in midsummer of the average precipitation year, and there was evidence of poor stomatal control in full sun. In shade, N-amendment enhanced stomatal control. Small differences in instantaneous C uptake in full sun, lower foliar respiration, and greater C gain in low light contributed to the greater aboveground growth observed. PMID:16005765

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  10. Sensitivity of leaf size and shape to climate within Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii.

    PubMed

    Royer, Dana L; McElwain, Jennifer C; Adams, Jonathan M; Wilf, Peter

    2008-01-01

    * Variation in the size and shape (physiognomy) of leaves has long been correlated to climate, and paleobotanists have used these correlations to reconstruct paleo-climate. Most studies focus on site-level means of largely nonoverlapping species sets. The sensitivity of leaf shape to climate within species is poorly known, which limits our general understanding of leaf-climate relationships and the value of intraspecific patterns for paleoclimate reconstructions. * The leaf physiognomy of two species whose native North American ranges span large climatic gradients (Acer rubrum and Quercus kelloggii) was quantified and correlated to mean annual temperature (MAT). Quercus kelloggii was sampled across a wide elevation range, but A. rubrum was sampled in strictly lowland areas. * Within A. rubrum, leaf shape correlates with MAT in a manner that is largely consistent with previous site-level studies; leaves from cold climates are toothier and more highly dissected. By contrast, Q. kelloggii is largely insensitive to MAT; instead, windy conditions with ample plant-available water may explain the preponderance of small teeth at high elevation sites, independent of MAT. * This study highlights the strong correspondence between leaf form and climate within some species, and demonstrates that intraspecific patterns may contribute useful information towards reconstructing paleoclimate. PMID:18507771

  11. [Effects of soil water regimes on the growth of Quercus mongolica seedlings in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Li, Qiurong; Hao, Zhanqing; Dong, Baili

    2004-10-01

    This paper studied the response of the seedlings of Quercus mongolica, one of the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountains, to the artificially controlled three soil water gradients, including their morphology, biomass and photosynthetic characteristics. The results indicated that various water regimes significantly affected the biomass and its distribution pattern in the leaves, branches and roots, as well as the leaf gas exchange. Under soil water stress, the crown structure changed, and the tree height, groundline diameter, single leaf area, and aboveground and belowground biomass were inhibited. As soil water content decreased, the ratio of belowground and aboveground biomass dry weight significantly increased. Water stress had a negative effect on net photosynthetic rate, CO2 use efficiency and carbon use efficiency. The responses of stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency to water stress were complicated. Only at low soil water content, the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate significantly decreased, while water use efficiency increased. It was demonstrated that Quercus mongolica was the tree species with variable resistance to drought, and the resistance could be improved by long-term soil water stress. PMID:15624805

  12. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus. PMID:22554280

  13. A new genus of oak gallwasps, Zapatella Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., with a description of two new species from the Neotropics (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini)

    PubMed Central

    Pujade-Villar, Juli; Hanson, Paul; Medina, Claudia A.; Torres, Miguel; Melika, George

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of cynipid oak gallwasp, Zapatella Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with two new species, Zapatella grahami Pujade-Villar & Melika, sp. n. and Zapatella nievesaldreyi Melika & Pujade-Villar, sp. n., is described from the Neotropics. Zapatella grahami,known only from the sexual generation,induces galls in acorns of Quercus costaricensis and is currently known only from Costa Rica. Zapatella nievesaldreyi, known only from the asexual generation, induces inconspicuous galls in twigs of Quercus humboldtii, and is known only from Colombia. Diagnostic characters for both new species are given in detail. Five Nearctic species are transferred from Callirhytis to Zapatella: Zapatella cryptica (Weld), comb. n., Zapatella herberti (Weld), comb. n., Zapatella oblata (Weld), comb. n., Zapatella quercusmedullae (Ashmead), comb. n., Zapatella quercusphellos (Osten Sacken), comb. n. (= Zapatella quercussimilis (Bassett), syn. n.). A key based on adults for the species belonging to Zapatella is also given. Generic limits and morphological characteristics of Zapatella and closely related genera are discussed. PMID:22859897

  14. Influence of canopy traits on spatio-temporal variability of throughfall in Mediterranean Downy oak and Scots pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Pilar; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Molina, Antonio J.; Gallart, Francesc

    2014-05-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of throughfall is the result of the interaction of biotic factors, related to the canopy traits, and abiotic factors, linked to the meteorological conditions. This variability may lead to significant differences in the volume of water and solutes that reach the ground in each location, and beyond in the hydrological and biogeochemical dynamics of forest soils. Two forest stands in Mediterranean climatic conditions were studied to analyse the role of biotic and abiotic factors in the temporal and spatial redistribution of throughfall. The monitored stands are a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42º 12'N, 1º 49'E). The study plots are representative of Mediterranean mountain areas with spontaneous afforestation by Scots pine as a consequence of the abandonment of agricultural terraces, formerly covered by Downy oaks. The monitoring design of each plot consisted of a set of 20 automatic rain recorders and 40 automatic soil moisture probes located below the canopy. 100 hemispheric photographs of the canopy were used to place the instruments at representative locations (in terms of canopy cover) within the plot. Bulk rainfall, stemflow and meteorological conditions above the forest cover were also automatically recorded. Canopy cover as well as biometric characteristics of the plots were also regularly measured. The results indicate a temporal persistence of throughfall in both stands, as observed elsewhere. However, for the oak plot the seasonal evolution of canopy traits added additional variability, with higher variability in summer and different locations of wet and dry spots depending on the season. Furthermore, this work investigates the influence of canopy structure on the spatial variability of throughfall by analysing a large set of forest parameters, from main canopy traits to detailed leaves and wood characteristics

