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1

The Origin and Dispersal of the Domesticated Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: A Reconstruction Based on Ancient Texts  

PubMed Central

Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm.

Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

2010-01-01

2

Opioid detection in pupal extract of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi guerin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pupae of the Chinese oak silkworm were extracted with 50% ethanol solution. The extract was evaporated on a rotary vaporizer to remove most of the ethanol, and then freeze-dried. The freeze-dried product was dissolved in the original volume of water and lipids were extracted from the preparation by the addition of two volumes of ethyl acetate, after which the ethyl

V. A. Gorlenko; S. I. Kolin'ko; S. F. Psjenichkin; N. V. Kost; Yu. B. Filippovich; A. A. Zozulya

1992-01-01

3

Molecular cloning, expression pattern and phylogenetic analysis of the will die slowly gene from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

The will die slowly (wds) gene coding for a WD-repeat protein with seven repeats has been characterized in Drosophila melanogaster. In this paper, the wds gene was isolated and characterized from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The obtained 1733 bp cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 1041 bp encoding a polypeptide of 346 amino acids, with 85% sequence identity to that from D. melanogaster. RT-PCR analysis showed that the wds gene was transcribed during four developmental stages and in all the tissues tested, consistent with the result observed in Bombyx mori based on EST resources and genome-wide microarray information. The mRNA expression level of the A. pernyi wds gene was not significantly down- or up- regulated under temperature stress compared to the control, indicating that it may be not involved in temperature stress tolerance. In search of database, the wds protein homologues were found in various kinds of eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, with 50-93% amino acid sequence identities between them, suggesting that they are highly conserved during the evolution of eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the wds protein homologue sequences clearly separated the known fungi, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, consistent with the topology tree on the classical systematics, suggesting the potential value of wds protein in eukaryotic phylogenetic inference. In vertebrates, two apparent types of the wds proteins were also defined by sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. PMID:21104437

Li, Yuping; Wang, Huan; Xia, Runxi; Wu, Song; Shi, Shenglin; Su, Junfang; Liu, Yanqun; Qin, Li; Wang, ZhenDong

2010-11-23

4

cDNA Cloning and Expression Pattern of Homolog of Alpha Subunit of Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Ib from the Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi  

PubMed Central

Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of platelet-activating factor (PAF). A homolog of alpha subunit of PAF-AH(Ib) from Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) (ApPAFAHIb?) was isolated and characterized. The obtained cDNA sequence was 1843 base pairs (bp) long with an open reading frame (ORE) of 678 bp encoding 225 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence shared several conserved features of PAF-AHs of other organisms, and revealed 88, 60, and 46% identity with the homologues of Bombyx mori, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that lepidopteran PAFAHIb?s including ApPAFAHIb? might be a new member of the PAF-AHs family of insects. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the ApPAFAHIb? gene was transcribed at four developmental stages and expressed in all tissues tested.

Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wang, Huan; Xia, Run-Xi; Shi, Sheng-Lin; Liu, Xian; Wang, Shi-Fu; Qin, Li

2011-01-01

5

Repetitive DNA in tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta is an endemic insect species producing the world famous tasar silk. Its populations occupying different ecological and geographical regions show certain degree of phenotypic variability for which they are known as 'eco-races'. In order to understand the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship among the different eco-races we characterized a repetitive TaqI genomic DNA fragment as a genetic marker. The sequence analysis and Southern hybridization show the repetitive nature of TaqI DNA fragment, designated as A. mylitta TaqI family repeat, AmTFR. The PCR amplification of AmTFR reveals its presence in all the tested eco-races of tasar silkworm and some other silk producing insects. The AmTFR is evenly distributed in all 31 meiotic metaphase I chromosomes as observed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The AmTFR based phylogenetic analysis of the eco-races is not congruent with the morphological variations and their geographical distribution. PMID:16455212

Mahendran, Botlagunta; Acharya, Chitrangada; Dash, Rupesh; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2006-02-07

6

Molecular identification of tropical tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta) ecoraces with RAPD and SCAR markers.  

PubMed

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, has several ecoraces, 10 of which are commercially exploited for the production of tasar silk. These ecoraces are identified by morphological markers that are greatly influenced by photoperiod, humidity, altitude, and host plants. The DNA markers, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) are identified to complement the existing morphological markers. Seven RAPD bands are selected that identify 8 of the 10 ecoraces. These identified RAPD fragments are sequenced and primers are designed for SCAR markers. Of the seven sets of primers, a single primer pair produced polymorphic SCAR bands that diagnose 5 of the 10 ecoraces. All 10 ecoraces are identified by the use of RAPD and SCAR markers together. PMID:16648996

Saha, Monalee; Kundu, S C

2006-04-29

7

Differential expression of the fibroin gene in developmental stages of silkworm, Antheraea mylitta (Saturniidae).  

PubMed

Fibroin gene expression during the larval developmental stages of the Saturniid silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, was analyzed. Northern blot analysis of larval silk gland total RNA using the fibroin gene as a probe showed that fibroin is expressed in the intermoult stages and repressed during the moulting stages. Abundance of fibroin transcripts gradually increased from the third to fifth intermoult stage, reaching a peak in the fifth intermoult. Transcripts declined during the early spinning stage. Western blot analysis of fibroin protein production with anti-fibroin antibody confirmed the differential fibroin expression, in accordance with fibroin mRNA synthesis. Dot blot hybridization of genomic DNA isolated from each larval developmental stage with the labelled fibroin gene showed that at the genomic level, the relative concentration of the fibroin gene was constant throughout the developmental stages. Our data confirm that fibroin gene expression in A. mylitta, like in B. mori, is transcriptionally controlled and shows differential temporal variations. PMID:11337263

Datta, A; Ghosh, A K; Kundu, S C

2001-05-01

8

Purification and characterization of fibroin from the tropical Saturniid silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

The fibroin protein isolated from the posterior silkgland of the tropical Saturniid silkworm Antheraea mylitta, was solubilized in lithium dodecyl sulfate and purified by gel filtration. The major fraction from gel filtration was analyzed by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. One major protein band of ca 395 kDa was obtained under non-reducing conditions and a doublet band of approximately 197 kDa under reducing conditions. The appearance of a single spot in two-dimensional electrophoresis confirmed the purity of the protein indicating that it may be a homodimeric protein of two similar sized polypeptides. Amino acid composition analysis showed that, like other Saturniid fibroins, it is rich in glycine, alanine and serine amino acids. N-terminal amino acid sequence shows significant homology with other Antheraea species. The enzymatic deglycosylation analysis indicates that the fibroin protein is glycosylated and the oligosaccharides are O-linked to the protein backbone by N-acetylgalactoseamine moiety which conforms to a Core 1 mucin-type glycosylation pattern. PMID:11483437

Datta, A; Ghosh, A K; Kundu, S C

2001-09-01

9

Estimation of amino acids, urea and uric acid in tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury.  

PubMed

The tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury, Andhra local ecorace is an exclusive race of Andhra Pradesh. It is on the verge of extinction due to difficulty of acclimatisation at breeding and rearing stages. As an attempt to protect this race, a method of total indoor rearing has been done. In this context, the estimation of free amino acids, excretory products- urea and uric acid were compared during the fourth and fifth instars of tasar silkworm, reared under outdoor and indoor conditions. The study has revealed that amino acids decreased in the fat body in outdoor and indoor reared larvae in contrast to that in the haemolymph where it has gradually increased from first to third crops. This is an important finding as it reveals that indoor worms seem to adopt proteolytic activity in the haemolymph. Secondly, in the fifth instar the excretory products are more compared to fourth instar in the indoor reared worms. During fifth instar, formation of nitrogenous products lessens as silk synthesis enhances. The present study reveals that decrease in uric acid in fifth instar implies increase in growth rate and silk synthesis in both outdoor and indoor worms. The findings of the present investigation is helpful in the conservation and protection of the A. mylitta, Andhra local ecorace. PMID:19297987

Shamitha, G; Rao, A Purushotham

2008-11-01

10

Structure of the induced antibacterial protein from tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. Implications to molecular evolution.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of an antibacterial protein of immune origin (TSWAB), purified from tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta) larvae after induction by Escherichia coli infection, has been determined. This is the first insect lysozyme structure and represents induced lysozymes of innate immunity. The core structure of TSWAB is similar to c-type lysozymes and alpha-lactalbumins. However, TSWAB shows significant differences with respect to the other two proteins in the exposed loop regions. The catalytic residues in TSWAB are conserved with respect to the chicken lysozyme, indicating a common mechanism of action. However, differences in the noncatalytic residues in the substrate binding groove imply subtle differences in the specificity and the level of activity. Thus, conformational differences between TSWAB and chicken lysozyme exist, whereas functional mechanisms appear to be similar. On the other hand, alpha-lactalbumins and c-type lysozymes exhibit drastically different functions with conserved molecular conformation. It is evident that a common molecular scaffold is exploited in the three enzymes for apparently different physiological roles. It can be inferred on the basis of the structure-function comparison of these three proteins having common phylogenetic origin that the conformational changes in a protein are minimal during rapid evolution as compared with those in the normal course of evolution. PMID:11522783

Jain, D; Nair, D T; Swaminathan, G J; Abraham, E G; Nagaraju, J; Salunke, D M

2001-08-24

11

Influence of thyroxine on different ion-dependent ATPase activities in fat body of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D.  

PubMed

The activities of Na(+)-K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-ATPase of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta D. fat body were investigated from fifth larval stage to adult emergence after injection of various doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 micrograms/g) of mammalian thyroxine (T4) to 1-hr-old fifth instar larvae. In normal silkworms, both sexes exhibited maximum enzyme activity before spinning (Day 12). Na(+)-K(+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities in fat body of silkworms markedly declined after pupation and more so on the 1-day-old adults. All doses of thyroxine treated on fifth instar larvae significantly altered ATPase activity in the larval, pupal, and adult stages in both sexes. ATPase activity was not altered by lower dose of T4 (0.5 micrograms/g) in 2-day-old fifth stage larvae, while the higher dose (5.0 micrograms/g) surprisingly caused a reduction in ATPase activity during the different developmental stages. The fat body ATPases were influenced by thyroxine in all the stages of silkworm in a dose-dependent manner. Our results thus indicate that thyroxine has a controlling influence on the ATPase system in silkworm fat body. PMID:8921351

Reddy, K D; Chaudhuri, A; Thangavelu, K

1996-10-01

12

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury  

PubMed Central

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk.

Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2012-01-01

13

ISSR profiling of genetic variability in the ecotypes of Antheraea mylitta Drury, the tropical Tasar silkworm.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta, Drury, the semi-wild silk-producing lepidopteran insect commonly known as tasar silkworm is unique to India and is distributed over a wide tropical forest range covering the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madnya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttaranchal. The populations found in different areas are know by their specific local names and are considered as different ecotypes, but it is difficult to separate the populations on the basis of morphological and life-cycle traits and thus molecular characterization was attempted. The present communication relates to the results obtained from the analysis of polymorphism unraveled by twelve ISSR primers for 11 populations of A. mylitta belonging to six ecotypes and 41 individuals of "Railey"--ecotype collected from five zones of Dandakarnya forest in Madnya Pradesh. This communication, further, presents molecular evidences on genetic differences between eleven ecotype populations and highlights the genotypic diversification of a single ecotype into further separate discrete gene pools. The canonical discriminant function analysis revealed grouping of the five populations of Railey ecotype into two "clumps", while accessions of other ecotypes stood separated from each other. Thr "Railey" populations on detailed study, further, revealed separation of two (Tokapal and Nangur) populations into discrete gene pools and the other three (Kondagaon, Darba and Tongpal) populations, in spite of larger geographic distance between them, overlapped one on the other. The analysis also identified nine markers, which can be utilized to characterize specific population and will be of help to follow the ongoing genetic changes triggered by various ecological factors and human influences on the "Railey" ecotype. PMID:15065428

Chatterjee, S N; Vijayan, K; Roy, G C; Nair, C V

2004-02-01

14

Cloning, expression and phylogenetic analysis of Hemolin, from the Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi is an important silk producer. To understand microbial resistance of this moth, we cloned Hemolin, encoding a multifunctional immune protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and examined the expression in gonads and fat body. The ApHemolin amino acid sequence was compared to other Hemolin sequences in order to predict functional sites. Several sites

Wenli Li; Olle Terenius; Makoto Hirai; Anders S. Nilsson; Ingrid Faye

2005-01-01

15

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury.  

PubMed

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F(2) progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16(905 bp) showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F(2) progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16(826 bp)). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

Dutta, Suhrid R; Kar, Prasanta K; Srivastava, Ashok K; Sinha, Manoj K; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K

2012-10-02

16

Isolation, purification and characterization of silk protein sericin from cocoon peduncles of tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

A high molecular weight water-soluble glue protein, sericin was identified in the cocoon peduncle (a strong thread connecting the cocoons to the branches of the tree with a ring) of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The sericin was isolated by 8M urea containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethenol (2%) or by 1% sodium chloride. The protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography. In SDS-PAGE, a single band of approximately 200kDa was detected both in non-reducing and reducing conditions. Amino acid analysis showed that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine. There is a slight difference observed in amino acid composition between the sericin from cocoon peduncle and cocoon of A. mylitta. Secondary structure estimation by circular dichroism spectrometry showed 36.7% beta-sheets, 52.7% random coils, 10.6% turns and no helices. PMID:16620954

Dash, Rupesh; Mukherjee, Soumen; Kundu, S C

2006-03-07

17

Analysis of Transcripts Expressed in One-Day-Old Larvae and Fifth Instar Silk Glands of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

Antheraea mylitta is one of the wild nonmulberry silkworms, which produces tasar silk. An EST project has been undertaken to understand the gene expression profile of A. mylitta silk gland. Two cDNA libraries, one from the whole bodies of one-day-old larvae and the other from the silkglands of fifth instar larvae, were constructed and sequenced. A total of 2476 good-quality ESTs (1239 clones) were obtained and grouped into 648 clusters containing 390 contigs and 258 singletons to represent 467 potential unigenes. Forty-five sequences contained putative coding region, and represented potentially novel genes. Among the 648 clusters, 241 were categorized according to Gene Ontology hierarchy and showed presence of several silk and immune-related genes. The A. mylitta ESTs have been organized into a freely available online database “AmyBASE”. These data provide an initial insight into the A. mylitta transcriptome and help to understand the molecular mechanism of silk protein production in a Lepidopteran species.

Maity, Samita; Goel, Sagar I.; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Venugopalan, Aravind; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2010-01-01

18

Analysis of Transcripts Expressed in One-Day-Old Larvae and Fifth Instar Silk Glands of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta is one of the wild nonmulberry silkworms, which produces tasar silk. An EST project has been undertaken to understand the gene expression profile of A. mylitta silk gland. Two cDNA libraries, one from the whole bodies of one-day-old larvae and the other from the silkglands of fifth instar larvae, were constructed and sequenced. A total of 2476 good-quality ESTs (1239 clones) were obtained and grouped into 648 clusters containing 390 contigs and 258 singletons to represent 467 potential unigenes. Forty-five sequences contained putative coding region, and represented potentially novel genes. Among the 648 clusters, 241 were categorized according to Gene Ontology hierarchy and showed presence of several silk and immune-related genes. The A. mylitta ESTs have been organized into a freely available online database "AmyBASE". These data provide an initial insight into the A. mylitta transcriptome and help to understand the molecular mechanism of silk protein production in a Lepidopteran species. PMID:20454581

Maity, Samita; Goel, Sagar I; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Venugopalan, Aravind; Ghosh, Ananta K

2010-05-04

19

Purification and biochemical characterization of a 70 kDa sericin from tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Sericin isolated from the cocoon of the tropical tasar silkmoth Antheraea mylitta showed three major bands, with the lowest 70 kDa. This band was purified by anion exchange chromatography. Immunoblotting with concanavalin-A suggests a glycoprotein and CD analysis of secondary structure includes beta-sheet. Amino acid analysis shows that the protein is enriched in glycine and serine while the mole percentages of these two amino acids are different from sericin of mulberry silkworm. An anti A. mylitta sericin antibody was able to cross-react with sericin from A. assamensis but not the sericin of Bombyx mori and Philosamia ricini. Immunoblot analysis with proteins isolated from middle silk gland of A. mylitta at different developmental stages of larva showed that the 70 kDa sericin is developmentally regulated. These data extend the range of biochemical features found in this unusual family of proteins and may help in developing an improved understanding of their role in forming environmentally stable fibroin fiber-sericin composite structures (cocoons). PMID:17350301

Dash, Rupesh; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kaplan, David L; Kundu, S C

2007-01-30

20

Morphology and histology of Lyonet's gland of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

The morphology and histology of Lyonet's gland in the second to fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) are described. Each of the paired silk glands of this silk worm were associated with a Lyonet's gland. The paired Lyonet's glands were located on the ventrolateral sides of the esophagus, close to the subesophageal ganglion. Whole mount and SEM observations revealed that each Lyonet's gland consisted of a rosette of glandular mass, and a short narrow tubular duct opening into the anterior part of the silk gland (ASG), close to the common excretory duct. In each instar, these glands were unequal in size. The glandular mass was innervated by fine nerves from the subesophageal ganglion, suggesting a neural control for the glandular activity. The glandular mass was made up of clustered long cells wrapped by a thin basal lamina, which was continuous over the non-secretory low columnar cells of the Lyonet's gland duct and ASG. The narrow bases of long cells of each glandular mass led into the lumen of the duct of the gland. Histochemical analysis of fully developed Lyonet's gland showed clustered lipid granules in the gland cells. PMID:23451934

Patra, Sudip; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Raziuddin, Mohammad

2012-01-01

21

Development of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers for tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta (Drury) is a tropical tasar-silk producing insect. Its populations occupying different ecological and geographical regions show a certain degree of phenotypic variability, for which they are known as "eco-races." The eco-races are exploited for tasar silk production, and they are classified on the basis of their geographical distribution and morphology, which is often misleading when their systematic position is considered. To understand the genetic variability among the different eco-races, we used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Eighty random decamer primers were taken for RAPD amplifications. In total, 415 reproducible bands were used to generate a distance matrix, and for the subsequent clustering with unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average. The number of polymorphic bands detected by each primer ranged from 5 to 24, with a mean value of 14.1 per primer. Percentage polymorphism was 81.9, and genetic distance values ranged from a minimum of 0.0108 between Modal and Nalia eco-races to a maximum of 0.0244 between Modal and Andhra local. The RAPD profiles obtained using A14, BC07, and C17 primers substantially differentiate all 10 commercially important eco-races, and the phylogenetic tree obtained from the data closely follows their geographical separations. PMID:18767726

Saha, M; Mahendran, B; Kundu, S C

2008-08-01

22

Morphology and Histology of Lyonet's Gland of the Tropical Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

The morphology and histology of Lyonet's gland in the second to fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) are described. Each of the paired silk glands of this silk worm were associated with a Lyonet's gland. The paired Lyonet's glands were located on the ventrolateral sides of the esophagus, close to the subesophageal ganglion. Whole mount and SEM observations revealed that each Lyonet's gland consisted of a rosette of glandular mass, and a short narrow tubular duct opening into the anterior part of the silk gland (ASG), close to the common excretory duct. In each instar, these glands were unequal in size. The glandular mass was innervated by fine nerves from the subesophageal ganglion, suggesting a neural control for the glandular activity. The glandular mass was made up of clustered long cells wrapped by a thin basal lamina, which was continuous over the non-secretory low columnar cells of the Lyonet's gland duct and ASG. The narrow bases of long cells of each glandular mass led into the lumen of the duct of the gland. Histochemical analysis of fully developed Lyonet's gland showed clustered lipid granules in the gland cells.

Patra, Sudip; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Raziuddin, Mohammad

2012-01-01

23

Cloning, expression and phylogenetic analysis of Hemolin, from the Chinese oak silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

The Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi is an important silk producer. To understand microbial resistance of this moth, we cloned Hemolin, encoding a multifunctional immune protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and examined the expression in gonads and fat body. The ApHemolin amino acid sequence was compared to other Hemolin sequences in order to predict functional sites. Several sites were conserved; among them a phosphate binding site, which according to 3D structure modelling does not appear in neuroglian, the phylogenetically closest related protein. In addition, two conserved KDG sequences in the C-C' loop of immunoglobulin domains 1 and 3, give rise to gamma-turns, which is a common motif in the C'-C'' loop of the hypervariable region L2 in vertebrate immunoglobulins. The comparisons also show variable regions of specific interest for future studies of hemolin and its interaction with microbial entities. PMID:15978282

Li, Wenli; Terenius, Olle; Hirai, Makoto; Nilsson, Anders S; Faye, Ingrid

2005-03-22

24

The complete mitogenome sequence of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

The 15,338-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. This genome has a gene arrangement identical to those of all other sequenced lepidopteran insects, but differs from the most common type, as the result of the movement of tRNA(Met) to a position 5'-upstream of tRNA(Ile). No typical start codon of the A. yamamai COI gene is available. Instead, a tetranucleotide, TTAG, which is found at the beginning context of all sequenced lepidopteran insects was tentatively designated as the start codon for A. yamamai COI gene. Three of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs formed stable stem-and-loop structures, with the exception of tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which formed a simple loop as has been observed in many other metazoan mt tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The 334-bp long A + T-rich region is noteworthy in that it harbors tRNA-like structures, as has also been seen in the A + T-rich regions of other insect mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and B. mandarina) and Saturniidae (A. yamamai and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a reciprocal monophyletic group. PMID:18979227

Kim, Seong Ryeol; Kim, Man Il; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Kee Young; Kang, Pil Don; Hwang, Jae Sam; Han, Yeon Soo; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

2008-11-02

25

Causal organism of flacherie in the silkworm Antheraea assama Ww: isolation, characterization and its inhibition by garlic extract.  

PubMed

Of the different bacterial strains isolated from diseased muga silkworms, the strain named as AC-3 was found to be most pathogenic to the silkworm. Different antibiotics and plant extracts were tested for their effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of AC-3. Fresh Allium sativum (garlic extract) was most effective against the strain. The stability and MIC of the garlic extract has also been studied. We report for the first time the effectiveness of garlic extract in controlling the bacterium causing disease in the muga silkworm. PMID:11933151

Choudhury, Arundhati; Guha, Arijit; Yadav, Archana; Unni, Bala G; Roy, Monoj K

2002-03-01

26

Bio-inspired fabrication of fibroin cryogels from the muga silkworm Antheraea assamensis for liver tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Conventional scaffold fabrication techniques result in narrow pore architectures causing a limited interconnectivity and use of porogens, which affects the bio- or cyto-compatibility. To ameliorate this, cryogels are immensely explored due to their macro-porous nature, ease in fabrication, using ice crystals as porogens, the shape property, easy reproducibility and cost-effective fabrication technique. Cryogels in the present study are prepared from nonmulberry Indian muga silk gland protein fibroin of Antheraea assamensis using two different fabrication temperatures (-20 and -80 °C). Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is used to solubilize fibroin, which in turn facilitates gelation by accelerating the ß-sheet formation. Ethanol is employed to stabilize the 3D network and induces bimodal porosity. The gels thus formed demonstrate increased ß-sheet content (FTIR) and a considerable effect of pre-freezing temperatures on 3D micro-architectures. The cryogels are capable of absorbing large amounts of water and withstanding mechanical compression without structure deformation. Further, cell impregnated cryogels well support the viability of human hepatocarcinoma cells (live/dead assay). The formation of cellular aggregates (confocal laser and scanning electron microscope), derivation in metabolic activity and proliferation rate are obtained in constructs fabricated at different temperatures. In summary, the present work reveals promising insights in the development of a biomimetic functional template for biomedical therapeutics and liver tissue engineering. PMID:24002731

Kundu, Banani; Kundu, S C

2013-09-03

27

Kinetic analysis, expression pattern, and production of a recombinant fungal protease inhibitor of tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta, a tasar silk-producing insect of Saturniidae family, expresses a fungal protease inhibitor named as A. mylitta fungal protease inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1). AmFPI-1 inhibits alkaline protease of Aspergillus oryzae but its mechanism of action is not known. To understand the mode of inhibition of AmFPI-1 against the fungal protease, it was purified from the hemolymph of A. mylitta larvae and inhibitory activity against A. oryzae protease was studied. Kinetic analysis of purified AmFPI-1 on alkaline protease of A. oryzae showed that AmFPI-1 acts as a canonical-type competitive inhibitor with equilibrium dissociation constant (K ( i )) of 60 nM. Expression of AmFPI-1 in different body tissues of fifth instar A. mylitta larvae was determined by real-time PCR, and the highest expression was observed in fat body followed by integument, silk gland, and gut, indicating that AmFPI-1 has pleiotropic functions including protection from invading fungi. The cDNA of AmFPI-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant His-tagged fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. Recombinant AmFPI-1 showed inhibitory activity against A. oryzae protease and suggested its use in various biological applications to prevent proteolysis. PMID:22935928

Roy, Sobhan; Ravipati, Venugopal Rao; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Das, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

2012-08-31

28

Protein purification, cDNA cloning and characterization of a protease inhibitor from the Indian tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

An inhibitor of Aspergillus oryzae fungal protease was purified to homogeneity from the hemolymph of fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange and gel filtration (FPLC) chromatography, and termed as AmFPI-1. The extent of purification was checked by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and the molecular weight of purified inhibitor was determined by SDS-PAGE as 10.4 kDa. Fifteen N-terminal amino acid sequences of this protein were determined, and degenerate oligonucleotides were synthesized on the basis of these sequences. A cDNA library of A. mylitta integument was constructed, and protease inhibitor cDNA was partially amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotides and CDS primers. A full-length inhibitor cDNA clone obtained by screening the library with PCR amplified DNA as probe was sequenced. The cDNA consists of 543 nucleotides with an ORF of 315 bp and encodes a protein of 105 amino acids. The sequence exhibits similarity to several Bombyx mori ESTs, and in particular to N-terminal amino acid sequence of an inducible serine protease inhibitor (ISPI-1) from Galleria mellonella indicating its relatedness to ISPI-1 of G. mellonella. The presence of this protease inhibitor in the hemolymph may play an important role as a natural defense system against invading microorganisms. PMID:14505696

Shrivastava, Binita; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

2003-10-01

29

Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination  

PubMed Central

In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4%) were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2%) were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4%) were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151) was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination.

Li, Yu-Ping; Xia, Run-Xi; Wang, Huan; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2009-01-01

30

Parasitization of fifth instar tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, by the uzi fly, Blepharipa zebina; a host-parasitoid interaction and its effect on host's nutritional parameters and parasitoid development.  

PubMed

The uzi fly, Blepharipa zebina, is a well-known larval endoparasitoid of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. The present study dealt with the effect of the number of maggots developing per host on host nutritional parameters, parasitoid development and reproduction. Nutritional indices for ingestion, digestion, approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, and gain in body weight declined significantly with the increase in parasitoid burden, but the efficiency of conversion of digested food recorded a significant increase. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food remained little affected. The developmental period was significantly extended in larvae parasitized with 5 and 10 maggots per larva (mpl). Cocoon shell weight decreased by 27-63.5% in parasitized groups (1, 2, and 5 mpl) while larvae parasitized with 10 mpl could not spin cocoons. The maggot development period, recovery percentage, and fecundity of the uzi fly declined significantly with the increase in number of maggots developing per host. PMID:15707871

Rath, S S; Sinha, B R R P

2005-01-01

31

L-thyroxine (T4) elevates the free amino acid pool of haemolymph plasma of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

Concentration of free amino acids (FAA) in the haemolymph plasma of male and female tasar silkworm, A. mylitta, during fifth larval instar were determined by amino acid analyzer after administration of vertebrate thyroxine (T4). Twenty FAA have been identified in haemolymph plasma in both sexes, out of which ten were found to be predominating. Treatment with anabolic doses of thyroxine (0.5 and 1.0 micrograms/g) were able to enhance the titre of all the individual FAA which has been also reflected in the total concentrations. A specific pattern of variations in plasma FAA recorded during 5th larval instar, was not altered by the administered thyroxine. Our results thus indicate that T4 has a controlling influence on the FAA profiles of silkworm as observed in other biochemical parameters of the insect. PMID:7705760

Reddy, K D; Chaudhuri, A; Thangavelu, K

1994-12-01

32

Induced immunity in Antheraea assama Ww larvae against flacherie causing Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports for the first time the induction of immunity in Antheraea assama Ww larvae against bacterial flacherie. In silkworms group of disease caused by bacteria are collectively called “flacherie.” This refers to the flaccid condition of the larvae due to the infections of bacterial strains pathogenic to muga silkworm. Antibacterial activity against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC-3 causing flacherie,

Arundhati Choudhury; Arijit Guha; Archana Yadav; Jyotsna Kumari; Bala G. Unni; Monoj K. Roy

2004-01-01

33

Studies on the influence of host plants and effect of chemical stimulants on the feeding behavior in the muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis.  

PubMed

The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polhantha Jussieu, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound ?-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. PMID:22243364

Neog, Kartik; Unni, Balagopalan; Ahmed, Giasuddin

2011-01-01

34

Genetic variability and genetic structure of wild and semi-domestic populations of tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta ) ecorace Daba as revealed through ISSR markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity in the wild and semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace of Antheraea mylitta was studied to ascertain the distribution of variability within and among populations of semi-domestic bivoltine (DB), trivoltine (DT) and nature grown wild populations (DN) with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 138 markers were produced among 56 individuals of the three populations, of which 98% were polymorphic. For the individual populations, the percentage polymorphism was 58.69, 52.9 and 77.54 for DB, DT and DN, respectively. Average number of observed (1.791+/- 0.408) and effective alleles (1.389+/-0.348) was also high in the wild populations in comparison to the bivoltine and trivoltine semi-domestic populations. Genetic diversity (H(t)) in DB, DT and DN was 0.180+/- 0.033, 0.153+/- 0.032 and 0.235+/- 0.033, respectively and within-population genetic diversity (H(s)) ranged from 0.166 to 0.259 with a mean of 0.189. Mean gene differentiation (G(ST)) was found to be 0.25. Shanon's diversity index was 0.278, 0.237 and 0.361 for DB, DT and DN and overall it was 0.391. Gene flow (N(m)) among the populations was 1.509. The dendrogram produced by UPGMA with Dice's genetic distance matrices resulted in the formation of three major clusters separating the three populations. Considerable intra- and inter-population variability is found in all three populations. The population structure analysis further suggests that the semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace are at the threshold of differentiating themselves. The high genetic variability present within wild Daba population of A. mylitta is of much importance for conservation as well as utilization in systematic breeding program. PMID:16247690

Kar, P K; Vijayan, K; Mohandas, T P; Nair, C V; Saratchandra, B; Thangavelu, K

2005-11-01

35

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman NeumĂĽller (None;)

2006-07-05

36

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. MĂĽller (None;)

2002-05-18

37

Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The insect predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou), is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Life history parameters were not as good for A. chinensis when reared on an artificial diet compared to Chinese oak silk moth p...

38

Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: Transcriptome Analysis of Arma chinensis Fed on Artificial Diet and Chinese Oak Silk Moth Antheraea pernyi Pupae  

PubMed Central

Background The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler). This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample’s assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10?5), and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10?5), retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological roles of the differentially expressed genes enable us to predict effects of some dietary ingredients and subsequently propose formulation improvements to artificial diets.

Zou, Deyu; Coudron, Thomas A.; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Mengqing; Chen, Hongyin

2013-01-01

39

Induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of Terminalia arjuna due to feeding of Antheraea mylitta Drury.  

PubMed

Terminalia arjuna is an important food plant of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. In this study, we investigated the induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of these plants subjected to insect feeding. Increase in total tannin content, lipid peroxidation, and trypsin inhibitor activity have been observed in mature leaves damaged by the insects. The growth rate of Vth instar larvae of A. mylitta fed on previously damaged foliage reduced by 87.1%. Induction of biomolecules for defense mechanisms in relation to herbivore damage has been discussed. PMID:15523561

Abraham, G; Thomas, G; Babu, C R

2004-10-22

40

Comparing the rheology of mulberry and "wild" silkworm spinning dopes.  

PubMed

Lepidoperan silks provide a superb opportunity for comparative studies of spinning and fiber characteristics. Comparing the four species, Bombyx mori (China), Actias selene (India), Antheraea yamamai (Japan), Gonometa postica (Africa), allows us to examine differences on the family, species, and race levels. Measured rheological properties were consistent with phylogenetic relationships and in the context of resource allocation and gland morphology. We propose that the thorough domestication of the mulberry silkworm B. mori for high silk yield has resulted in a compensatory optimization for spinning efficiency. This is in stark contrast to the wild silkworms, where Saturnids appear to minimize their energetic input toward silk output and G. postica seems to balance both. We conclude that comparative studies provide valuable baseline information for future biomimetic applications and modeling, as well as illuminating biologically important details of silk processing. PMID:22161905

Holland, C; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

2011-12-09

41

Molecular profiling of silkworm biodiversity in India.  

PubMed

Molecular tools opened a new vista to understand nature's bio-diversity and its relevance and the same approach was availed of to build-up the foundation work on the bio-diversity of silkworm spp in India. It is well established that the heritage of usage of silk for dress materials in India, Russia and China dates back to premedieval period and in spite of industrial development resulting to de-forestation, India still can claim as the owner of wide bio-diversity, espicially in northern India for silkworm spp. The molecular diversity was assessed among Antheraea mylitta, A. assama, A. pernyi, A. provlei, A. roylei and Philcosomia cynthia wiht 11 ISSR and 8 non-random primers on agarose gel. Nei's statistics as also Euclidean distance matrix was applied to find the genetic diversity between the six species, wherein the closest relationship between A. pernyi and A. proylei is established. With the help of POPGEN statistics, the average genetic heterozygosity appeared as 0.271 while Shanon's index is 0.4312 and alleles with segregation ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 9:1 (generated with ISSR primers) were identified which can be utilized for future molecular breeding porgram. Further, and attempt was made to isolate a number of bands generated with 3 ISSR and six non-random primers, specific for different species and 22 such markers have been characterized through sequencing which will be made available through international public domain database. PMID:15648144

Chatterjee, S N; Tanushree, T

2004-12-01

42

Nucleation of Hydroxyapatite on Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) Silk Fibroin Film.  

PubMed

Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin, which is spun from a wild silkworm, has increasingly attracted interest in the field of tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on A. pernyi fibroin film. Von Kossa staining proved that A. pernyi fibroin had Ca binding activity. The A. pernyi fibroin film was mineralized with HAp crystals by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate solutions. Spherical crystals were nucleated on the A. pernyi fibroin film according to scanning electron microscopeimaging results. The FT-IR and X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed that these spherical crystals were HAp. The results of in vitro cell culture using MG-63 cells demonstrated that the mineralized A. pernyi fibroin film showed excellent cytocompatibility and sound improvement of the MG-63 cellviability. PMID:24092197

Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Mandal, Namita; Zhu, Liangjun

2013-01-01

43

Induced immunity in Antheraea assama Ww larvae against flacherie causing Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC-3.  