  15. Growth and xylem water potential of white oak and loblolly pine seedlings as affected by simulated acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. ); McLaughlin, S.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Effects of simulated acidic rainfall on the growth and water relations of white oak (Quercus albya L.) and loblolly pin (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown under two fertility regimes were examined. Seedling of each species grown in a loam soil were exposed to two simulated rains per week of pH 4.8, 4.2 or 3.6 for 26 wk. High and low fertility regimes were imposed by monthly application of one-half and one-quarter concentration, respectively, of Hoagland's solution No. 2. Diameter growth of both species was reduced by exposure to rains of the higher acidities regardless of fertility treatment, and seedlings that received pH 4.2 and 3.6 rains also exhibited greater foliar chlorosis and necrosis than those that received rains of pH 4.8. The high fertility treatment stimulated diameter growth of white oak, but height growth, shoot and root dry weights and total root length were no substantially affected b acid rain or fertility treatments in either species. Following the final rain applications, drought was simulated by withholding irrigation for 2 wk, and seedling xylem pressure potential was then measured using the pressure chamber technique. Xylem pressure potential of white oak seedlings which had received rains of pH 3.6 was significantly lower than that of seedlings which had received rains of higher pH, a result that became more pronounced as soil water potential decreased. Rain acidity had little effect on the xylem pressure potential of loblolly pine, however. Soil pH analyses before initiation and after completion of the rain applications indicated that rainfall of pH 3.6 increased soil acidity more than rains of pH 4.2 or 4.8, although changes in soil pH were small overall. 26 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  16. Multiple glacial refugia for cool-temperate deciduous trees in northern East Asia: the Mongolian oak as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Wang, Wen-Ting; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wang, Hong-Fang; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2015-11-01

    In East Asia, temperate forests are predicted to have retracted southward to c. 30° N during the last glacial maximum (LGM) based on fossil pollen data, whereas phylogeographic studies have often suggested glacial in situ survival of cool-temperate deciduous trees in their modern northern ranges. Here we report a study of the genetic diversity and structure of 29 natural Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) populations using 19 nuclear simple sequence repeat (nSSR) loci and four chloroplast DNA fragments. Bayesian clustering analysis with nSSRs revealed five groups, which were inferred by approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to have diverged in multiple refugia through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Analysis of chloroplast DNA variation revealed four lineages that were largely but incompletely geographically disjunct. Ecological niche modelling (ENMs) indicated a southward range shift of the oak's distribution at the LGM, although high suitability scores were also evident in the Changbai Mts. (Northeast China), the Korean Peninsula, areas surrounding the Bohai Sea, and along the coast of the Russian Far East. In addition, endemic chloroplast DNA haplotypes and nuclear lineages occurred in high-latitude northern areas where the ENM predicted no suitable habitat. The combined evidence from nuclear and chloroplast DNA, and the results of the ENM clearly demonstrate that multiple northern refugia, including cryptic ones, were maintained across the current distributional range of the Mongolian oak during the LGM or earlier glacial periods. Though spatially limited, postglacial expansions from these refugia have led to a pattern of decreased genetic diversity with increasing latitude. PMID:26439083

  17. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Population from Live Oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with Comments on Morphometric Variations.

    PubMed

    Handoo, Zafar A; Carta, Lynn K; Skantar, Andrea M; Subbotin, Sergei A; Fraedrich, Stephen W

    2016-03-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further examination, the morphometrics of the nematodes from live oak tend to agree with most of the morphometrics in the original description and redescription of X. chambersi except for few minor differences in V% relative to body length, slightly shorter stylet length, different c value, and the number of caudal pores. We consider these differences to be part of the normal variation within this species and accordingly image this new population of X. chambersi and redescribe the species. The new population is characterized by having females with a body length of 2.1 to 2.5 mm; lip region slightly rounded and set off from head; total stylet length 170 to 193 µm; vulva at 20.4% to 21.8% of body length; a monodelphic, posterior reproductive system; elongate, conoid tail with a blunt terminus and four pairs of caudal pores, of which two pairs are subdorsal and two subventral. Sequence data from the D2-D3 region of the 28S rRNA molecule subjected to GenBank sequence comparison using BLAST showed that the sequence had 96% and 99% similarity with X. chambersi from Alabama and Florida, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships of X. chambersi with other xiphinematids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. This finding represents a new location of X. chambersi in Georgia on live oak for this species. PMID:27168649

  18. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Population from Live Oak in Jekyll Island, Georgia, with Comments on Morphometric Variations

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Carta, Lynn K.; Skantar, Andrea M.; Subbotin, Sergei A.; Fraedrich, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    A population of Xiphinema chambersi from the root zone around live oak (Quercus virginiana Mill.) trees on Jekyll Island, GA, is described using both morphological and molecular tools and compared with descriptions of type specimens. Initially, because of a few morphological differences, this nematode was thought to represent an undescribed species. However, on further examination, the morphometrics of the nematodes from live oak tend to agree with most of the morphometrics in the original description and redescription of X. chambersi except for few minor differences in V% relative to body length, slightly shorter stylet length, different c value, and the number of caudal pores. We consider these differences to be part of the normal variation within this species and accordingly image this new population of X. chambersi and redescribe the species. The new population is characterized by having females with a body length of 2.1 to 2.5 mm; lip region slightly rounded and set off from head; total stylet length 170 to 193 µm; vulva at 20.4% to 21.8% of body length; a monodelphic, posterior reproductive system; elongate, conoid tail with a blunt terminus and four pairs of caudal pores, of which two pairs are subdorsal and two subventral. Sequence data from the D2–D3 region of the 28S rRNA molecule subjected to GenBank sequence comparison using BLAST showed that the sequence had 96% and 99% similarity with X. chambersi from Alabama and Florida, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships of X. chambersi with other xiphinematids based on analysis of this DNA fragment are presented. This finding represents a new location of X. chambersi in Georgia on live oak for this species. PMID:27168649

  19. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting stemflow variability in downy oak and Scots pine stands in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Carles; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Although stemflow is only a small portion of rainfall, it may represent an important local input of water and nutrients at the plant stem. Previous studies have shown that stemflow has a significant influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Stemflow volume is affected by many biotic factors as species, age, branch or bark characteristics. Moreover, the seasonality of the rainfall regime in Mediterranean areas, which includes both frontal rainfall events and short convective storms, can add complexity to the rainfall-stemflow relationship. This work investigates stemflow dynamics and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on stemflow rates in two Mediterranean stands during the leafed period - from May to October. The monitored stands are a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). The monitoring design of each plot consists of 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping-buckets, bulk rainfall measured in a nearby clearing and meteorological conditions above the canopies. All data were recorded at 5 min interval. Biometric characteristics of the measured trees were also measured. The analysis of 39 rainfall events (65% smaller than 10 mm) shows that stemflow accounted for less than 1% of the bulk rainfall in both stands. Results also show that, on average, the rainfall amount required for the start of the stemflow and the time delay between the beginning of the precipitation and the start of stemflow are higher in the Downy oak forest. As suggested by stemflow funneling ratios, these differences might be linked to the canopy structure and bark water storage capacity of the trees, indicating that during low magnitude events, oaks have more difficulty to reach storage capacity. The role of other biotic and abiotic parameters on stemflow variability in both stands is still under investigation.

  20. Seasonal trends in photosynthesis and electron transport during the Mediterranean summer drought in leaves of deciduous oaks.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Jessica L; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Kobayashi, Hideki; Dawson, Todd E

    2015-05-01

    The California Mediterranean savanna has harsh summer conditions with minimal soil moisture, high temperature, high incoming solar radiation and little or no precipitation. Deciduous blue oaks, Quercus douglasii Hook. and Arn., are winter-deciduous obligate phreatophytes, transpiring mostly groundwater throughout the summer drought. The objective of this work is to fully characterize the seasonal trends of photosynthesis in blue oaks as well as the mechanistic relationships between leaf structure and function. We estimate radiative load of the leaves via the FLiES model and perform in situ measurements of leaf water potential, leaf nitrogen content, an index of chlorophyll content (SPAD readings), photosynthetic and electron transport capacity, and instantaneous rates of CO2 assimilation and electron transport. We measured multiple trees over 3 years providing data from a range of conditions. Our study included one individual that demonstrated strong drought stress as indicated by changes in SPAD readings, leaf nitrogen and all measures of leaf functioning. In the year following severe environmental stress, one individual altered foliation patterns on the crown but did not die. In all other individuals, we found that net carbon assimilation and photosynthetic capacity decreased during the summer drought. SPAD values, electron transport rate (ETR) and quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) did not show a strong decrease during the summer drought. In most individuals, PSII activity and SPAD readings did not indicate leaf structural or functional damage throughout the season. While net carbon assimilation was tightly coupled to stomatal conductance, the coupling was not as tight with ETR possibly due to contributions from photorespiration or other protective processes. Our work demonstrates that the blue oaks avoid structural damage by maintaining the capacity to convert and dissipate incoming solar radiation during the hot summer drought and are effective at fixing

  1. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  2. Gas chromatograph analysis on closed air and nitrogen oxide storage atmospheres of recalcitrant seeds of Quercus Alba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of recalcitrant seeds remains an unsolved problem. This study investigated the quantitative gas analysis of nitrous oxide (N2O) and air atmospheres on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba by using gas chromatograph. Ten seeds were placed in each sealed atmospheric system of air and 98/2% N...

  3. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  4. Effects of Acorn (Quercus acutissima CARR.) Supplementation on Acetylcholine and Its Related Enzyme Activities in Brain of Dementia Model Mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of acorn (Quercus acutissima CARR.) on brain dementia in mouse. Murine dementia model was induced by scopolamin administration to abdominal cavity (30 mg/kg BW). Male ICR mouse (30 ' 2 g BW) were fed basic diet (control group), or experimental d...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide plant...

  6. GAS EXCHANGE IN QUERCUS RUBRA DURING A DROUGHT: ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS AMONG PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRANSPIRATION, AND LEAF CONDUCTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of water stress in leaves of mature Quercus rubra L. caused a marked midday depression in photosynthesis(A) and transpiration (E). t external CO2 partial pressures of 100-110 Pa, a constant temperature of 30 degrees C and a constant photosynthetic photon flux density ...

  7. Sharing of Diverse Mycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi among Plant Species in an Oak-Dominated Cool–Temperate Forest

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.

    2013-01-01

    Most terrestrial plants interact with diverse clades of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in their roots. Through belowground plant–fungal interactions, dominant plants can benefit by interacting with host-specific mutualistic fungi and proliferate in a community based on positive plant–mutualistic fungal feedback. On the other hand, subordinate plant species may persist in the community by sharing other sets (functional groups) of fungal symbionts with each other. Therefore, revealing how diverse clades of root-associated fungi are differentially hosted by dominant and subordinate plant species is essential for understanding plant community structure and dynamics. Based on 454-pyrosequencing, we determined the community composition of root-associated fungi on 36 co-occurring plant species in an oak-dominated forest in northern Japan and statistically evaluated the host preference phenotypes of diverse mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi. An analysis of 278 fungal taxa indicated that an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus in the genus Lactarius and a possibly endophytic ascomycete fungus in the order Helotiales significantly favored the dominant oak (Quercus) species. In contrast, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were generally shared among subordinate plant species. Although fungi with host preferences contributed to the compartmentalization of belowground plant–fungal associations, diverse clades of ectomycorrhizal fungi and possible root endophytes were associated not only with the dominant Quercus but also with the remaining plant species. Our findings suggest that dominant-ectomycorrhizal and subordinate plant species can host different subsets of root-associated fungi, and diverse clades of generalist fungi can counterbalance the compartmentalization of plant–fungal associations. Such insights into the overall structure of belowground plant–fungal associations will help us understand the mechanisms that facilitate the coexistence of plant species