PubMed

This study reports for the first time the induction of immunity in Antheraea assama Ww larvae against bacterial flacherie. In silkworms group of disease caused by bacteria are collectively called "flacherie." This refers to the flaccid condition of the larvae due to the infections of bacterial strains pathogenic to muga silkworm. Antibacterial activity against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa AC-3 causing flacherie, was induced by injection of heat-killed cells of the same strain. Experiments on larval survivability and viable cell count revealed peak immune response on third day. Comparison of the amount of food ingested, excreta produced and larval weight of the saline-injected control, live bacteria-challenged larvae and heat-killed bacteria-injected larvae "(vaccinated)" confirmed the development of immunity against bacterial infection in the "vaccinated" set. The haemolymph of A. assama larvae was analyzed for proteins associated with bacterial infection. Out of the total 32 detected proteins, eleven (A1-2, A15-20, A22-23, and A29) were constitutively synthesized in both the control and live bacteria-injected larvae. Four inducible proteins A4, A9-10, and A21 were detected in the haemolymph of the live bacteria-injected larvae. Synthesis of rest of the proteins varied between the control and their live bacteria-injected counterparts. General protein profile of "vaccinated" larvae injected with live bacteria were found to be similar to that of the saline-injected control. PMID:15172214

Choudhury, Arundhati; Guha, Arijit; Yadav, Archana; Kumari, Jyotsna; Unni, Bala G; Roy, Monoj K

44

Silk hydrogels from non-mulberry and mulberry silkworm cocoons processed with ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Matrices based on silk fibroin from the non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea mylitta and the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori have demonstrated good applicability in regenerative medicine. However, the cocoons of A. mylitta are underutilized in part due to their lack of solubility in traditional organic solvents. Therefore, the present work investigates the solubilization and processing of degummed fibers obtained from the cocoons of both silkworm species into hydrogels using ionic liquids (ILs). The developed hydrogels exhibited a rubbery consistency, viscoelastic behavior and rapid degradation in the presence of protease XIV. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy images suggest that human adipose stem cells (hASCs) are able to adhere to and migrate at different levels within the hydrogel structures. Moreover, the MTS assay demonstrated the maintenance of cell metabolic activity for up to 28days, while DNA quantification showed that hASCs were able to proliferate on the seeded hydrogels. The findings indicate that complete IL removal from the fabricated hydrogels results in a positive hASCs cellular response. Thus the present approach provides a unique opportunity to broaden the processability and application of silk fibroin obtained from A. mylitta cocoons for regenerative medicine, namely cartilage regeneration. PMID:23845228

Silva, Simone S; Popa, Elena G; Gomes, Manuela E; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nayak, Sunita; Subia, Bano; Mano, Joăo F; Kundu, Subhas C; Reis, Rui L

2013-07-09

45

Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus, and densovirus infecting silkworms.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel PCR-based assay for individual and simultaneous detection of three major pathogens (microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and densovirus (DNV)) infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Multiplex PCR, using three primer pairs, two of which were designed from the conserved regions of 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of microsporidians, and polyhedrin gene of NPVs respectively, and a third primer pair designed from the internal sequences of B. mori DNVs (BmDNV), showed discrete and pathogen specific PCR products. The assay showed high specificity and sensitivity for the pathogenic DNA. Under optimized PCR conditions, the assay yielded a 794bp DNA fragment from Nosema bombycis, 471bp fragment from B. mori NPV (BmNPV) and 391bp fragment from BmDNV. Further, this detection method was successfully applied to other silkworm species such as Antheraea mylitta and Samia cynthia ricini, in detecting same or similar pathogens infecting them. This method is a valuable supplement to the conventional microscopic diagnostic methods and can be used for the early detection of pathogens infecting silkworms. Furthermore it can assist research and extension centers for the safe supply of disease-free silkworms to farmers. PMID:21570404

Ravikumar, G; Raje Urs, S; Vijaya Prakash, N B; Rao, C G P; Vardhana, K V

2011-05-05

46

Characterization of cypovirus isolates from tropical and temperate Indian saturniidae silkworms.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cypovirus, CPV) isolates from larvae of saturniidae silkworms Antheraea mylitta, Antheraea proylei, and Antheraea assamensis were obtained and characterized. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies revealed the presence of hexahedral (rhombic dodecahedron) polyhedral bodies of various size (1-4 microns) in individual hosts while transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies of isolated virions showed their uniform (icosahedral) shape and size (approximately 55 nm). Genomes of these isolates were obtained from purified polyhedral bodies and analyzed by agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eleven bands ranging from about 350 bp to 3.9 kb (total of 25.35 kb) were detected. These bands were completely degraded after treatment of the genome preparations with RNase A at low salt but not at high salt concentration. The banding pattern of the genomes remained unaffected by treatment of the respective preparations with DNase I, indicating that the genomes were composed of 11 double-stranded (ds) RNA segments. The RNA banding patterns of the CPV isolates from the saturniidae silkworms were similar to each other. These characteristics were similar to that of Antheraea mylitta cypovirus 4 (AmCPV-4) but different from that of Bombyx mori cypovirus 1 (BmCPV-1). In comparison to AmCPV-4 the isolates contained an additional, eleventh RNA segment and the size of the RNA segments was also different. Dot blot hybridization showed hybridization of the cloned 9th and 10th segment cDNAs from the A. mylitta CPV (AmCPV) isolate with RNAs from the A. proylei and A. assamensis CPV (ApCPV, AaCPV) isolates but not with RNA from BmCPV-1. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) of polyhedral proteins from the AmCPV isolate showed the presence of 3 major and 5 minor bands of M(r) from 29.4 K to 163 K, but BmCPV-1 polyhedral bodies showed different protein banding pattern. Two heterologous cell lines infected with the AmCPV isolate showed very slow virus growth with the accumulation of polyhedral bodies in the cytoplasm of infected cells indicating a restricted host range of this CPV isolate. PMID:11332278

Qanungo, K R; Kundu, S C; Ghosh, A K

2000-12-01

47

Extraction conditions of Antheraea mylitta sericin with high yields and minimum molecular weight degradation.  

PubMed

Although the technique for extracting the Bombyx mori sericin has been extensively known, the extraction of sericin from wild-silkworm cocoons is not yet standardized. The aim of this study was to find the optimal conditions for the extraction of sericin from Antheraea mylitta cocoons, with high yields and minimum degradation. We attempted to apply various protocols for the extraction of the A. mylitta sericin (AmS). Among these, we found that the extraction of AmS with a sodium carbonate solution exhibited the highest yield except the conventional soap-alkali extraction. To find the optimal conditions for the AmS extraction with the sodium carbonate, we changed the concentration of sodium carbonate and the treatment time. With an increase in the sodium carbonate concentration and the extraction time, the yield of AmS increased, but the molecular weight (MW) of AmS decreased. Considering the yield, molecular weight distribution (MWD) and amino acid composition of AmS, we suggest that the optimal conditions for the AmS extraction require treatment with 0.02 M sodium carbonate and boiling for 60 min. PMID:23026092

Yun, Haesung; Oh, Hanjin; Kim, Moo Kon; Kwak, Hyo Won; Lee, Jeong Yun; Um, In Chul; Vootla, Shyam Kumar; Lee, Ki Hoon

2012-09-28

48

Biospinning by silkworms: silk fiber matrices for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

The mechanism of biospinning of natural silk fibers has been an open issue for decades. In this report a natural bio-polymeric matrix based on biospun silk fibers obtained from Antheraea mylitta, a wild non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm, is put forward for potential applications. This report deals with the conformational transitions of silk fibroin during the biospinning process and its potential to support cell adherence and proliferation. The silk fibers obtained were aligned into linear, mixed or random patterns forming interconnected, macroporous three-dimensional matrices. The matrices were morphologically and functionally characterized with respect to fiber diameter, crystallinity, mechanical strength and biocompatibility using feline fibroblast cells. Drawn silk fibers showed enhanced stability to protease treatment in comparison with naturally occurring native gland fibroin protein. A viability assay suggested biocompatibility of these matrices in vitro. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy indicated normal cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on these biospun silk matrices. The results provided evidence for the use of biospun silk matrices as natural, inexpensive and alternative substrata for tissue engineering applications. PMID:19716447

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, Subhas C

2009-08-27

49

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with

Zhengzhong Shao; Fritz Vollrath

2002-01-01

50

Baculovirus and dsRNA induce Hemolin, but no antibacterial activity, in Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Hemolin is one of the haemolymph proteins most strongly induced upon bacterial infection in Lepidoptera. When we applied RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress Hemolin expression in the Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi, we discovered that Hemolin is induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) per se. As dsRNA is recognized as a virus pattern molecule, we then investigated the effect of a baculovirus (ApNPV) infection. We found that Hemolin is induced and expressed with similar kinetics as upon dsRNA injection. Notably, no Attacin gene expression or antibacterial activity was recorded. When baculovirus and high amounts of dsRNA were coinjected, the viral symptoms appeared earlier with Hemolin dsRNA than with GFP dsRNA. This indicates that silencing of hemolin affected the progress of the viral infection. PMID:15271212

Hirai, M; Terenius, O; Li, W; Faye, I

2004-08-01

51

Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees). Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. bombycis genome has greatly expanded due to the following three molecular mechanisms: 1) the proliferation of host-derived transposable elements, 2) the acquisition of many horizontally transferred genes from bacteria, and 3) the production of abundnant gene duplications. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events (e.g., tandem duplications) but also from large-scale events (e.g., segmental duplications) have never been seen so abundant in any reported microsporidia genomes. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability. Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and transposable element expansion. We also showed that the duplicated genes can serve as raw materials for evolutionary innovations possibly contributing to the increase of pathologenic ability. Based on our research, we propose that duplicated genes of N. bombycis should be treated as primary targets for treatment designs against pébrine.

2013-01-01

52

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with spider silk by changing their spinning habits, rather than by having their silk genes altered.

Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

2002-08-01

53

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

2012-06-29

54

Transgenic Silkworm of Anti-NPV Ribozyme.  

PubMed

The plasmid pGL2Rz including ribozyme gene was linearized and introduced into early eggs of silkworm (G(0)) by gene gun. The luciferase activity in blood of the G(1) generation was detected, then the resistant silkworm was selected by NPV infection from G(2) generation. The transgenic silkworm resistant against NPV 10 times more than control ones was got at the G(4) generation. PCR and Southern blotting proved that the ribozyme gene was integrated into the genome of silkworm multicopily. The expression of ribozyme was also detected by RT-PCR in pupa. The results showed that the transgenic silkworm strain of anti-NPV ribozyme has been got. PMID:12136190

Zhang, Feng; Chen, Xiu; Zhao, Yun; Qi, Guo-Rong; Huang, Jun-Ting; Lu, Chang-De

1999-01-01

55

Silk fibroin film from non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworms: A novel substrate for in vitro fibroblast culture.  

PubMed

The silk protein fibroin, isolated from the cocoon of the domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is used extensively in biomaterial design and in cell and tissue culture. We report here for the first time the potential application of fibroin obtained from the cocoon of non-mulberry tropical silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, as a substrate for in vitro cell culture. The mechanical strength of A. mylitta silk fibers indicates a stronger thread composition. The contact angle of A. mylitta fibroin films suggests that it has lower hydrophilicity and lower solubility in organic solvents compared to B. mori fibroin films. Retention of a secondary structure of fibroin in both A. mylitta and B. mori films is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The adherence, growth and proliferation patterns of feline fibroblast cells on A. mylitta fibroin films suggest that this kind of film has a greater ability to support cell growth than B. mori fibroin films and is comparable to that of control. This study demonstrates that, as well as being non-toxic to dermal fibroblast cells, non-mulberry fibroin might be a useful alternative substrate to the more common B. mori fibroin for a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:18676188

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-07-18

56

Silk fibroin protein from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms: cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and kinetics of L929 murine fibroblast adhesion.  

PubMed

Silks fibers and films fabricated from fibroin protein of domesticated mulberry silkworm cocoon have been traditionally utilized as sutures in surgery and recently as biomaterial films respectively. Here, we explore the possibility of application of silk fibroin protein from non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as a potential biomaterial aid. In terms of direct inflammatory potential, fibroin proteins from Antheraea mylitta and Bombyx mori are immunologically inert and invoke minimal immune response. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by these fibroin proteins both in solution and in the form of films assayed in terms of nitric oxide and TNFalpha production showed comparable stimulation as in collagen. Kinetics of adhesion of L929 murine fibroblasts, for biocompatibility evaluation, monitored every 4 h from seeding and studied over a period of 24 h, reveal A. mylitta fibroin film to be a better substrate in terms of rapid and easier cellularization. Cell viability studies by MTT assay and flow cytometric analyses indicate the ability of fibroin matrices to support cell growth and proliferation comparable to collagen for long-term culture. This matrix may have potential to serve in those injuries where rapid cellularization is essential. PMID:18322779

Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Sudip K; Kundu, S C

2008-03-06

57

Two female-specific DSX proteins are encoded by the sex-specific transcripts of dsx, and are required for female sexual differentiation in two wild silkmoth species, Antheraea assama and Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae).  

PubMed

doublesex (dsx) is the bottom most gene of the sex-determination cascade of Drosophila melanogaster. The pre-mRNA of dsx splices to produce male- and female-specific transcripts which code for the male- and female-specific proteins, respectively. dsx homologues have been characterized from different (many in Diptera, two in Hypmenoptera and only one in Lepidoptera) insect species. Sex-specific splice forms of dsx pre-mRNA in all these species code for one male- and one female-specific DSX proteins, which regulate the downstream target genes responsible for sex-specific characters. In the present study we have cloned and characterized the dsx homologues from two saturniid silkmoths, Antheraea assama and Antheraea mylitta. The divergence time between Saturniidae and Bombycidae to which the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori belongs is estimated to be around 160.9 MY. Interestingly, the dsx pre-mRNA of these wild silkmoths sex-specifically splices to generate multiple splice variants. On the basis of their open reading frame (ORF) and conceptual translation, two female-specific (DSX(F1) and DSX(F2)) and one male-specific (DSX(M)) proteins could be inferred, in both the moths. Presence or absence of a 15 bp stretch within the ORF of the two groups of female-specific transcripts resulted in the production of two distinct female-specific DSX proteins. The sex-specific DSX proteins have common amino-terminal sequence but sex-specific carboxy termini. The two female-specific DSX proteins (DSX(F1) and DSX(F2)) share common DNA binding domain (DM domain) and oligomerization domain (OD domain) and differ only at their extreme C-termini by 21aa. Functional analysis of dsx transcripts in A. assama by dsRNA mediated knock-down resulted in complete abolition of expression of vitellogenin and hexamerin genes, the direct targets of the DSX proteins, irregular differentiation of gonads, and drastic reduction in fecundity and hatchability. Together, these results suggest the involvement of both the female-specific DSX proteins in the process of female sexual differentiation. Further, conservation of the 4th exon sequence, especially the PESS sequence responsible for the sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx in the female-specific transcripts of Aadsx and Amydsx, indicated the existence of a common mechanism of sex-specific splicing of dsx homologues in silkmoths. To our knowledge this is the first report of existence of multiple splice forms of dsx pre-mRNA encoding two female-specific DSX proteins. PMID:20633649

Shukla, J N; Nagaraju, J

2010-07-13

58

Molecular characterization of genome segments 1 and 3 encoding two capsid proteins of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

PubMed Central

Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV), a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects Indian non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains 11 segmented double stranded RNA (S1-S11) in its genome. Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11) have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. Results In this study genome segments 1 (S1) and 3 (S3) of AmCPV were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV), Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV), and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV (DpCPV). The ORFs of S1 and S3 were expressed as 141 kDa and 137 kDa insoluble His-tagged fusion proteins, respectively, in Escherichia coli M15 cells via pQE-30 vector, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of purified polyhedra, virion particles and virus infected mid-gut cells with the raised anti-p137 and anti-p141 antibodies showed specific immunoreactive bands and suggest that S1 and S3 may code for viral structural proteins. Expression of S1 and S3 ORFs in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants showed to produce viral like particles (VLPs) by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogold staining showed that S3 encoded proteins self assembled to form viral outer capsid and VLPs maintained their stability at different pH in presence of S1 encoded protein. Conclusion Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S1 and S3 indicate that S3 encoded viral structural proteins can self assemble to form viral outer capsid and S1 encoded protein remains associated with it as inner capsid to maintain the stability. Further studies will help to understand the molecular mechanism of capsid formation during cypovirus replication.

2010-01-01

59

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties.  

PubMed

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers. PMID:22215590

Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J; Lewis, Randolph V; Jarvis, Donald L

2012-01-03

60

Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Thermotolerance  

PubMed Central

A tropical climate prevails in most of the sericultural areas in India, where temperature increases during the summer lead to adverse effects on temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and cause crop losses. Screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyxmori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant breeds/hybrids. In the current study, the aim was to identify potential bivoltine silkworm strains specific for tolerance to high temperature. The third day of fifth stage silkworm larvae of bivoltine strains were subjected to high temperature of 36 ± 1° C with RH of 50 ± 5 % for six hours (10:00–16:00) every day until spinning for three consecutive generations. Highly significant differences were found among all genetic traits of bivoltine silkworm strains in the treated groups. Three groups of silkworm resulted including susceptible, moderately tolerant, and tolerant by utilizing pupation rate or survival rate with thermal stress as the index for thermotolerance. Furthermore, based on the overall silkworm rearing performance of nine quantitative genetic traits such as larval weight, cocoon yield by number and weight, pupation, single cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and denier, three bivoltine silkworm strains, BD2-S, SOF-BR and BO2 were developed as having the potential for thermotolerance. The data from the present study enhance knowledge for the development of thermo tolerant silkworm breeds/ hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry.

Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Subbarao, Sure Venkata; Misra, Sunil; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

2011-01-01

61

The pathway of ammonia assimilation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia can easily be assimilated into amino acids and used for silk-protein synthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. To determine the metabolic pathway of ammonia assimilation, silkworm larvae were injected with methionine sulfoximine (MS), a specific inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS). Activity of GS in the fat body 2h after treatment with 400?g MS decreased to less than 10% of

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1997-01-01

62

Silk protein fibroin from Antheraea mylitta for cardiac tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The human heart cannot regenerate after an injury. Lost cardiomyocytes are replaced by scar tissue resulting in reduced cardiac function causing high morbidity and mortality. One possible solution to this problem is cardiac tissue engineering. Here, we have investigated the suitability of non-mulberry silk protein fibroin from Indian tropical tasar Antheraea mylitta as a scaffold for engineering a cardiac patch in vitro. We have tested cell adhesion, cellular metabolic activity, response to extracellular stimuli, cell-to-cell communication and contractility of 3-days postnatal rat cardiomyocytes on silk fibroin. Our data demonstrate that A. mylitta silk fibroin exhibits similar properties as fibronectin, a component of the natural matrix for cardiomyocytes. Comparison to mulberry Bombyx mori silk protein fibroin shows that A. mylitta silk fibroin is superior probably due to its RGD domains. 3D scaffolds can efficiently be loaded with cardiomyocytes resulting in contractile patches. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that A. mylitta silk fibroin 3D scaffolds are suitable for the engineering of cardiac patches. PMID:22240510

Patra, Chinmoy; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Velagala, Siva R; Mühlfeld, Christian; Kundu, Banani; Kundu, Subhas C; Engel, Felix B

2012-01-10

63

Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.  

PubMed

Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling ;clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal multiple times in quick succession, producing trains that last over 1 min and include 50-55 clicks. Individual clicks within a train are on average 24.7 ms in duration, often consisting of multiple components. Clicks are audible in a quiet room, measuring 58.1-78.8 dB peSPL at 10 cm. They exhibit a broadband frequency that extends into the ultrasound spectrum, with most energy between 8 and 18 kHz. Our hypothesis that clicks function as acoustic aposematic signals, was supported by several lines of evidence. Experiments with forceps and domestic chicks correlated sound production with attack, and an increase in attack rate was positively correlated with the number of signals produced. In addition, sound production typically preceded or accompanied defensive regurgitation. Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. The prevalence and adaptive significance of warning sounds in caterpillars is discussed. PMID:17337712

Brown, Sarah G; Boettner, George H; Yack, Jayne E

2007-03-01

64

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia

Friederike Anton-Erxleben; Helmut Langer

1988-01-01

65

Protein Profile of Nomuraea rileyi Spore Isolated from Infected Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based\\u000a approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252

Lvgao Qin; Xiaoyong Liu; Jun Li; Huiqing Chen; Qin Yao; Zhe Yang; Lin Wang; Keping Chen

2009-01-01

66

Antiviral activity in the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm Bombyx mori is exploited both as a powerful biological model system and also as a tool to convert leaf protein into silk. Silkworm larvae\\u000a often suffer from viral infections causing heavy losses to the economy of the silk industry. Insects exhibit both humoral\\u000a and cellular immune responses that are effective against various pathogens like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.,

Hui-peng Yao; Xiao-feng Wu; K. Gokulamma

2006-01-01

67

Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial\\u000a purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a\\u000a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3–6 months).\\u000a The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and

Tatsuya Kato; Mizuho Kajikawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2010-01-01

68

Effect of leaf ration on dietary water budget of the larvae of silkworm Bombyx mori and eri silkworm Philosamia ricini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary water intake in penultimate two instars of silkwormBombyx mori and eri silkwormPhilosamia ricini fedad libitum on mulberry leafMorus alba and castor leafRicinus communis respectively at 26±2°C is reported. The lower ration level results in accumulation of water content in the body of insects.\\u000a The water retention efficiency (per cent of absorbed water retained in the body) increases with the

M R Delvi; P G Radhakrishna; Noor Pasha

1988-01-01

69

Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the

Yong Hou; Yong Zou; Fei Wang; Jing Gong; Xiaowu Zhong; Qingyou Xia; Ping Zhao

2010-01-01

70

A new mapping method for quantitative trait loci of silkworm  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm is the basis of sericultural industry and the model organism in insect genetics study. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying economically important traits of silkworm is of high significance for promoting the silkworm molecular breeding and advancing our knowledge on genetic architecture of the Lepidoptera. Yet, the currently used mapping methods are not well suitable for silkworm, because of ignoring the recombination difference in meiosis between two sexes. Results A mixed linear model including QTL main effects, epistatic effects, and QTL × sex interaction effects was proposed for mapping QTLs in an F2 population of silkworm. The number and positions of QTLs were determined by F-test and model selection. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was employed to estimate and test genetic effects of QTLs and QTL × sex interaction effects. The effectiveness of the model and statistical method was validated by a series of simulations. The results indicate that when markers are distributed sparsely on chromosomes, our method will substantially improve estimation accuracy as compared to the normal chiasmate F2 model. We also found that a sample size of hundreds was sufficiently large to unbiasedly estimate all the four types of epistases (i.e., additive-additive, additive-dominance, dominance-additive, and dominance-dominance) when the paired QTLs reside on different chromosomes in silkworm. Conclusion The proposed method could accurately estimate not only the additive, dominance and digenic epistatic effects but also their interaction effects with sex, correcting the potential bias and precision loss in the current QTL mapping practice of silkworm and thus representing an important addition to the arsenal of QTL mapping tools.

2011-01-01

71

Engineering silkworms for resistance to baculovirus through multigene RNA interference.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture. PMID:23105011

Subbaiah, Edupalli V; Royer, Corinne; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Satyavathi, Valluri V; Babu, Adari Sobhan; Sivaprasad, Vankadara; Chavancy, Gérard; Darocha, Martine; Jalabert, Audrey; Mauchamp, Bernard; Basha, Ibrahim; Couble, Pierre; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2012-10-26

72

Fruit Body Formation on Silkworm by Cordyceps militaris  

PubMed Central

Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori (B. mori). Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body production. Use of Daeseungjam rather than Baegokjam or Keumokjam varieties of B. mori is thought to be suitable for infection by C. militaris. From mounting, nine-day-old to 11-day-old pupae showed the best incidence of infection with a 100 µL injection volume. Silkworm pupae injected with a hyphal suspension concentration of more than 2 × 105 colony-forming unit (cfu) recorded a greater than 96% incidence of infection. Also, fruit bodies of C. militaris were induced and produced at a light intensity between 500 and 1,000 lx.

Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Ki-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Lee, Man-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Humber, Richard A.

2010-01-01

73

Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes.

2011-01-01

74

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. RobertâÂÂs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

75

Molecular cloning and characterization of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus genome segment 9.  

PubMed

Genome segment 9 of the 11-segment RNA genomes of three cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) isolates from Antheraea mylitta (AmCPV), Antheraea assamensis (AaCPV) and Antheraea proylei (ApCPV) were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. In each case, this genome segment consists of 1473 nucleotides with one long ORF of 1035 bp and encodes a protein of 345 amino acids, termed NSP38, with a molecular mass of 38 kDa. Secondary structure prediction showed the presence of nine alpha-helices in the central and terminal domains with localized similarity to RNA-binding motifs of bluetongue virus and infectious bursal disease virus RNA polymerases. Nucleotide sequences were 99.6% identical between these three strains of CPVs, but no similarity was found to any other nucleotide or protein sequence in public databases. The ORF from AmCPV cDNA was expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein in E. coli and polyclonal antibody was raised against the purified protein. Immunoblot as well as immunofluorescence analysis with anti-NSP38 antibody showed that the protein was not present in polyhedra or uninfected cells but was present in AmCPV-infected host midgut cells. NSP38 was expressed in insect cells as soluble protein via a baculovirus expression vector and shown to possess the ability to bind poly(rI)-(rC) agarose, which was competitively removed by AmCPV viral RNA. These results indicate that NSP38 is expressed in virus-infected cells as a non-structural protein. By binding to viral RNA, it may play a role in the regulation of genomic RNA function and packaging. PMID:12029164

Qanungo, Kaustubha R; Kundu, Subhas C; Mullins, James I; Ghosh, Ananta K

2002-06-01

76

Carotenoids of mulberry leaves and of silkworm excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time, great attention is being devoted to the search for new cheap sources of carotene [i]. The raw material for this may be certain industrial wastes and, in particular, silkworm excreta (SWE) the complex study of the composition of which has already been carried on over a number of years [2]. In the present communication we present

D. U. Uzakova; A. A. Kolesnik; Yu. L. Zherebin; I. K. Sarycheva

1987-01-01

77

Nature of heterosis and combining ability in the silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isogenic, highly heterotic parthenoclone 29, originating from a hybrid silkworm female, was transformed via unisexual reproduction (meiotic and ameiotic parthenogenesis) into four genotypical variants differing in well-known various levels of hetero zygosity and combinations of useful and harmful genes. A comparison of these changes with the heterosis level made it possible to discover that both heterosity for adaptively neutral

V. A. Strunnikov; N. K. Koltsov

1986-01-01

78

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

79

Expansion of the silkworm GMC oxidoreductase genes is associated with immunity.  

PubMed

The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases constitute a large gene family in insects. Some of these enzymes play roles in developmental or physiological process, such as ecdysteroid metabolism. However, little is known about the functional diversity of the insect GMC family. Here, we identified 43 GMC genes in the silkworm genome, the largest number of GMC genes among all the insect genomes sequenced to date. Similar to the other insects, there is a highly conserved GMC cluster within the second intron of the silkworm flotillin-2 (flo-2) gene. However, the silkworm GMC genes outside of the conserved GMC cluster have experienced a large expansion. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the silkworm GMC? subfamily contained 22 copies and made a major contribution to expansion of the silkworm GMC genes. Eighteen of the 22 members of the silkworm GMC? subfamily are located outside of the conserved GMC cluster, and are known as silkworm expansion genes (SEs). Relative-rate tests showed that SEs evolved significantly faster than the GMC? genes inside the conserved GMC cluster. Accordingly, the third position GC content (GC3s) and codon bias of SEs are significantly different from those of the GMC? genes in the conserved GMC cluster. The elevated evolutionary rate of the silkworm GMC? genes outside of the conserved GMC cluster may reflect the evolution of function diversity. At least 24 of the 43 silkworm GMC genes were differently transcribed and expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner during the larval stage. Strikingly, microarray data revealed that four different pathogens upregulated most of the silkworm GMC? genes. Furthermore, RNA interference of representative upregulated GMC? genes reduced the survival rate of the silkworm when infected by pathogens. Taken together, the results suggested that expansion of the silkworm GMC oxidoreductase genes is associated with immunity. PMID:23022604

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Yang, Wen-Juan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Zhang, Ze

2012-09-25

80

Complete Resequencing of 40 Genomes Reveals Domestication Events and Genes in Silkworm (Bombyx)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-base pair resolution silkworm genetic variation map was constructed from 40 domesticated and wild silkworms, each sequenced to approximately threefold coverage, representing 99.88% of the genome. We identified ~16 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, many indels, and structural variations. We find that the domesticated silkworms are clearly genetically differentiated from the wild ones, but they have maintained large levels of genetic

Qingyou Xia; Yiran Guo; Ze Zhang; Dong Li; Zhaoling Xuan; Zhuo Li; Fangyin Dai; Yingrui Li; Daojun Cheng; Ruiqiang Li; Tingcai Cheng; Tao Jiang; Celine Becquet; Xun Xu; Chun Liu; Xingfu Zha; Wei Fan; Ying Lin; Yihong Shen; Lan Jiang; Jeffrey Jensen; Ines Hellmann; Si Tang; Ping Zhao; Hanfu Xu; Chang Yu; Guojie Zhang; Jun Li; Jianjun Cao; Shiping Liu; Ningjia He; Yan Zhou; Hui Liu; Jing Zhao; Chen Ye; Zhouhe Du; Guoqing Pan; Aichun Zhao; Haojing Shao; Wei Zeng; Ping Wu; Chunfeng Li; Minhui Pan; Jingjing Li; Xuyang Yin; Dawei Li; Juan Wang; Huisong Zheng; Wen Wang; Xiuqing Zhang; Songgang Li; Huanming Yang; Cheng Lu; Rasmus Nielsen; Zeyang Zhou; Jian Wang; Zhonghuai Xiang; Jun Wang

2009-01-01

81

Use of silkworms to evaluate the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen.  

PubMed

Injection of a Japanese cedar pollen suspension into silkworm hemolymph kills the silkworms. A certain species of bacteria proliferated in the hemolymph of the dead silkworms. A 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that the proliferating bacteria were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Among them, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis exhibited hemolysis against sheep red blood cells and were lethal to mice. A culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens showed enzyme activity toward the pectic membrane of cedar pollen. These results suggest that silkworms as an animal model are useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen. PMID:24071577

Hu, Y; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K

2013-08-01

82

Unusually high concentration of free glycine in the midgut content of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and other lepidopteran larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of investigating the digestion and the absorption of dietary protein by the silkworm, Bombyx mori, reared on an artificial diet, we found the existence of an unusually high concentration of free glycine in the midgut content compared with other amino acids. To test whether this free glycine is from diet or from the silkworm itself, silkworm larvae

Kotaro Konno; Chikara Hirayama; Hiroshi Shinbo

1996-01-01

83

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

2009-01-01

84

Proteomic Analysis of Larval Midgut from the Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

PubMed Central

The midgut is the major organ for food digestion, nutrient absorption and also a barrier for foreign substance. The 5th-instar larval stage of silkworm is very important for larval growth, development, and silk production. In the present study, we used 2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to analyze the midgut proteins from the 5th-instar larvae as well as the midgut proteins under starvation condition. A total of 96 proteins were identified in this study; and among them, 69 proteins were observed in midgut for the first time. We also found that the silkworm larval midgut responded to starvation by producing a 10?kDa heat shock protein and a diapause hormone precursor.

Zhang, Sai; Xu, Yunmin; Fu, Qiang; Jia, Ling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2011-01-01

85

Protein profile of Nomuraea rileyi spore isolated from infected silkworm.  

PubMed

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252 proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and were subjected to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, 121 proteins have good MS signal, and 24 of them were identified due to unavailability of genomic information from N. rileyi. This data will be helpful in understanding the biochemistry of N. rileyi. PMID:19288155

Qin, Lvgao; Liu, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun; Chen, Huiqing; Yao, Qin; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Lin; Chen, Keping

2009-03-14

86

Utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2–30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME=2905–2935 kcal\\/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds

P. V Rangacharyulu; S. S Giri; B. N Paul; K. P Yashoda; R. Jagannatha Rao; N. S Mahendrakar; S. N Mohanty; P. K Mukhopadhyay

2003-01-01

87

Optical penetration-based silkworm pupa gender sensor structure.  

PubMed

This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates for what is believed to be the first time a highly sought-after optical structure for highly-accurate identification of the silkworm pupa gender. The key idea is to exploit a long wavelength optical beam in the red or near infrared spectrum that can effectively and safely penetrate the body of a silkworm pupa. Later on, simple image processing operations via image thresholding, blob filtering, and image inversion processes are applied in order to eliminate the unwanted image noises and at the same time highlight the gender gland. Experimental proof of concept using three 636 nm wavelength light emitting diodes, a two-dimensional web camera, an 8 bit microcontroller board, and a notebook computer shows a very high 95.6% total accuracy in identifying the gender of 45 silkworm pupae with a measured fast identification time of 96.6 ms. Other key features include low cost, low component counts, and ease of implementation and control. PMID:22307109

Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Kamtongdee, Chakkrit

2012-02-01

88

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

89

Identification and Characterization of an Arginine Kinase as a Major Allergen from Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important insect in the textile industry and its pupa are used in Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine. The silk, urine and dander of silkworms is often the cause of allergies in sericulture workers and the pupa has been found to be a food allergen in China. Recent studies have focused on reporting

Zhigang Liu; Lixin Xia; Yulan Wu; Qingyou Xia; Jiajie Chen; Kenneth H. Roux

2009-01-01

90

Poison ivy - oak - sumac  

MedlinePLUS

Poison ivy , oak, or sumac poisoning is an allergic reaction that results from touching the sap of these ... Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac Note: This list ...

91

Mineralization and Biocompatibility of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) Silk Sericin Film for Potential Bone Tissue Engineering.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the mineralization of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin. Mineralization of A. pernyi sericin was performed by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate. The inhibition of precipitation of calcium carbonate and von Kossa staining on A. pernyi sericin were tested, and the corresponding results prove that A. pernyi sericin has Ca binding activity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation shows that spherical crystals could be nucleated on the A. pernyi sericin film. These crystals were confirmed to be hydroxyapatite according to FT-IR and XRD spectra, indicating that A. pernyi sericin is capable of mineralization. In addition, cell adhesion and growth activity assay demonstrate that A. pernyi sericin shows excellent biocompatibility for the growth of MG-63 cells. PMID:24092210

Yang, Mingying; Mandal, Namita; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Min, Sijia; Zhu, Liangjun

2013-01-01

92

Microsatellite markers for the Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama (Saturniidae: Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

Antheraea assama, an economically important and scientifically unexplored Indian wild silkmoth, is unique among saturniid moths. For this species, a total of 87 microsatellite markers was derived from 35 000 expressed sequence tags and a microsatellite-enriched sub-genomic library. Forty individuals collected from Tura and West Garo Hills region of Northeast India were screened for each of these loci. Ten loci from expressed sequence tags and one from genomic library were found to be polymorphic. These microsatellite markers will be useful resources for population genetic studies of A. assama and other closely related species of saturniids. This is the first report on development of microsatellite markers for any saturniid species. PMID:21564623

Arunkumar, K P; Kifayathullah, L; Nagaraju, J

2008-10-10

93

Heterologous expression characteristics of Trichoderma viride endoglucanase V in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

Efficient degradation of cellulose needs a synergistic reaction of the cellulolytic enzymes, which include exoglucanases, endoglucanases, and ?-1,4-glucosidase. In this study, we used an improved Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV baculovirus expression system, which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), to express the endoglucanase V (EG V) gene from Trichoderma viride in silkworm BmN cells and silkworm larvae, and analyzed the characteristics of the recombinant enzyme in silkworm larvae. The result showed that an around 36-kDa protein was visualized in BmN cells at 48 h after the second-generation recombinant mBacmid/BmNPV/EG V baculovirus infection. The crude enzyme extract from the recombinant baculoviruses-infected silkworms exhibited a significant maximum activity at the environmental condition of pH 5.0 and a temperature of 50 °C, and increased 39.86% and 37.76% compared with that from blank mBacmid/BmNPV baculovirus-infected silkworms and normal silkworms, respectively. It was stable at pH range from 5.0 to 10.0 and at temperature range from 40 to 60 °C. The availability of large quantities of EG V that the silkworm provides might greatly facilitate the future research and the potential application in industries. PMID:21625870

Li, Xing-Hua; Wang, Mei-Xian; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Jia-Biao; Sun, Chun-Guang; Liu, Xin-Ju; Zhou, Fang; Niu, Yan-Shan; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Bhaskar, Roy; Yang, Hua-Jun; Miao, Yun-Gen

2011-05-31

94

Transcriptome Analysis of the Silkworm (Bombyx mori) by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a model insect with important economic value for silk production that also acts as a bioreactor for biomaterial production. The functional complexity of the silkworm transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated, although genomic sequencing and other tools have been widely used in its study. We explored the transcriptome of silkworm at different developmental stages using high-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing. A total of about 3.3 gigabases (Gb) of sequence was obtained, representing about a 7-fold coverage of the B. mori genome. From the reads that were mapped to the genome sequence; 23,461 transcripts were obtained, 5,428 of them were novel. Of the 14,623 predicted protein-coding genes in the silkworm genome database, 11,884 of them were found to be expressed in the silkworm transcriptome, giving a coverage of 81.3%. A total of 13,195 new exons were detected, of which, 5,911 were found in the annotated genes in the Silkworm Genome Database (SilkDB). An analysis of alternative splicing in the transcriptome revealed that 3,247 genes had undergone alternative splicing. To help with the data analysis, a transcriptome database that integrates our transcriptome data with the silkworm genome data was constructed and is publicly available at http://124.17.27.136/gbrowse2/. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the silkworm transcriptome using high-throughput RNA sequencing technology. Our data indicate that the transcriptome of silkworm is much more complex than previously anticipated. This work provides tools and resources for the identification of new functional elements and paves the way for future functional genomics studies.