  8. Application of a tree-level hydrodynamic model to simulate plot-level transpiration in the upland oak/pine forest in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Matheny, A. M.; Fatichi, S.; Frasson, R. P. M.; Schafer, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Finite-Elements Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) simulates water flow through the tree using the porous media analogy. Empirical equations relate water potential within the stem to stomatal conductance at the leaf level. Leaves are connected to the stem at each height. While still simplified, this approach brings realism to the simulation of transpiration compared with models where stomatal conductance is directly linked to soil moisture. The FETCH2 model accounts for plant hydraulic traits such as xylem conductivity, area of hydro-active xylem, vertical distribution of leaf area, and maximal and minimal xylem water content, and their effect on the dynamics of water flow in the tree system. Such a modeling tool enhances our understanding of the role of hydraulic limitations and allows us to incorporate the effects of short-term water stresses on transpiration. Here, we use FETCH2 parameterized and evaluated with a large sap-flow observations data set, collected from 21 trees of two genera (oak/pine) at Silas Little Experimental Forest, NJ. The well-drained deep sandy soil leads to water stress during many days throughout the growing season. We conduct a set of tree-level transpiration simulations, and use the results to evaluate the effects of different hydraulic strategies on daily transpiration and water use efficiency. We define these "hydraulic strategies" through combinations of multiple sets of parameters in the model that describe the root, stem and leaf hydraulics. After evaluating the performance of the model, we use the results to shed light on the future trajectory of the forest in terms of species-specific transpiration responses. Application of the model on the two co-occurring oak species (Quercus prinus L. and Quercus velutina Lam) shows that the applied modeling approach was successfully captures the differences in water-use strategy through optimizing multiple physiological and hydraulic parameters.

  9. Transpiration Demand in Southern California Oak Woodlands: Making the Leap from Lab and Individual Tree to Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, J. L.; Quinlan, P. T.; Martin, J.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Watershed scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) have proven difficult to quantify in areas of native vegetation with uncertain or unknown crop coefficients. In this study, we evaluate the water use in Quercus engelmanni and Quercus agrifolia, two species of oak native to Southern California. Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) were installed at four locations within a 14,500 acre watershed, comprising 770 acres of Q. agrifolia woodland and 2440 acres of Q. engelmanni woodland. Installation duration ranged from 6 weeks to 14 months. The TDPs were calibrated to each species in the laboratory using limbs ranging from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. Dye was run through each limb at the end of the calibration test in order to establish a relationship between active sapwood area and limb diameter. ET measured in the field for each species was 0.15 to 0.3 times that of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) derived from the Penman-Monteith equation, with the primary variability in the demand related to measured incident solar radiation. The total water demand for each species is estimated using the laboratory determined relationship between the active sapwood area and the diameter of the limb, and a survey of the tree diameter breast height (DBH) of each tree in the watershed. This study provides new insight into the actual water demand of two native tree species in Southern California and has serious implications for conservation plans, which are often developed using watershed models that apply ETo to all vegetation communities, regardless of actual water demand.

  10. Working and Learning Among California Oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school

  11. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  12. Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A

  13. Groundwater dependent ecohydrology in a semi-arid oak savanna (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. R.; Rubin, Y.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Chen, X.; Ma, S.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater can serve as an important resource for woody vegetation in semi-arid landscapes, particularly when soil water is functionally depleted and unavailable to plants. This study examines the uptake of groundwater by deciduous blue oak trees (Quercus douglasii) in a California oak savanna. Here, we present a suite of direct and indirect measurement techniques, combined with modeling, that demonstrate its occurrence and quantify its rates. The study site is similar to others with shallow-soil ecohydrology: it is underlain by a thin, rocky soil layer followed fractured metavolcanic bedrock. Typical depth to groundwater is approximately 8 m and varies from 7- 10 m, both spatially and temporally. A variety of water storage and flux measurements were collected from 2005 to 2008, including groundwater levels, soil moisture contents, sap flows, and latent heat fluxes. During the dry season, groundwater uptake rates ranged from 4 to 25 mm per month, and approximately 80% of total ET during June, July, and August came from groundwater. Leaf and soil water potentials supported these results, indicating that groundwater uptake was thermodynamically favorable over soil water uptake for key portions of the growing season. Sap flow rates suggest differential access to groundwater by trees of varying size classes. Dynamic groundwater-soil-plant-atmosphere modeling has shown that in order to achieve these uptake rates, approximately 20% of roots must be exposed to groundwater. Modeled evapotranspiration rates drop dramatically during the late summer when this connection is severed (Figure 1). These findings strongly suggest that blue oaks should be considered obligate phreatophytes, and that groundwater reserves provide a buffer to rapid changes in their hydro-climate, if these assets are not otherwise depleted by prolonged drought or human consumption. While groundwater uptake may provide for short-term protection, it should be viewed not as a mechanism for continued plant

  14. Masting mediated by summer drought reduces acorn predation in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Espelta, Josep Maria; Cortés, Pilar; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Sánchez-Humanes, Belén; Retana, Javier

    2008-03-01

    Temporally variable production of seed crops by perennial plants (masting) has been hypothesized to be a valuable mechanism in the reduction of seed predation by satiating and starving seed consumers. To achieve these benefits, coexisting species subjected to the same predator would benefit from a similar pattern of seeding fluctuation over time that could lead to a reduction in predation at the within-species level. We tested for the existence of an environmental factor enforcing synchrony in acorn production in two sympatric Mediterranean oaks (Quercus ilex and Q. humilis) and the consequences on within-species and between-species acorn predation, by monitoring 15 mixed forests (450 trees) over seven years. Acorn production in Q. ilex and Q. humilis was highly variable among years, with high population variability (CVp) values. The two species exhibited a very different pattern across years in their initial acorn crop size (sum of aborted, depredated, and sound acorns). Nevertheless, interannual differences in summer water stress modified the likelihood of abortion during acorn ripening and enforced within- and, particularly, between-species synchrony and population variability in acorn production. The increase in CVp from initial to mature acorn crop (after summer) accounted for 33% in Q. ilex, 59% in Q. humilis, and 60% in the two species together. Mean yearly acorn pre-dispersal predation by invertebrates was considerably higher in Q. humilis than in Q. ilex. Satiation and starvation of predators was recorded for the two oaks, and this effect was increased by the year-to-year variability in the size of the acorn crop of the two species combined. Moreover, at a longer time scale (over seven years), we observed a significant reduction in the mean proportion of acorns depredated for each oak and the variability in both species' acorn production combined. Therefore, our results demonstrate that similar patterns of seeding fluctuation over time in coexisting

  15. A framework phylogeny of the American oak clade based on sequenced RAD data.

    PubMed

    Hipp, Andrew L; Eaton, Deren A R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Fitzek, Elisabeth; Nipper, Rick; Manos, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies in oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) have failed to resolve the backbone topology of the genus with strong support. Here, we utilize next-generation sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-Seq) to resolve a framework phylogeny of a predominantly American clade of oaks whose crown age is estimated at 23-33 million years old. Using a recently developed analytical pipeline for RAD-Seq phylogenetics, we created a concatenated matrix of 1.40 E06 aligned nucleotides, constituting 27,727 sequence clusters. RAD-Seq data were readily combined across runs, with no difference in phylogenetic placement between technical replicates, which overlapped by only 43-64% in locus coverage. 17% (4,715) of the loci we analyzed could be mapped with high confidence to one or more expressed sequence tags in NCBI Genbank. A concatenated matrix of the loci that BLAST to at least one EST sequence provides approximately half as many variable or parsimony-informative characters as equal-sized datasets from the non-EST loci. The EST-associated matrix is more complete (fewer missing loci) and has slightly lower homoplasy than non-EST subsampled matrices of the same size, but there is no difference in phylogenetic support or relative attribution of base substitutions to internal versus terminal branches of the phylogeny. We introduce a partitioned RAD visualization method (implemented in the R package RADami; http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RADami) to investigate the possibility that suboptimal topologies supported by large numbers of loci--due, for example, to reticulate evolution or lineage sorting--are masked by the globally optimal tree. We find no evidence for strongly-supported alternative topologies in our study, suggesting that the phylogeny we recover is a robust estimate of large-scale phylogenetic patterns in the American oak clade. Our study is one of the first to demonstrate the utility of RAD-Seq data for inferring phylogeny in a 23-33 million

  16. A Framework Phylogeny of the American Oak Clade Based on Sequenced RAD Data

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, Andrew L.; Eaton, Deren A. R.; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Fitzek, Elisabeth; Nipper, Rick; Manos, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies in oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) have failed to resolve the backbone topology of the genus with strong support. Here, we utilize next-generation sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-Seq) to resolve a framework phylogeny of a predominantly American clade of oaks whose crown age is estimated at 23–33 million years old. Using a recently developed analytical pipeline for RAD-Seq phylogenetics, we created a concatenated matrix of 1.40 E06 aligned nucleotides, constituting 27,727 sequence clusters. RAD-Seq data were readily combined across runs, with no difference in phylogenetic placement between technical replicates, which overlapped by only 43–64% in locus coverage. 17% (4,715) of the loci we analyzed could be mapped with high confidence to one or more expressed sequence tags in NCBI Genbank. A concatenated matrix of the loci that BLAST to at least one EST sequence provides approximately half as many variable or parsimony-informative characters as equal-sized datasets from the non-EST loci. The EST-associated matrix is more complete (fewer missing loci) and has slightly lower homoplasy than non-EST subsampled matrices of the same size, but there is no difference in phylogenetic support or relative attribution of base substitutions to internal versus terminal branches of the phylogeny. We introduce a partitioned RAD visualization method (implemented in the R package RADami; http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/RADami) to investigate the possibility that suboptimal topologies supported by large numbers of loci—due, for example, to reticulate evolution or lineage sorting—are masked by the globally optimal tree. We find no evidence for strongly-supported alternative topologies in our study, suggesting that the phylogeny we recover is a robust estimate of large-scale phylogenetic patterns in the American oak clade. Our study is one of the first to demonstrate the utility of RAD-Seq data for inferring phylogeny in a 23–33

  17. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree-ring characteristics including stable isotope composition are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables and establish mechanisms that underlie oscillations in modes of climate variability. However, divergence from the assumption of a single, primary biophysical control ...

  18. [Fire behavior of Quercus mongolica leaf litter fuelbed under zero-slope and no-wind conditions. II. Analysis and modelling of fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2013-12-01

    Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) is an important constructive and accompanying species in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Northeast China, In this paper, a laboratory burning experiment was conducted under zero-slope and no-wind conditions to study the effects of fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness on the fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency of the Mongolian oak leaf litter fuelbed. The fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness all had significant effects on the three fire behavior indices, and there existed interactions between these three affecting factors. Among the known models, the Byram model could be suitable for the prediction of local leaf litter fire intensity only after re-parameterization. The re-estimated alpha and beta parameters of the re-parameterized Byram model were 98.009 and 1.099, with an adjusted determination coefficient of 0.745, the rooted mean square error (RMSE) of 8.676 kW x m(-1), and the mean relative error (MRE) of 21%, respectively (R2 = 0.745). The re-estimated a and b by the burning efficiency method proposed by Albini were 0.069 and 0.169, and the re-estimated values were all higher than 93%, being mostly overestimated. The Consume model had a stronger suitability for the fuel. The R2 of the general linear models established for fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and burning efficiency was 0.82, 0.73 and 0.53, and the RMSE was 8.266 kW x m(-1) 0.081 kg x m(-2), and 0.203, respectively. In low intensity surface fires, the fine fuels could not be completely consumed, and thus, to consider the leaf litter and fine fuel in some forest ecosystems being completely consumed would overestimate the carbon release from forest fires. PMID:24697055

  19. Quercus infectoria: a candidate for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    PubMed

    Chusri, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2008-04-01

    Acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol and aqueous extracts of Quercus infectoria (Q. infectoria) demonstrated significant antibacterial activities against all strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Inhibition zones were in the range 11.75-16.82 mm. Both MRSA and MSSA strains exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values at 0.13 and 0.13-1.00 mg/mL, respectively. At 2 MIC, the growth of two representative MRSA strains was continually inhibited for at least 20 h. Surviving MRSA cells were not detected within 12-14 h after treatment with the extract at 4 MIC concentration. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 demonstrated similar results. PMID:18338770

  20. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  1. Phragmites australis and Quercus robur leaf extracts affect antioxidative system and photosynthesis of Ceratophyllum demersum.