Tian, Jian; Liu, Huifen; Yang, Huipeng; Yi, Yongzhu; Wang, Jinhui; Shi, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Feng; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Zhifang

2012-01-01

95

The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. Results From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Conclusions Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori.

2010-01-01

96

Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly  

PubMed Central

Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the “empty neuron” system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.

Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Kopp, Artyom; Kimbrell, Deborah A.; Leal, Walter S.

2010-01-01

97

Microarray-based gene expression profiles in multiple tissues of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We designed and constructed a genome-wide microarray with 22,987 70-mer oligonucleotides covering the presently known and predicted genes in the silkworm genome, and surveyed the gene expression in multiple silkworm tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. Clusters of tissue-prevalent and tissue-specific genes and genes that are differentially expressed in different tissues were identified, and they reflect well major tissue-specific functions on the molecular level. The data presented in this study provide a new resource for annotating the silkworm genome.

Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Cheng, Tingcai; Zha, Xingfu; Liu, Chun; Zhao, Ping; Dai, Fangyin; Zhang, Ze; He, Ningjia; Zhang, Liang; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2007-01-01

98

A comparative analysis of serpin genes in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of proteins, most of which control protease-mediated processes by inhibiting their cognate enzymes. Sequencing of the silkworm genome provides an opportunity to investigate serpin structure, function, and evolution at the genome level. There are thirty-four serpin genes in Bombyx mori. Six are highly similar to their Manduca sexta orthologs that regulate innate immunity. Three alternative exons in serpin1 gene and four in serpin28 encode a variable region including the reactive site loop. Splicing of serpin2 pre-mRNA yields variations in serpin2A, 2A? and 2B. Sequence similarity and intron positions reveal the evolutionary pathway of seven serpin genes in group C. RT-PCR indicates an increase in the mRNA levels of serpin1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 25, 27, 32 and 34 in fat body and hemocytes of larvae injected with bacteria. These results suggest that the silkworm serpins play regulatory roles in defense responses.

Zou, Zhen; Picheng, Zhao; Weng, Hua; Mita, Kazuei; Jiang, Haobo

2009-01-01

99

Microarray-based gene expression profiles of silkworm brains  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. Results We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains at four stages including V7, P1, P3 and P5. A total of 4,550 genes were transcribed in at least one selected stage. Of these, clustering algorithms separated the expressed genes into stably expressed genes and variably expressed genes. The results of the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis of stably expressed genes showed that the ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were principal pathways. Secondly, four clusters of genes with significantly different expression patterns were observed in the 1,175 variably expressed genes. Thirdly, thirty-two neuropeptide genes, six neuropeptide-like precursor genes, and 117 cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected developmental stages. Conclusion Major characteristics of the transcriptional profiles in the brains of Bombyx mori at specific development stages were present in this study. Our data provided useful information for future research.

2011-01-01

100

Transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this study, we generated germline-transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) that spun cocoons containing recombinant spider silk. A piggyBac-based transformation vector was constructed that carried spider dragline silk (MaSp1) cDNA driven by the sericin 1 promoter. Silkworm eggs were injected with the vector, producing transgenic silkworms displaying DsRed fluorescence in their eyes. Genotyping analysis confirmed the integration of the MaSp1 gene into the genome of the transgenic silkworms, and silk protein analysis revealed its expression and secretion in the cocoon. Compared with wild-type silk, the recombinant silk displayed a higher tensile strength and elasticity. The results indicate the potential for producing recombinant spider silk in transgenic B. mori. PMID:19633923

Wen, Hongxiu; Lan, Xiqian; Zhang, Yuansong; Zhao, Tianfu; Wang, Yujun; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

2009-07-25

101

Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals.

2012-01-01

102

Laurels for Laurel Oaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a former Air Force base converted into a joint school district vocational school which includes among other things an up-to-date facility for the students, located at Laurel Oaks, one of the four campuses of the Great Oaks Joint Vocational School District. (HF)|

Sisson, Ray

1976-01-01

103

Dosage analysis of Z chromosome genes using microarray in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many organisms, dosage compensation is needed to equalize sex-chromosome gene expression in males and females. Several genes on silkworm Z chromosome were previously detected to show a higher expression level in males and lacked dosage compensation. Whether silkworm lacks global dosage compensation still remains poorly known. Here, we analyzed male:female (M:F) ratios of expression of chromosome-wide Z-linked genes in

Xingfu Zha; Qingyou Xia; Jun Duan; Chunyun Wang; Ningjia He; Zhonghuai Xiang

2009-01-01

104

Evaluating efficacy of bacteriophage therapy against Staphylococcus aureus infections using a silkworm larval infection model.  

PubMed

Silkworm larva has recently been recognized as an alternative model animal for higher mammals to evaluate the effects of antibiotics. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which harnesses phages as antibacterial agents, against Staphylococcus aureus infections, using the silkworm larval infection model. Two newly isolated staphylococcal phages, S25-3 and S13', were used as therapeutic phage candidates. They were assigned to two different lytic phage genera, Twort-like and AHJD-like viruses, based on their morphologies and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major capsid proteins. Both had a broad host range and strong lytic activity and showed preservative quality. Administration of these phages alone caused no adverse effects in the silkworm larvae. Moreover, the viruses showed life-prolonging effects in the silkworm larval infection model 10 min, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h following infection. Such phage effects in the silkworm larval model were almost paralleled to the therapeutic efficacies in mouse models. These results suggest that phages S25-3 and S13' are eligible as therapeutic candidates and that the silkworm larval model is valid for the evaluation of phage therapy as well as mouse models. PMID:23869440

Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Ujihara, Takako; Ohara, Naoya; Daibata, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Shigenobu

2013-08-06

105

Analysis of the activity of virus internal ribosome entry site in silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been widely used in genetic engineering; however, the application in silkworm (Bombyx mori) has hardly been reported. In this study, the biological activity of partial sequence of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) IRES, Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) IRES, and the hybrid of IRES of EMCV and RhPV were investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell line and silkworm tissues. The hybrid IRES of EMCV and RhPV showed more effective than EMCV IRES or RhPV IRES in promoting downstream gene expression in insect and silkworm. The activities of all IRESs in middle silk gland of silkworm were higher than those in the fat body and posterior silk gland. The hybrid IRES of EMCV and RhPV was integrated into silkworm genome by transgenic technology to test biological activity of IRES. Each of the positive transgenic individuals had significant expression of report gene EGFP. These results suggested that IRES has a potential to be used in the genetic engineering research of silkworm. PMID:23644592

Ye, Lupeng; Zhuang, Lanfang; Li, Jisheng; You, Zhengying; Liang, Jianshe; Wei, Hao; Lin, Jianrong; Zhong, Boxiong

2013-05-03

106

Toxicity of two type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (cinnamomin and ricin) to domestic silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Cinnamomin and ricin are two type II ribosome-inactivating proteins. They exhibited a different toxicity to domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae by oral feeding bioassay. The LC50 of ricin to the silkworm larvae at third instar was much lower than that of cinnamomin. When the isolated 80S ribosome from domestic silkworm pupae was treated separately with the reduced cinnamomin or the reduced ricin, a specific RNA fragment (R-fragment) was produced as characterized by 8 M urea-denatured polyacrylamide gel (3.5%) electrophoresis. The purified A-chains of both cinnamomin and ricin showed a slightly different RNA N-glycosidase activity to the domestic silkworm pupal ribosome. It was proposed that the difference of their toxicity to domestic silkworm larvae was not related to their A-chains but to the properties of their B-chains. It was also found that the vomit obtained from the midgut of domestic silkworm larvae could hydrolyze these two proteins apparently to a similar extent. PMID:15540278

Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Ren-Shui; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Wang-Yi

2004-12-01

107

Enzymatic degradation of Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin 3D scaffolds and fibers.  

PubMed

In this study, the in vitro enzymatic degradation behavior of the regenerated Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (Ap-SF) three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds and the natural Ap-SF fibers exposed to enzyme solutions of ?-chymotrypsin, collagenase IA and protease XIV were investigated. The results indicated that all three proteases could degrade the Ap-SF 3D scaffolds, and the degradation ability was in the order protease XIV>collagenase IA>?-chymotrypsin. The regenerated Ap-SF 3D scaffold could be degraded completely in 18 days when exposed to 1.0 U/ml protease XIV at 37°C, whereas under the same condition, the natural Ap-SF fiber only lost 5.6% of its weight, revealing its long-term degradation characteristics. There were abundant peptides and some free amino acids in the Ap-SF degradation products, but no free alanine. We suggested that the polyalanine block in the regenerated Ap-SF 3D scaffolds had strong resistance to enzyme attack. The proteolytic attack occurred in the non-polyalanine block of Ap-SF. The degradation rate of Ap-SF materials depended on the molecular conformation of Ap-SF, which could be controlled in the manufacturing process. PMID:21087623

Zhao, Chunxia; Wu, Xiufang; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Shuqin; Li, Mingzhong

2010-11-16

108

Antheraea pernyi silk fiber: a potential resource for artificially biospinning spider dragline silk.  

PubMed

The outstanding properties of spider dragline silk are likely to be determined by a combination of the primary sequences and the secondary structure of the silk proteins. Antheraea pernyi silk has more similar sequences to spider dragline silk than the silk from its domestic counterpart, Bombyx mori. This makes it much potential as a resource for biospinning spider dragline silk. This paper further verified its possibility as the resource from the mechanical properties and the structures of the A. pernyi silks prepared by forcible reeling. It is surprising that the stress-strain curves of the A. pernyi fibers show similar sigmoidal shape to those of spider dragline silk. Under a controlled reeling speed of 95 mm/s, the breaking energy was 1.04 x 10(5) J/kg, the tensile strength was 639 MPa and the initial modulus was 9.9 GPa. It should be noted that this breaking energy of the A. pernyi silk approaches that of spider dragline silk. The tensile properties, the optical orientation and the beta-sheet structure contents of the silk fibers are remarkably increased by raising the spinning speeds up to 95 mm/s. PMID:20454537

Zhang, Yaopeng; Yang, Hongxia; Shao, Huili; Hu, Xuechao

2010-05-05

109

Molecular cloning and characterization of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene and its variant forms.  

PubMed

The segments 10 (S10) of the 11 double stranded RNA genomes from Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) encoding a novel polyhedrin polypeptide was converted to cDNA, cloned, and sequenced. Three cDNA clones consisting of 1502 (AmCPV10-1), 1120 (AmCPV10-2), and 1415 (AmCPV10-3) nucleotides encoding polyhedrin of 254, 339, and 319 amino acids with molecular masses of 29, 39, and 37 kDa, respectively, were obtained, and verified by Northern analysis. These clones showed 70-94% sequence identity among them but none with any sequences in databases. The expression of AmCPV10-1 cDNA encoded polyhedrin in Sf-9 cells was detected by immunoblot analysis and formation of polyhedra by electron microscopy, as observed in AmCPV-infected gut cells, but no expression of AmCPV10-2 or AmCPV10-3 cDNA was detected, indicating that during AmCPV replication, along with functional S10 RNA, some defective variant forms of S10 RNAs are packaged in virion particles. PMID:15907799

Sinha-Datta, Uma; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Ghosh, Ananta K

2005-07-01

110

Genome segment 6 of Antheraea mylitta cypovirus encodes a structural protein with ATPase activity.  

PubMed

The genome segment 6 (S6) of the 11 double stranded RNA genomes from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S6 consisted of 1944 nucleotides with an ORF of 607 amino acids and could encode a protein of 68 kDa, termed P68. Motif scan and molecular docking analysis of P68 showed the presence of two cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domains and ATP binding sites. The ORF of AmCPV S6 was expressed in E. coli as His-tag fusion protein and polyclonal antibody was raised. Immunoblot analysis of virus infected gut cells and purified polyhedra using raised anti-p68 polyclonal antibody showed that S6 encodes a viral structural protein. Fluorescence and ATPase assay of soluble P68 produced in Sf-9 cells via baculovirus expression system showed its ability to bind and cleave ATP. These results suggest that P68 may bind viral RNA through CBS domains and help in replication and transcription through ATP binding and hydrolysis. PMID:18486179

Chavali, Venkata R M; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Ghorai, Suvankar; Roy, Sobhan; Das, Amit K; Ghosh, Ananta K

2008-05-16

111

Antheraea pernyi Silk Fiber: A Potential Resource for Artificially Biospinning Spider Dragline Silk  

PubMed Central

The outstanding properties of spider dragline silk are likely to be determined by a combination of the primary sequences and the secondary structure of the silk proteins. Antheraea pernyi silk has more similar sequences to spider dragline silk than the silk from its domestic counterpart, Bombyx mori. This makes it much potential as a resource for biospinning spider dragline silk. This paper further verified its possibility as the resource from the mechanical properties and the structures of the A. pernyi silks prepared by forcible reeling. It is surprising that the stress-strain curves of the A. pernyi fibers show similar sigmoidal shape to those of spider dragline silk. Under a controlled reeling speed of 95?mm/s, the breaking energy was 1.04 × 105?J/kg, the tensile strength was 639 MPa and the initial modulus was 9.9 GPa. It should be noted that this breaking energy of the A. pernyi silk approaches that of spider dragline silk. The tensile properties, the optical orientation and the ?-sheet structure contents of the silk fibers are remarkably increased by raising the spinning speeds up to 95?mm/s.

Zhang, Yaopeng; Yang, Hongxia; Shao, Huili; Hu, Xuechao

2010-01-01

112

Functional analysis of the inhibitor of apoptosis genes in Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) plays an important role in cell apoptosis. We cloned two novel IAP family members, Ap-iap1 and Ap-iap2, from Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus (ApNPV) genome. Ap-IAP1 contains two baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains followed by a RING domain, but Ap-IAP2 has only one BIR domain and RING. The result of transient expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) showed that Ap-iap1 blocked cell apoptosis induced by actinomycin D treatment and also rescued the p35 deficient Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) to replicate in Sf9 cells, while Ap-iap2 does not have this function. Several Ap-IAP1 truncations were constructed to test the activity of BIRs or RING motif to inhibit cell apoptosis. The results indicated that BIRs or RING of Ap-IAP1 had equally function to inhibit cell apoptosis. Therefore deletion of above both of the above domains could not block apoptosis induced by actinomycin D or rescue the replication of AcMNPV Delta p35. We also screened two phage-display peptides that might interact with Ap-IAP1. PMID:20437152

Yan, Feng; Deng, Xiaobei; Yan, Junpeng; Wang, Jiancheng; Yao, Lunguang; Lv, Songya; Qi, Yipeng; Xu, Hua

2010-05-01

113

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10,000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia are characterized by rectangularly shaped rhabdoms containing parallel microvilli arranged in groups that are oriented perpendicular to each other. In all other ommatidia, the proximal parts of the rhabdoms show radially arranged microvilli, whereas the distal parts may reveal different patterns, frequently with microvilli in two directions or sometimes even in one direction. Moreover, the microvilli of all distal cells are arranged in parallel to meridians of the eyes. By virtue of these structural features the eyes should enable this moth not only discrimination of the plane of polarized light but also skylight-orientation via the polarization pattern, depending on moon position. The receptor cells exhibit only small alterations during daylight within the natural diurnal cycle. However, under illumination with different monochromatic lights of physiological intensity, receptor cells can be unbalanced: Changes in ultrastructure of the rhabdomeres and the cytoplasm of such cells are evident. The effects are different in the daytime and at night. These findings are discussed in relation to the breakdown and regeneration of microvilli and the influence of the diurnal cycle. They are compared with results on photoreceptor membrane turnover in eyes of other arthropod species. PMID:3383218

Anton-Erxleben, F; Langer, H

1988-05-01

114

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope.  

PubMed

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species. PMID:17057700

Holland, C; Terry, A E; Porter, D; Vollrath, F

2006-10-22

115

Identification of plasmalogen in the gut of silkworm (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

Herbivorous insect species are constantly challenged with endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress. Consequently, they possess an array of antioxidant enzymes and small molecular weight antioxidants. Lipid-soluble small molecular antioxidants, such as tocopherols, have not been well studied in insects but may play important antioxidant roles. In this study, we identified plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamines (pPEs) as well as ?-, ?/?-, ?-tocopherol in the larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori by LCMS analyses and examined their distribution. Plasmalogen are reported to inhibit the metal ion induced oxidation. The composition of tocopherols was the same among gut contents, gut tissues, and the other tissues. However, plasmalogens, a unique class of glycerophospholipids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and containing a vinyl ether bond at the sn-1 position, were mainly distributed in gut tissues. Plasmalogens might protect gut tissues from oxidation stress. PMID:22580185

Aboshi, Takako; Nishida, Ritsuo; Mori, Naoki

2012-05-03

116

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

2006-11-01

117

Zygotic amplification of secondary piRNAs during silkworm embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 23–30-nucleotide-long small RNAs that act as sequence-specific silencers of transposable elements in animal gonads. In flies, genetics and deep sequencing data have led to a hypothesis for piRNA biogenesis called the ping-pong cycle, where antisense primary piRNAs initiate an amplification loop to generate sense secondary piRNAs. However, to date, the process of the ping-pong cycle has never been monitored at work. Here, by large-scale profiling of piRNAs from silkworm ovary and embryos of different developmental stages, we demonstrate that maternally inherited antisense-biased piRNAs trigger acute amplification of secondary sense piRNA production in zygotes, at a time coinciding with zygotic transcription of sense transposon mRNAs. These results provide on-site evidence for the ping-pong cycle.

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Arai, Yuji; Kadota, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hara, Kahori; Sugano, Sumio; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2011-01-01

118

Specificity determinants of the silkworm moth sex pheromone.  

PubMed

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1-C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M; Pickett, John A; Leal, Walter S

2012-09-05

119

Food utilization efficiency in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) infected with Nosema sp. and its effect on reproductive potential and silk production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antheraea mylitta, a sericigenous insect of economical importance is often infected with an intracellular parasite of the genus Nosema. This pathogen is known to cause fatal pebrine disease and is considered as an important factor that strongly influences the development of the host. Larvae developed from the eggs laid by a female infected with Nosema sp. showed extended development period.

S. S. Rath; B. C. Prasad; B. R. R. P. Sinha

2003-01-01

120

Analysis of bacteria-challenged wild silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (lepidoptera) transcriptome reveals potential immune genes  

PubMed Central

Background In the recent years a strong resemblance has been observed between the insect immune system and the mammalian innate immune mechanisms suggesting their common origin. Among the insects, only the dipterans (Drosophila and various mosquito species) have been widely investigated for their immune responses towards diverse pathogens. In the present study we constructed and analysed the immune transcriptome of the lepidopteran Antheraea mylitta, an economically important Indian tasar silkmoth with a view to unravel the potential immune-related genes and pathways. Results An expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from mRNA obtained from fat bodies of A. mylitta larvae that had been challenged by infection with Escherichia coli cells. We identified 719 unique ESTs from a total of 1412 sequences so generated. A third of the transcriptome showed similarity with previously characterized immune-related genes that included both the known and putative immune genes. Of the four putative novel defence proteins (DFPs) annotated by PSI-BLAST three showed similarity to extracellular matrix proteins from vertebrates implicated in innate immunity, while the fourth was similar to, yet distinct from, the anti-microbial protein cecropin. Finally, we analysed the expression profiles of 15 potential immune-related genes, and the majority of them were induced more prominently with E. coli compared to Micrococcus luteus. We also identified several unknown proteins, some of which could have probable immune-related functions based on the results of the ProDom analysis. Conclusion The present study has identified many potential immune-related genes in A. mylitta some of which are vertebrate homologues and others are hitherto unreported putative defence proteins. Several genes were present as members of gene families, as has also been observed in other insect species.

Gandhe, Archana S; Arunkumar, KP; John, Serene H; Nagaraju, J

2006-01-01

121

Analysis of Genetic Divergence for Classification of Morphological and Larval Gain Characteristics of Peanut Cocoon Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) Germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis was undertaken for grouping the 51 lines silkworm, Bombyx mori L., based on larval gains parameters in the clustering process. The analysis was based on data from one rearing seasons with all 51 peanut cocoon strains of silkworm and varying morphological development potentials. The results indicate that two clusters can be realized based on larval

M. Salehi Nezhad; S. Z. Mirhosseini

2009-01-01

122

Silkworm eggs: An ideal model for studying the biological effects of low energy Ar+ ion interaction in animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of the current work was to study low energy Ar+ ion beam interactions with silkworm eggs and thus provide further understanding of the mechanisms involved in ion bombardment-induced direct gene transfer into silkworm eggs. In this paper, using low-energy Ar+ ion beam bombardment combined with piggyBac transposon, we developed a novel method to induce gene transfer in silkworm. Using bombardment conditions optimized for egg-incubation (25 keV with ion fluences of 800 × 2.6 × 1015 ions/cm2 in dry state under vacuum), vector pBac{3 × P3-EGFPaf} and helper plasmid pHA3pig were successfully transferred into the silkworm eggs. Our results obtained from by PCR assay and genomic Southern blotting analysis of the G1 generations provide evidence that low-energy ion beam can generate some craters that play a role in acting as pathways of exogenous DNA molecules into silkworm eggs.

Ling, Lin; Liu, Xuelan; Xu, Jiaping; You, Zhengying; Zhou, Jingbo

2011-09-01

123

PhiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange in silkworm embryos.  

PubMed

To construct an effective site-specific integration system in the silkworm, we examined if phiC31 integrase works in silkworm embryos. As an assay system, we constructed an extrachromosomal cassette exchange reaction system between two attP sites of an acceptor plasmid and two attB sites of a donor plasmid. To evaluate the activity, integrase mRNAs synthesized from three different plasmids were used. We injected a mixture of the acceptor and donor plasmids with the mRNA synthesized in vitro from one of the three plasmids into silkworm embryos at 4-6 h after oviposition and recovered plasmid DNAs from the embryos 3 days after injection. The resultant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli and spread on selection medium plates containing the appropriate antibiotics. A colony-forming assay and restriction enzyme digestion of the plasmids purified from the colonies showed that the phiC31 integrase worked very efficiently in the silkworm embryos. Notably, a phiC31 integrase mRNA synthesized from two of the plasmids produced cassette exchange plasmids at a high frequency, suggesting that the mRNA can be used to construct a targeted integration system in silkworms. PMID:22842670

Yonemura, N; Tamura, T; Uchino, K; Kobayashi, I; Tatematsu, K; Iizuka, T; Sezutsu, H; Muthulakshmi, M; Nagaraju, J; Kusakabe, T

2012-07-29

124

Expression, purification and antigenicity of Neospora caninum-antigens using silkworm larvae targeting for subunit vaccines.  

PubMed

Infection of Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. Now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. In this study, N. caninum surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and SAG1-related sequence 2 (SRS2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. Expressed SAG1 and SRS2 clearly showed antigenicity against N. caninum-positive sera of cow. SAG1 and SRS2 were purified to near homogeneity from hemolymph of silkworm larvae using anti-FLAG M2 antibody agarose: approximately 1.7 mg of SAG1 from 10 silkworm larvae and 370 ?g of SRS2 from 17 silkworm larvae. Mice that were injected by antigens induced antibodies against SAG1 and SRS2. This study indicates that it is possible that this silkworm expression system leads to a large-scale production of N. caninum-antigens with biological function and low production cost. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system paves the way to produce largely and rapidly these recombinant antigens for its application to subunit vaccines against neosporosis in cattle. PMID:23102762

Otsuki, Takahiro; Dong, Jinhua; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2012-10-08

125

Identification and Evolution of the Silkworm Helitrons and their Contribution to Transcripts  

PubMed Central

In this study, we developed a structure-based approach to identify Helitrons in four lepidopterans and systematically analysed Helitrons in the silkworm genome. We found that the content of Helitrons varied greatly among genomes. The silkworm genome harboured 67 555 Helitron-related sequences that could be classified into 21 families and accounted for ?4.23% of the genome. Thirteen of the families were new. Three families were putatively autonomous and included the replication initiator motif and helicase domain. The silkworm Helitrons were widely and randomly distributed in the genome. Most Helitron families radiated within the past 2 million years and experienced a single burst of expansion. These Helitron families captured 3724 gene fragments and contributed to at least 1.4% of the silkworm full-length cDNAs, suggesting important roles of Helitrons in the evolution of the silkworm genes. In addition, we found that some new Helitrons were generated by combinations of other Helitrons. Overall, the results presented in this study provided insights into the generation and evolution of Helitron transposons and their contribution to transcripts.

Han, Min-Jin; Shen, Yi-Hong; Xu, Meng-Shu; Liang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Zhang, Ze

2013-01-01

126

Seasonal Variation in Food Consumption, Assimilation, and Conversion Efficiency of Indian Bivoltine Hybrid Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Food consumption and utilization is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Under different environmental, feeding, and nutritional conditions, and with ingestion of the same amount of mulberry leaves, the silkworm shows significant difference in its ability to digest, absorb, and convert food to body matter. Here, influences of season, temperature, and humidity on food intake, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of the Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2 × CSR4) Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were studied. The results indicated that food ingestion and assimilation were significantly higher among silkworm batches where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained compared with silkworm batches exposed to natural climatic conditions of the respective season. However, during summer the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher among silkworms reared under natural temperature and humidity conditions when compared with the control. During the winter and rainy season, the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher in control batches, where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained. Ingesta and digesta required to produce one gram of cocoon/shell were also lower in control batches for all seasons except summer. This may be due to the physiological adaptation of silkworms to overcome stress during the summer season.

Rahmathulla, V. K.; Suresh, H. M.

2012-01-01

127

Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and ubiquitous in all living organisms, including animals, plants, insects, and microbes. It plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification, and pheromone degradation, neurogenesis and regulating development. Previous studies mainly used Dipteran Drosophila and mosquitoes as model organisms to investigate the roles of the insect COEs in insecticide resistance. However, genome-wide characterization of COEs in phytophagous insects and comparative analysis remain to be performed. Results Based on the newly assembled genome sequence, 76 putative COEs were identified in Bombyx mori. Relative to other Dipteran and Hymenopteran insects, alpha-esterases were significantly expanded in the silkworm. Genomics analysis suggested that BmCOEs showed chromosome preferable distribution and 55% of which were tandem arranged. Sixty-one BmCOEs were transcribed based on cDNA/ESTs and microarray data. Generally, most of the COEs showed tissue specific expressions and expression level between male and female did not display obvious differences. Three main patterns could be classified, i.e. midgut-, head and integument-, and silk gland-specific expressions. Midgut is the first barrier of xenobiotics peroral toxicity, in which COEs may be involved in eliminating secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves and contaminants of insecticides in diet. For head and integument-class, most of the members were homologous to odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE) and antennal esterase. RT-PCR verified that the ODE-like esterases were also highly expressed in larvae antenna and maxilla, and thus they may play important roles in degradation of plant volatiles or other xenobiotics. Conclusion B. mori has the largest number of insect COE genes characterized to date. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the gene expansion mainly occurred in silkworm alpha-esterases. Expression evidence indicated that the expanded genes were specifically expressed in midgut, integument and head, implying that these genes may have important roles in detoxifying secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves, contaminants in diet, and odorants. Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects.

2009-01-01

128

Space flight experiment on chinese silkworm on board the Russian 10th biosatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space flight experiments on Chinese silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) were conducted on board the Russian 10th Biosatellite for 12 days. The samples included silkworm eggs, larvae, cocoons, pupae and moths. The processes of spinning, cocooning, mating, oviposition, larval hatching, pupation and moth emergence all completed well in space. The following effects of space flight on silkworm development were observed: The times of hatching and oviposition in the flight group were 2 to 3 days earlier than in the control group; the hatching rate of diapause eggs during space flight seemed higher than that of the control group; the life span of 2 of the 7 varieties flown was shortened; genetical variations appeared in 3 varieties. The results showed that the embryonic stage was probably the period most sensitive to the space flight environment.

Zhizhen, Shi; Dahuan, Zhuang; Ilyin, Eugene A.

129

Vitellogenin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: An Effective Anti-Bacterial Agent  

PubMed Central

Silkworm, Bombyx mori, vitellogenin (Vg) was isolated from perivisceral fat body of day 3 of pupa. Both Vg subunits were co-purified as verified by mass spectrometry and immunoblot. Purified Vg responded to specific tests for major posttranslational modifications on native gels indicating its nature as lipo-glyco-phosphoprotein. The Vg fraction had strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microscopic images showed binding of Vg to bacterial cells and their destruction. When infected silkworm larvae were treated with purified Vg they survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. This result showed that Vg has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of bacteria in the silkworm fluid system without disturbing the regular metabolism of the host.

Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Tulika; Kannan, Mani; Konig, Simone

2013-01-01

130

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. by sperm-mediated gene transfer.  

PubMed

The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. has important roles in basic biological research and applied science. To explore the practical use of transgenic technology in agricultural silkworm varieties, we fused the neomycin-resistance gene (Neo(R)) and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) into the piggyBac-based transposon vector and transduced it into silkworms by sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). Fluorescence observation indicated the positive rate of G0 egg-batches is 72.7%. After screening against the antibiotic G418, development of individual larvae in the same brood showed significant size differences. PCR detection indicated the existence of gfp and Neo(R) and confirmed the positive rate of transgenesis as 0.47%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the exogenous genes in the genome of G7 larvae. These results show that our strategy is practical and markedly improves the efficiency of SMGT. PMID:23100618

Zhou, Wenlin; Gong, Chengliang; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Cao, Jinru; Ye, Aihong; Weng, Hongbiao; Wang, Yongqiang

2012-12-21

131

Silkworms Can be Used as an Animal Model to Screen and Evaluate Gouty Therapeutic Drugs  

PubMed Central

In the past few decades, the mouse has been used as a mammalian model for hyperuricemia and gout, which has increased not only in prevalence, but also in clinical complexity, accentuated in part by a dearth of novel advances in treatments for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. However, the use of mice for the development of gouty therapeutic drugs creates a number of problems. Thus, identification and evaluation of the therapeutic effects of chemicals in an alternative animal model is desirable. In the present study, the effects of gouty therapeutic drugs on lowering the content of uric acid and inhibiting activity of xanthine oxidase were evaluated by using a silkworm model, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). The results showed that the effectiveness of oral administration of various gouty therapeutic drugs to 5th instar silkworms is consistent with results for human. The activity of xanthine oxidase of silkworm treated with allopurinol was lower, and declined in a dose-dependent manner compared with control silkworms, while sodium bicarbonate failed at inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase. The concentration of uric acid in the both hemolymph and fat body declined by 90 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of allopurinol, respectively (p < 0.01), while the concentration of uric acid in both the hemolymph and fat body also declined by 81 and 95% at six days post-administration with 25 mg/mL of sodium bicarbonate, respectively (p < 0.01). Moreover, the epidermis of silkworm treated with allopurinol or sodium bicarbonate became transparent compared with the negative control group. These results suggest that silkworm larva can be used as an animal model for screening and evaluation of gouty therapeutic drugs.

Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Pan, Zhonghua; Zheng, Xiaojian; Gong, Chengliang

2012-01-01

132

Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages  

PubMed Central

Background The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the 3rd day of fifth instar, the 6th day of fifth instar, the 3rd day of pupation, the 8th day of pupal stage and the first day of the moth stage, was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that from the larval to moth stages, silkworm hemolymph proteins changed markedly. Not only did major proteins such as SP1, SP2, and the 30 K lipoprotein change, but other proteins varied greatly at different stages. To understand the functions of these proteins in silkworm development, 56 spots were excised from gels for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 34 proteins involved in metamorphosis, programmed cell death, food digestion, metabolism, and nutrient storage and transport. Most proteins showed different expression at different stages, suggesting functions in development and metamorphosis. An abundance of proteins related to immunity were found, including hemolin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, paralytic peptide-binding protein, and protease inhibitor. Conclusions Proteomics research not only provides the opportunity for direct investigation of protein expression patterns, but also identifies many attractive candidates for further study. Two-dimensional maps of hemolymph proteins expressed during the growth and metamorphosis of the silkworm offer important insights into hemolymph function and insect metamorphosis.

2010-01-01

133

"Tall oaks fallen"  

PubMed Central

“As when, upon a tranced summer-night, Those green-robed senators of mighty woods, Tall oaks, branch-charmed by the earnest stars, Dream, and so dream all night without a stir.”                                                      William Butler Yeats       The past 12 months saw the loss of three “tall oaks”—pioneers in the molecular and cell biology of chromosomes:  David Prescott, Paul Doty and Oscar Miller. Here I offer remembrances of each of them, not as definitive memoirs but simply with the goal of informing the next generation about pioneers whose names they may hardly know today.

Pederson, Thoru

2012-01-01

134

Heterologous Expression Characteristics of Trichoderma viride Endoglucanase V in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient degradation of cellulose needs a synergistic reaction of the cellulolytic enzymes, which include exoglucanases,\\u000a endoglucanases, and ?-1,4-glucosidase. In this study, we used an improved Bac-to-Bac\\/BmNPV baculovirus expression system,\\u000a which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), to express the endoglucanase V (EG V) gene from Trichoderma viride in silkworm BmN cells and silkworm larvae,

Xing-hua Li; Mei-xian Wang; Peng Zhang; Jia-biao Hu; Chun-guang Sun; Xin-ju Liu; Fang Zhou; Yan-shan Niu; Firdose Ahmad Malik; Roy Bhaskar; Hua-jun Yang; Yun-gen Miao

135

[Replication of Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus (Zhenjiang isolate) in different silkworm strains].  

PubMed

The invertebrate parvovirus Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus type 3(Zhenjiang isolate), named BmDNV-3, is a kind of bidensovirus. The most obvious characteristic in the genome of BmDNV-3 is that it has 2 sets of DNA molecular (VD1, VD2),and each of them is encapsidated respectively in the form of single-stranded liner DNA ( + VD1, - VD1, + VD2, - VD2) in equal percentage. So the BmDNV-3 has 4 kinds of virions. Furthermore the sequence of BmDNV-3 is able to encode DNA polymerase itself. Some strains of silkworm revealed complete resistance to BmDNV-3, so they didn' t fall sick. To investigate the difference in the process of infection and replication between the 2 virions ( VD1, VD2) of this bidensovirus, and the difference of the increment in the resistant or susceptible host, the 5th instar larvae of the susceptible silkworm strain (HUABA 35) and the resistant silkworm strain(QIUFENG d) were inoculated determinate dose of BmDNV-3 by oral ingestion. Then the midgut were collected at 9 timepoints. The silkworm cytoplasm actin A3 was used to be normalized gene, so the number of cells in collected tissue could be determined. The result shows that whatever in the susceptible silkworm strain or in the resistant one, the copies of VD1 and VD2 in the genome of BmDNV-3 collected at the different timepoint were almost at the equal level respectively, so that the VD1 and VD2 were replicated with synchronization. The process of infection in the susceptible silkworm strain was devided into 3 partitions, latent period( 2 - 12 hours post inoculation), exponential phase (12 - 36 hours post inoculation)and stationary phase (36- 96 hours post inoculation and there are about 2 x 10(5) copies per cell) . In the resistant silkworm strain, the virus were replicated at a very low level, that was from 6 - 10 copies 2 hours post inoculation to 150 - 200 copies 96 hours post inoculation (about 20 times) . So we predict that the resistance in some of the silkworm strains from BmDNV-3 was a kind of chronic representation that the host carried virus without being caused flacherie. PMID:17366904

Han, Xu; Yao, Qin; Gao, Lu; Wang, Yong-Jie; Bao, Fang; Chen, Ke-Ping

2007-01-01

136

Structure of Bombyx mori densovirus 1, a silkworm pathogen.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori densovirus 1 (BmDNV-1), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes significant losses to the silk industry. The structure of the recombinant BmDNV-1 virus-like particle has been determined at 3.1-Ĺ resolution using X-ray crystallography. It is the first near-atomic-resolution structure of a virus-like particle within the genus Iteravirus. The particles consist of 60 copies of the 55-kDa VP3 coat protein. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel "jelly roll" fold similar to that found in many diverse icosahedral viruses, including archaeal, bacterial, plant, and animal viruses, as well as other parvoviruses. Most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to other known parvovirus capsid proteins. In contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses, the N-terminal ?-strand of BmDNV-1 VP3 is positioned relative to the neighboring 2-fold related subunit in a "domain-swapped" conformation, similar to findings for other invertebrate parvoviruses, suggesting domain swapping is an evolutionarily conserved structural feature of the Densovirinae. PMID:21367906

Kaufmann, Bärbel; El-Far, Mohamed; Plevka, Pavel; Bowman, Valorie D; Li, Yi; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

2011-03-02

137

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing.

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-01-01

138

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing. PMID:23226833

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-12-06

139

Effects of applaud on the growth of silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the insecticide Applaud (buprofezin 25% WP) on the silkworm Bombyx mori (L.). This insecticide belongs to the class of insect growth regulators (IGR). The larvae were fed on leaves treated with 3 different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 g/liter) of Applaud on the 1st d of each instar. Analysis of data with the Tukey-Kramer test at 1% significant level revealed that mortality and larval duration did not differ among the treatments. On the contrary, the larval weight, which was estimated just before mounting (procedure during which the mature larva climbing on a branch or other material to spin the cocoon), differed among the treatments. Also, cocoon weight, shell weight, and cocoon sericin and fibroin content were different among the treatments, except the shell cocoon ratio. Maximum weight was observed in the controls and minimum in the last instar treatments. Our data suggest that supplementation of Applaud through food to larvae does not affect their mortality rate. On the contrary, it affects larval growth and cocoon parameters. PMID:10826174

Vassarmidaki, M E; Harizanis, P C; Katsikis, S

2000-04-01

140

Structure of Bombyx mori Densovirus 1, a Silkworm Pathogen?‡  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori densovirus 1 (BmDNV-1), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes significant losses to the silk industry. The structure of the recombinant BmDNV-1 virus-like particle has been determined at 3.1-Ĺ resolution using X-ray crystallography. It is the first near-atomic-resolution structure of a virus-like particle within the genus Iteravirus. The particles consist of 60 copies of the 55-kDa VP3 coat protein. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel “jelly roll” fold similar to that found in many diverse icosahedral viruses, including archaeal, bacterial, plant, and animal viruses, as well as other parvoviruses. Most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to other known parvovirus capsid proteins. In contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses, the N-terminal ?-strand of BmDNV-1 VP3 is positioned relative to the neighboring 2-fold related subunit in a “domain-swapped” conformation, similar to findings for other invertebrate parvoviruses, suggesting domain swapping is an evolutionarily conserved structural feature of the Densovirinae.

Kaufmann, Barbel; El-Far, Mohamed; Plevka, Pavel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

2011-01-01

141

Oak Ridge hosts applications workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

From October 1–3, 2001 a workshop on Applications of Neutron Scattering to Materials Science was held in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The workshop was organized through the Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences (JINS). Sponsors included Oak Ridge Associated Universities, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Georgia Institute of Technology, and North Carolina State University. More than 160 attended from

Xun-Li Wang; Allen Ekkebus; Linda Harton; Tom Holden; Lee Magid

2002-01-01

142

Evaluation of therapeutic effects and pharmacokinetics of antibacterial chromogenic agents in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of dye compounds with antibacterial activity was evaluated in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Among 13 chromogenic agents that show antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.02 to 19 ?g/mL), rifampicin had a therapeutic effect. The ED(50) value in the silkworm model was consistent with that in a murine model. Other 12 dyes did not increase survival of the infected silkworms. We examined the reason for the lack of therapeutic efficacy. Amidol, pyronin G, and safranin were toxic to silkworms, which explained the lack of therapeutic effects. Fuchsin basic and methyl green disappeared quickly from the hemolymph after injection, suggesting that they are not stable in the hemolymph. Although coomassie brilliant blue R250/G250, cresyl blue, and nigrosin showed no toxic effects or instability in the hemolymph, they also did not have a therapeutic effect. The in vitro antibacterial actions of these dyes were inhibited by silkworm plasma or bovine serum albumin and filtration experiments demonstrated that cresyl blue bound to plasma proteins in the silkworm, suggesting that plasma protein binding inhibited the therapeutic efficacy of these four dyes. These findings indicate that drug screening using the silkworm infection model is useful for evaluating toxicity and pharmacokinetics of potential antibiotics. PMID:22491238

Fujiyuki, T; Imamura, K; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K

2010-10-01

143

Cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Antheraea mylitta (AmGAPDH) was cloned in pQE30 vector, overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 (pREP4) cells and purified to homogeneity. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.81, b = 133.72, c = 220.37?Ĺ. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 2.2?Ĺ. The presence of three molecules in the asymmetric unit gave a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.80?Ĺ3?Da?1, with a solvent content of 56.08%.

Mukherjee, Somnath; Maity, Samita; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Agarwal, Rachit; Dutta, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Das, Amit Kumar

2009-01-01

144

Cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Antheraea mylitta (AmGAPDH) was cloned in pQE30 vector, overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 (pREP4) cells and purified to homogeneity. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.81, b = 133.72, c = 220.37 A. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 2.2 A. The presence of three molecules in the asymmetric unit gave a Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 2.80 A(3) Da(-1), with a solvent content of 56.08%. PMID:19724138

Mukherjee, Somnath; Maity, Samita; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Agarwal, Rachit; Dutta, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar; Das, Amit Kumar

2009-08-26

145

Synthesis of pheromone-oriented emergent behavior of a silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to clarify moth emergent behavior by synthesis with currently developed tools, including living sensors and recurrent neural networks. The antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive compared with artificial gas sensors. These living antennae can be used as living gas sensors that can detect pheromone molecules with high sensitivity. Recurrent artificial neural networks

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama; Yushi Sayama; Hirofumi Miura

1996-01-01

146

Cell cycle events during the development of the silk glands in the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silk glands of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori are long and paired structures originating from the labial region and are anatomically and physiologically divided into three major compartments, the anterior, middle and posterior silk glands. The silk gland morphogenesis is complete by 8 days post egg laying. Extensive growth of silk glands during the larval stages is due to increase in

Sangeeta Dhawan; K. P. Gopinathan

2003-01-01

147

Phenol oxidase is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting which is regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. The molting process includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis excoriation etc. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the phenol oxidase was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that polyphenol oxidases are one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the role of ecdysone in regulation of molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of phenol oxidase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the phenol oxidase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. PPO1 RNAi induced phenol oxidase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae incomplete pupation. Overall, the results described that the phenol oxidase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23275200

Wang, Mei-xian; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Liang, Shuang; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2012-12-29

148

Sperm precedence and sperm movement under different copulation intervals in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm precedence and sperm movement were investigated under different copulation intervals in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The mass of sperm began to enter the spermatheca 1 h after copulation ended, and the number of sperm gradually increased in the spermatheca and attained a plateau when the spermatheca was filled at about 2.5 h after the end of copulation. Thereafter, the

Nobuhiko Suzuki; Takashi Okuda; Hitoshi Shinbo

1996-01-01

149

Recycling of urea associated with the host plant urease in the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea concentration and urease activity in the midgut content were compared between larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori fed an artificial diet and those fed fresh mulberry leaves. A considerable amount of urea was found in the midgut content of the both larvae, however it was significantly lower in the larvae fed fresh mulberry leaves than in the larvae fed

Chikara Hirayama; Masahiro Sugimura; Hiroshi Shinbo

1999-01-01

150

Conversion of Glycogen to Sorbitol and Glycerol in the Diapause Egg of the Bombyx Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of biochemical studies1 on the embryonic diapause of the Bombyx silkworm, it has been shown that the glycogen content of the egg decreases markedly at the onset of diapause and reaches the lowest level at about thirty days after oviposition. When diapause is broken by cold treatment, glycogen increases progressively even at low temperature and regains the

Haruo Chino

1957-01-01

151

Genomic analysis of carboxyl\\/cholinesterase genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carboxyl\\/cholinesterases (CCEs) have pivotal roles in dietary detoxification, pheromone or hormone degradation and neurodevelopment. The recent completion of genome projects in various insect species has led to the identification of multiple CCEs with unknown functions. Here, we analyzed the phylogeny, expression and genomic distribution of 69 putative CCEs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). RESULTS: A phylogenetic tree

Takuya Tsubota; Takahiro Shiotsuki

2010-01-01

152

A defective non-LTR retrotransposon is dispersed throughout the genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of long repetitive sequences is demonstrated in the genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Members of this BMC1 family reveal several features typical of the L1 (long interspersed sequence one) family of mammals, except for species specific elements. The number of BMC1 elements is estimated to be approximately 3500 per haploid genome. Elements containing the full length unit

Teru Ogura; Kazuhiro Okano; Kozo Tsuchida; Naoko Miyajima; Hideho Tanaka; Naoko Takada; Susumu Izumi; Shiro Tomino; Hideaki Maekawa

1994-01-01

153

Catalase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Gene sequence, distribution, and overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms require mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Catalase is one of the regulatory enzymes and facilitates the degradation of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Biochemical information on an insect catalase is, however, insufficient. Using mRNA from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a cDNA encoding a putative catalase was

Kohji Yamamoto; Yutaka Banno; Hiroshi Fujii; Fumio Miake; Nobuhiro Kashige; Yoichi Aso

2005-01-01

154

Expression of grass carp growth hormone by baculovirus in silkworm larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of five recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (BMNPV) carrying the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) cDNA were constructed in this study. Two of them were able to express the hormone up to a level of 12 ?g\\/ml medium when cultured B. mori cells were infected for 4 days. Inoculation of the viruses into silkworm (B.

W. K. K. Ho; Z. Q. Meng; H. R. Lin; C. T. Poon; Y. K. Leung; K. T. Yan; N. Dias; A. P. K. Che; J. Liu; W. M. Zheng; Y. Sun; A. O. L. Wong

1998-01-01

155

Analysis of the genetic information of a DNA segment of a new virus from silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 1983, a parvo-like virus (Yamanashi isolate) was newly isolated from silkworm. However, unlike parvovirus, two DNA molecules (VD1 and 2) were always extracted from purified virions. To investigate the structure and organization of the virus genomes, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of VD2. The sequence consisted of 6031 nucleotides (nts) and contained a large open reading frame

H. Bando; T. Hayakawa; S. Asano; K. Sahara; M. Nakagaki; T. Iizuka

1995-01-01

156

Expression and functions of dopa decarboxylase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori was regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. Molting includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis shed and other series of continuous processes. Polyphenol oxidases, dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the dopa decarboxylase (BmDdc) was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that dopa decarboxylase is one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the regulation of ecdysone at the time of biological molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of dopa decarboxylase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was also observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the dopa decarboxylase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. BmDdc RNAi induced dopa decarboxylase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae appeared no pupation or incomplete pupation. BmDdc was mainly expressed and stored in the peripheral plasma area near the nucleus in BmN cells. In larval, BmDdc was mainly located in the brain and epidermis, which is consisted with its function in sclerotization and melanization. Overall, the results described that the dopa decarboxylase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23640098

Wang, Mei-xian; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Liang, Shuang; Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Kim, Jong-Nam; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2013-05-03

157

Immunocytochemical location of vitellin in the egg of the silkworm, Bombyx mori , during early developmental stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellin was purified from eggs of the silkworm,Bombyx mori, by a new method in which vitellin was extracted from isolated yolk granules. The purified vitellin had a molecular weight of 540,000. An antibody against purified vitellin was prepared in rabbits. It reacted with the hemolymph vitellogenin as well as with purified vitellin, but not with other proteins in the hemolymph

Sachiko Takesue; Kazuo Onitake; Hiroomi Keino; Yoshiki Takesue

1983-01-01

158

Identification of a midgut-specific promoter in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The midgut is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients and immune defense in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In an attempt to create a tool for midgut research, we cloned the 1080 bp P2 promoter sequence (P2P) of a highly expressed midgut-specific gene in the silkworm. The transgenic line (P2) was generated via embryo microinjection, in which the expression of EGFP was driven by P2P. There was strong green fluorescence only in the midgut of P2. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that P2P was a midgut-specific promoter with activity throughout the larval stage. A transgenic truncation experiment suggested that regions -305 to -214 and +107 to +181 were very important for P2P activity. The results of this study revealed that we have identified a midgut-specific promoter with a high level of activity in the silkworm that will aid future research and application of silkworm genes. PMID:23524268

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Dang, Yinghui; Peng, Zhengwen; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Shiping; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Sun, Qiang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-03-21

159

Isotherm, thermodynamic, kinetics and adsorption mechanism studies of methyl orange by surfactant modified silkworm exuviae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of organo-modified silkworm exuviae (MSE) adsorbent prepared by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) for removing methyl orange (MO), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The natural and modified samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to remove

Hao Chen; Jie Zhao; Junyong Wu; Guoliang Dai

2011-01-01

160

Construction of a brain-machine hybrid system to analyze adaptive behavior of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a brain-machine hybrid system (BMHS) which is able to solve the chemical plume tracking (CPT) problem using the brain of the male silkworm moth. The purpose of the system is to investigate adaptability which results from interactions between brain, body, and environment. In this paper, we describe a BMHS architecture and experiments to verify that the behavior

Atsushi Takashima; Ryo Minegishi; Daisuke Kurabayashi; Ryohei Kanzaki

2010-01-01

161

Oak Savanna Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will study the oak savannah ecosystems in Oregon to determine the environmental conditions that support this specific ecosystem. This lesson will be an inquiry based lesson that will create the foundation of a larger class project in which students explore the ecological changes to an area over time, and, using this data, develop an ecosystem determination and restoration plan for a site east of Cottage Grove. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Aumack, Stefan

2011-09-15

162

The White Oaks Laccoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAbout 12 miles to the northeast of Carrizozo lies the ghost town of White Oaks. Thisonce thriving mining community rests in a small valley surrounded by three wrinkled androunded mountain peaks: the remains of a ancient cluster of laccoliths (see attachedFigure 1). To the northwest lies Lone Mountain with its associated peak, BaxterMountain, while to the southeast lies Patos Mountain

James Richardson

163

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles relieve biochemical dysfunctions of fifth-instar larvae of silkworms following exposure to phoxim insecticide.  

PubMed

Phoxim insecticide is widely used in agriculture, which is toxic to insect pests and nontarget organisms. The phoxim poisoning is hard to prevent for silkworms. TiO(2) NPs have been widely applied in whitening, brightening foods, toothpaste or sunscreens, and orally-administered drugs. However, whether TiO(2) NPs can increase resistance of silkworm to phoxim poisoning has not been reported. The results demonstrated that added TiO(2) NPs significantly decreased reduction of protein, glucose and pyruvate contents, lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, and attenuated increases of free amino acids, urea, uric acid and lactate levels, activities of protease, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the hemolymph of silkworms caused by phoxim exposure. From the present study, it is clearly evident that added TiO(2) NPs may relieve toxic impacts of phoxim insecticide on silkworm metabolism, which in turn may result in an increase in silk yield. PMID:22682359

Li, Bing; Hu, Rengping; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Xie, Yi; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Sang, Xuezi; Gong, Xiaolan; Cui, Yaling; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-06

164

The scanning electron microscopic study of the infection and conidial development of Aspergillus tamarii Kita on its host, the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of Aspergillosis on the integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn., was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Aspergillosis is a fungal disease caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus tamarii Kita, which infects the silkworms in countries where sericulture (the rearing of silkworms)is prevalent. The present study\\u000a showed the course of infection and the conidial development of A. tamarii on

Vineet Kumar

2007-01-01

165

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of serine proteases and homologs in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Serine proteases (SPs) and serine proteases homologs (SPHs) are a large group of proteolytic enzymes, with important roles in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell signalling, defense and development. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of serine proteases and their homologs in the silkworm might provide valuable information about their biological functions. Results In this study, 51 SP genes and 92 SPH genes were systematically identified in the genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that six gene families have been amplified species-specifically in the silkworm, and the members of them showed chromosomal distribution of tandem repeats. Microarray analysis suggests that many silkworm-specific genes, such as members of SP_fam12, 13, 14 and 15, show expression patterns that are specific to tissues or developmental stages. The roles of SPs and SPHs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Batrytis bassiana and B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus, respectively. Microarray experiment and real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that 18 SP or SPH genes were significantly up-regulated after pathogen induction, suggesting that SP and SPH genes might participate in pathogenic microorganism resistance in B. mori. Conclusion Silkworm SP and SPH genes were identified. Comparative genomics showed that SP and SPH genes belong to a large family, whose members are generated mainly by tandem repeat evolution. We found that silkworm has species-specific SP and SPH genes. Phylogenetic and microarray analyses provide an overview of the silkworm SP and SPHs, and facilitate future functional studies on these enzymes.

2010-01-01

166

Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori

Tomoko Motohashi; Tsukasa Shimojima; Tatsuo Fukagawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2005-01-01

167

Proteome analysis of silkworm, Bombyx mori, larval gonads: characterization of proteins involved in sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is initialed by the components of the sex determination pathway and is most evident in gonads and germ cells. Although striking dimorphic expressions have been detected at the transcriptional level between the silkworm larval testis and the ovary, the sex-dimorphic expressions at the protein level have not yet been well characterized. The proteome of silkworm larval gonads was investigated using a shotgun-based identification. A total of 286 and 205 nonredundant proteins were identified from the silkworm testis and ovary, respectively, with a false discovery rate (FDR) lower than 1%. Only 40 and 16 proteins were previously identified, and 246 and 189 proteins were newly identified in the silkworm testis and the ovary, respectively. The gametogenesis mechanism of silkworm was demonstrated using the protein expression profile and bioinformatics analysis. Cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) showed to be highly abundant in testis, while tubulins were abundant in ovary. Several homologies of Drosophila essential proteins for gametogenesis were identified in silkworm, such as male meiotic arrest gene product ALY and VISMAY in testis, and maternal mRNA localization protein exuperantia and SQUID in ovary. The gene ontology (GO) annotation and pathway analysis provide system-level insights into the sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis. PMID:23607740

Chen, Jin-e; Li, Jian-ying; You, Zheng-ying; Liu, Li-li; Liang, Jian-she; Ma, Ying-ying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Hua-rong; Jiang, Zhen-dong; Zhong, Bo-xiong

2013-05-02

168

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2008-10-07

169

Identification and expression of the achaete-scute complex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Recently, the study of achaete-scute (AS-C) homologues has contributed enormously to understanding of gene duplication and function evolution, particularly in Diptera. We identified four AS-C homologue genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, referred to as BmASH, BmASH2, BmASH3, and Bmase. The complex displayed tandem array structure in the genome. Analysis of spatial expression profiles showed that they all were expressed in obviously higher levels in wing disc than in other tissues, suggesting that they might play important roles in the development of the wing. Furthermore, we found that their expression profiles in the wing discs were mostly correlated with the development of the scales, especially the BmASH gene. RNA interference results further indicated that BmASH was necessary for scale formation in silkworm wing. PMID:18651921

Tong, X-L; Dai, F-Y; Su, M-K; Ma, Y; Tan, D; Zhang, Z; He, N-J; Xia, Q-Y; Lu, C; Xiang, Z-H

2008-08-01

170

Proteomic-Based Insight into Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) and Absolute protein expression (APEX) analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera.

Liu, Shi-ping; Yi, Qi-ying; Hu, Cui-mei; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qing-you; Zhao, Ping

2013-01-01

171

Shotgun analysis on the peritrophic membrane of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The insect midgut epithelium is generally lined with a unique chitin and protein structure, the peritrophic membrane (PM), which facilitates food digestion and protects the gut epithelium. We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify the extracted proteins from the silkworm PM to obtain an in-depth understanding of the biological function of the silkworm PM components. A total of 305 proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 8.02 kDa to 788.52 kDa and the isoelectric points ranging from 3.39 to 12.91, were successfully identified. We also found several major classes of PM proteins, i.e. PM chitin-binding protein, invertebrate intestinal mucin, and chitin deacetylase. The protein profile provides a basis for further study of the physiological events in the PM of Bombyx mori. PMID:23187007

Zhong, Xiaowu; Zhang, Liping; Zou, Yong; Yi, Qiying; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-11-01

172

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

PubMed Central

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin families, were upregulated at 24 hours post the infection.

Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

2009-01-01

173

Effects of Altered Catecholamine Metabolism on Pigmentation and Physical Properties of Sclerotized Regions in the Silkworm Melanism Mutant  

PubMed Central

Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln) silkworm strain as a model. Injection of ?-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant) and Dazao (wild-type) silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research.

Liu, Xiaofan; He, Songzhen; Tong, Xiaoling; Wu, Songyuan; Hu, Hai; Wang, Rixin; Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Lushi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Jie; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-01-01

174

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

Davies, Gwilym J G; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-08-28

175

Tussah Silk Fibroin Excels Silk Fibroin from the Domesticated Silkworm in Supporting the Development of Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Artificial prostheses that are made of biomaterials hold great promise in nerve tissue engineering for the regeneration of\\u000a nervous system after injury. Silk fibroin, a fibrous protein from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been studied\\u000a extensively for its biocompatibility with a variety of cells. However, little is known about the tussah silk fibroin (TSF),\\u000a a type of wild silks

J. Qu; L. Xin; X. Xu; F. Zhang; B. Zuo; H. Zhang

176

Identification and expression of the achaete-scute complex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the study of achaete-scute ( AS-C ) homo- logues has contributed enormously to understanding of gene duplication and function evolution, particularly in Diptera. We identified four AS-C homologue genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori , referred to as BmASH , BmASH2 , BmASH3 , and Bmase . The complex displayed tandem array structure in the genome. Analysis of spatial

X.-L. Tong; F.-Y. Dai; M.-K. Su; Y. Ma; D. Tan; Z. Zhang; N.-J. He; Q.-Y. Xia; C. Lu; Z.-H. Xiang

2008-01-01

177

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts.

Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-01-01

178

Utilization of ammonia as a nitrogen source in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of ammonium salt in comparison to non-essential amino acids for growth of the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Newly ecdysed 5th-instar larvae were fed chemically defined diets containing only the ten essential amino acids supplemented with diammonium citrate (DAC), potassium glutamate (K-Glu) or a mixture of acidic plus non-essential amino acids (NEA). Alterations in larval

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1996-01-01

179

Purification and characterization of NADH-dependent glutamate synthase from the silkworm fat body ( Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) was purified 766-fold from the fat body of 5th instar larvae of the silkworm with a final specific activity of 13.8 units\\/mg protein by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fraction, Q-Sepharose HP ion exchange column chromatography, Blue Sepharose FF affinity column chromatography and Superdex 200HR gel filtration. The purified enzyme yielded a single band

Chikara Hirayama; Hitoshi Saito; Kotaro Konno; Hiroshi Shinbo

1998-01-01

180

Comparative Proteome Analysis of Silkworm in Its Susceptibility and Resistance Responses to Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombyx mori densonucleosis virus (BmDNV) is one of the most disastrous viruses in cocoon production. Silkworm resistance to BmDNV has been examined previously using a number of traditional biochemical and molecular techniques. In this study, a near isogenic line, BC6, was constructed to eliminate the difference in inherited background, which has 99.9% identity with the susceptible strain but carries a

Hui-qing Chen; Qin Yao; Fang Bao; Ke-ping Chen; Xiao-yong Liu; Jun Li; Lin Wang

2012-01-01

181

Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm,\\u000a Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon\\u000a were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and\\u000a silk glands.

Hu Xiaolong; Xue Renyu; Cao Guangli; Zhang Xing; Zhang Yilin; Yu Xiaohua; Zhang Yuqing; Gong Chengliang

182

Cloning and purification of recombinant silkworm dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH), a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase is essential for energy metabolism. As an oxidoreductase it catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of dihydrolipoamide. In this study, a putative Bombyx mori dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (BmDLDH) gene was cloned, expressed, purified and characterized for the first time. The BmDLDH gene was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli

Juan Huo; Haifeng Shi; Qin Yao; Huiqin Chen; Lin Wang; Keping Chen

2010-01-01

183

Molecular characterization of genome segment 2 encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

SciTech Connect

Genome segment 2 (S2) from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S2 consisted of 3798 nucleotides with a long ORF encoding a 1116 amino acid long protein (123 kDa). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed 29% sequence identity and close relatedness of AmCPV S2 with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of other insect cypoviruses, suggesting a common origin of all insect cypoviruses. The ORF of S2 was expressed as 123 kDa soluble His-tagged fusion protein in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants which exhibited RdRp activity in an in vitro RNA polymerase assay without any intrinsic terminal transferase activity. Maximum activity was observed at 37 deg. C at pH 6.0 in the presence of 3 mM MgCl{sub 2.} Site directed mutagenesis confirmed the importance of the conserved GDD motif. This is the first report of functional characterization of a cypoviral RdRp which may lead to the development of anti-viral agents.

Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Roy, Sobhan; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Bagchi, Abhisek [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Ananta Kumar, E-mail: aghosh@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.i [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

2010-08-15

184

A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements isolated from the Indian tasar silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: saturniidae).  

PubMed

Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the database. Full length elements from A. mylitta were inactive with multiple mutations. Many conserved amino acid blocks were identified after aligning transposase sequences. Mariner signature sequence, DD(34)D was almost inva ri able although a few new class of elements had different signatures. A. mylitta MLEs (Anmmar) get phylogene ti cally classified under cecropia subfamily and cluster closely with the elements from other Bombycoidea superfamily members implying vertical transmission from a common ancestor. ITR analysis showed a conserved sequence of AGGT(2-8N)ATAAGT for forward repeat and AGGT(2-8N)ATGAAAT for reverse repeat. These results and additional work may help us to understand the dynamics of MLE distribution in A. mylitta and construction of appropriate vectors for mariner mediated transgenics. PMID:12799491

Prasad, M Dharma; Nagaraju, J

2003-06-01

185

Molecular characterization of genome segment 2 encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.  

PubMed

Genome segment 2 (S2) from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S2 consisted of 3798 nucleotides with a long ORF encoding a 1116 amino acid long protein (123 kDa). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed 29% sequence identity and close relatedness of AmCPV S2 with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of other insect cypoviruses, suggesting a common origin of all insect cypoviruses. The ORF of S2 was expressed as 123 kDa soluble His-tagged fusion protein in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants which exhibited RdRp activity in an in vitro RNA polymerase assay without any intrinsic terminal transferase activity. Maximum activity was observed at 37 degrees C at pH 6.0 in the presence of 3 mM MgCl(2). Site directed mutagenesis confirmed the importance of the conserved GDD motif. This is the first report of functional characterization of a cypoviral RdRp which may lead to the development of anti-viral agents. PMID:20488502

Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Roy, Sobhan; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Bagchi, Abhisek; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

2010-05-20

186

Elementary research of the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To understand mechanisms for the difference of uptaking and transporting the pigments between the male and female in the silkworm, Bombyx mori strain of sex-related fluorescent cocoon, the fluorescent pigments in the midgut lumen, midgut, blood, silk glands and cocoon were analyzed with thin-layer chromatography, and showed that fluorescent colors of cocoons consisted with that of blood and silk glands. The different fluorescent colors of cocoons between the male and female may be mainly caused by the difference of accumulation and transportation for fluorescent pigments in the midgut and in the silk glands. Furthermore the midgut proteins were separated with Native-PAGE, and the proteins respectively recovered from three fluorescent regions presenting on a Native-PAGE gel for the female silkworms were determined using shotgun proteomics and mass spectrometry sequencing, of which 60, 40 and 18 proteins respectively from the region 1, 2 and 3 were identified. It was found that the several kinds of low molecular mass 30 kDa lipoproteins and the actins could be detected in all three regions, troponin, 30 kDa lipoprotein and 27 kDa glycoprotein precursor could be detected in the region 2 and 3, suggesting these proteins may be fluorescent pigments binding candidates proteins. Analysis of gene ontology indicated that the identified proteins in the three regions linked to the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. These results provide a new clew to understand the formation mechanism of sex-related fluorescent cocoon of silkworm. PMID:21604173

Xiaolong, Hu; Renyu, Xue; Guangli, Cao; Xing, Zhang; Yilin, Zhang; Xiaohua, Yu; Yuqing, Zhang; Chengliang, Gong

2011-05-22

187

Comparative analysis on the expression of inducible HSPs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (HSPs), well-known in respond to various kinds of stress situations, have been widely studied in Drosophila. However, a few reports related to silkworm bombyx mori. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting on the expression of some HSPs in heat-treated silkworm were studied at the present paper. The mRNA levels of HSPs were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and compared with their expression in the proteome profiles. The results showed up-regulation of two small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), HSP19.9 and HSP20.4 and down-regulation of HSP70 in the fat body, testis and ovary of heat exposed larvae. Higher variation of the sHSPs than HSP70 was observed in the different conditions such as heat exposures and genetic backgrounds. Significant difference in the HSP19.9 expression between two breeds was observed which implied the importance of this gene in the genetic differences. There was significant difference between responses of severe and mild heat shocks after 4 h heat recovery. The HSPs expression in male was significantly higher than that in female silkworm larva for all transcript measurements (P < 0.001). Comparison of two methods of quantification showed a fair similarity between HSPs expression in the transcriptome and proteome levels. Nistari breed as a naturally thermo-tolerant breed was expressed lower HSPs than a thermo-sensitive breed. PMID:21744262

Li, Jun; Moghaddam, S Hossein Hosseini; Du, Xin; Zhong, Bo-Xiong; Chen, Yu-Yin

2011-07-10

188

Subacute and delayed toxicity of iminoctadine liquid formulation, which contains iminoctadine triacetate as an antifungal component on a nontarget domesticated insect, the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated insecticidal effects of iminoctadine liquid formulation, a fungicide containing iminoctadine triacetate, on the silkworm Bombyx mori that is an important domesticated insect. Iminoctadine liquid formulation was incorporated in an artificial diet and fed to silkworms for 24h on the first day of either the third or fourth instar, thereafter reared without the fungicide. Third instar larvae that ingested

T. Arakawa; F. Yukuhiro; H. Noda

2011-01-01

189

Isolation and Characterization of Lipase-Producing Bacteria in the Intestine of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Reared on Different Forage  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, is susceptible to entomopathogen infection when reared with tricuspid cudrania leaves. A total of 56 dominant bacterial strains, classified into 12 phylotypes based on bacteriological properties and analysis of 16S rRNA genes, were isolated from the intestine of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Ten and seven phylotypes exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae reared with mulberry leaves and tricuspid cudrania leaves, respectively. Four of them are common in the intestine of the two treatment groups. By screening their lipolytic ability on a Rhodamine B agar plate, nine lipase-producing bacterial strains were obtained and classified into six genera, including Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas. Except for Stenotrophomonas, which is common in both, the other genera only exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae fed with mulberry leaves. In addition, by culture and fermentation in vitro, the maximum cell density and lipase activity of lipase-producing bacteria were examined at about 48 hours. The results indicate that diet has a significant impact on the gut bacterial community, especially lipase-producing bacteria. We suggest that the difference of lipase-producing bacterial diversity might be related to disease resistance of the silkworm.

Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Guang-Ying

2011-01-01

190

A review of the implications of heterozygosity and inbreeding on germplasm biodiversity and its conservation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Abstract Silkworm genebanks assume paramount importance as the reservoirs of biodiversity and source of alleles that can be easily retrieved for genetic enhancement of popular breeds. More than 4000 Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) strains are currently available and these strains are maintained through continuous sibling mating. This repeated sibling mating makes the populations of each strain more homozygous, but leads to loss of unique and valuable genes through the process of inbreeding depression. Hence, it is essential to maintain a minimal degree of heterozygosity within the population of each silkworm strain, especially in the traditional geographic strains, to avoid such loss. As a result, accurate estimation of genetic diversity is becoming more important in silkworm genetic resources conservation. Application of molecular markers help estimate genetic diversity much more accurately than that of morphological traits. Since a minimal amount of heterozygosity in each silkworm strain is essential for better conservation by avoiding inbreeding depression, this article overviews both theoretical and practical importance of heterozygosity together with impacts of inbreeding depression and the merits and demerits of neutral molecular markers for measurements of both heterozygosity and inbreeding depression in the silkworm Bombyx mori. PMID:21521139

Jingade, A H; Vijayan, K; Somasundaram, P; Srivasababu, G K; Kamble, C K

2011-01-01

191

Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in easte...

R. K. McGuire G. F. Toro R. J. Hunt

1992-01-01

192

Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in eastern Tennessee, in an area of moderate to high historical seismicity. Results from two separate seismic hazard analyses are presented.

R. K. McGuire; G. F. Toro; R. J. Hunt

1992-01-01

193

Mössbauer studies of subfossil oak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subfossil oak wood found in a dried-up bog in Bavaria, Germany, was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The bog oaks contain substantial amounts of iron taken up from the bog waters and presumably forming complexes with the tanning agents in the oak wood. The iron is mainly Fe3 + and much of this exhibits an uncommonly large quadrupole splitting of up to 1.6 mm/s that can tentatively be explained by the formation of oxo-bridged iron dimers. Only rarely, mainly in the dense wood of the roots of bog oaks, was divalent iron found. When the wood was ground to a powder the divalent iron oxidized to Fe3 + within hours. This suggests that iron is taken up from the bog water as Fe2 + and oxidizes only when the wood emerges from the water and comes into contact with air.

van Bürck, Uwe; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Lerf, Anton

2012-03-01

194

Why sustain oak forests? - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern ... present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts of human activity and human infrastructure during the recession of the ...

195

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... Guidelines It is important to use soap and water to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...

196

Rabies virus nucleoprotein expressed in silkworm pupae at high-levels and evaluation of immune responses in mice.  