    PubMed

    Kamara, Sheku; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2007-06-01

    During senescence, leaves are deposited on aquatic bodies and decay under water releasing chemical substances that might exert physiological stress to aquatic organisms. Leaf litter alone contributes 30% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams. We investigated the impact of leaves extract from Phragmites australis and Quercus robur on the antioxidative system and photosynthetic rate of the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum exposed for 24h. Rate of photosynthetic oxygen release and antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductases and peroxidases) as well as lipid peroxidation in C. demersum were measured. Significant (P<0.01) elevations of antioxidative enzyme activity in C. demersum which tends to plateau at high DOC concentrations were observed. There was no detectable effect on lipid peroxidation. A significant dose-dependent reduction in photosynthetic oxygen production was measured. PMID:16996134

  2. [Age structure and dynamics of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Shangguan, Tie-Liang; Duan, Yi-Hao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Wei-Hua; Guo, Dong-Gang

    2014-11-01

    Using the plant survivorship theory, the age structure, and the relationship between tree height and diameter (DBH) of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain were analyzed, and the static life table was compiled and the survival curve plotted. The shuttle shape in age structure of Q. wutaishanica population suggested its temporal stability. The linear regression significantly fitted the positive correlation between tree height and DBH. The maximal life expectancy was observed among the trees beyond the age of the highest mortality and coincided with the lowest point of mortality density, suggesting the strong vitality of the seedlings and young trees that survived in the natural selection and intraspecific competition. The population stability of the Q. wutaishanica population was characterized by the Deevey-II of the survival curve. The dynamic pattern was characterized by the recession in the early phase, growth in the intermediate phase, and stability in the latter phase. PMID:25898607

  3. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  4. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Tan, Liy Si; Shafiei, Zaleha; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31-1.25 mg/mL and 0.31-2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens. PMID:22203875

  6. Considerations for Sustainable Biomass Production in Quercus-Dominated Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Yan, Shuai; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Our current energy system is mainly based on carbon (C) intensive metabolisms, resulting in great effects on the earth's biosphere. The majority of the energy sources are fossil (crude oil, coal, natural gas) and release CO2 in the combustion (oxidation) process which takes place during utilization of the energy. C released to the atmosphere was once sequestered by biomass over a time span of millions of years and is now being released back into the atmosphere within a period of just decades. In the context of green and CO2 neutral Energy, there is an on-going debate regarding the potentials of obtaining biomass from forests on multiple scales, from stand to international levels. Especially in the context of energy, it is highlighted that biomass is an entirely CO2 neutral feedstock since the carbon stored in wood originates from the atmospheric CO2 pool and it was taken up during plant growth. It needs systems approaches in order to justify this statement and ensure sustainability covering the whole life-cycle from biomass production to (bio)energy consumption. There are a number of Quercus woodland management systems focussing solely on woody biomass production for energetic utilization or a combination with traditional forestry and high quality timber production for trades and industry. They have often developed regionally as a consequence of specific demands and local production capacities, which are mainly driven by environmental factors such as climate and soil properties. We assessed the nutritional status of a common Quercus-dominated forest ecosystem in northern Austria, where we compared biomass- with belowground C and nutrient pools in order to identify potential site limits if the management shifts towards systems with a higher level of nutrient extraction. Heterogeneity of soils, and soil processes are considered, as well as other, growth-limiting factors (e.g. precipitation) and species-specific metabolisms and element translocation.

  7. Influence of throughfall spatial and temporal patterns on soil moisture variability under Downy oak and Scots pine stands in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Pilar; Garcia-Estringana, Pablo; Cayuela, Carles; Latron, Jérôme; Molina, Antonio; Gallart, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow patterns, due to differences in forest structure and seasonality of Mediterranean climate, may lead to significant changes in the volume of water that locally reaches the soil, with a potential effect on groundwater recharge and on hydrological response of forested hillslopes. Two forest stands in Mediterranean climatic conditions were studied to explore the role of vegetation on the temporal and spatial redistribution of rainfall. One is a Downy oak forest (Quercus pubescens) and the other is a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris), both located in the Vallcebre research catchments (NE Spain, 42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). These plots are representative of Mediterranean mountain areas with spontaneous afforestation by Scots pine as a consequence of the abandonment of agricultural terraces, formerly covered by Downy oaks. The monitoring design of each plot consists of 20 automatic rain recorders to measuring throughfall, 7 stemflow rings connected to tipping-buckets and 40 automatic soil moisture probes. All data were recorded each 5 min. Bulk rainfall and meteorological conditions above both forest covers were also recorded, and canopy cover and biometric characteristics of the plots were measured. Results indicate a marked temporal stability of throughfall in both stands, and a lower persistence of spatial patterns in the leafless period than in the leafed one in the oaks stand. Moreover, in the oaks plot the ranks of gauges in the leafed and leafless periods were not significantly correlated, indicating different wet and dry hotspots in each season. The spatial distribution of throughfall varied significantly depending on rainfall volume, with small events having larger variability, whereas large events tended to homogenize the relative differences in point throughfall. Soil water content spatial variability increased with increasing soil water content, but direct dependence of soil water content variability on

  8. The dendroanalysis of oak trees as a method of biomonitoring past and recent contamination in an area influenced by uranium mining.