PubMed

Rabies is one of the most fatal zoonotic diseases in developing countries, where a safe, cheap and effective vaccine against the disease remains unaffordable. In this paper, we describe a new silkworm-baculovirus expression system to express the nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus and evaluation of the immune response in BALB/c mice. A recombinant baculovirus -rBmNPV(RV-N) carrying the N gene of rabies virus Evelyn Rokitniki Abelseth (ERA) strain was constructed and the N protein expression was evaluated in Bombyx mori (BmN) cells and silkworm pupae by immunofluorescence staining, Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immune response to vaccines was evaluated based on serum IgG antibody titers and challenge experiments. The study revealed that N protein of rabies virus can be highly expressed in silkworm baculovirus expression system and the vaccine of N antigen presents a promising approach for the prevention of rabies virus. PMID:23178898

Yin, Xiangping; Li, Zhiyong; Li, Jiangtao; Yi, Yongzhu; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xuerui; Li, Baoyu; Yang, Bin; Lan, Xi; Li, Yinv; Jiao, Wenqiang; Zhang, Zhifang; Liu, Jixing

2012-11-23

197

Knockdown of ecdysis-triggering hormone gene with a binary UAS/GAL4 RNA interference system leads to lethal ecdysis deficiency in silkworm.  

PubMed

Ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) is an integration factor in the ecdysis process of most insects, including Bombyx mori (silkworm). To understand the function of the ETH gene in silkworm, we developed an effective approach to knockdown the expression of ETH in vivo based on RNA interference (RNAi) and a binary UAS/GAL4 expression system that has been successfully used in other insect species. Two kinds of transgenic silkworm were established with this method: the effector strain with the ETH RNAi sequence under the control of UAS and the activator strain with the GAL4 coding sequence under the control of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic actin3. By crossing the two strains, double-positive transgenic silkworm was obtained, and their ETH expression was found to be dramatically lower than that of each single positive transgenic parent. Severe ecdysis deficiency proved lethal to the double-positive transgenic silkworm at the stage of pharate second instar larvae, while the single positive transgenic or wild-type silkworm had normal ecdysis. This UAS/GAL4 RNAi approach provides a way to study the function of endogenous silkworm genes at different development stages. PMID:18776991

Dai, Hongjiu; Ma, Li; Wang, Jue; Jiang, Rongjing; Wang, Zhugang; Fei, Jian

2008-09-01

198

Diversity analysis of Beauveria bassiana isolated from infected silkworm in southwest China based on molecular data and morphological features of colony.  

PubMed

Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus that not only often causes infection and epidemics of wild insects but some strains also show pathogenicity to the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The present study is about diversity of B. bassiana isolated from the silkworm in southwest China. Five strains of B. bassiana were isolated from infected silkworm. Two isolates, GXtr1009 and GXtr1010, were isolated from infected silkworms treated with two kinds of biological pesticides applied in Guangxi province, and three isolates, SCsk1006, YNsk1106 and GXsk1011, were collected from naturally infected silkworms from different geographical locations in Yunnan and Sichuan. All of the isolates showed highly similar conidia and conidial fructification, but the colony characteristics demonstrated great differences among the isolates. The ITS and 18S rDNA sequence analysis was sufficient to identify all five isolates as B. bassiana. However, the dendrogram, based on the ISSR data, produced two large genetic groups. GXtr1009 and GXtr1010 comprised one group, and SCsk1006, YNsk1106 and GXsk1011 converged in a different large group. The results suggested that, although all of these five B. bassiana strains were pathogenic to silkworms, strains of biological pesticides could be differentiated from strains of naturally infected silkworm via ISSR analysis. PMID:23417263

Wang, Jing-jie; Yang, Li; Qiu, Xin; Liu, Yong-gui; Zhou, Wei; Wan, Yong-Ji

2013-02-16

199

End-sequencing and characterization of silkworm (Bombyx mori) bacterial artificial chromosome libraries  

PubMed Central

Background We performed large-scale bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end-sequencing of two BAC libraries (an EcoRI- and a BamHI-digested library) and conducted an in silico analysis to characterize the obtained sequence data, to make them a useful resource for genomic research on the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Results More than 94000 BAC end sequences (BESs), comprising more than 55 Mbp and covering about 10.4% of the silkworm genome, were sequenced. Repeat-sequence analysis with known repeat sequences indicated that the long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) were abundant in BamHI BESs, whereas DNA-type elements were abundant in EcoRI BESs. Repeat-sequence analysis revealed that the abundance of LINEs might be due to a GC bias of the restriction sites and that the GC content of silkworm LINEs was higher than that of mammalian LINEs. In a BLAST-based sequence analysis of the BESs against two available whole-genome shotgun sequence data sets, more than 70% of the BESs had a BLAST hit with an identity of ? 99%. About 14% of EcoRI BESs and about 8% of BamHI BESs were paired-end clones with unique sequences at both ends. Cluster analysis of the BESs clarified the proportion of BESs containing protein-coding regions. Conclusion As a result of this characterization, the identified BESs will be a valuable resource for genomic research on Bombyx mori, for example, as a base for construction of a BAC-based physical map. The use of multiple complementary BAC libraries constructed with different restriction enzymes also makes the BESs a more valuable genomic resource. The GenBank accession numbers of the obtained end sequences are DE283657–DE378560.

Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Minami, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Michihiko; Sasanuma, Shun-ichi; Narukawa, Junko; Mita, Kazuei; Yamamoto, Kimiko

2007-01-01

200

Identification and analysis of Toll-related genes in the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model system for Lepidoptera, has contributed enormously to the study of insect immunology especially in humoral immunity. But little is known about the molecular mechanism of immune response in the silkworm. Toll receptors are a group of evolutionarily ancient proteins, which play a crucial role in the innate immunity of both insects and vertebrates. In human, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the typical pattern recognition receptors for different kinds of pathogen molecules. Toll-related receptors in Drosophila, however, were thought to function as cytokine receptors in immune response and embryogenesis. We have identified 11 putative Toll-related receptors and two Toll analogs in the silkworm genome. Phylogenetic analysis of insect Toll family and human TLRs showed that BmTolls is grouped with Drosophila Tolls and Anopheles Tolls. These putative proteins are typical transmembrane receptors flanked by the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and the cytoplasmic TIR domain. Structural prediction of the TIR domain alignment found five stranded sheets and five helices, which are alternatingly joined. Microarray data indicated that BmToll and BmToll-2 were expressed with remarkable enrichment in the ovary, suggesting that they might play a role in the embryogenesis. However, the enriched expression of BmToll-2 and -4 in the midgut suggested that the proteins they encode may be involved in immune defense. Testis-specific expression of BmToll-10 and -11 and BmToLK-2 implies that these may be involved in sex-specific biological functions. The RT-PCR results indicated that 10 genes were induced or suppressed with different degrees after their immune system was challenged by different invaders. Expression profiles of BmTolls and BmToLKs reported here provide insight into their role in innate immunity and development. PMID:17499357

Cheng, Ting-Cai; Zhang, Yu-Li; Liu, Chun; Xu, Ping-Zhen; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Xia, Qing-You; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2007-04-20

201

Genomic analysis of carboxyl/cholinesterase genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) have pivotal roles in dietary detoxification, pheromone or hormone degradation and neurodevelopment. The recent completion of genome projects in various insect species has led to the identification of multiple CCEs with unknown functions. Here, we analyzed the phylogeny, expression and genomic distribution of 69 putative CCEs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Results A phylogenetic tree of CCEs in B. mori and other lepidopteran species was constructed. The expression pattern of each B. mori CCE was also investigated by a search of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database, and the relationship between phylogeny and expression was analyzed. A large number of B. mori CCEs were identified from a midgut EST library. CCEs expressed in the midgut formed a cluster in the phylogenetic tree that included not only B. mori genes but also those of other lepidopteran species. The silkworm, and possibly also other lepidopteran species, has a large number of CCEs, and this might be a consequence of the large cluster of midgut CCEs. Investigation of intron-exon organization in B. mori CCEs revealed that their positions and splicing site phases were strongly conserved. Several B. mori CCEs, including juvenile hormone esterase, not only showed clustering in the phylogenetic tree but were also closely located on silkworm chromosomes. We investigated the phylogeny and microsynteny of neuroligins in detail, among many CCEs. Interestingly, we found the evolution of this gene appeared not to be conserved between B. mori and other insect orders. Conclusions We analyzed 69 putative CCEs from B. mori. Comparison of these CCEs with other lepidopteran CCEs indicated that they had conserved expression and function in this insect order. The analyses showed that CCEs were unevenly distributed across the genome of B. mori and suggested that neuroligins may have a distinct evolutionary history from other insect order. It is possible that such an uneven genomic distribution and a unique neuroligin evolution are shared with other lepidopteran insects. Our genomic analysis has provided novel information on the CCEs of the silkworm, which will be of value to understanding the biology, physiology and evolution of insect CCEs.

2010-01-01

202

DNA fingerprinting using AFLP markers to search for markers associated with yield attributes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out on 11 Chinese and 12 Japanese silkworm strains maintained by the Center for the Technological Development of Sericulture (CDTS) germplasm bank, located in Pereira, Colombia. The goals were to determine the genetic population structure of the two groups and the association between molecular markers (AFLPs) and important productivity characters. Group analysis showed the separation of

Duverney A. Gaviria; Enrique Aguilar; Herman J. Serrano; Alvaro H. Alegria

2006-01-01

203

A Pheromone-Guided Mobile Robot that Behaves like a Silkworm Moth with Living Antennae as Pheromone Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the pheromone-oriented behavior of moths will be demonstrated by synthesis with biosensors and a small mobile robot that is controlled by recurrent neural networks. Since antennae on a silkworm moth are very sensitive as compared to conventional arti ficial gas sensors, they can be used as living gas sensors that detect pheromone molecules. A simple recurrent artificial

Yoshihiko Kuwana; Isao Shimoyama

1998-01-01

204

Development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the simultaneous detection of microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus, and densovirus infecting silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel PCR-based assay for individual and simultaneous detection of three major pathogens (microsporidians, nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and densovirus (DNV)) infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Multiplex PCR, using three primer pairs, two of which were designed from the conserved regions of 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of microsporidians, and polyhedrin gene of NPVs respectively, and a third

G. Ravikumar; S. Raje Urs; N. B. Vijaya Prakash; C. G. P. Rao; K. V. Vardhana

2011-01-01

205

Digestive sites of dietary proteins and absorptive sites of amino acids along the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to identify where dietary proteins are digested and where the digested amino acids are absorbed in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Analysis by electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels shows that few of the protein bands existing in the artificial diet were found among the contents of the foremost part of the midgut; instead, this

Hiroshi Shinbo; Kotaro Konno; Chikara Hirayama; Kijiro Watanabe

1996-01-01

206

Changes in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Hemolymph and Fat Body of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L., Exposed to Organophosphorus Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of lethal and sublethal doses of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides, namely fenitrothion and ethion, as a function of carbohydrate metabolism of hemolymph and fat body on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the fifth-instar silkworm, Bombyx mori, were investigated. The results showed that pyruvate level and lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased with elevated lactate levels, indicating reduced mobilization

B. Surendra Nath

2000-01-01

207

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “ż?brain hormone”

CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

208

Surface Ultrastructural Studies on the Germination, Penetration and Conidial Development of Aspergillus Flavus Link : Fries Infecting Silkworm, Bombyx Mori Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillosis is a common disease of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linn., caused by an insect mycopathogen Aspergillus flavus Link : Fries. The present study reveals the germination, penetration and conidial development of A. flavus on the larval integument of B. mori under SEM. Four different strains (NB18, KA, NB4D2 and NB7) of B. mori was surface inoculated with ca. of

Vineet Kumar; G. P. Singh; A. M. Babu

2004-01-01

209

Abnormal red body coloration of the silkworm, Bombyx mori , is caused by a mutation in a novel kynureninase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the body color mutant red blood (rb) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, display reddish skin whose hemolymph becomes red in air, whereas hemolymphs of normal strains become black during melanization. The irregular coloring was assumed to result from an abnormal accumulation of 3-hydroxykynurenine. However, the gene responsible for the rb phenotype is not yet known. Here, we provide

Yan Meng; Susumu Katsuma; Kazuei Mita; Toru Shimada

2009-01-01

210

The mighty oak faces challenges in the Pacific West  

Treesearch

... Oregon, and California, oaks face a battery of natural and human-induced threats. ... California black oaks, and coast live oaks in California and southern Oregon. ... named goldspotted oak borer, an insect first detected in the state in 2004.

211

Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were

Skipper

1990-01-01

212

77 FR 23506 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Region of Three Oaks Museum, Three Oaks, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Completion: The Region of Three Oaks Museum, Three Oaks, MI AGENCY: National Park...SUMMARY: The Region of Three Oaks Museum has completed an inventory of human remains...remains may contact The Region of Three Oaks Museum. Repatriation of the human remains...

2012-04-19

213

Diversity in Copy Number and Structure of a Silkworm Morphogenetic Gene as a Result of Domestication  

PubMed Central

The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strains, ranging from 1 to 20. The copies of CBP are of several types, based on the presence of a retrotransposon or partial deletion of the coding sequence. In contrast to B. mori, B. mandarina was found to possess a single copy of CBP without the retrotransposon insertion, regardless of habitat. Several other lepidopterans were found to contain sequences homologous to CBP, revealing that this gene is evolutionarily conserved in the lepidopteran lineage. Thus, domestication can generate significant diversity of gene copy number and structure over a relatively short evolutionary time.

Sakudoh, Takashi; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kuroki, Yoko; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Shimada, Toru; Nakagaki, Masao; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

2011-01-01

214

Study on impact of parasite (Nosema species) on characters of tropical tasar silkworm Anthereae mylitta drury.  

PubMed

Infection of the pebrine disease has been found to be highly virulent and harm the cocoon yield as well as characters of silkworm Anthereae mylitta. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the impact of parasite Nosema species on the ecorace (Sukinda) of A. mylitta in respect of transovarial transmitted (T1), secondary infection (T2) and healthy silkworm (T3). In comparison to T3, the number of larval mortality was 16 and 11 in T1 and T2 respectively; whereas as number of pupal mortality was 6 and 5 in T1 and T2 respectivelyThe larval weight, number of moths emerged, number of eggs laid and percent hatchability were reduced in T1 and T2 in comparison to T3.The infected layings were high in T1 (51%) and T2 (42%) as against T3 (0%). Similarly, the infected moths were 34% in T1 and 15% in T2 as against 0 percent in T3. All the characteristics parameters of cocoon were reduced in T1 and T2 against T3. The study explains that there was no significant variation between T1 and T2 on different parameters of larva, pupa and cocoon characters. PMID:24006810

Velide, Lakshmi; Bhagavanulu, M V K; Rao, A Purushotham

2013-01-01

215

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

Xia, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Qing-Xiang; Yu, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Guo; Yi, Yong-Zhu; Zhang, Yao-Zhou; Zhang, Zhi-Fang

2006-01-01

216

Shotgun proteomic analysis of wing discs from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) during metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Proteomic profiles from the wing discs of silkworms at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages were determined using shotgun proteomics and MS sequencing. We identified 241, 218, and 223 proteins from the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively, of which 139 were shared by all three stages. In addition, there were 55, 37, and 43 specific proteins identified at the larval, pupal, and adult moth stages, respectively. More metabolic enzymes were identified among the specific proteins expressed in the wing disc of larvae compared with pupae and moths. The identification of FKBP45 and the chitinase-like protein EN03 as two proteins solely expressed at the larval stage indicate these two proteins may be involved in the immunological functions of larvae. The myosin heavy chain was identified in the pupal wing disc, suggesting its involvement in the formation of wing muscle. Some proteins, such as proteasome alpha 3 subunits and ribosomal proteins, specifically identified from the moth stage may be involved in the degradation of old cuticle proteins and new cuticle protein synthesis. Gene ontology analysis of proteins specific to each of these three stages enabled their association with cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. The analysis of similarities and differences in these identified proteins will greatly further our understanding of wing disc development in silkworm and other insects. PMID:24005483

Zhang, Yi-Ling; Xue, Ren-Yu; Cao, Guang-Li; Zhu, Yue-Xiong; Pan, Zhong-Hua; Gong, Cheng-Liang

2013-09-05

217

Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous substrate for the silkworm cytosolic sulfotransferase, bmST1.  

PubMed

Sulfotransferase enzymes are known to regulate physiologically active substances such as steroids and catecholamines in mammals. Although invertebrates also express sulfotransferases, their biological function is mostly unclear. In a previous study, we reported that 4-nitrocatechol and the gallete ester are substrates for the silkworm sulfotransferase bmST1. The K(m) of bmST1 for these substrates is high. However, endogenous substrates of bmST1 have not yet been determined. We therefore investigated endogenous bmST1 substrates and carried out a detailed expression profile analysis of bmST1. We found that xanthurenic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, is a possible endogenous substrate of bmST1. The K(m) of bmST1 for xanthurenic acid is low, in the ?M range, which is lower than that for previously reported substrates. Additionally, xanthurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that characteristically shows toxicity in vivo. High dose administration of xanthurenic acid resulted in inhibition of cuticular biosynthesis. The expression of the bmST1 gene reached a maximal level in the Malpighian tubule at the 4th molting stage, when amino acid metabolism might be activated. Our results suggest that bmST1 plays a role in detoxification of xanthurenic acid in the silkworm. PMID:22036934

Kushida, Akira; Horie, Ryo; Hattori, Kenji; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Tamura, Hiroomi

2011-10-20

218

The silkworm W chromosome is a source of female-enriched piRNAs  

PubMed Central

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the W chromosome plays a dominant role in female determination. However, neither protein-coding genes nor transcripts have so far been isolated from the W chromosome. Instead, a large amount of functional transposable elements and their remnants are accumulated on the W chromosome. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 23–30-nt-long small RNAs that potentially act as sequence-specific guides for PIWI proteins to silence transposon activity in animal gonads. In this study, by comparing ovary- and testis-derived piRNAs, we identified numerous female-enriched piRNAs. Our data indicated that female-enriched piRNAs are derived from the W chromosome. Moreover, comparative analyses on piRNA profiles from a series of W chromosome mutant strains revealed a striking enrichment of a specific set of transposon-derived piRNAs in the putative sex-determining region. Collectively, we revealed the nature of the silkworm W chromosome as a source of piRNAs.

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Kadota, Koji; Arai, Yuji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fujii, Tsuguru; Abe, Hiroaki; Yasukochi, Yuji; Mita, Kazuei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2011-01-01

219

Nicest workshop held in oak ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrons In solid state Chemistry and the Earth Sciences Today and Tomorrow, also known as NICEST, was the title of the meeting held from March 12-16, 2003 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Sponsored by Oak Ridge Associated Universities, The University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), The University of Virginia, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, thethree-day workshop attracted

Allen E. Ekkebus

2003-01-01

220

Accelerating the Kiln Drying of Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reducing kiln-drying time for oak lumber can reduce energy requirements as well as reduce lumber inventories. In this work, 1-inch northern red oak and white oak were kiln-dried from green by a combination of individual accelerating techniques--presurfaci...

W. T. Simpson

1980-01-01

221

Oak Ridge callibration recall program  

SciTech Connect

A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pritchard, E.W. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology, TN (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

222

Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: Enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Naoya Wasano; Masatoshi Nakamura

2007-01-01

223

Expression of Trichoderma viride endoglucanase III in the larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. and characteristic analysis of the recombinant protein.  

PubMed

Endoglucanase is a part of cellulase which hydrolyzes cellulose into glucose. In this study, we cloned endoglucanase III (EG III) gene from Trichoderma viride strain AS 3.3711 using a PCR-based exon splicing method, and expressed EG III recombinant protein in both silkworm BmN cell line and silkworm larvae with an improved Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV mutant baculovirus expression system, which lacks the chiA and v-cath genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). The result showed that around 45 kDa protein was visualized in BmN cells at 48 h after the second generation recombinant mBacmid/BmNPV/EG III baculovirus infection. The enzymes from recombinant baculoviruses infected silkworms exhibited significant maximum enzyme activity at the environmental condition of pH 8.0 and temperature 50°C, and increased 20.94 and 19.13% compared with that from blank mBacmid/BmNPV baculoviruses infected silkworms and normal silkworms, respectively. It was stable at pH range from 5.0 to 9.0 and at temperature range from 40 to 60°C. It provided a possibility to generate transgenic silkworms expressing bio-active cellulase, which can catabolize dietary fibers more efficiently, and it might be of great significance for sericulture industry. PMID:21107717

Li, Xing-hua; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Mei-xian; Zhou, Fang; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Yang, Hua-jun; Bhaskar, Roy; Hu, Jia-biao; Sun, Chun-guang; Miao, Yun-gen

2010-11-25

224

Silkworm Thermal Biology: A Review of Heat Shock Response, Heat Shock Proteins and Heat Acclimation in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to play ecological and evolutionary roles in this postgenomic era. Recent research suggests that HSPs are implicated in cardiovascular biology and disease development, proliferation and regulation of cancer cells, cell death via apoptosis, and several other key cellular functions. These activities have generated great interest amongst cell and molecular biologists, and these biologists are keen to unravel other hitherto unknown potential functions of this group of proteins. Consequently, the biological significance of HSPs has led to cloning and characterization of genes encoding HSPs in many organisms including the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). However, most of the past investigations in B. mori were confined to expression of HSPs in tissues and cell lines, whereas information on their specific functional roles in biological, physiological, and molecular processes is scarce. Naturally occurring or domesticated polyvoltines (known to be the tropical race) are more resistant to high temperatures and diseases than bi- or univoltines (temperate races). The mechanism of ecological or evolutionary modification of HSPs during the course of domestication of B. mori - particularly in relation to thermotolerance in geographically distinct races/strains - is still unclear. In addition, the heat shock response, thermal acclimation, and hardening have not been studied extensively in B. mori compared to other organisms. Towards this, recent investigations on differential expression of HSPs at various stages of development, considering the concept of the whole organism, open ample scope to evaluate their biological and commercial importance in B. mori which has not been addressed in any of the representative organisms studied so far. Comparatively, heat shock response among different silkworm races/strains of poly-, bi-, and univoltines varies significantly and thermotolerance increases as the larval development proceeds. Hence, this being the first review in this area, an attempt has been made to collate all available information on the heat shock response, HSPs expression, associated genes, amino acid sequences, and acquired/unacquired thermotolerance. The aim is to present this as a valuable resource for addressing the gap in knowledge and understanding evolutionary significance of HSPs between domesticated (B. mori) and non-domesticated insects. It is believed that the information presented here will also help researchers/breeders to design appropriate strategies for developing novel strains for the tropics.

Manjunatha, H. B.; Rajesh, R. K.; Aparna, H. S.

2010-01-01

225

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review  

SciTech Connect

This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

1992-01-01

226

Toxic impact of organophosphorus insecticides on acetylcholinesterase activity in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

The effect of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides, namely, fenitrothion and ethion, on acetylcholinesterase activity and acetylcholine levels in brain, fat body, and silk gland of Bombyx mori on Days 1, 3, and 5 and food intake of the fifth instar were studied. Acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be inhibited, followed by a concomitant increase in acetylcholine levels in the target tissues. These changes suggest an acceleration in energy metabolism of nerve cells, leading to death of the insects. Food consumption during the fifth instar underwent a significant decrease at lethal doses and an insignificant increase at sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion. The overall changes observed in acetylcholinestease, acetylcholine, and food intake due to fenitrothion and ethion were, insecticidewise, in the order fenitrothionsilkworms exposed to fenitrothion and ethion. PMID:10051365

Surendra Nath, B; Surendra Kumar, R P

1999-02-01

227

Transgene-based, female-specific lethality system for genetic sexing of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Transgene-based genetic sexing methods are being developed for insects of agricultural and public health importance. Male-only rearing has long been sought in sericulture because males show superior economic characteristics, such as better fitness, lower food consumption, and higher silk yield. Here we report the establishment of a transgene-based genetic sexing system for the silkworm, Bombyx mori. We developed a construct in which a positive feedback loop regulated by sex-specific alternative splicing leads to high-level expression of the tetracycline-repressible transactivator in females only. Transgenic animals show female-specific lethality during embryonic and early larval stages, leading to male-only cocoons. This transgene-based female-specific lethal system not only has wide application in sericulture, but also has great potential in lepidopteran pest control. PMID:23569267

Tan, Anjiang; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Guo, Qiuhong; Li, Zhiqian; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke; Huang, Yongping

2013-04-08

228

Production in Escherichia of moricin, a novel type antibacterial peptide from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Moricin is a novel type antibacterial peptide recently isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Two foreign gene expression systems in Escherichia coli were employed to obtain a large amount of the peptide for further characterization. An artificial moricin gene was chemically synthesized and inserted into two expression vectors, pXa1 and pMAL-c2. The recombinant moricin was efficiently produced in E. coli as fusion proteins and released by chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide or o-iodosobenzoic acid. Eleven milligrams of pure recombinant moricin was obtained from 2 L of E. coli culture. The primary structure and molecular mass of the purified recombinant moricin was the same as those of the natural moricin. In addition, the antibacterial activity of the recombinant moricin against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus was comparable to that of the natural moricin. PMID:8607822

Hara, S; Yamakawa, M

1996-03-27

229

Transgenesis approaches for functional analysis of peptidergic cells in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori represents an insect model of great scientific and economic importance. Besides the establishment of a stable germline transformation using the PiggyBac vector, technically feasible methods for in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression were developed using viral based vectors, especially Sindbis viruses and baculoviruses. The recombinant baculovirus, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), commonly used for large-scale protein production in permissive cell lines or insects, has been used for foreign gene transfer into specific peptidergic cells of B. mori in vivo. Since targeted gene expression is essential for functional analysis of neuropeptide genes and their receptors, the baculovirus-mediated gene transfer can serve as a reliable approach in reverse genetic studies in the silkworm. We review various strategies employing the baculovirus vector system for transient expression of molecular markers and transcription factors in specific peptidergic cells to investigate their roles in B. mori. We also use this system for functional analysis of neuropeptide signaling in the ecdysis behavioral sequence. Our data indicate that the AcMNPV vector is suitable for efficient delivery of foreign genes and their expression directed into specific peptidergic neurons and endocrine cells of B. mori larvae and pupae. However, some modifications of the vector and steps for optimization are necessary to minimize negative effects of viral infection on the host development. The transient gene expression using the AcMNPV and other virus vectors are promising tools for analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying various neuroendocrine processes during development of B. mori.

Daubnerova, Ivana; Roller, Ladislav; Zitnan, Dusan

2010-01-01

230

Getting a Full Dose? Reconsidering Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation—equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number—is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. Although this is observed in some organisms, recent genome-wide expression studies in other taxa have revealed striking exceptions. In particular, reports that both birds and the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) lack dosage compensation have spurred speculation that this is the rule for all female-heterogametic taxa. Here, we revisit the issue of dosage compensation in silkworm by replicating and extending the previous analysis. Contrary to previous reports, our efforts reveal a pattern typically associated with dosage compensated taxa: the global male:female expression ratio does not differ between the Z and autosomes. We believe the previous report of unequal male:female ratios on the Z reflects artifacts of microarray normalization in conjunction with not testing a major assumption that the male:female global expression ratio was unbiased for autosomal loci. However, we also find that the global Z chromosome expression is significantly reduced relative to autosomes, a pattern not expected in dosage compensated taxa. This combination of male:female parity with an overall reduction in expression for sex-linked loci is not consistent with the prevailing evolutionary theory of sex chromosome evolution and dosage compensation.

Walters, James R.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

231

Cloning and expression of a cellulase gene in the silkworm, Bombyx mori by improved Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV baculovirus expression system.  

PubMed

Cellulases catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose which are mainly three types: endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases. It can be used in converting cellulosic biomass to glucose that can be used in different applications such as production of fuel ethanol, animal feed, waste water treatment and in brewing industry. In this paper, we cloned a 1380-bp endoglucanase I (EG I) gene from mycelium of filamentous fungus Trichoderma viride strain AS 3.3711 using PCR-based exon splicing methods, and expressed the recombinant EG I mature peptide protein in both silkworm BmN cell line and silkworm larvae with a newly established Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV mutant baculovirus expression system, which lacks the virus-encoded chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). An around 49-kDa protein was visualized after mBacmid/BmNPV/EG I infection, and the maximum expression in silkworm larvae was at 84 h post-infection. The ANOVA showed that the enzymes from recombinant baculoviruses infected silkworms exhibited significant maximum enzyme activity at the environmental condition of pH 7.0 and temperature 50°C. It was stable at pH range from 5.0 to 10.0 and at temperature range from 50 to 60°C, and increased 24.71 and 22.84% compared with that from wild baculoviruses infected silkworms and normal silkworms, respectively. The availability of large quantities of EG I that the silkworm provides maybe greatly facilitate the future research and the potential application in industries. PMID:20195768

Li, Xing-hua; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Hua-jun; Bhaskar, Roy; Hu, Jia-biao; Sun, Chun-guang; Miao, Yun-gen

2010-03-02

232

Nanoparticle-induced morphological transition of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: a novel method to treat silkworm grasserie disease.  

PubMed

Grasserie, a polyorganotrophic disease caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), accounts for lethal infection to fifth instar silkworm larvae. It was found that nanoparticle (NP)-induced morphological transformation of BmNPV polyhedra could reduce the infectivity of BmNPV both in cell line and in silkworm larvae. Initially, 11 NPs were screened for evaluation of their nature of interaction with polyhedra surface through scanning electron microscopy. Amongst these NPs, lipophilically coated silica nanoparticle (SNPL), alumina nanoparticles in the hexagonal close-packed ? structure and aspartate capped gold nanoparticle transformed polyhedra were tested for their infectivity in B. mori cell line using cytopathic effect and plaque reduction assay. SNPL was evaluated for its bio-efficacy in fifth instar silkworm larvae. The study of polyhedra morphology as a function of NP concentration showed severe 'roughening' of the polyhedra with replacement of the regular facets by a large number of irregular ones by SNPL, and this caused transition of highly infectious polyhedra into a nearly spherical, non-infectious structure. A moderate polyhedra roughening was observed for alumina NPs, and no roughening was noticed for gold NPs. The morphological changes could be correlated with reduction of virus-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation, and increased survival rate of SNPL transformed polyhedra infected silkworm larvae to 70.09±6.61% after 96 h. In this group, 61.04±8.03% larvae formed normal cocoons from which moths eclosed, laid eggs and larvae emerged. This study could lead to open up newer pathways for designing nano pharmaceuticals to combat other viral diseases. PMID:23588933

Das, Sumistha; Bhattacharya, Ankita; Debnath, Nitai; Datta, Alokmay; Goswami, Arunava

2013-04-16

233

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of novel carboxyl\\/cholinesterases with GQSAG motif in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously cloned and characterized BmJHE, a juvenile hormone (JH)-selective esterase (JHE) that is important for JH titer regulation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we sought to determine whether multiple genes might function as JH-specific esterase in this species. We searched for putative carboxyl\\/cholinesterase (CCE) genes having GQSAG, a highly conserved motif in JHE, by the use of

Takuya Tsubota; Masaru Shimomura; Takehiko Ogura; Atsushi Seino; Takayo Nakakura; Kazuei Mita; Tetsuro Shinoda; Takahiro Shiotsuki

2010-01-01

234

Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, subcellular localization and actin-sequestering function of a thymosin protein from silkworm.  

PubMed

We identified a novel gene encoding a Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY) protein from a cDNA library of silkworm pupae, which has an open reading frame (ORF) of 399 bp encoding 132 amino acids. It was found by bioinformatics that BmTHY gene consisted of three exons and two introns and BmTHY was highly homologous to thymosin betas (T?). BmTHY has a conserved motif LKHTET with only one amino acid difference from LKKTET, which is involved in T? binding to actin. A His-tagged BmTHY fusion protein (rBmTHY) with a molecular weight of approximately 18.4 kDa was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The purified fusion protein was used to produce anti-rBmTHY polyclonal antibodies in a New Zealand rabbit. Subcellular localization revealed that BmTHY can be found in both Bm5 cell (a silkworm ovary cell line) nucleus and cytoplasm but is primarily located in the nucleus. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR showed that during silkworm developmental stages, BmTHY expression levels are highest in moth, followed by instar larvae, and are lowest in pupa and egg. BmTHY mRNA was universally distributed in most of fifth-instar larvae tissues (except testis). However, BmTHY was expressed in the head, ovary and epidermis during the larvae stage. BmTHY formed complexes with actin monomer, inhibited actin polymerization and cross-linked to actin. All the results indicated BmTHY might be an actin-sequestering protein and participate in silkworm development. PMID:22383992

Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Changrong; Lv, Zhengbing; Fang, Dailing; Wang, Dan; Nie, Zuoming; Yu, Wei; Lan, Hanglian; Jiang, Caiying; Zhang, Yaozhou

2012-02-22

235

A novel RNA helicase-like protein during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: Molecular characterization and intracellular localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the molecular mechanism of development during early embryogenesis in diapause and non-diapause of the silkworm, mRNA from diapause and non-diapause eggs was compared using the differential display technique. We cloned the full length of a cDNA encoding a novel RNA helicase-like (RHL) protein by the RACE method using a cDNA fragment which was one of the

H. Sawada; Y. Yamahama; T. Yamamoto; K. Mase; H. Ogawa; T. Iino

2006-01-01

236

Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: Silkworm Inheritance Experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900–1912  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro’s report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American\\u000a entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama’s work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny\\u000a at a time

Lisa Onaga

2010-01-01

237

Overexpression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant CIb1, a Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor of silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present research provided an efficient approach to obtain large quantities of active recombinant CI-b1, a Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor of silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding mature CI-b1 was cloned into pDEST17 vector. Recombinant protein with hexa-histidine tag attached to the N-terminal of CI-b1 was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami B cells. It can be purified to homogeneity via the gel

Ningjia He; Hiroshi Fujii; Takahiro Kusakabe; Yoichi Aso; Yutaka Banno; Kohji Yamamoto

2004-01-01

238

Characterization of the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene corresponding to the white egg 1 mutant in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO, EC 1.14.13.9), which catalyzes the oxidation of kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, is involved in the synthesis of ommochrome pigments in insects. A silkworm mutant, white egg 1 (w-1), has been shown to be deficient in this enzyme activity. The mutant is characterized morphologically by its white eyes and the fact that the females lay white eggs. To analyze

G.-X. Quan; I. Kim; N. Kômoto; H. Sezutsu; M. Ote; T. Shimada; T. Kanda; K. Mita; M. Kobayashi; T. Tamura

2002-01-01

239

Gene expression analysis from phoxim-induced domesticated silkworm ( Bombyx mori) by whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the gene expression of domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) exposed to phoxim, we used a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray to survey the B. mori larvae induced by phoxim [O,O-diethyl O-(alpha-cyanobenzylideneamino) phosphorothioate] after 24h, and examined the gene expression profile. The results showed that, 6177 genes expressed in the tested B. mori larvae, and 247 genes were differentially transcribed

Y. H. Wang; J. M. Wang; G. D. Peng; B. X. Sun; B. Li; W. D. Shen

2011-01-01

240

Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak R...

1998-01-01

241

Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively. PMID:23403062

Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

2013-01-03

242

Involvement of MicroRNAs in Infection of Silkworm with Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (BmCPV)  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the most important pathogens of silkworm. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in regulating host-pathogen interaction. However, there are limited reports on the miRNAs expression profiles during insect pathogen challenges. In this study, four small RNA libraries from BmCPV-infected midgut of silkworm at 72 h post-inoculation and 96 h post-inoculation and their corresponding control midguts were constructed and deep sequenced. A total of 316 known miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 90 novel miRNAs were identified. Fifty-eight miRNAs displayed significant differential expression between the infected and normal midgut (P value ?=?2.0 or silkworm.

Wu, Ping; Han, Shaohua; Chen, Tao; Qin, Guangxing; Li, Long; Guo, Xijie

2013-01-01

243

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of novel carboxyl/cholinesterases with GQSAG motif in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

We have previously cloned and characterized BmJHE, a juvenile hormone (JH)-selective esterase (JHE) that is important for JH titer regulation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we sought to determine whether multiple genes might function as JH-specific esterase in this species. We searched for putative carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) genes having GQSAG, a highly conserved motif in JHE, by the use of silkworm genomic database. Five novel CCE genes (Bmcce-1-5) were identified and their cDNA sequences and intron-exon structures were determined. We investigated the developmental expression patterns of these CCE genes by real-time quantitative PCR analysis and found that their expression patterns varied among developmental stages and organs. Of the proteins produced by the five genes, only BmCCE-5 had the ability to degrade JH; however, this protein might not function as a JH-specific esterase in vivo as it had a high K(m) value for JH. On the other hand, BmCCE-5 degraded general esterase substrates efficiently. Since Bmcce-5 was strongly expressed in Malpighian tubules and the gut, it might function in digestion or xenobiotic metabolism. Our results suggest that of the CCEs containing a GQSAG motif only BmJHE can function as a JH-specific degradation enzyme in the silkworm. PMID:20060470

Tsubota, Takuya; Shimomura, Masaru; Ogura, Takehiko; Seino, Atsushi; Nakakura, Takayo; Mita, Kazuei; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

2010-01-07

244

Molecular cloning and characterization of peroxiredoxin 4 involved in protection against oxidative stress in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a ubiquitous family of proteins that play important roles in insects in protection against oxidative stress through the detoxification of cellular peroxides. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a Prx4 cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori (BmPrx4). The BmPrx4 gene has an open reading frame of 744?bp encoding 248 amino acids and a conserved motif, VCP, involved in its presumed redox functions. The heterologously expressed proteins of the gene in Escherichia coli showed antioxidant activity, removed hydrogen peroxide and protected DnA. Western blotting analysis showed the presence of BmPrx4 in the haemolymph, suggesting that the protein is secretable. Moreover, BmPrx4 was expressed at all developmental stages. The expression level of BmPrx4 was relatively low during the feeding stage but high at the wandering stage. BmPrx4 was induced by quercetin or temperature stress. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that BmPrx4 is present in the brain, neurones and olfactory organ of the head in silkworms. Overall, our results indicate that the expression profile of BmPrx4 correlates well with protection from oxidative damage. Our data provide clues for the development of control technology for agricultural and forestry pests as the silkworm is a representative of lepidopteran pests. PMID:22946963

Shi, G-Q; Yu, Q-Y; Shi, L; Zhang, Z

2012-09-05

245

MAMMAL CACHING OF OAK ACORNS IN A RED PINE AND A MIXED-OAK STAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammal caching of oak (Quercus spp.) acorns in adjacent red pine (Pinus resinosa) and mixed-oak stands was investigated at The Penn State Experimental Forest, Huntingdon Co., Pennsylvania. Gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and mice (Peromyscus spp.) were the most common acorn-caching species. Acorn production was estimated at 104,200 red oak group acorns\\/ha and 80,250 white oak group acoms\\/ha. Acorn caches

Eugene R. Thorn; Walter M. Tzilkowski

246

Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically

A. J. Jr. Kuhaida; A. F. Parker

1997-01-01

247

BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE HORNED OAK GALL WASP ON PIN OAK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horned oak gall wasp (Callirhytis cornigera) induces large, woody galls on twigs of oak; these galls can disfigure trees and result in extensive branch dieback. This paper reviews our recent research on the pest's biology and management on cultivated pin oaks (Quercus palustris) in Lexington, Kentucky, U.S., especially aspects that are of greatest relevance to tree care professionals. The

Eileen A. Eliason; Daniel A. Potter

248

Utilization of evergreen and decidous oaks by the Californian oak moth Phryganidia californica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deciduous oak Quercus lobata was a better quality food source than the evergreen oak Q. agrifolia for the California oak moth Phryganidia californica: it supported higher growth rates, produced higher fecundity and survivorship, and higher efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) and efficiency of nitrogen utilization (NUE). Total polyphenols and astringency

Gilliam M. Puttick

1986-01-01

249

Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information

P. L. Goddard; A. J. Legeay; D. S. Pesce; A. M. Stanley

1995-01-01

250

In vivo site-specific integration of transgene in silkworm via PhiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange.  

PubMed

Current techniques for genetic engineering of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome utilize transposable elements, which result in positional effects and insertional mutagenesis through random insertion of exogenous DNA. New methods for introducing transgenes at specific positions are therefore needed to overcome the limitations of transposon-based strategies. Although site-specific recombination systems have proven powerful tools for genome manipulation in many organisms, their use has not yet been well established for the integration of transgenes in the silkworm. We describe a method for integrating target genes at pre-defined chromosomal sites in the silkworm via phiC31/att site-specific recombination system-mediated cassette exchange. Successful recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) was observed in the two transgenic target strains with an estimated transformation efficiency of 3.84-7.01%. Our results suggest that RMCE events between chromosomal attP/attP target sites and incoming attB/attB sites were more frequent than those in the reciprocal direction. This is the first report of in vivo RMCE via phiC31 integrase in the silkworm, and thus represents a key step toward establishing genome manipulation technologies in silkworms and other lepidopteran species. PMID:23974010

Long, Dingpei; Zhao, Aichun; Xu, Longxia; Lu, Weijian; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-08-22

251

Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2008-09-17

252

Field Guide to Native Oak Species of Eastern North America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oaks are primarily temperate region trees and shrubs numbering approximately 600 species worldwide. Oaks have occupied the nonglaciated landscape of North America since the Cretaceous Period. Fifty oak species are represented in two-thirds of the eastern ...

D. Binion J. Stein R. Acciavatti

2003-01-01

253

Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report for 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation: the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennesse...

1997-01-01

254

Regime shifts and weakened environmental gradients in open oak ...  

Treesearch

Distribution maps showed decreased presence of disturbance-dependent oak and ... from open oak and pine-dominated ecosystems to novel oak-mixed species ... research and conservation that rely on historical relationships and ecological ...

255

Variation of red oak acorn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acorn production is characterized by extreme variation among years and among individual trees. The size of acorn crops affects many components of the ecosystem, and both annual and individual variation in acorn production influence the regeneration and management of oak forests. In order to assess the variation within a stand, we sampled the acorn production of 120 red oaks (Subgenus

William M Healy; Ann M Lewis; Emery F Boose

1999-01-01

256

Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) and lilacs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the 1990s, Californians began to notice that native oaks were dying in unusual numbers. By 2001, it was clear that a new pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was causing the stem cankers on oaks and foliar lesions and stem dieback on a number of other plants, in the U.S. and in nurseries in Europe. A...

257

Fire Effects in Blue Oak Woodland1  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Mortality and resprouting of shrubs and trees were assessed in one recent fire and 11 older burns in blue oak woodland in the southern Sierra Nevada foothills. This poster reported results for blue oak. Survival following fire was high; with a 93 percent two year postfire survival rate after one intensively studied fire, despite a large number of

Patricia K. Haggerty

258

Planting Native Oak in the Pacific Northwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extent of oak woodland and savanna habitat in the Pacific Northwest has been dramatically reduced since settlement in the mid-1800s. This report presents a practical guide for landowners and managers who are interested in reestablishing native oak by ...

C. A. Harrington W. D. Devine

2010-01-01

259

78 FR 2431 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office...an inventory of human remains and associated...Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office. Repatriation of the human remains and associated...Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office. The human remains and...

2013-01-11

260

Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of genome segment 7 (S7) of Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) that encodes a viral structural protein.  

PubMed

The Genome segment 7 (S7) of the 11 double stranded RNA genomes from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) was converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence showed that segment 7 consisted of 1789 nucleotides with an ORF of 530 amino acids and could encode a protein of approximately 61 kDa, termed P61. The 5' terminal sequence, AGTAAT and the 3' terminal sequence, AGAGC of the plus strand was found to be the same as genome segment 10 of AmCPV encoding polyhedrin. No sequence similarity was found by searching nucleic acid and protein sequence databases using BLAST. The secondary structure prediction showed the presence of 17 alpha-helices, 18 extended beta-sheets along the entire length of P61. The ORF of segment 7 was expressed in E. coli as His-tagged fusion protein, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography, and polyclonal antibody was raised in rabbit indicating that P61 is immunogenic. Immunoblot analysis using this antibody on viral infected cells as well as purified polyhedra showed that P61 is a viral structural protein. Motif scan search showed some similarity of P61 with Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) domain at the C-terminus and it was hypothesized that by binding to single stranded viral RNA through its CBS domain P61 may help in virus replication or transcription. PMID:17253125

Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Ghosh, Ananta K

2007-01-26

261

Food utilization efficiency in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) infected with Nosema sp. and its effect on reproductive potential and silk production.  

PubMed

Antheraea mylitta, a sericigenous insect of economical importance is often infected with an intracellular parasite of the genus Nosema. This pathogen is known to cause fatal pebrine disease and is considered as an important factor that strongly influences the development of the host. Larvae developed from the eggs laid by a female infected with Nosema sp. showed extended development period. The increment in the larval weight declined significantly in infected larvae in comparison to uninfected ones. Food consumption, digestion, relative consumption rate (RCR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), and relative growth rate (RGR) values declined significantly, but at the same time a significant increase in approximate digestibility (AD) was also observed. Silk production declined in infected larvae. Silk gland weight and shell weight also significantly declined following infection over uninfected larvae. The reproductive potential in adults declined significantly (P<0.001) with decrease in ovary weight (31.6%), fecundity (54.1%), and fertility (34.9%). Egg chorionation was also affected in adults, which developed from infected larvae. The maternal infection level in one generation (10.4 x 10(6) spores/female) decreased significantly in the next generation (8.0 x 10(6) spores/female). PMID:12725805

Rath, S S; Prasad, B C; Sinha, B R R P

2003-05-01

262

Host plant selection by larvae of the muga silk moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the role of the antenna and maxillary palp.  

PubMed

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D S; Deka, B; Sen, A

2013-01-01

263

Molecular Chaperone-Assisted Production of Human ?-1,4- N -Acetylglucosaminyltransferase in Silkworm Larvae Using Recombinant BmNPV Bacmids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, human ?-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT) fused with GFPuv (GFPuv-?4GnT) was expressed using both a transformed cell system and silkworm larvae. A Tn-pXgp-GFPuv-?4GnT cell line, isolated after expression vector transfection, produced 106 mU\\/ml of ?4GnT activity in suspension culture.\\u000a When Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus containing a GFPuv-?4GnT fusion gene (BmNPV-CP\\u000a ?\\/GFPuv-?4GnT) bacmid was injected into silkworm larvae, ?4GnT activity in larval hemolymph

Makoto Nakajima; Tatsuya Kato; Shin Kanamasa; Enoch Y. Park

2009-01-01

264

Effects of male silkworm pupa powder on the erectile dysfunction by chronic ethanol consumption in rats  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of men worldwide. ED is now considered an early manifestation of atherosclerosis, and consequently, a precursor of systemic vascular disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of male silkworm pupa powder (SWP) on the levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, nitrite, and glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation; libido; and erectile response of the corpus cavernosum of the rat penis. We induced ED in the study animals by oral administration of 20% ethanol over 8 weeks. The SWP-treated male rats were divided into 3 groups that were orally administered 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. The libido of the SWP-administered male rats was higher than that of the ethanol control group. In addition, the erectile response of the corpus cavernosum was restored in males on SWP administration, to a level similar to that of the normal group without ED. The testosterone concentration did not increase significantly. The lipid peroxidation in the corpus cavernosum of the male rats administered SWP decreased significantly. In contrast, compared to the ethanol group, SWP-administered male rats showed increased GSH levels in the corpus cavernosum. The level of nitrite and NOS expression in the corpus cavernosum of SWP-administered male rats increased significantly. These results indicated that SWP effectively restored ethanol-induced ED in male rats.

Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Young-Rye; Moon, Dea-In; Seo, Min-Young; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Shin, Sook-Jeong; Ryu, Kang-Sun; Chae, Soo-Wan

2012-01-01

265

Detailed investigation of the sequential pathological changes in silkworm larvae infected with Bombyx densovirus type 1.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1) is a pathogen causing flacherie disease in silkworms. BmDNV-1 multiplies only in the nuclei of the columnar cells of larval midgut epithelium. Although several immunohistochemical studies using anti-BmDNV-1 antibody have been reported to date, sequential pathological changes in BmDNV-1-infected larvae have not been completely elucidated. In this paper, sequential investigations were performed on the pathological features of BmDNV-1-infected larvae and BmDNV-1 propagation. Oral infection experiments using newly ecdysed 4th instar larvae revealed that the larvae began to die 9 days post infection (dpi), and the remaining died 10 dpi. Histological observations revealed phenotypic alterations in the midgut cells from 4 dpi, and complete disruption of the midgut structure at 9 dpi. Quantitative RT-PCR of two BmDNV-1 genes indicated that BmDNV-1 began to propagate from 4 dpi, and gradually increased until the larvae died. These expression patterns revealed marked correlation with the histological changes observed in the virus-infected midgut cells. Moreover, bioassays using larvae at various developmental stages clearly indicated that the pathogenicity of this virus is not dependent on the larval stage or the molting process. PMID:23261951

Ito, Katsuhiko; Kidokoro, Kurako; Shimura, Sachiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko

2012-12-21

266

BmNPV resistance of silkworm larvae resulting from the ingestion of TiO? nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) causes infection in the silkworm that is often lethal. The infection is hard to prevent, partly because of the nature of the virus particles and partly because of the different strains of B. mori. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO? NPs) have been demonstrated to have antimicrobial properties. The present study investigated whether TiO? NPs added to an artificial diet can increase the resistance of B. mori larvae to BmNPV and examined the molecular mechanism behind any resistance shown. The results indicated that ingested TiO? NPs decreased reactive oxygen species and NO accumulation in B. mori larvae under BmNPV infection, which in turn led to a decrease in their growth inhibition and mortality. In addition, the TiO? NPs significantly promoted the expression of resistance-related genes, including those encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, acetylcholine esterase, carboxylesterase, heat shock protein 21, glutathione S transferase o1, P53, and transferring and of genes encoding cytochrome p302 and nitric oxide synthase. These findings are a useful addition to the understanding of the mechanism of BmNPV resistance of B. mori larvae in response to TiO? NPs addition. Such information also provides a theoretical basis for the use of TiO? NPs in sericulture. PMID:23054861

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Gui, Suxin; Sang, Xuezi; Sun, Qingqing; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-10-10

267

The Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Ras Oncogene (Bras2) in Silkworm (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

The Ras oncogene of silkworm pupae (Bras2) may belong to the Ras superfamily. It shares 77% of its amino acid identity with teratocarcinoma oncogene 21 (TC21) related ras viral oncogene homolog-2 (R-Ras2) and possesses an identical core effector region. The mRNA of Bombyx mori Bras2 has 1412?bp. The open reading frame contains 603?bp, which encodes 200 amino acid residues. This recombinant BmBras2 protein was subsequently used as an antigen to raise a rabbit polyclonal antibody. Western blotting and real-time PCR analyses showed that BmBras2 was expressed during four developmental stages. The BmBras2 expression level was the highest in the pupae and was low in other life cycle stages. BmBras2 was expressed in all eight tested tissues, and it was highly expressed in the head, intestine, and epidermis. Subcellular localization studies indicated that BmBras2 was predominantly localized in the nuclei of Bm5 cells, although cytoplasmic staining was also observed to a lesser extent. A cell proliferation assay showed that rBmBras2 could stimulate the proliferation of hepatoma cells. The higher BmBras2 expression levels in the pupal stage, tissue expression patterns, and a cell proliferation assay indicated that BmBras2 promotes cell division and proliferation, most likely by influencing cell signal transduction. PMID:23781494

Lv, Zhengbing; Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Wenhua; Wang, Dan; Chen, Jian; Nie, Zuoming; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Lisha; Wang, Deming; Wu, Xiangfu; Li, Jun; Qian, Lian; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-05-27

268

A protein delivery system using 30Kc19 cell-penetrating protein originating from silkworm.  

PubMed

Cell-penetrating protein and its protein transduction domain have been used to deliver drugs and proteins into the cells via receptor-independent endocytosis. A number of cell-penetrating proteins including TAT derived from HIV-1 virus, VP22 from herpes simplex virus and Antennapedia from drosophila have been discovered. Here, we report a cell-penetrating protein, 30Kc19, originating from the hemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori. The 30Kc19 is the first cell-penetrating protein that has been found in insect hemolymph. When the 30Kc19 protein produced from recombinant Escherichia coli was supplemented into the medium for mammalian cell culture, 30Kc19 efficiently penetrated into various types of cells and localized at subcellular compartments including mitochondria and cytoplasm. 30Kc19 also delivered cargo proteins such as green fluorescence protein into the cells even though cargo proteins are not able to penetrate into cells by themselves. In addition to the in vitro system, 30Kc19 exhibited the protein transduction property in vivo. When 30Kc19 was intraperitoneally injected into mice, 30Kc19 delivered cargo proteins into various organ tissues of model animals without producing toxicity. Therefore, 30Kc19 has a great potential as a cell-penetrating protein that can be used as a medicinal tool to deliver cargo molecules including proteins into the target organ tissues in the body. PMID:22981778

Park, Ju Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Hee Ho; Rhee, Won Jong; Choi, Shin Sik; Park, Tai Hyun

2012-09-13

269

Expression and Functional Analysis of Storage Protein 2 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Storage protein 2 (SP2) not only is an important source of energy for the growth and development of silkworm but also has inhibitory effects on cell apoptosis. Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis is an important contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis; therefore, study of the antiapoptotic activity of SP2 on ECs provides information related to the treatment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the sp2 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a 6xHis-tagged fusion protein, which was then used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot results revealed that SP2 levels were higher in the pupal stage and hemolymph of fifth-instar larvae but low in the egg and adult stages. Subcellular localization results showed that SP2 is located mainly on the cell membrane. In addition, a Bac-to-Bac system was used to construct a recombinant baculovirus for SP2 expression. The purified SP2 was then added to a culture medium for human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), which were exposed to staurosporine. A cell viability assay demonstrated that SP2 could significantly enhance the viability of HUVEC. Furthermore, both ELISA and flow cytometry results indicated that SP2 has anti-apoptotic effects on staurosporine-induced HUVEC apoptosis.

Yu, Wei; Wang, Meihui; Zhang, Hanming; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-01-01

270

Functional characterization of a cactus homolog from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding an IkappaB family protein was identified and the full nucleotide sequence was determined in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The IkappaB gene, designated BmCactus, was constitutively expressed mainly in the fat body and hemocytes. Transfection experiments on a B. mori cell line, NIAS-Bm-aff3, with expression vectors containing BmCactus, BmRelA, BmRelB, or the active portion of BmRelish1 showed that activation of the CecB1 gene promoter by either BmRelA or BmRelB, but not the active portion of BmRelish1, was strongly inhibited by BmCactus. In addition, activation of CecB1 gene by autoclaved E. coli in the cultured cells was observed regardless of the presence or absence of BmCactus. A glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and analysis using a yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated that BmCactus interacted with the BmRel Rel homology domain, but not with the BmRelish Rel homology domain. These results suggest that BmCactus is involved in the Toll signal transduction pathway in B. mori. PMID:19966488

Furukawa, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Ishibashi, Jun; Imanishi, Shigeo; Yamakawa, Minoru

2009-12-07

271

The silkworm Z chromosome is enriched in testis-specific genes.  

PubMed

The role of sex chromosomes in sex determination has been well studied in diverse groups of organisms. However, the role of the genes on the sex chromosomes in conferring sexual dimorphism is still being experimentally evaluated. An unequal complement of sex chromosomes between two sexes makes them amenable to sex-specific evolutionary forces. Sex-linked genes preferentially expressed in one sex over the other offer a potential means of addressing the role of sex chromosomes in sexual dimorphism. We examined the testis transcriptome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which has a ZW chromosome constitution in the female and ZZ in the male, and show that the Z chromosome harbors a significantly higher number of genes expressed preferentially in testis compared to the autosomes. We hypothesize that sexual antagonism and absence of dosage compensation have possibly led to the accumulation of many male-specific genes on the Z chromosome. Further, our analysis of testis-specific paralogous genes suggests that the accumulation on the Z chromosome of genes advantageous to males has occurred primarily by translocation or tandem duplication. PMID:19332883

Arunkumar, K P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, J

2009-03-30

272

Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Dual Oxidase (BmDuox) Gene from the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and their related dual oxidases are known to have significant roles in innate immunity and cell proliferation. In this study, the 5,545 bp cDNA of the silkworm Bombyx mori dual oxidase (BmDuox) gene containing a full-length open reading frame was cloned. It was shown to include an N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 28 amino acid residues, a 240 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), an 802 bp 3'-terminal region (3'-UTR), which contains nine ATTTA motifs, and a 4,503 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 1,500 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that BmDuox contains a typical peroxidase domain at the N-terminus followed by a calcium-binding domain, a ferric-reducing domain, six transmembrane regions and binding domains for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Transcriptional analysis revealed that BmDuox mRNA was expressed more highly in the head, testis and trachea compared to the midgut, hemocyte, Malpighian tube, ovary, fat bodies and silk glands. BmDuox mRNA was expressed during all the developmental stages of the silkworm. Subcellular localization revealed that BmDoux was present mainly in the periphery of the cells. Some cytoplasmic staining was detected, with rare signals in the nucleus. Expression of BmDuox was induced significantly in the larval midgut upon challenge by Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). BmDuox-deleted larvae showed a marked increase in microbial proliferation in the midgut after ingestion of fluorescence-labeled bacteria compared to the control. We conclude that reducing BmDuox expression greatly increased the bacterial load, suggesting BmDuox has an important role in inhibiting microbial proliferation and the maintenance of homeostasis in the silkworm midgut. PMID:23936382

Hu, Xiaolong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Xiang, Xingwei; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Xiaofeng

2013-08-02

273

An optimized sericin-1 expression system for mass-producing recombinant proteins in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms.  

PubMed

The middle silk gland (MSG) of silkworm is thought to be a potential host for mass-producing valuable recombinant proteins. Transgenic MSG expression systems based on the usage of promoter of sericin1 gene (sericin-1 expression system) have been established to produce various recombinant proteins in MSG. However, further modifying the activity of the sericin-1 expression system to yield higher amounts of recombinant proteins is still necessary. In this study, we provide an alternative modification strategy to construct an efficient sericin-1 expression system by using the hr3 enhancer (hr3 CQ) from a Chongqing strain of the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and the 3'UTRs of the fibroin heavy chain (Fib-HPA), the fibroin light chain (Fib-LPA), and Sericin1 (Ser1PA) genes. We first analyzed the effects of these DNA elements on expression of luciferase, and found that the combination of hr3 CQ and Ser1PA was most effective to increase the activity of luciferase. Then, hr3 CQ and Ser1PA were used to modify the sericin1 expression system. Transgenic silkworms bearing these modified sericin1 expression vectors were generated by a piggyBac transposon mediated genetic transformation method. Our results showed that mRNA level of DsRed reporter gene in transgenic silkworms containing hr3 CQ and Ser1PA significantly increased by 9 fold to approximately 83 % of that of endogenous sericin1. As the results of that, the production of recombinant RFP increased by 16 fold to 9.5 % (w/w) of cocoon shell weight. We conclude that this modified sericin-1 expression system is efficient and will contribute to the MSG as host to mass produce valuable recombinant proteins. PMID:23435751

Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Ma, Sanyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Duan, Xiaoli; Duan, Jianping; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2013-02-23

274

Production of classical swine fever virus envelope glycoprotein E2 as recombinant polyhedra in baculovirus-infected silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Although, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) envelope glycoprotein E2 subunit vaccine has been developed using the baculovirus expression system, the expression of viral antigens in baculovirus-infected insect cells is often ineffective. Therefore, an alternative strategy to the traditional baculovirus expression system is needed that is more productive and effective. Here, we report a novel strategy for the large-scale production of a CSFV E2 in the larvae of a baculovirus-infected silkworm, Bombyx mori. We constructed a recombinant B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that expressed recombinant polyhedra together with the N-terminal 179 amino acids of CSFV E2 (E2?C). BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae expressed native polyhedrin and approximately 44-kDa fusion protein that was detected using both anti-polyhedrin and anti-CSFV E2 antibodies. Electron and confocal microscopy both demonstrated that the recombinant polyhedra contained both the fusion protein and native polyhedrin were morphologically normal and contained CSFV E2?C. The CSFV E2?C antigen produced in BmNPV-E2?C-infected silkworm larvae reached 0.68 mg/ml of hemolymph and 0.53 mg/larva at 6-days post-infection. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice that were immunized with the E2?C protein purified from solubilized recombinant polyhedra elicited CSFV E2 antibodies, which indicated that the CSFV E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra was immunogenic. The virus neutralization test showed that the serum from mice that were treated with E2?C protein from recombinant polyhedra contained significant levels of virus neutralization activity. These results demonstrate that this strategy can be used for the large-scale production of CSFV E2 antigen. PMID:21706129

Lee, Kwang Sik; Sohn, Mi Ri; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choo, Young Moo; Woo, Soo Dong; Yoo, Sung Sik; Je, Yeon Ho; Choi, Jae Young; Roh, Jong Yul; Koo, Hyun Na; Jin, Byung Rae

2012-03-01

275

Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and

Thomas E. Widner

1999-01-01

276

Oak Regeneration: A Knowledge Synthesis - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Description: This scientific literature is represented by a hypertext software. ... as well as sections detailing oak regeneration biology and management. ... for IBM PC compatible micro-computers running Microsoft Windows 3.1 or the Windows ...

277

Relationships between Phytophthora ramorum canker (sudden oak ...  

Treesearch

The objectives of this case-control study were to quantify levels of bole, large branch, ... Fruiting bodies of H. thouarsianum and other wood decay fungi, decay ... of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge.

278

Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to

R. R. Lee; A. H. Curtis; L. M. Houlberg; S. T. Purucker; M. L. Singer; M. F. Tardiff; D. A. Wolf

1994-01-01

279

Vacuum drying of oak wood  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum drying, i.e., drying under absolute gas pressure of about 10{sup 4} Pa, is an efficient means of reducing the process period and of producing good quality wood. The authors will examine here continuous vacuum drying where the plank surfaces are kept at a constant temperature, which remains above the boiling point, and moisture flowing to the surface is extracted from the kiln. They have carried out an experimental study of oak drying under such conditions. The drying rate and moisture content profile of the sample (40 mm thick) are recorded during the whole drying period. A model of continuous drying is established from general conservation equations with the main approximation that the air is rapidly extracted. The two constitutive equations of the model which describe temperature and water content fields are of a diffusive type and coupled through coefficients. The adequate boundary equation is not a convective one, but expresses a hygroscopic equilibrium between the vapor in the chamber and the wood surface. The mass diffusive coefficient can be adjusted to the drying rates through capillary pressure and bound water diffusion functions. The wood heterogeneity (seasonal growth) is the main factor of discrepancy in these functions. The simulated drying rates correspond with the experimental ones.

Fohr, J.P.; Chakir, A.; Arnaud, G.; Peuty, M.A. du [L.E.T.-UA CNRS, Poitiers (France)

1995-12-31

280

Silkworm exuviae—A new non-conventional and low-cost adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, silkworm exuviae (SE) waste, an agricultural waste available in large quantity in China, was utilized as low-cost adsorbent to remove basic dye (methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution by adsorption. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that MB adsorption onto SE for different initial dye concentrations

Hao Chen; Jie Zhao; Guoliang Dai

2011-01-01

281

A Shark Liver Gene-Derived Active Peptide Expressed in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: Preliminary Studies for Oral Administration of the Recombinant Protein  

PubMed Central

Active peptide from shark liver (APSL) is a cytokine from Chiloscyllium plagiosum that can stimulate liver regeneration and protects the pancreas. To study the effect of orally administered recombinant APSL (rAPSL) on an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the APSL gene was cloned, and APSL was expressed in Bombyx mori N cells (BmN cells), silkworm larvae and silkworm pupae using the silkworm baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). It was demonstrated that rAPSL was able to significantly reduce the blood glucose level in mice with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin. The analysis of paraffin sections of mouse pancreatic tissues revealed that rAPSL could effectively protect mouse islets from streptozotocin-induced lesions. Compared with the powder prepared from normal silkworm pupae, the powder prepared from pupae expressing rAPSL exhibited greater protective effects, and these results suggest that rAPSL has potential uses as an oral drug for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future.

Liu, Yunlong; Chen, Ying; Chen, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenping; Sheng, Qing; Chen, Jian; Yu, Wei; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Wu, Wutong; Wang, Lisha; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Li, Jun; Qian, Lian; Lv, Zhengbing

2013-01-01

282

Changes in Protein Metabolism in Hemolymph and Fat Body of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in Response to Organophosphorus Insecticides Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in protein metabolism were studied in hemolymph and fat body of 5th instar silkwormBombyx moriexposed to lethal and sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion. The total protein content indicated a depletion followed by a concomitant increase in accumulation of free amino acids. Concurrently, the activity of protease in both of the tissues was also increased. A sharp enhancement in

B. Surendra Nath; A. Suresh; B. Mahendra Varma; R. P. Surendra Kumar

1997-01-01

283

Shifts in glycogen metabolism in hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in response to organophosphorus insecticides toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic potential of widely used commercial-grade organophosphorus insecticides namely, fenitrothion and ethion, as a function of gycogen metabolism of hemolymph and fat body on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of the fifth-instar silkworm, Bombyx mori were studied. Results showed that both lethal and sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion registered significant depletion in fat body glycogen reserves followed

B. Surendra Nath

2002-01-01

284

Construction of New Ligation-Independent Cloning Vectors for the Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins in Silkworms Using BmNPV Bacmid System  

PubMed Central

A ligation independent cloning (LIC) system has been developed to facilitate the rapid and high-efficiency cloning of genes in a Bombyx mori expression system. This system was confirmed by the expression of human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (hMTP) fused with EGFP in silkworm larvae and pupae. Moreover, hMTP and human protein disulfide isomerase (hPDI) genes were inserted into two LIC vectors harboring gcLINK sequences and were combined by using the LIC through gcLINK sequences. The constructed vector was incorporated into the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid, and injected into silkworm larvae. The expressed hMTP-hPDI complex was purified from the fat bodies of silkworm larvae. This LIC vector system was applied to express the E1, E2, and E3 subunits of human ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) in silkworm larvae. The expressed proteins were purified easily from fat bodies using three different affinity chromatography steps. The LIC vectors constructed as described in this report allow for the rapid expression and purification of recombinant proteins or their complexes by using the BmNPV bacmid system.

Kato, Tatsuya; Thompson, James R.; Park, Enoch Y.

2013-01-01

285

Experimental RNomics and genomic comparative analysis reveal a large group of species-specific small non-message RNAs in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidences show that small non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play important roles in development, stress response and other cellular processes. The silkworm is an important model for studies on insect genetics and control of lepidopterous pests. Here, we have performed the first systematic identification and analysis of intermediate size ncRNAs (50–500?nt) in the silkworm. We identified 189 novel ncRNAs, including 141 snoRNAs, six snRNAs, three tRNAs, one SRP and 38 unclassified ncRNAs. Forty ncRNAs showed significantly altered expression during silkworm development or across specific stage transitions. Genomic comparisons revealed that 123 of these ncRNAs are potentially silkworm-specific. Analysis of the genomic organization of the ncRNA loci showed that 32.62% of the novel snoRNA loci are intergenic, and that all the intronic snoRNAs follow the pattern of one-snoRNA-per-intron. Target site analysis predicted a total of 95 2?-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of rRNAs, snRNAs and tRNAs. Together, these findings provide new clues for future functional study of ncRNA during insect development and evolution.

Li, Dandan; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Kun; Jiao, Zhujin; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Skogerboe, Geir; Guo, Xiangqian; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bi, Lijun; Huang, Yongping; Dong, Shuanglin; Chen, Runsheng; Kan, Yunchao

2011-01-01

286

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone-Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

287

Hormonal regulation of the death commitment in programmed cell death of the silkworm anterior silk glands.  

PubMed

During larval-pupal transformation, the anterior silk glands (ASGs) of the silkworm Bombyx mori undergo programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Under standard in vitro culture conditions (0.3 ml of medium with 1 ?M 20E), ASGs of the fourth-instar larvae do not undergo PCD in response to 20E. Similarly, larvae of the fifth instar do not respond to 20E through day 5 of the instar (V5). However, ASGs of V6 die when challenged by 20E, indicating that the glands might be destined to die before V6 but that a death commitment is not yet present. When we increased the volume of culture medium for one gland from 0.3 to 9 ml, V5 ASGs underwent PCD. We examined the response of ASGs to 20E every day by culturing them in 9 ml of medium and found that ASGs on and after V2 were fully responsive to 20E. Because pupal commitment is associated with juvenile hormone (JH), the corpora allata (a JH secretory organ) were removed on day 3 of the fourth larval instar (IV3), and their ASGs on V0 were cultured with 20E. Removal of the corpora allata allowed the V0 larval ASGs to respond to 20E with PCD. In contrast, topical application of a JH analogue inhibited the response to 20E when applied on or before V5. We conclude that the acquisition of responsiveness to 20E precedes the loss of JH sensitivity, and that the death commitment in ASGs occurs between V5 and 6. PMID:23063728

Matsui, Hiroto; Kakei, Motonori; Iwami, Masafumi; Sakurai, Sho

2012-10-11

288

Characterisation of a desmosterol reductase involved in phytosterol dealkylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C(29) and C(28)) yielding cholesterol (C(27)). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD-dependent reaction.Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250 kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation. PMID:21738635

Ciufo, Leonora F; Murray, Patricia A; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J; Rees, Huw H

2011-06-27

289

Characterisation of a Desmosterol Reductase Involved in Phytosterol Dealkylation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C29 and C28) yielding cholesterol (C27). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD- dependent reaction. Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation.

Ciufo, Leonora F.; Murray, Patricia A.; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J.; Rees, Huw H.

2011-01-01

290

In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

2006-03-24

291

Impact of single and stacked insect-resistant bt-cotton on the honey bee and silkworm.  

PubMed

Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3(rd) day of 5(th) B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm(2)), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

2013-09-09

292

Removal action report on the Building 3001 canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a federal facility managed by Lockheed Martin C, Energy Research, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ORNL on the Oak Ridge Reservation in East Tennessee at the Anderson and Roane County lines, approximat...

1997-01-01

293

Non-oak native plants are main hosts for sudden oak death pathogen in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding of Phytophthora ramorum — the pathogen that causes sudden oak death in four California native trees — on rhododendron in Europe led us to hypothesize that its host range in California's natural forests was much greater than previously suspected. In addition to the affected oak species, we have now identified an additional 13 species from 10 plant families

Matteo Garbelotto; Jennifer M. Davidson; Kelly Ivors; Patricia E. Maloney; Daniel Hüberli; Steven T. Koike; David M. Rizzo

2002-01-01

294

Aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Date of survey: April 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted during the period March 30 to April 14,1992. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological en...

R. J. Maurer

1993-01-01

295

Translational enhancement of recombinant protein synthesis in transgenic silkworms by a 5'-untranslated region of polyhedrin gene of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

Previously, we established a method to produce recombinant proteins (r-proteins) in cocoons of germline transgenic silkworms, and showed that a step(s) in post-transcription processes was rate-limiting in obtaining a high yield of r-proteins. In this study, we examined whether the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the polyhedrin gene (pol) of nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has a translational enhancer activity in the r-protein expression by middle silk gland (MSG) cells of silkworm Bombyx mori (Bm). Sericin 1 gene (ser1) promoter-driven transformation vectors were constructed in which pol5'-UTRs of NPVs isolated from four different species, Bm, Spodoptera frugiperda, Ectropis oblique, and Malacosoma neustria, were each placed upstream of a reporter gene. Transient expression assays in MSGs showed that these pol5'-UTRs all enhanced the protein expression of reporter genes, and the pol5'-UTR of Bm NPV (pol5'-UTR/Bm) was the most effective among them. Thus, transgenic silkworms were generated, which bore the ser1 promoter-driven His-tagged secretory EGFP (sEGFP-His) gene under the control of pol5'-UTR/Bm. The synthesis of sEGFP-His proteins in MSGs of the transgenic worms was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in those bearing null vectors. However, its mRNA expression levels were 67% of the control worms, indicating that the pol5'-UTR/Bm specifically enhanced the translational level. In conclusion, pol5'-UTR/Bm increased the yield of r-protein production in transgenic silkworms by enhancing the translational activity and this 5'-UTR could be useful for the mass production of r-proteins in germline transgenic silkworms. PMID:18640598

Iizuka, Masashi; Tomita, Masahiro; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi

2008-06-01

296

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-07-01

297

Underplanting to sustain future stocking of oak (Quercus) - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Artificial regeneration of oak by underplanting is done to supplement natural ... and the shelterwood method are needed to increase oak's regeneration potential by ... Control of competing vegetation and herbivory are important elements in the  ...