    PubMed

    Märten, Arno; Berger, Dietrich; Köhler, Mirko; Merten, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    We reconstructed the contamination history of an area influenced by 40 years of uranium mining and subsequent remediation actions using dendroanalysis (i.e., the determination of the elemental content of tree rings). The uranium content in the tree rings of four individual oak trees (Quercus sp.) was determined by laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allows the investigation of trace metals in solid samples with a spatial resolution of 250 μm and a detection limit below 0.01 μg/g for uranium. The investigations show that in three of the four oaks sampled, there were temporally similar uranium concentrations. These were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher (0.15 to 0.4 μg/g) than those from before the period of active mining (concentrations below 0.01 μg/g). After the mining was terminated and the area was restored, the uranium contents in the wood decreased by approximately 1 order of magnitude. The similar radial uranium distribution patterns of the three trees were confirmed by correlation analysis. In combination with the results of soil analyses, it was determined that there was a heterogeneous contamination in the forest investigated. This could be confirmed by pre-remediation soil uranium contents from literature. The uranium contents in the tree rings of the oaks investigated reflect the contamination history of the study area. This study demonstrates that the dendrochemical analysis of oak tree rings is a suitable technique for investigating past and recent uranium contamination in mining areas. PMID:26104903

  9. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. 9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak Flat Road with retaining walls at lower left and center left with east portal of tunnel #1. - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  12. 25 MV tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator.

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  14. Oak Mountain High School, Shelby County, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Oak Mountain High School (Alabama) consisting of an academic side of classrooms, administration, and media center; and an activity side consisting of cafeteria, gymnasium, practice gym, and a theater. The school's floor plan and photos are included. (GR)

  15. Design assessment for the Bethel Valley FFA Upgrades at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the proposed upgrades to Building 3025 and the Evaporator Area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Design assessments, specifications and drawings are provided. Building 3025 is a general purpose research facility utilized by the Materials and Ceramics Division to conduct research on irradiated materials. The Evaporator Area, building 2531, serves as the collection point for all low-level liquid wastes generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. 76 FR 80433 - In the Matter of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, 6173 Bellevue Road, Royal Oak, MD 21662...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, 6173 Bellevue Road, Royal Oak, MD 21662...''), cancelling the registration of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, hereinafter referred to as the...

  17. Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.F.; Hunt, R.J.

    1992-09-30

    This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in eastern Tennessee, in an area of moderate to high historical seismicity. Results from two separate seismic hazard analyses are presented. The EPRI/SOG analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, under the sponsorship of several electric utilities, for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States. The LLNL analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Both the EPRI/SOG and LLNL studies characterize earth-science uncertainty on the causes and characteristics of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States. This is accomplished by considering multiple hypotheses on the locations and parameters of seismic source zones and by considering multiple attenuation functions for the prediction of ground shaking given earthquake size and location. These hypotheses were generated by multiple expert teams and experts. Furthermore, each team and expert was asked to generate multiple hypotheses in order to characterize his own internal uncertainty. The seismic-hazard calculations are performed for all hypotheses. Combining the results from each hypothesis with the weight associated to that hypothesis, one obtains an overall representation of the seismic hazard at the Oak Ridge site and its uncertainty.

  18. Determination of trace elements in soil, leaves and fruits of Quercus brantii grown in southwestern Iran by atomic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh, A.; Samadi-Maybodi, A.; Khodadoust, S.

    2013-09-01

    Quercus brantii acorn is rich of some useful mineral elements such as K, Fe and Zn. The content of these mineral elements in Quercus are dependent on their region and environmental conditions. Q. brantii grown naturally in different regions of Iran especially in Kohgiloye va Boyer Ahmad province (southwestern of Iran). In this study total concentration of Fe, Zn and K elements were determined using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy in fruits, leaves of Q. brantii and also in the soils where this plant was grown. Statistical evaluation (ANOVA test) was employed for all measurements. Results confirmed that the concentration of elements in fruit and leave depended on area which the plant is growth. The transport factor of elements was also considered.

  19. Evidence of the photosynthetic origin of monoterpenes emitted by quercus ilex L. leaves by {sup 13}C labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Loreto, F.; Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E. |

    1996-04-01

    The carbon of the four main monoterpenes emitted by Quercus ilex L. leaves was completely labeled with {sup 13}C after a 20-min feeding with 99% {sup 13}CO{sub 2}. This labeling time course is comparable with the labeling time course of isoprene, the terpenoid emitted by other Quercus species and synthesized in leaf chloroplasts. It is also comparable with that of phosphoglyceric acid. Our experiment therefore provides evidence that monoterpenes emitted by Q. ilex are formed photosynthesis intermediates and may share the same synthetic pathway with isoprene. By analyzing the rate and the distribution of labeling in the different fragments, we looked for evidence of differential carbon labeling in the {alpha}-pinene emitted. However, the labeling pattern was quite uniform in the different fragments, suggesting that the carbon skeleton of the emitted monoterpenes comes from a unique carbon source. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Dry seasons identified in oak tree-ring chronology in the Czech Lands over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolny, Petr; Brazdil, Rudolf; Büntgen, Ulf; Rybnicek, Michal; Kolar, Tomas; Reznickova, Ladislava; Valasek, Hubert; Kotyza, Oldrich