298

'Ceratocystis fagacearum' in Living and Dead Texas Live Oaks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ceratocystis fagacearum colonized Texas live oaks (Quercus virginia var. fusiformis) to a depth of 10 annual increments in sapwood, either before or shortly after initial symptom expression. The fungus survived in dead wood up to 12 months after oak wilt ...

R. Lewis

1987-01-01

299

Proceedings of the sudden oak death third science symposium  

Treesearch

... Employment, Fire and Aviation, International Forestry, Just for Kids, Maps and Brochures ... Title: Proceedings of the sudden oak death third science symposium ... on the following sudden oak death/ P. ramorum topics are included: biology, ...

300

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium  

Treesearch

... Fire and Aviation, International Forestry, Just for Kids, Maps and Brochures, Passes ... Title: Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium ... on the following sudden oak death/P. ramorum topics are included : biology, ...

301

Water Use by Rootstocks of Emory Oak Coppice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of water use in dryland oak ecosystems is critical for the application of intensive management strategies. Thinning prescriptions of Emory oak (Quercus emoryi) coppice (sprouts) to accelerate tree growth are becoming common. The effects of thinning on estimated transpiration rates of Emory oak coppice were determined by the sap-flow velocity method. Rootstocks were thinned to one, two, or three

D. Catlow Shipek; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott

302

Facultative Intraguild Predation of Red Oak Borer Larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Ozark National forests of Arkansas and Missouri, an outbreak of a native cerambycid beetle, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), seems responsible for widespread oak mortality. The underlying reasons for this outbreak are being studied. Historically, a small portion of within-tree red oak borer mortality has been attributed to natural enemies (wood- peckers and nitidulid larvae), but

V. L. Ware; F. M. Stephen

2006-01-01

303

Aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Date of survey: September 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment...

R. J. Maurer

1989-01-01

304

Expression and localization of silkworm adaptor protein complex-1 subunits, which were down-regulated post baculovirus infection.  

PubMed

Adaptor protein complexes (APs) function as vesicle coat components in different membrane traffic pathways. In this study the subunits of adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) of silkworm Bombyx mori were molecularly characterized. All coding genes for the four subunits were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenic tree for each adaptin was constructed and all subunits were found to be conserved in respective group among organisms. The mRNA expression pattern for each adaptin was similar among tissues. Alternative splicing event was observed in genes encoding both the heavy chain gamma and beta adaptin and the light chain subunit, which could generate other possible adaptin forms. GFP-tagged fusion proteins indicated that AP-1 located in the peripheral plasma area. Furthermore, the BmNPV infection in B. mori cells had differentiated effect on the expression level of AP-1 subunits. PMID:23053975

Niu, Yan-Shan; Wang, Mei-Xian; Liang, Shuang; Zhou, Fang; Miao, Yun-Gen

2012-10-07

305

Identification of cDNAs encoding allatotropin and allatotropin-like peptides from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The cDNAs encoding allatotropin (AT) and allatotropin-like peptides (ATLPs) were isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Similar to those of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, four peptides (AT, ATLP1, ATLP2, and ATLP3) are present in three different variants generated by alternative splicing. RT-PCR analyses showed that these splice variants are expressed in the central nervous system with differing expression patterns in each ganglion. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-AT antibody confirmed that AT-expressing cells were located in these central nervous ganglia as well as in two large anterior cells of the frontal ganglia. Injection of synthetic AT and ATLP-1 into B. mori larvae increased the latency to feed, indicating that AT and ATLP might function in the regulation of feeding behavior in B. mori. PMID:22265806

Nagata, Shinji; Matsumoto, Sumihiro; Mizoguchi, Akira; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

2012-01-13

306

The ecdysteroidogenic P450 Cyp302a1/disembodied from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is transcriptionally regulated by prothoracicotropic hormone.  

PubMed

During larval and pupal development of insects, ecdysone is synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG). Although several Drosophila genes, including Halloween P450 genes, are known to be important for ecdysteroidogenesis in PG, little is known of the ecdysteroidogenic genes in other insects. Here we report on Cyp302a1/disembodied (dib-Bm), one of the Halloween P450s in the silkworm Bombyx mori that is a carbon-22 hydroxylase. dib-Bm is predominantly expressed in PG and its developmental expression profile is correlated with a change in the ecdysteroid titre in the haemolymph. Furthermore, dib-Bm expression in cultured PGs is significantly induced by treatment with prothoracicotropic hormone. This is the first report on the transcriptional induction of a steroidogenic gene by the tropic hormone in insects. PMID:16164612

Niwa, R; Sakudoh, T; Namiki, T; Saida, K; Fujimoto, Y; Kataoka, H

2005-10-01

307

Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of two 30 kDa proteins from silkworm haemolymph  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP) and the low-molecular-mass lipo­protein PBMHP-12 belong to a group of 30?kDa proteins that comprise the major protein component of the haemolymph specific to the fifth-instar larvae stage of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. Proteins from this group are often essential for the development of the insect. In a project aimed at crystallographic characterization of B. mori JHBP (BmJHBP), it was copurified together with PBMHP-12. Eventually, the two proteins were isolated and crystallized separately. The BmJHBP crystals were orthorhombic (space group C2221) and the PBMHP-12 crystals were triclinic. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.9?Ĺ (BmJHBP) and 1.3?Ĺ (PBMHP-12) resolution.

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; Lochynska, Malgorzata; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2011-01-01

308

Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the we...

1992-01-01

309

Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

Turner, J.W. [ed.

1995-02-01

310

Leachability of Pentachlorophenol from Red Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was initiated at the request of an in cooperation with the Naval Ship Engineering Center of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Their interest stemmed from the fact that naturally durable white oak, which has been used for many years in the constr...

B. R. Johnson D. F. Caulfield L. R. Gjovik

1975-01-01

311

Factors Affecting Blue Oak Sapling Recruitment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used logistic regression to identify environmental and management history factors associated with blue oak (Quercus douglasii) sapling recruitment. Recent canopy gaps caused by natural mortality or clearing were positively associated with sapling recruitment. Plots with very high or low levels of tree canopy cover were less likely to have saplings than those with intermediate canopy cover levels. Across all

Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt; Christiana Drake

312

25 MV Tandem Accelerator at Oak Ridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator. ...

C. M. Jones

1980-01-01

313

Fertilization Tests with Potted Red Oak Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil-pot tests with red oak seedlings indicated that forest soils supplied more N and P and produced better seedling growth than old-field soils. Growth was closely correlated with content of N and P in the foliage. K fertilization did not improve seedlin...

R. E. Phares

1971-01-01

314

Design assessment for the Bethel Valley FFA Upgrades at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed upgrades to Building 3025 and the Evaporator Area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Design assessments, specifications and drawings are provided. Building 3025 is a general purpose research facility utilized by the Materials and Ceramics Division to conduct research on irradiated materials. The Evaporator Area, building 2531, serves as the collection point for all low-level liquid wastes generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

NONE

1995-09-01

315

Genome-Wide Identification and Immune Response Analysis of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein.

Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

316

Genome-wide identification and immune response analysis of serine protease inhibitor genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein. PMID:22348050

Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-02-13

317

Health Assessment for Oak Grove Sanitary Landfill, Oak Grove Township, Anoka County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND980904056.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Grove Sanitary Landfill (Oak Grove SLF) is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List. This site is located in Oak Grove Township, in northwest Anoka County, Minnesota. The area surrounding the landfill is s...

1992-01-01

318

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

319

Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidia infecting the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA: Morphological and ultrastructural characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and pathological, morphological and ultrastructural characterization were used to differentiate seven new microsporidian isolates infecting the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIK-4m was found to be more virulent than other isolates. However, all the isolates, except NIK-4m, showed

S. Nageswara Rao; B. Surendra Nath; G. Bhuvaneswari; S. Raje Urs

2007-01-01

320

Distinct effects of different low temperatures on the induction of NAD-sorbitol dehydrogenase activity in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, exposed to 5°C and 0.5°C from 2 or 30 days after oviposition, were examined for changes in contents of glycogen, sorbitol and glycerol. Cold acclimation did not alter the profile of accumulation of sorbitol from that in eggs kept continuously at 25°C. However, acclimation at 5°C resulted in conversion of sorbitol to glycogen,

Toshinobu Yaginuma; Michihiro Kobayashi; Okitsugu Yamashita

1990-01-01

321

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were

Tatsuya Kato; Enoch Y.. Park

2007-01-01

322

The generation of germline transgenic silkworms for the production of biologically active recombinant fusion proteins of fibroin and human basic fibroblast growth factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated germline transgenic silkworms bearing a fibroin light chain (FL) promoter-driven FL gene whose 3?-end was flanked with human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene, FL\\/bFGF gene. The cocoons from transgenic worms were trypsinized to remove sericin layers, and treated with solution containing CaCl2, ethanol, and water at a molar ratio of 1:2:8 (CaCl2\\/ethanol\\/water) to solubilize fibroin layers. Western

Rika Hino; Masahiro Tomita; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2006-01-01

323

Structural analysis on the single-stranded genomic DNAs of the virus newly isolated from silkworm: the DNA molecules share a common terminal sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recently, a parvo-like virus was newly isolated from silkworm larvae and the two viral DNAs (VD1 and VD2) with different electro-mobilities were identified. We cloned the viral DNAs in a plasmid pUC119 and demonstrated that these two DNAs were not a bimorphic molecules though they shared a common terminal sequence of 53 nucleotides. In addition, the sequence at the

H. Bando; H. Choi; Y. Ito; M. Nakagaki; S. Kawase

1992-01-01

324

Characterization of the guanosine 3??5?-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from silkworm eggs and analysis of the endogenous protein substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, two types of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases, namely cGMP dependent “G-kinase” and cAMP dependent “A-kinase”, in silkworm eggs has been reported (Takahashi et al. 1975; Takahashi 1976). One of these, G-kinase, has now been purified 2400-fold by means of ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on hydroxylapatite, DEAE cellulose, and gel filtration.

Susumu Y. Takahashi

1985-01-01

325

The formation of myeloid bodies in retinular cells of the pupal compound eyes of silkworm moths ( Bombyx mori ) exposed to a constant bright light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous well-developed myeloid bodies are formed in the retinular cells of the compound eyes of pupae (cocoons were removed) of silkworm (Bombyx mori) irradiated with a constant bright light (10 000 lux). Such well-developed myeloid bodies are not usually observed in arthropod compound eyes, and they have been observed only in the retinular cells of lepidopterans reared with carotenoid-deficient diet.

Eisuke Eguchi; Shihoko Maeda; Isamu Shimizu

1991-01-01

326

Expression of EGFP-spider dragline silk fusion protein in BmN cells and larvae of silkworm showed the solubility is primary limit for dragline proteins yield.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a unique fibrous protein with combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amount of silk from spiders is not feasible. In this paper, we used a newly established Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV Baculovirus expression system to express the recombinant spider (Nephila clavata) dragline silk protein (MaSp1) fused EGFP in BmN cells and larvae of silkworm. A 70 kDa fusion protein was visualized after rBacmid/BmNPV/drag infection by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis. Fusion protein expressed in the BmN cells probably occupied five percent of the cell total protein; In a silkworm larva, approximately 6 mg fusion proteins were expressed. Solubility analysis of the expressed spider dragline silk protein indicated that 60% fusion protein is insoluble. EGFP fluorescence showed that fusion protein is tend to form aggregate by self assemblage. The results indicated the solubility is the primary limit for spider dragline proteins yield. It also suggested that directly produce fibrous spider silk in the secreting-silk organs of the transgenic silkworm larvae might be a better method. PMID:17525867

Zhang, Yuansong; Hu, Junhua; Miao, Yungen; Zhao, Aichun; Zhao, Tianfu; Wu, Dayang; Liang, Liefeng; Miikura, Ayumi; Shiomi, Kunihiro; Kajiura, Zenta; Nakagaki, Masao

2007-05-25

327

Resistance to BmNPV via Overexpression of an Exogenous Gene Controlled by an Inducible Promoter and Enhancer in Transgenic Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP), Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P), hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG). After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 105 occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity.

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Zhao, Ping; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Genhong; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

328

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

SciTech Connect

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

Kato, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan) and Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

2007-08-03

329

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1992-12-01

330

ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89  

SciTech Connect

This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

1989-01-01

331

Processing of Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Labpacks  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Site Treatment Plan (STP) issued under a Tennessee Commissioner's Order includes a compliance milestone related to treatment of mixed waste labpacks on the Oak Ridge sites. The treatment plan was written and approved in Fiscal Year 1997. The plan involved approximately 1,100 labpacks and 7,400 on-the-shelf labpackable items stored at three Department of Energy (DOE) sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The labpacks and labpack items consist of liquids and solids with various chemical constituents and radiological concerns. The waste must be processed for shipment to a commercial hazardous waste treatment facility or treatment utilizing a Broad Spectrum mixed waste treatment contract. This paper will describe the labpack treatment plan that was developed as required by the Site Treatment Plan and the operations implemented to process the labpack waste. The paper will discuss the labpack inventory in the treatment plan, treatment and disposal options, processing strategies, project risk assessment, and current project status.

Estes, C. H.; Franco, P.; Bisaria, A.

2002-02-26

332

Environmental restoration: Oak Ridge National Laboratory perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is a multipurpose research facility managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for the US Deparment of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE). The operation of ORNL has resulted in a legacy of contaminated and potentially contaminated facilities, research areas, and waste management areas that may require remediation. The most recent inventory of remediation sites has identified approximately 400 individual sites that will require investigation and possibly remediation. The Remedial Action program (RAP) was established at ORNL in 1985 to conduct the investigations, studies,and remediation necessary to prevent unacceptable risks to the environment and to the public from this legacy of contaminated sites. Then, in 1989 a central Environmental Restoration program (ERP) was established that consolidates the previous RAPs at all five sites managed by Energy Systems for DOE. This paper describes how a program was developed to solve the large and diverse problems associated with the environmental restoration of the ORNL. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Garland, S.B. II.

1991-01-01

333

Stability analysis of White Oak Dam  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

NONE

1995-04-11

334

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

335

A Program for Tourism, Education and Economic Growth in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content: General comments on tourism as an industry; Development objectives; Oak Ridge as an education center; Oak Ridge as a recreation center; Oak Ridge as a convention and exhibits center; Oak Ridge as a visitor center; Oak Ridge as an industrial cente...

1967-01-01

336

Oak Woodland Restoration: Understory Response to Removal of Encroaching Conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oregon white oak (or Carry oak, Quercusgarryana) woodlands and savannas of the coastal Pacific Northwest are legacies of an anthropogenic fire regime that ended with European settlement in the mid-1 800s. Historically, these oak stands had a sparse overstory and an understory dominated by fire-tolerant grasses and forbs. Post-settlement fire suppression resulted in widespread invasion and subsequent overstory dominance by

Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington; David H. Peter

2007-01-01

337

Relationships between advance oak regeneration and biotic and abiotic factors.  

PubMed

Relationships between advance regeneration of four tree species (red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Q. montana Willd.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.)) and biotic (non-tree vegetation and canopy composition) and abiotic (soil series and topographic variables) factors were investigated in 52, mature mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachians. Aggregate height was used as a composite measure of regeneration abundance. Analyses were carried out separately for two physiographic provinces. Associations with tree regeneration were found for all biotic and abiotic factors both in partial models and full models. Red maple was abundant on most of the sites, but high red maple abundance was commonly associated with wet north-facing slopes with little or no cover of mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) and hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore). Regeneration of the three oak species was greatly favored by the abundance of overstory trees of their own kind. White oak regeneration was most abundant on south-facing, gentle, lower slopes with soils in the Buchanan series. Chestnut oak regeneration was more common on south-facing, steep upper slopes with stony soils. There was a positive association between chestnut oak and huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) Koch) cover classes. Northern red oak was more abundant on north-facing wet sites with Hazleton soil, and was associated with low occurrence of mountain-laurel and hay-scented fern. PMID:18450575

Fei, Songlin; Steiner, Kim C

2008-07-01

338

US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts.

NONE

1996-03-01

339

Field Use of NMIS at Oak Ridge  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS), developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), has been successfully used at Y-12 for nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). It is particularly useful in the high gamma-ray background of storage arrays and for shielded HEU. With three systems in use at Y-12, NMIS has enhanced the NMC&A capability for verification and for confirmation of materials in storage and for HEU receipts by providing capability not available or practical by other NDA methods for safeguards. It has recently cost-effectively quantified the HEU mass and enrichment of hundreds of HEU metal items to within a total spread of {+-} 5% (3 sigma) with and mean deviations for all HEU verified of + 0.2% for mass and {minus}0.2% for enrichment. Three cart portable systems are easily moved around with minimal impact on facility operations since no permanent dedicated floor space is required. The positive impact of NMIS at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is improved and more cost effective NMC&A as well as the resolution of NMC&A findings. Its operation at the Y-12 Plant is essential for compliance with the NMC&A requirements of the US Department of Energy. NMIS portability has allowed one system to be moved temporarily to the former K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant for characterization of a large deposit of hydrated uranyl fluoride. The impact of this NMIS application was enhanced and verified nuclear criticality safety that led to the safe removal of a large deposit originally estimated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron counting to contain 1300 kg of 3.3 wt% {sup 235}U material. NMIS has also been operational at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pantex.

Chiang, L.G.; Conger, M.; Hughes, S.S.; Mattingly, J.K.; McEvers, J.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Perez, R.B.; Turner, C.R.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.

1999-08-26

340

Elution of Nitrate at the NABIR Field Research Center, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a bioremediation project for the in situ bioreduction of uranium at the Department of Energy Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN, aquifer and groundwater conditioning is required before conducting the remediation experiment. One step includes flushing of the aquifer with pH-adjusted fresh water in order to remove extremely high

M. N. Fienen; C. S. Criddle; P. M. Jardine; P. K. Kitanidis; T. L. Mehlhorn; D. B. Watson; W. Wu

2003-01-01

341

Historic Sites Reconnaissance of the Oak Ridge Reservation Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge reservation area, acquired by the U.S. Corps of Engineers for the Manhattan Project in 1942, was a typical portion of the ridge-and-valley section in eastern Tennessee, containing approximately 1000 individual land tracts complete with farms...

G. F. Fielder S. R. Ahler B. Barrington

1977-01-01

342

Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL s experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages.

Feldman, Matthew R [ORNL

2011-01-01

343

Oak Ridge beam-analysis system  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Energy Division (FED) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has as one of its projects the design and development of powerful neutral beam lines for heating the plasma in fusion reactors. The data acquisition and analysis system for the neutral beam test stands monitors source performance, beam characteristics, and power deposition profiles to determine if a beam line is operating according to its design specifications. The speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near real-time analysis of experimental data. In addition, the data acquisition systems are linked to the FED PDP-10 timesharing computer, where data may be permanently stored and/or further analyzed.

Stewart, C.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Maddox, L.B.

1982-11-01

344

Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

Gladman, Aaron C

2006-01-01

345

Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

2010-10-27

346

Analyzing the promoters of two CYP9A genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori by dual-luciferase reporter assay.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are widespread proteins that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. CYP9A subfamily genes are important in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We previously reported transcriptional levels of two CYP9A genes in different tissues and their responses to sodium fluoride (NaF). In this study, promoter truncation analysis using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in B. mori ovary cells (BmN) showed that the regions -1,496 to -1,102 bp for CYP9A19, and -1,630 to -1,210 bp for CYP9A22 were essential for basal transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis of these regions revealed several transcriptional regulatory elements but no typical promoter elements. Promoter activities were regulated after NaF induction and with an obvious dose effect. Although the dual-luciferase assay has been widely used to determine the activity of a given promoter in cell lines, problems with it still exist. Our results indicate that both plasmid size and construct protocols affect the experimental results. PMID:23090481

Zhao, Si-Si; Zhao, Guo-Dong; Di, Tian-Yuan; Ding, Hua; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Yu-Hua; Xu, Ya-Xiang; Shen, Wei-De; Wei, Zheng-Guo

2012-10-23

347

Characterization of a germination-accelerating factor from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  

PubMed

The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of a host insect-derived extract. This extract therefore appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi, although the substance (germination-accelerating factor, GAF) responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Our previous study was extended to the isolation of GAF from pupae of the silkworm, a host insect of N. rileyi. This present work subjects GAF to a structural analysis. The chemical structure of GAF is characterized as 2S-amino-tetradeca-4-ene-1,3R-diol (D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine) based on spectroscopic data. An examination of the structure-activity relationship shows that the activity of D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine was superior to that of sphingosines with shorter and longer carbon chains. It is suggested that the molecular species with a 14-carbon chain of a sphingosine is important for host recognition. PMID:20530914

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro

2010-06-07

348

Functional divergence among silkworm antimicrobial peptide paralogs by the activities of recombinant proteins and the induced expression profiles.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection. PMID:21479226

Yang, Wanying; Cheng, Tingcai; Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2011-03-29

349

Development of a method for long-term preservation of Bombyx mori silkworm strains using frozen ovaries.  

PubMed

Development of long-term preservation is essential for conservation of stocks of silkworm genetic resources. Thus far, a few methods have been reported, but more improvement is required for practical use. We have developed two effective modifications of a method for long-term preservation using frozen ovaries. One was slow cooling (1 °C per min) until -80 °C of the donor ovaries made possible by use of a BICELL freezing vessel. Using donor ovaries of 4th instar larvae, the average number of eggs laid per moth increased significantly from 110.7 ± 53.4 eggs per moth by slow cooling with the BICELL vessel vs 12.3 ± 10.3 eggs per moth by direct cooling in liquid nitrogen. A second improvement was connecting the thread bodies of the donor ovaries with those of the host in the transplantation step. Females operated on with the new method yielded a significantly higher percentage of moths that laid fertilized eggs than those transplanted with the standard procedure (70.4 ± 21.6% vs 22.9 ± 9.3%). PMID:23500076

Banno, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Kiyomi; Tsukada, Marino; Minohara, Yuko; Banno, Junko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Tamura, Kei; Fujii, Tsuguru

2013-03-13

350

Amplified fragment length polymorphism mapping of quantitative trait loci for economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F(2) progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

351

Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations  

PubMed Central

Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98% inter-population, and 23% to 58% intra-population polymorphism. Nei’s genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R2 = 0.71) and geographic distance (R2 = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R2 = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D’2IS exceeded D’2ST, showed significant contribution of random genetic drift to the increase in variance of disequilibrium in subpopulations. In the Lakhimpur population, the peripheral part was separated from the core by a genetic distance of 0.260. Patchy habitats promoted low genetic variability, high linkage disequilibrium and colonization by new subpopulations. Increased gene flow and habitat-area expansion are required to maintain higher genetic variability and conservation of the original S. c. ricini gene pool.

Pradeep, Appukuttannair R.; Jingade, Anuradha H.; Singh, Choba K.; Awasthi, Aravind K.; Kumar, Vikas; Rao, Guruprasad C.; Prakash, N.B. Vijaya

2011-01-01

352

A study on effects of glutathione s-transferase from silkworm on CCL4-induced mouse liver injury.  

PubMed

To assess the hepatoprotective activity of Glutathione S-transferase(GSTsw), extracted and purified from silkworm, in experimental acute mice liver injury and explore mechanisms. Mice were divided into five groups: control group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and GSTsw at doses of 0.083 mg•g(-1), 0.0415 mg•g(-1) and 0.0207 mg•g(-1) for 3 days. ALT in serum, GST, SOD and T-AOC in liver tissue homogenate, and changes in liver pathology in the five groups were studied. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to untreated controls. GSTsw administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced changes in liver pathology. It was also associatedwith significantly lower serum ALT levels, higher GST-SOD and T-AOC level in live tissue homogenate. Thus, GSTsw showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. PMID:21190910

Yan, Hui; Gui, Zhongzheng; Wang, Bochu

2011-01-01

353

Functional Divergence among Silkworm Antimicrobial Peptide Paralogs by the Activities of Recombinant Proteins and the Induced Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection.

Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2011-01-01

354

Nucleotide sequence variation in mitochondrial COI gene among 147 silkworm (Bombyx mori) strains from Japanese, Chinese, European and moltinism classes.  

PubMed

We characterized the nucleotide sequences of PCR-amplified mitochondrial COI fragments of 147 silkworm (Bombyx mori) strains that have been maintained in the National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences. Coding sequences (714 bp) of the 147 COI fragments were classified into eight haplotypes based on nucleotide differences at eight segregating sites. No length variation was identified in this region. The 5'-noncoding region showed different features, wherein changes in the number of Ts in the T-stretch, together with two base substitutions, were observed. As a result, the 147 COI noncoding sequences were classified into six haplotypes. Combining the coding and noncoding regions, we identified 14 haplotypes. One of the 14 haplotypes, Hap1A was exclusively abundant in the Japanese native strain class, while this haplotype was less frequent in the other three native strain classes. This finding suggests that the Japanese strain class underwent significant genetic differentiation from the Chinese, European, and moltinism classes, when the each class is regarded as a population. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences to those of B. mandarina (which inhabits Japan) revealed changes that are significantly larger than those within either B. mori or B. mandarina. Furthermore, we detected no common haplotypes between them, which suggests the concept of suppressed gene flow between the two species. PMID:22362030

Yukuhiro, Kenji; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kosegawa, Eiichi; Kiuchi, Makoto

2011-01-01

355

Identification, characterization, and crystal structure of an aldo-keto reductase (AKR2E4) from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily with 3-dehydroecdysone reductase activity was found in the silkworm Bombyx mori upon induction by the insecticide diazinon. The amino acid sequence showed that this enzyme belongs to the AKR2 family, and the protein was assigned the systematic name AKR2E4. In this study, recombinant AKR2E4 was expressed, purified to near homogeneity, and kinetically characterized. Additionally, its ternary structure in complex with NADP(+) and citrate was refined at 1.3Ĺ resolution to elucidate substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme is a 33-kDa monomer and reduces dicarbonyl compounds such as isatin and 17?-hydroxy progesterone using NADPH as a cosubstrate. No NADH-dependent activity was detected. Robust activity toward the substrate inhibitor 3-dehydroecdysone was observed, which suggests that this enzyme plays a role in regulation of the important molting hormone ecdysone. This structure constitutes the first insect AKR structure determined. Bound NADPH is located at the center of the TIM- or (?/?)8-barrel, and residues involved in catalysis are conserved. PMID:24012638

Yamamoto, Kohji; Wilson, David K

2013-09-06

356

Identification of a pentanucleotide telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)n, in the silkworm Bombyx mori and in other insects.  

PubMed Central

A pentanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGG)n, has been isolated from a silkworm genomic library, using cross-hybridization with a (TTNGGG)5 sequence, which is conserved among most eukaryotic telomeres. Both fluorescent in situ hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease experiments revealed major clusters of (TTAGG)n at the telomeres of all Bombyx chromosomes. To determine the evolutionary origin of this sequence, two types of telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)5 and a hexanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGGG)4, which is conserved mainly among vertebrate and several invertebrate telomeres so far examined, were hybridized to DNAs from a wide variety of eukaryotic species under highly stringent hybridization conditions. The (TTAGGG)5 oligonucleotide hybridized to genomic DNAs from vertebrates and several nonvertebrate species, as has been reported so far, but not to any DNAs from insects. On the other hand, the Bombyx type of telomere sequence, (TTAGG)n, hybridized to DNAs from 8 of 11 orders of insect species tested but not to vertebrate DNAs, suggesting that this TTAGG repetitive sequence is conserved widely among insects. Images

Okazaki, S; Tsuchida, K; Maekawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H

1993-01-01

357

Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of an alpha-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding an octopamine (OA) receptor (BmOAR1) was isolated from the nerve tissue of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that BmOAR1 is highly identical to OA receptors isolated from Periplaneta americana (Pa oa(1)), Apis mellifera (AmOA1), and Drosophila melanogaster (OAMB or DmOA1A). BmOAR1 was stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. OA above 1 microM led to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration ([cAMP](i)). The synthetic OA-receptor agonist demethylchlordimeform also elevated [cAMP](i) to the same maximal level (approximately 5-fold over the basal level) as that induced by OA. However, other biogenic amines, tyramine and dopamine, and chlordimeform were without effects. The [cAMP](i) level raised by OA was lowered by antagonists; the rank order of antagonist activity was chlorpromazine > mianserin = yohimbine. Cyproheptadine and metoclopramide had little effect. OA above 100 nM induced a transient or sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), depending on the concentration of OA. Sequence homology and functional analysis data indicate that BmOAR1 is an alpha-adrenergic-like OA receptor of B. mori. PMID:17201769

Ohtani, A; Arai, Y; Ozoe, F; Ohta, H; Narusuye, K; Huang, J; Enomoto, K; Kataoka, H; Hirota, A; Ozoe, Y

2006-12-01

358

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance.

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

359

The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron Refurbishment Project  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) has been in operation for nearly fifty years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presently, it serves as the driver accelerator for the ORNL Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), where radioactive ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separation Online (ISOL) technique for post-acceleration by the 25URC tandem electrostatic accelerator. Operability and reliability of ORIC are critical issues for the success of HRIBF and have presented increasingly difficult operational challenges for the facility in recent years. In February 2010, a trim coil failure rendered ORIC inoperable for several months. This presented HRIBF with the opportunity to undertake various repairs and maintenance upgrades aimed at restoring the full functionality of ORIC and improving the reliability to a level better than what had been typical over the previous decade. In this paper, we present details of these efforts, including the replacement of the entire trim coil set and measurements of their radial field profile. Comparison of measurements and operating tune parameters with setup code predictions will also be presented.

Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Ball, James B [ORNL; Dowling, Darryl T [ORNL; Mosko, Sigmund W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL

2011-01-01

360

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1991-12-01

361

White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

Ahmed, S.B.

1994-01-01

362

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

363

Oak acorn, polyphenols and antioxidant activity in functional food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, are presented the results of physical and chemical investigations of differently treated samples of oak acorn. The aim of this investigation is to estimate the influence of thermal treatment on physical and nutritive characteristics of investigated samples. Oak acorn, Quercus robur, (belonging to Fagaceae family) was investigated in native and thermally treated forms. By subsequent extraction of

S. Raki?; D. Povrenovi?; V. Teševi?; M. Simi?; R. Maleti?

2006-01-01

364

Emergence of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen responsible for massive sudden oak death of tanoak, coast live oak and Japanese larch in the United States and the United Kingdom, is the latest example of an emerging pathogen. This review documents the emergence of P. ramorum based on detailed, recent evolutionar...

365

Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.|

McMaster, Robert T.

2004-01-01

366

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE MEALY-OAK GALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are commonly found on urban trees. In- duced by oviposition of insects and other arthropods, galls develop from woody tree tissues, forming shelters for develop- ing larvae. Few galls are physiologically harmful to the tree. Some, like the mealy-oak galls on live oak, are not only harmless but may harbor beneficial arthropods long after the gall-maker has departed. Because

David L. Morgan; Gordon W. Frankie

367

Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112

Michael G Ryon; Patricia Dreyer Parr; Kari Cohen

2007-01-01

368

Radiological surveys of deer harvests on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapidly increasing number of deer\\/vehicle collisions on the Oak Ridge Reservation and contiguous lands resulted in the need for an aggressive method of reducing the deer population. Managed hunts on the reservation was the method chosen for this reduction, and the Oak Ridge Wildlife Management Area was established in November 1984. Because of possible radiological contamination of the deer

Eldridge

1990-01-01

369

Distance independent tree diameter growth model for cork oak stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diameter increment model for cork oak was developed based on measurements taken twice at 72 permanent plots in cork oak forest in southern Spain. Empirical and semi-empirical models were compared. In the empirical model diameter increment was expressed as a function of tree and stand characteristics such as diameter, density and site index. In the semi-empirical model, the diameter

Mariola Sánchez-González; Miren del Río; Isabel Cańellas; Gregorio Montero

2006-01-01

370

Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that

Fellows

1993-01-01

371

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

NONE

1995-09-01

372

How to manage oak forests for acorn production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oak forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and water-fowl. The population and health and wildlife often rise, and fall with the cyclic

Johnson

1994-01-01

373

How to Manage Oak Forests for Acorn Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oak forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse,...

P. S. Johnson

1994-01-01

374

Restoration release of overtopped Oregon white oak increases 10 ...  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Our objective was to evaluate the 10-year response of oak trees to three release treatments from ... Oak height and crown area growth rates were not influenced by treatment, but larger pre-treatment crown ... top, Disclaimers | FOIA | Privacy Policy | Quality of Information | Print This Page.

375

Clinical Investigation of Hyposensitization in Poison Oak Sensitive Individuals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to determine whether individuals in California who were sensitive to poison oak could be desensitized by the use of the purified active principle of poison oak, urushiol. Many adult males were skin-tested to determine sens...

W. L. Epstein

1972-01-01

376

Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report. Volume 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents a summary of various investigations performed within Phase II of the Oak Ridge Health Agreement Studies, in a project that became known as the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. From late 1994 to early 1999, a team of scientists and eng...

2000-01-01

377

Oak Ridge Reservation Public Warning Siren System Annual Test Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full operational test of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Public Warning Siren System (PWSS) was successfully conducted on September 27, 2000. The annual test is a full-scale sounding of the individual siren systems around each of the three Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the annual test is to demonstrate and validate the

R. F. Gee

2000-01-01

378

Changes in protein metabolism in hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) in response to organophosphorus insecticides toxicity.  

PubMed

Changes in protein metabolism were studied in hemolymph and fat body of 5th instar silkworm Bombyx mori exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of fenitrothion and ethion. The total protein content indicated a depletion followed by a concomitant increase in accumulation of free amino acids. Concurrently, the activity of protease in both of the tissues was also increased. A sharp enhancement in the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase paralleled the elevation of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in the tissues studied. All these changes clearly documented the induction of severe proteolysis and transamination of amino acids. PMID:9126434

Nath, B S; Suresh, A; Varma, B M; Kumar, R P

1997-03-01

379

Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

380

Leaf Area Index, Leaf Mass Density, and Allometric Relationships Derived From Harvest of Blue Oaks in a California Oak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the key role played by biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is critical to generate accurate BVOC emission inventories. Because oak species found in California often have high BVOC emission rates, and are often of large stature with corresponding large leaf masses, oaks may be the most important genus of woody plants

John F. Karlik; Alistair H. McKay

381

Not all oak gall wasps gall oaks: the description of Dryocosmus rileypokei, a new, apostate species of Cynipini from California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cynipini gall wasps are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly1000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from a host plant other than Quercus. These three species are known from western chinqu...

382

Release Investigation Report for Underground Storage Tank 2305-U at Building 9998, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a Release Investigation Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2305-U at Building 9998 in the north central portion of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report documents results of the Initial Site Characterization to identify the presence or absence of petroleum contamination from the UST, identify the possible presence of free product, determine the

E. M. Ingram; J. M. Eaton

1991-01-01

383

Initial Site Characterization for Underground Storage Tank 2081-U, Building 9212, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents the Initial Site Characterization (ISC) for the Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2081-U at Building 9212 of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report documents results of the ISC concerning petroleum releases from the UST, characterization of the release site, and delineation of soil contamination required to evaluate and conduct remedial actions at the tank

J. M. Eaton; E. M. Ingram

1991-01-01

384

Quality Assurance Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Site Investigation (SI)includes the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage and enbayment, and associated floodplain and subsurface environment. The ORNL main plant and the major waste storage and disposal facilities at ORNL are located in the WOC watershed and are drained by the WOC system to

G. P. Atwood; D. E. Miller

1992-01-01

385

Surface radiological investigations along State Highway 95, Lagoon Road, and Melton Valley Drive, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface radiological investigation along State Highway 95, Lagoon Road, and Melton Valley Drive at the Oak Ridge Reservation was conducted as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Surveillance and Maintenance activities. This report was prepared to document results of the investigation and subsequent remedial actions. The report details surface gamma radiation levels including gamma anomalies;

P. F. Tiner; M. S. Uziel; D. E. Rice; J. K. Williams

1995-01-01

386

An aerial radiological survey of the White Oak Creek Floodplain, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Date of survey: September-October 1986  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the White Oak Creek Floodplain of the Oak Ridge Reservation during the period 30 September through 3 October 1986. The survey was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office, by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM), a contractor of the DOE. The survey results will be utilized in support of the Remedial Action Program being conducted at the site by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., operator of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A flight line spacing of 37 meters (120 feet) and a survey altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) yielded the maximum data density and sensitivity achievable by the aerial system, which was greater than that achieved from prior surveys of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation. Isopleth maps of Cs-137, Co-60, Ti-208 implied concentrations, and exposure rates provided an estimate of the location and magnitude of the man-made activity. These maps, overlaid on a current photograph of the area, combine to yield a view of the radiological condition of the White Oak Creek Floodplain. 5 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs.

Fritzsche, A.E.

1987-06-01

387

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

388

Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

1997-02-01

389

Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-01

390

Longitudinal patterns in species richness and genetic diversity in European oaks and oak gallwasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

While latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity are well known for many taxa in Europe, there has been little analysis of\\u000a longitudinal patterns across Pleistocene glacial refugia. Here we analyze longitudinal patterns in two aspects of diversity\\u000a (species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity) for two trophically related groups of organisms – oaks (Fagaceae, genus\\u000a Quercus) and their associated gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Rachel J. Atkinson; Antonis Rokas; Graham N. Stone

391

Oak tree and grazing impacts on soil properties and nutrients in a California oak woodland  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is great interest in understandinghow rangeland management practices affectthe long-term sustainability of California oakwoodland ecosystems through their influence onnutrient cycling. This study examines the effects ofoak trees and low to moderate intensity grazing onsoil properties and nutrient pools in a blue oak (Quercus douglasii H.&A.) woodland in the SierraNevada foothills of northern California. Fourcombinations of vegetation and management wereinvestigated:

R. A. DAHLGREN; M. J. SINGER; X. HUANG

1997-01-01

392

Historic sites reconnaissance of the Oak Ridge Reservation Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge reservation area, acquired by the U.S. Corps of Engineers for the Manhattan Project in 1942, was a typical portion of the ridge-and-valley section in eastern Tennessee, containing approximately 1000 individual land tracts complete with farmsteads, schools, churches, and communities. In compliance with Executive Order 11593, Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, contracted with the University of Tennessee Department

G. F. Jr. Fielder; S. R. Ahler; B. Barrington

1977-01-01

393

Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to

D. J. Awl; L. R. Pounds; B. A. Rosensteel; A. L. King; P. A. Hamlett

1996-01-01

394

Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental report for 1990  

SciTech Connect

The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1990. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1990 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1.

Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

1991-09-01

395

Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989  

SciTech Connect

The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

1990-10-01

396

Pulsed reactor experiments at Oak Ridge  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes dynamic experiments for 3 pulsed reactors. 1st reactor was pulsed from some average power by rotating a partial Be reflector past an unreflected core face; the other 2 reactors were pulsed by rapid insertion of a fuel rod into the unmoderated and unreflected reactor at essentially zero neutron level with no significant neutron source present. The first reactor was a mockup of an EURATOM design (never constructed) of the proposed SORA Reactor, and the other two were the Health Physics Research Reactor and the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor (APRFR). This paper describes the experiments performed in initial testing of these systems, including destructive tests of APRFR, to set operating limits for this type of reactor in pulsed operation. All the experiments described were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility.

Mihalczo, J.T.

1994-12-31

397

Oils from the degradation of white oak  

SciTech Connect

Destructive distillation of softwoods gives charcoal plus a mixture of many organics. Much work has been put into the destruction of hardwoods available in the Middle Tennessee area for the purpose of generating heat in a large heating system and for generating charcoal that can be sold commercially. Using white oak, organics in much less amounts than with softwoods were collected and decanted from each other. The top layer consisted of alcohols and water while the heavier oily layer consisted of phenolics and other organics. Analyses of these oils were compared with GC, GCMS, and SFC. Both fractions polymerized in the GC at temperatures above 100{degree}C but successful reduction of some of this was found with derivatization to ethers with boron-trifluoride/MeOH. Preliminary experiments suggest that SFC was the most desirable method of analyses at 100 P{degree}C oven temperature with unmodified CO{sub 2} gas.

Kline, E.A.; Warren, K.N.; Purdy, K.R.; Kerr, C.D.; Martin, C.E. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (USA))

1990-04-01

398

Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

1995-11-01

399

Identification of Key Uric Acid Synthesis Pathway in a Unique Mutant Silkworm Bombyx mori Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Plasma uric acid (UA) levels decrease following clinical progression and stage development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying decreases in plasma UA levels remain unclear, and the potential to apply mutagenesis to a PD model has not previously been discovered. We identified a unique mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori (B.mori) op. Initially, we investigated the causality of the phenotypic “op” by microarray analysis using our constructed KAIKO functional annotation pipeline. Consequently, we found a novel UA synthesis-modulating pathway, from DJ-1 to xanthine oxidase, and established methods for large-scale analysis of gene expression in B. mori. We found that the mRNA levels of genes in this pathway were significantly lower in B. mori op mutants, indicating that downstream events in the signal transduction cascade might be prevented. Additionally, levels of B.mori tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DJ-1 mRNA were significantly lower in the brain of B. mori op mutants. UA content was significantly lower in the B. mori op mutant tissues and hemolymph. The possibility that the B. mori op mutant might be due to loss of DJ-1 function was supported by the observed vulnerability to oxidative stress. These results suggest that UA synthesis, transport, elimination and accumulation are decreased by environmental oxidative stress in the B. mori op mutant. In the case of B. mori op mutants, the relatively low availability of UA appears to be due both to the oxidation of DJ-1 and to its expenditure to mitigate the effects of environmental oxidative stress. Our findings are expected to provide information needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of decreased plasma UA levels in the clinical stage progression of PD.

Tabunoki, Hiroko; Ono, Hiromasa; Ode, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawana, Natsuki; Banno, Yutaka; Shimada, Toru; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Satoh, Jun-ichi; Bono, Hidemasa

2013-01-01

400

Genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, revealed by ISSR markers  

PubMed Central

Samia cynthia ricini (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae), the Indian eri silkworm, contributes significantly to the production of commercial silk and is widely distributed in the Brahmaputra river valley in North-Eastern India. Due to over exploitation coupled with rapid deforestation, most of the natural populations of S. cynthia ricini are dwindling rapidly and its preservation has become an important goal. Assessment of the genetic structure of each population is a prerequisite for a sustainable conservation program. DNA fingerprinting to detect genetic variation has been used in different insect species not only between populations, but also between individuals within a population. Since, information on the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and genetic diversity within the S. cynthia ricini populations is scanty, inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) system was used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation among six commercially exploited S. cynthia ricini populations. Twenty ISSR primers produced 87% of inter population variability among the six populations. Genetic distance was lowest between the populations Khanapara (E5) and Mendipathar (E6) (0.0654) and highest between Dhanubhanga (E4) and Titabar (E3) (0.3811). Within population, heterozygosity was higher in Borduar (E2) (0.1093) and lowest in Titabar (E3) (0.0510). Highest gene flow (0.9035) was between E5 and E6 and the lowest (0.2172) was between E3 and E5. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance among the populations. The high GST value (0.657) among the populations combined with low gene flow contributes significantly to the genetic differentiation among the S. cynthia ricini populations. Based on genetic diversity, these populations can be considered as different ecotypes and in situ conservation of them is recommended.

Vijayan, K.; Anuradha, H. J.; Nair, C. V.; Pradeep, A. R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Saratchandra, B.; Rahman, S. A S.; Singh, K. C.; Chakraborti, R.; Urs, S. Raje

2006-01-01

401

Repression of tyrosine hydroxylase is responsible for the sex-linked chocolate mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation patterning has long interested biologists, integrating topics in ecology, development, genetics, and physiology. Wild-type neonatal larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are completely black. By contrast, the epidermis and head of larvae of the homozygous recessive sex-linked chocolate (sch) mutant are reddish brown. When incubated at 30 °C, mutants with the sch allele fail to hatch; moreover, homozygous mutants carrying the allele sch lethal (schl) do not hatch even at room temperature (25 °C). By positional cloning, we narrowed a region containing sch to 239,622 bp on chromosome 1 using 4,501 backcross (BC1) individuals. Based on expression analyses, the best sch candidate gene was shown to be tyrosine hydroxylase (BmTh). BmTh coding sequences were identical among sch, schl, and wild-type. However, in sch the ?70-kb sequence was replaced with ?4.6 kb of a Tc1-mariner type transposon located ?6 kb upstream of BmTh, and in schl, a large fragment of an L1Bm retrotransposon was inserted just in front of the transcription start site of BmTh. In both cases, we observed a drastic reduction of BmTh expression. Use of RNAi with BmTh prevented pigmentation and hatching, and feeding of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor also suppressed larval pigmentation in the wild-type strain, pnd+ and in a pS (black-striped) heterozygote. Feeding L-dopa to sch neonate larvae rescued the mutant phenotype from chocolate to black. Our results indicate the BmTh gene is responsible for the sch mutation, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis producing neonatal larval color.

Liu, Chun; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Narukawa, Junko; Liu, Shi-Ping; Han, Yu; Futahashi, Ryo; Kidokoro, Kurako; Noda, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Tamura, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Akio; Banno, Yutaka; Dai, Fang-Ying; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

2010-01-01

402

Recombinant human chymase produced by silkworm-baculovirus expression system: its application for a chymase detection kit.  

PubMed

Human chymase is a mast cell-derived serine proteinase, which is a non-angiotensin converting enzyme angiotensin II-generating enzyme. It appears to participate in various diseases, but it is unclear whether chymase plays major roles in physiological and pathophysiological functions in vivo. To obtain information on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of chymase and to search for diseases in which chymase participates, in the present study, we aimed at producing recombinant human chymase in large quantities and at developing an ELISA system using anti-human chymase antibodies. A recombinant human chymase was produced by a silkworm-baculovirus expression system. The recombinant chymase in active form was efficiently purified from larval hemolymph using cation-exchange and heparin column chromatography. This recombinant enzyme was enzymatically identical with native human chymase. On the other hand, the stability of the recombinant enzyme in cultured medium for mammalian cells at 37 degrees C was very high as compared with the stability of the native enzyme; 20% of the activity was maintained 120 h after addition of medium. These results indicated that the recombinant enzyme could also utilize in vitro and in vivo assay systems. We obtained several anti-chymase monoclonal antibodies by using the recombinant human chymase as antigen. These antibodies were used to construct an ELISA system for measuring the chymase concentration in blood. As a result of preliminary examination using this ELISA system, it was shown that the chymase concentration in each serum from hypertensive patients is significantly higher than in normal serum. The ELISA system will be applicable for clinical diagnosis and in vivo evaluation systems for chymase-targeting drugs. PMID:12499573

Suzuki, Takeo; Kaki, Hiroki; Naya, Shinichi; Murayama, Soji; Tatsui, Akira; Nagai, Akihiko; Takai, Shinji; Miyazaki, Mizuo

2002-11-01

403

Linkage and mapping analyses of the densonucleosis non-susceptible gene nsd-Z in the silkworm Bombyx mori using SSR markers.  

PubMed

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, non-susceptibility to the Zhenjiang (China) strain of the densonucleosis virus (DNV-Z) is controlled by the recessive gene nsd-Z (non-susceptible to DNV-Z), which is located on chromosome 15. Owing to a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progeny were used for linkage analysis and mapping of the nsd-Z gene using silkworm strains Js and L10, which are classified as being highly susceptible and non-susceptible to DNV-Z, respectively. BC1 larvae were inoculated with the DNV-Z virus at the first instar, and DNA was extracted from the individual surviving pupae and analyzed for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The nsd-Z gene was found to be linked to 7 SSR markers, as all the surviving larvae in the BC1female (F1female x L10male) showed the homozygous profile of strain L10, and the sick larvae in the BC1female (F1female x L10male) showed the heterozygous profile of Js x L10 F1 hybrids. Using a reciprocal BC1male (L101female x F1male) cross, we constructed a linkage map of 80.6 cM, with nsd-Z mapped at 30 cM and the closest SSR marker at a distance of 4.4 cM. PMID:16699560

Li, Muwang; Guo, Qiuhong; Hou, Chengxiang; Miao, Xuexia; Xu, Anying; Guo, Xijie; Huang, Yongping

2006-04-01

404

Fine mapping of a supernumerary proleg mutant (E(Cs) -l) and comparative expression analysis of the abdominal-A gene in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Patterning and phenotypic variations of appendages in insects provide important clues on developmental genetics. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, morphological variations associated with the E complex, an analogue of the Drosophila melanogaster bithorax complex, mainly determine the shape and number of prolegs on abdominal segments. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the allele responsible for the supernumerary crescents and legs-like (E(Cs) -l) mutant, a model derived from spontaneous mutation of the E complex, with supernumerary legs and extra crescents. Fine mapping with 1605 individuals revealed a ?68?kb sequence in the upstream intergenic region of B.?mori abdominal-A (Bmabd-A) clustered with the E(Cs) -l locus. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses disclosed a marked increase in Bmabd-A expression in the E(Cs) -l mutant at both the transcriptional and translational levels, compared to wild-type Dazao. Furthermore, we observed ectopic expression of the Bmabd-A protein in the second abdominal segment (A2) of the E(Cs) -l mutant. Our results collectively suggest that the 68?kb region contains important regulatory elements of the Bmabd-A gene, and provide evidence that the gene is required for limb development in abdominal segments in the silkworm. PMID:23803144

Chen, P; Tong, X-L; Li, D-D; Liang, P-F; Fu, M-Y; Li, C-F; Hu, H; Xiang, Z-H; Lu, C; Dai, F-Y

2013-06-27

405

DOE Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DOE Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships at Oak Ridge National Laboratory-- Description: Opportunities to participate in research in a broad range of science and engineering activities related to basic sciences, energy, and the environment. Discipline(s): Computer Science; Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences; Engineering; Life Sciences; Mathematics; Physical Sciences Eligibility: U.S. Citizens and Legal Permanent Residents. Undergraduate Students Location(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) Duration: Summer Term 10 Weeks; Fall/Spring Term 16 weeks Frequency: Spring, Summer, and Fall How to apply: http://www.scied.science.doe.gov Deadline(s): http://www.scied.science.doe.gov/scied/erulf/dates.html

406

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-07-01

407

Licensing and CRADA's in Oak Ridge technology transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the belief that effective technology transfer is a ''contact sport,'' Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy's (DOE's) management contractor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, encourages its research and engineering employees t...

G. A. Prosser

1993-01-01

408

19. DETAIL VIEW OF SKIFF BOW WITH OAK STEM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DETAIL VIEW OF SKIFF BOW WITH OAK STEM AND FRAMES PLANKED IN CEDAR USING COPPER CLINCH NAILS. TRANSOM OF SECOND SKIFF CAN BE SEEN BACKGROUND. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

409

Predicting the intensity of recreational use of oak woodland preserves  

Treesearch

Proceedings of the sixth California oak symposium: today's challenges, tomorrow's ... access to protected areas in urban landscapes, including state and regional parks, ... issued by open space rangers to recreational users and expert opinion.

410

An epidemic airborne disease caused by the oak processionary caterpillar.  

PubMed

The oak processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea processionea Lepidoptera) is found in several European countries. It usually lives in oak forests or on single-standing oak trees. The larva of from the 3rd to 6th developmental stage (instar) develops poisonous hair (setae), filled with an urticating toxin that may lead to serious dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and pulmonary affection (summarized as lepidopterism) on contact with the setae. In June 2004 more than 40 people including young children developed symptoms of lepidopterism after resting within 20 m of an infested oak tree. Only a few people had touched the caterpillars. All those with clinical symptoms of lepidopterism could be treated as outpatients, but several needed systemic steroids because of the severity of their complaints. Lepidopterism, an airborne disease caused by the setae of the processionary caterpillar, is a growing public health problem because of the increasing numbers of outbreaks. PMID:16445416

Gottschling, Sven; Meyer, Sascha

411

16. DETAIL IN CELLAR, SOUTH SIDE, SHOWING VERTICAL OAK LOGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. DETAIL IN CELLAR, SOUTH SIDE, SHOWING VERTICAL OAK LOGS GOING INTO THE GROUND AND SHORT RUBBLE STONE PIERS SUPPORTING FLOOR BEAMS (POTEAUX EN TERRE CONSTRUCTION) - Amoureaux House, St. Mary's Road, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

412

52. INTERIOR DETAIL OF OAK STAIR WITH BRICK PATTERN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. INTERIOR - DETAIL OF OAK STAIR WITH BRICK PATTERN, IN LIBRARY OF 1931 SECTION, TAKEN FROM THE SOUTHEAST. - James Russell Lowell Elementary School, 4501 Crittenden Drive, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

413

Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  

PubMed

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

1981-01-01

414

Functional Genomics Initiative at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Functional Genomics Initiative at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrates outstanding capabilities in mouse genetics, bioinformatics, and instrumentation. The 50 year investment by the DOE in mouse genetics/mutagenesis has created a one-of-a-kind...

D. Johnson M. Justice K. Beattle M. Buchanan M. Ramsey

1997-01-01

415

Summary of the Oak Ridge ANFLOW Pilot Plant Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an energy-conserving wastewater treatment system based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor that uses films of bacteria fixed to inert, stationary packing material. The treatment process is based o...

R. K. Genung C. W. Hancher D. L. Million W. W. Pitt

1981-01-01

416

Early History of Neutron Scattering at Oak Ridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the early development of neutron scattering techniques utilizing reactor neutrons occurred at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the years immediately following World War II. C.G. Shull, E.O. Wollan, and their associates systematically estab...

M. K. Wilkinson

1985-01-01

417

Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer  

Treesearch

All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are ... Title: Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer ... we propose that spatial benefit transfer methods can be used as a pragmatic ...

418

97. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF 'LAPHAM OAK,' NEW CANAAN, CA. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW OF 'LAPHAM OAK,' NEW CANAAN, CA. 1940. FROM PUBLIC WORKS COMMISSIONER'S REPORT. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT STATE LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

419

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review: Volume 24, No. 2, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram, multipurpose laboratory that conducts research in the physical, chemical, and life sciences; in fusion, fission, and fossil energy; and in energy conservation and other energy-related technologie...

C. Krause

1991-01-01

420

Predicting the intensity of recreational use of oak woodland preserves  

Treesearch

Nov 16, 2010... California oak symposium: today's challenges, tomorrow's opportunities. ... including state and regional parks, wildlife refuges, and open space preserves. ... by open space rangers to recreational users and expert opinion.

421

60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

None

2003-01-01

422

Identifying and addressing contemporary issues in central coast oak ...  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... with other uses were raised by the media, agency personnel, and environmental groups. ... Landowners rated their knowledge of oak products marketing, laws and regulations (e.g., Forest Practices Act), ...

423

Prepare and Purify Urushiol from Poison Ivy and Poison Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The active ingredients (urushiols) of poison ivy and poison oak were isolated in purified form by various chemical and physical procedures. Various properties were measured, including molecular weight, double bond value, refractive index and infrared spec...

M. D. Corbett

1973-01-01

424

Emergency Response Puff Model at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An emergency response computer code has been implemented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist decision makers during the accidental airborne release of an agent. This paper describes the necessary steps to run the FORTRAN 77 computer program tha...

R. D. Sharp F. C. Kornegay

1987-01-01

425

Effects of Environmental Conditions on Isoprene Emission from Live Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Live-oak plants (Quercus virginia) were subjected to various levels of CO2, water stress or photosynthetic photon flux density to test the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis occurred only under conditions of restricted CO2 availability. Isoprene emissi...

D. T. Tingey R. Evans M. Gumpertz

1981-01-01

426

Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite

C. J. Ford; M. T. Wefer

1993-01-01

427

Radioisotope production and management at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The production of radioisotopes has been one of the basic activities at Oak Ridge since the end of World War II. The importance of this work was best described by Alvin Weinberg, former Laboratory Director, when he wrote ``... If God has a golden book and writes down what it is that Oak Ridge National Laboratory did that had the biggest influence on science, I would guess that was the production and distribution of isotopes.`` Radioisotopes production continues to be an important aspect of Oak Ridge programs today and of those planned for the future. Past activities, current projects, and future plans and potentials will be described briefly in this paper. Also, some of the major issues facing the continued production of radioisotopes will be described. The scope of the program has always been primarily that of process development, followed by special batch-type productions, where no other supply exists. The technology developed has been available for adoption by US commercial corporations, and in cases where this has occurred, Oak Ridge has withdrawn as a supplier of the particular isotopes involved. One method of production that will not be described is that of target bombardment with an accelerator. This method was used at Oak Ridge prior to 1978 in the 86-inch Cyclotron. However, this method has not been used at Oak Ridge since then for radioisotope production, except as a research tool.

Collins, E.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Alexander, C.W.; Bigelow, J.E.; Parks, J.T.; Tracy, J.G.; Wham, R.M.

1994-09-01

428

Mesoscopic structural analysis of bedrock exposures at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the detailed study of outcrop of mesoscopic structures during the geologic mapping completed in 1992-1993. The purpose of this study was to document the geometry and style of outcrop scale structures, such as fractures and faults and relate them to map scale structures present in the Oak Ridge K-25 Area. This report was prepared to document site characterization data collected during the scoping phase investigations in accordance with the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.

Lemiszki, P.J. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

429

Geophysical Surveys of a Known Karst Feature, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical data were acquired at a site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee to determine the characteristics of a mud-filled void and to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of geophysical methods at the site. Methods that were used included microgravity, electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction. Both microgravity and resistivity were able to detect the void as well as overlying structural features. The seismic data provide bedrock depth control for the other two methods, and show other effects that are caused by the void.

Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Carr, B.J.

1998-12-01

430

Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

Not Available

1992-08-01

431

Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

1991-09-01

432

Health Assessment for Oak Grove Sanitary Landfill, Oak Grove Township, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND980904056.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Oak Grove Sanitary Landfill is in the northwest corner of Anoka County in east central Minnesota. Samples from the surficial sand aquifer under the site indicate extensive contamination with a wide variety of chemicals including volatile organic compo...

1989-01-01

433

Seismic hazard evaluation for the high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the probabilistic hazard of earthquake-induced ground shaking at the HFIR facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These results will be used to calculate plant response and potential effects in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). For th...

R. K. McGuire G. R. Toro

1991-01-01

434

RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data and information related to remedial investigation studies for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information is included on a soil gas survey, surface radiological investigations of waste areas, and well installation for ground water monitoring. (CBS)

Not Available

1991-09-01

435

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the wes...

1993-01-01

436

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the we...

T. L. Hatmaker L. A. Hook B. L. Jackson

1993-01-01

437

Tannin assays in ecological studies: Lack of correlation between phenolics, proanthocyanidins and protein-precipitating constituents in mature foliage of six oak species  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no correlation between protein-precipitating capacity and either total phenolic or proanthocyanidin content of extracts of mature foliage from six species of oaks: Quercus alba (white oak), Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. palustris (pin oak), Q. rubra (red oak), and Q. velutina (black oak). It is argued that studies which probe the role of

Joan Stadler Martin; Michael M. Martin

1982-01-01

438

[Study on the interaction mechanism of antimicrobial peptide Cecropin-XJ in Xinjiang silkworm and Staphylococcus aureus DNA by spectra].  

PubMed

Nowadays many of antimicrobial peptides have been extensively studied in order to elucidate their antimicrobial mode of action. Much of the research focused on mechanisms of cytoplasmic membrane disruption has been proposed for antimicrobial peptides, but it is not known whether their antimicrobial mode of action is due to their effects on bacterial chromosome. To obtain more information about the possible mechanisms, Cecropin-XJ, a kind of antimicrobial peptide from Xinjiang silkworm, was used as subject and prepared by purification of Pichia yeast fermentation containing cecropin-XJ gene expression product. Subsequently, ultraviolet absorption spectra were employed to investigate whether this antibacterial function is due to Cecropin-XJ works on S. aureus DNA in vitro. The increase in absorbance of DNA samples at 260nm due to the addition of Cecropin-XJ was measured. It is called hyperchromicity of DNA, which can provide a direct measure of the degree of base-pair unstacking. The unstacking results in the loss of duplex helix, and then leads to the duplex helix becoming relaxing. At the same time, the interaction mode was studied by using ethidium bromide (EB) as an extrinsic fluorescence probe. With the addition of Cecropin-XJ, the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence absorbance of DNA at 307 nm increases greatly. It is suggested that the addition of Cecropin-XJ may unstack base-paire of DNA exposing the fluorescent amino acide, leading to the enhancing of DNA fluorescence intensity. Subsequently the competition between Cecropin-XJ and EB to combine with DNA was found. It is suggested that the style was groove binding and intercalation in the interaction of Cecropin-XJ and double helix DNA. Furthermore, in this study, the binding constant and binding number of Cecropin-XJ complex with DNA were determined. There were different binding constant and number of EB complex with DNA because of the the addition of Cecropin-XJ. It is showed that the interaction of Cecropin-XJ and DNA was based on intercalation or non-intercalation. Meanwhile, these results help explain the molecule mechanism of antimicrobial peptide from the interaction style and structure characteristic of Cecropin-XJ and S. aureus DNA. These findings could contribute to further investigation on the mechanism of action of Cecropin-XJ. PMID:18536425

Liu, Zhong-Yuan; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu-Tao; Zhang, Lan-Ting; Zhang, Fu-Chun

2008-03-01

439

High-titer preparation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) displaying recombinant protein in silkworm larvae by size exclusion chromatography and its characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Budded baculoviruses are utilized for vaccine, the production of antibody and functional analysis of transmembrane proteins. In this study, we tried to produce and purify the recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (rBmNPV-hPRR) that displayed human (pro)renin receptor (hPRR) connected with FLAG peptide sequence on its own surface. These particles were used for further binding analysis of hPRR to human prorenin. The rBmNPV-hPRR was produced in silkworm larvae and purified from its hemolymph using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Results A rapid method of BmNPV titer determination in hemolymph was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). A correlation coefficient of BmNPV determination between end-point dilution and Q-PCR methods was found to be 0.99. rBmNPV-hPRR bacmid-injected silkworm larvae produced recombinant baculovirus of 1.31 × 108 plaque forming unit (pfu) in hemolymph, which was 2.8 × 104 times higher than transfection solution in Bm5 cells. Its purification yield by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography was 264 fold from larval hemolymph at 4 days post-injection (p.i.), but 35 or 39 fold at 4.5 or 5 days p.i., respectively. Protein patterns of rBmNPV-hPRR purified at 4 and 5 days were the same and ratio of envelope proteins (76, 45 and 35 kDa) to VP39, one of nucleocapsid proteins, increased at 5 days p.i. hPRR was detected in only purified rBmNPV-hPRR at 5 days p.i.. Conclusion The successful purification of rBmNPV-hPRR indicates that baculovirus production using silkworm larvae and its purification from hemolymph by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography can provide an economical approach in obtaining the purified BmNPV stocks with high titer for large-scale production of hPRR. Also, it can be utilized for further binding analysis and screening of inhibitors of hPRR.

Kato, Tatsuya; Manoha, Suganthi Lavender; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Park, Enoch Y

2009-01-01

440

Synthesis of sialoglycopolypeptide for potentially blocking influenza virus infection using a rat ?2,6-sialyltransferase expressed in BmNPV bacmid-injected silkworm larvae  

PubMed Central

Background Sialic acid is a deoxy uronic acid with a skeleton of nine carbons which is mostly found on cell surface in animals. This sialic acid on cell surface performs various biological functions by acting as a receptor for microorganisms, viruses, toxins, and hormones; by masking receptors; and by regulating the immune system. In order to synthesize an artificial sialoglycoprotein, we developed a large-scale production of rat ?2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1). The ST6Gal1 was expressed in fifth instar silkworm larval hemolymph using recombinant both cysteine protease- and chitinase-deficient Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP--Chi-) bacmid. The expressed ST6Gal1 was purified, characterized and used for sialylation of asialoglycopolypeptide. We tested the inhibitory effect of the synthesized ?2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide on hemagglutination by Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin. Results FLAG-tagged recombinant ST6Gal1 was expressed efficiently and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate followed by affinity chromatography on an anti-FLAG M2 column, generating 2.2 mg purified fusion protein from only 11 silkworm larvae, with a recovery yield of 64%. The purified ST6Gal1 was characterized and its N-glycan patterns were found to be approximately paucimannosidic type by HPLC mapping method. Fluorescently-labelled N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) glycoside containing dansyl group was synthesized chemo-enzymatically as high-sensitivity acceptor substrate for ST6Gal1. The acceptor substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to that of rat liver ST6Gal1. The fluorescent glycoside is useful as a substrate for a highly sensitive picomole assay of ST6Gal1. Asialoglycopolypeptide was regioselectively and quantitatively sialylated by catalytic reaction at the terminal Gal residue to obtain ?2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide using ST6Gal1. The ?2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide selectively inhibited hemagglutination induced by Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin, showing about 780-fold higher affinity than the control fetuin. Asialoglycopolypeptide and ?-polyglutamic acid did not affect SNA lectin-mediated hemagglutination. Conclusion The recombinant ST6Gal1 from a silkworm expression system is useful for the sialylation of asialoglycopeptide. The sialylated glycoprotein is a valuable tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of biological and physiological events, such as cell-cell recognition and viral entry during infection.

2009-01-01

441

Responses of oaks and tanoaks to the sudden oak death pathogen after 8 y of monitoring in two coastal California forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is widely established in mesic forests of coastal central and northern California. In 2000, we placed 18 plots in two Marin County sites to monitor disease progression in coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), California black oaks (Q. kelloggii), and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), the species that are most consistently killed by the pathogen in

Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Maggi Kelly; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford

2010-01-01

442

Influence of Fire on Oak Seedlings and Saplings in Southern Oak Woodland on the Santa Rosa Plateau Preserve, Riverside County, California1  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: One wildfire and two prescription burns were moni­ tored at 15 oak seedling\\/sapling regeneration sites and at four non-burned comparison sites to study the effect of fire on seedlings and saplings of Quercus engelmannii (Engelmann oak) and Q. agrifolia (coast live oak). The number of initial top- killed seedlings and saplings, initial survivors, postburn resprouts and total survivors

Earl W. Lathrop; Chris D. Osborne

443

Microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Karst features are known to exist within the carbonate bedrock of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and may play an important role in groundwater flow and contaminant migration. This report discusses the results of a microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The main objective of the survey is to identify areas containing bedrock cavities. Secondary objectives included correlating the observed gravity to the geology and to variations in overburden thickness. The analysis includes 11 profile lines that are oriented perpendicular to the geologic strike and major structures throughout the K-25 Site. The profile lines are modeled in an effort to relate gravity anomalies to karst features such as concentrations of mud-filled cavities. Regolith thickness and density data provided by boreholes constrain the models. Areally distributed points are added to the profile lines to produce a gravity contour map of the site. In addition, data from the K-901 area are combined with data from previous surveys to produce a high resolution map of that site. The K-25 Site is located in an area of folded and faulted sedimentary rocks within the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province. Paleozoic age rocks of the Rome Formation, Knox Group, and Chickamauga Supergroup underlie the K-25 Site and contain structures that include the Whiteoak Mountain Fault, the K-25 Fault, a syncline, and an anticline. The mapped locations of the rock units and complex structures are currently derived from outcrop and well log analysis.

Kaufmann, R.D.

1996-05-01

444

Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southern California.  

PubMed

Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle has caused elevated levels of oak mortality since 2002. From 2009-2011, we tested several sanitation methods, applicable to large and small land parcels, to reduce or prevent goldspotted oak borer emergence from infested oak wood. In most experiments, emergence of goldspotted oak borer adults from the positive controls demonstrated that the beetle could complete development in firewood-sized pieces of cut oak wood. In 2009, adult emergence from sun-exposed oak wood began and peaked 2- to 4-wks earlier at a low elevation site than at a high elevation site (late May to late June). However, there were no significant effects of elevation or host species on the emergence response of goldspotted oak borer by solarization treatment in this study. Solarization of infested wood with thick (6 mil) and thin (1 mil) plastic tarpaulins (tarps) did not significantly reduce emergence of adults despite recordings of greater mean and maximum daily temperatures in both tarped treatments and greater relative humidity in the thick-tarped treatment (all compared with nontarped controls). Grinding wood with a 3"-minus screen (< or = 7.6 cm) significantly reduced goldspotted oak borer emergence compared with control treatments, and this was the best method for reducing adult emergence among those tested. In a separate grinding study, no adults emerged when wood was ground to 9"-minus (22.9 cm), 2"-minus (5.1 cm), or 1"-minus (2.5 cm) screen sizes, but a low level of adult emergence from the positive controls limited any inferences from this experiment. Debarking cut wood pieces eliminated goldspotted oak borer emergence from the wood fraction, but adults emerged from the shaved bark and phloem. PMID:23448037

Jones, Michael I; Coleman, Tom W; Graves, Andrew D; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

2013-02-01

445

Purification of a beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein in the prophenoloxidase activating system from hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The plasma fraction (referred to as plasma-CPB) of silkworm hemolymph, from which a protein with affinity to beta-1,3-glucan was specifically removed according to Yoshida et al. (Yoshida, H., Ochiai, M., and Ashida, M. (1986), Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141, 1177-1184), was used to develop a method for quantitating the beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein of the prophenoloxidase activating system. In principle, a sample was judged to contain beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein when that sample could restore the ability of the system in plasma-CPB to be triggered by beta-1,3-glucan. Purification procedures for the recognition protein from silkworm hemolymph consisted of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl, Affi-Gel-heparin, and Mono Q and Superose 12 on the fast protein liquid chromatography system of Pharmacia LKB Biotechnology Inc. About 2.03 mg of beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein was obtained from 300 ml of hemolymph. The purified beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. beta-1,3-Glucan recognition protein had a molecular mass of 62 kDa composed of a single polypeptide and an isoelectric point of pH 4.3. It bound to curdlan beads (composed of beta-1,3-glucan with average particle size of 80 micron) in the absence of divalent cation, whereas its binding to glucans with beta(1----4)- or alpha(1----6)-glycosidic linkages was not detected under the experimental conditions. Elution of the beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein bound to curdlan beads could be achieved under strongly denaturing conditions (after incubation of the beads with sodium dodecyl sulfate and beta-mercaptoethanol in boiling water for 5 min), but elution at room temperature was poor. Since beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein is the only protein in silkworm plasma with strong affinity to beta-1,3-glucan and endows the prophenoloxidase activating system in plasma-CPB with the ability to be triggered by beta-1,3-glucan, it was concluded that binding of the purified beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein with beta-1,3-glucan causes the triggering of the prophenol-oxidase activating system in silkworm plasma. However, the nature of the activity that is generated as the result of binding is not yet known. The purified beta-1,3-glucan re