    2015-04-01

    There is growing evidence on amplification of hydrological regimes as a consequence of rising temperatures, increase in evaporation and changes in circulation patterns. These processes may be responsible for higher probability of hydroclimatic extremes occurrence in regional scale. Extreme events such as floods or droughts are rare from their definition and for better understanding of possible changes in the frequency and intensity of their occurrence, long-term proxy archives may be analysed. Recently several tree ring width chronologies were compiled from hardwood species occurring in lowland positions and their analysis proved that they are moisture-sensitive and suitable for hydroclimate reconstructions. Here, we introduce a new oak (Quercus sp) ring width (RW) dataset for the Czech Republic and the last 1250 years. We explain the process of oak chronology standardization that was based on several only slightly different de-trending techniques and subsequent chronology development steps. We hypothesize that the most severe RW increment reductions (negative extremes) reflect extremely dry spring-summer conditions. Negative extremes were assigned for years in which transformed oak RWs were lower than the minus 1.5 standard deviation. To verify our hypothesis, we compare typical climatic conditions in negative extreme years with climatology of the reference period 1961-1990. Comparison was done for various instrumental measurements (1805-2012), existing proxy reconstructions (1500-1804) and also for documentary evidence from historical archives (before 1500). We found that years of negative extremes are characterized with distinctly above average spring (MAM) and summer (JJA) air temperatures and below average precipitation amounts. Typical sea level pressure spatial distribution in those years shows positive pressure anomaly over British Isles and Northern Sea, the pattern that synoptically corresponds to blocking anticyclone bringing to Central Europe warm air

  1. On the benefit of galls of Quercus brantii Lindl. in murine colitis: the role of free gallic acid

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sabbagh-Bani-Azad, Mansoureh; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Vazirian, Mahdi; Isazadeh, Isa; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this study we investigated the effect of gall of Quercus brantii Lindl., a traditional Iranian medicine, in a murine model of experimental colitis induced in male rats by rectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Material and methods Quantification of the main active components was done for estimation of total phenolic content and free gallic acid. Gall of Quercus brantii Lindl. in two forms (gall powder and gall hydro alcoholic extract) was gavaged for 10 days (500 mg/kg). Ten days after induction of colitis, colonic status was examined by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical analyses. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were analyzed as biomarkers of inflammatory condition. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in colitis, the levels of cellular lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in colon tissues. Results TNBS-induced colitis exhibited a significant increase in colon MPO activity and concentrations of cellular LPO, TNF-α and IL-1β, while TAP was significantly reduced. Microscopic evaluations of the colonic damage in the colitis group revealed multifocal degenerative changes in the epithelial lining and areas of necrosis, extensive mucosal and sub-mucosal damage with congested blood vessels, edema and hemorrhages along with extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells. Parameters including macroscopic and microscopic scores, TNF-α, IL-1β, LPO, TAP and MPO improved by both gall extract and gall powder of Quercus brantii Lindl. and reached close to normal levels. The level of total phenols (GAE/100 g of sample) and free gallic acid were estimated to be 88.43 ±7.23 (mean ± SD) and 3.74% of dry weight, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the gall of Quercus brantii Lindl. is able to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on the biochemical and pathological parameters of colitis

  2. [Fire behavior of ground surface fuels in Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica mixed forest under no wind and zero slope condition: a prediction with extended Rothermel model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Chu, Teng-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Jin, Sen

    2012-06-01

    A laboratory burning experiment was conducted to measure the fire spread speed, residual time, reaction intensity, fireline intensity, and flame length of the ground surface fuels collected from a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) mixed stand in Maoer Mountains of Northeast China under the conditions of no wind, zero slope, and different moisture content, load, and mixture ratio of the fuels. The results measured were compared with those predicted by the extended Rothermel model to test the performance of the model, especially for the effects of two different weighting methods on the fire behavior modeling of the mixed fuels. With the prediction of the model, the mean absolute errors of the fire spread speed and reaction intensity of the fuels were 0.04 m X min(-1) and 77 kW X m(-2), their mean relative errors were 16% and 22%, while the mean absolute errors of residual time, fireline intensity and flame length were 15.5 s, 17.3 kW X m(-1), and 9.7 cm, and their mean relative errors were 55.5%, 48.7%, and 24%, respectively, indicating that the predicted values of residual time, fireline intensity, and flame length were lower than the observed ones. These errors could be regarded as the lower limits for the application of the extended Rothermel model in predicting the fire behavior of similar fuel types, and provide valuable information for using the model to predict the fire behavior under the similar field conditions. As a whole, the two different weighting methods did not show significant difference in predicting the fire behavior of the mixed fuels by extended Rothermel model. When the proportion of Korean pine fuels was lower, the predicted values of spread speed and reaction intensity obtained by surface area weighting method and those of fireline intensity and flame length obtained by load weighting method were higher; when the proportion of Korean pine needles was higher, the contrary results were obtained. PMID:22937636

  3. Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Poonpanang, Pathana

    2004-04-01

    The anti-amoebic effects of crude methanol extracts of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall against Entamoeba histolytica infecting the caecum of mice were studied. Caecal amoebiasis in mice was induced by injection of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites directly into the caecum. The mice were then treated orally with the extract, a standard drug (metronidazole), or vehicle p.o. for five consecutive days, beginning 24 h after the infection and were examined on the sixth day. At a dose of 1000 mg/kg per day, the extracts of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall had a curative rate of 100, 40 and 26%, respectively. At a concentration of 500 and 250 mg/kg/day, extract from Piper longum fruit was still effective in 93 and 46% of the cases, respectively, while extract from Piper sarmentosum root at a dose of less than 1000 mg/kg per day did not cure any mice from amoebiasis. Extract of Quercus infectoria nut gall at a concentration of 500 and of 250 mg/kg per day cured 26 and 13% of mice, respectively. Metronidazole at a concentration of 125 and of 62.5 mg/kg per day had a curative rate of 100 and 60%, respectively. The severity of caecal wall ulceration was reduced in mice which received the extract and metronidazole as compared to the control animals. PMID:15120461

  4. Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there.

  5. Contrasting root associated fungi of three common oak-woodland plant species based on molecular identification: host specificity or non-specific amplification?

    PubMed

    Douhan, Greg W; Petersen, Carolyn; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Rizzo, David M

    2005-07-01

    An increasingly popular approach used to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in planta is to amplify a portion of AM fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA) from whole root DNA extractions using the primer pair AM1-NS31, followed by cloning and sequencing. We used this approach to study the AM f