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1

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: Process Optimization and Composition Determination  

PubMed Central

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO2. Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and ?-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively. PMID:22408458

Pan, Wen-Juan; Liao, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Zeng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2012-01-01

2

Diapause-Associated Protein3 Functions as Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in the Chinese Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi)  

PubMed Central

To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying of diapause in Antheraea pernyi (A.pernyi), we cloned a novel diapause-associated protein 3 (DAP3) gene from A.pernyi by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and studied the biological functions. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene encodes 171 amino acids and has a conserved domain of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). Western blot and qRT-PCR results showed that DAP3 was mainly expressed in the pupal stage, and gradually decreased as diapause development. DAP3 was also expressed in 1st and 5th instar larvae of A.pernyi. In tissues of 5th instar larvae of A.pernyi, DAP3 was mainly expressed in the epidermis, followed by the head, hemolymph and fat body. To identify the SOD activity of DAP3, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector by inserting the coding region sequence into plasmid pET-28a (+) and obtained the purified rHIS-DAP3 fusion protein by Ni-NTA affinitive column. Importantly, we found the SOD activity of DAP3 fusion protein was approximately 0.6674 U/µg. To further confirm the SOD activity of DAP3 in vivo, we induced the oxidative stress model of pupae by UV irradiation. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein level of DAP3 significantly increased by UV irradiation. Furthermore, the SOD activity of the total lysate of pupae increased significantly at 10 min post UV irradiation and transiently returned to normal level afterwards. These results suggested that DAP3 might be a novel protein with SOD activity getting involved in regulation of diapause in A.pernyi. PMID:24613963

Yu, Wei; Shu, Jianhong; Zhang, Yaozhou

2014-01-01

3

Mechanical properties and structure of silkworm cocoons: a comparative study of Bombyx mori, Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

As a protective shell against environmental damage and attack by natural predators, the silkworm cocoon has outstanding mechanical properties. In particular, this multilayer non-woven composite structure can be exceptionally tough to enhance the chance of survival for silkworms while supporting their metabolic activity. Peel, out-of-plane compression and nano-indentation tests and micro-structure analysis were performed on four types of silkworm cocoon walls (domesticated Bombyx mori, semi-domesticated Antheraea assamensis and wild Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea mylitta silkworm cocoons) to understand the structure and mechanical property relationships. The wild silkworm cocoons were shown to be uniquely tough composite structures. The maximum work-of-fracture for the wild cocoons (A. pernyi and A. mylitta) was approximately 1000 J/m(2), which was almost 10 times the value for the domesticated cocoon (Bombyx mori) and 3~4 times the value for the semi-domesticated cocoon (A. assamensis). Calcium oxalate crystals were found to deposit on the outer surfaces of the semi-domesticated and wild cocoons. They did not show influence in enhancing the interlaminar adhesion between cocoon layers but exhibited much higher hardness than the cocoon pelades. PMID:23706202

Zhang, J; Kaur, J; Rajkhowa, R; Li, J L; Liu, X Y; Wang, X G

2013-08-01

4

Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.  

PubMed

Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

2014-09-01

5

Estimation of amino acids, urea and uric acid in tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury.  

PubMed

The tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury, Andhra local ecorace is an exclusive race of Andhra Pradesh. It is on the verge of extinction due to difficulty of acclimatisation at breeding and rearing stages. As an attempt to protect this race, a method of total indoor rearing has been done. In this context, the estimation of free amino acids, excretory products- urea and uric acid were compared during the fourth and fifth instars of tasar silkworm, reared under outdoor and indoor conditions. The study has revealed that amino acids decreased in the fat body in outdoor and indoor reared larvae in contrast to that in the haemolymph where it has gradually increased from first to third crops. This is an important finding as it reveals that indoor worms seem to adopt proteolytic activity in the haemolymph. Secondly, in the fifth instar the excretory products are more compared to fourth instar in the indoor reared worms. During fifth instar, formation of nitrogenous products lessens as silk synthesis enhances. The present study reveals that decrease in uric acid in fifth instar implies increase in growth rate and silk synthesis in both outdoor and indoor worms. The findings of the present investigation is helpful in the conservation and protection of the A. mylitta, Andhra local ecorace. PMID:19297987

Shamitha, G; Rao, A Purushotham

2008-11-01

6

Silkworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworm moths lay eggs to reproduce. The eggs hatch into silkworm larvae. The larvae spin silk cocoons and use them as they change from larvae to silkworm moths. Silkworm larvae exclusively eat mulberry leaves and their cocoons are used by human to make silk products such as silk fabric.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

7

Foliage of oaks grown under elevated CO2 reduces performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

To understand how the increase in atmospheric CO2 from human activity may affect leaf damage by forest insects, we examined host plant preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. Larvae were fed leaves from Quercus alba L. and Quercus velutina Lam. grown under ambient or plus 200 microl/liter CO2 using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE). Lower digestibility of foliage, greater protein precipitation capacity in frass, and lower nitrogen concentration of larvae indicate that growth under elevated CO2 reduced the food quality of oak leaves for caterpillars. Consuming leaves of either oak species grown under elevated CO2 slowed the rate of development of A. polyphemus larvae. When given a choice, A. polyphemus larvae preferred Q. velutina leaves grown under ambient CO2; feeding on foliage of this species grown under elevated CO2 led to reduced consumption, slower growth, and greater mortality. Larvae compensated for the lower digestibility of Q. alba leaves grown under elevated CO2 by increasing the efficiency of conversion of ingested food into larval mass. Despite equivalent consumption rates, larvae grew larger when they consumed Q. alba leaves grown under elevated compared with ambient CO2. Reduced consumption, slower growth rates, and increased mortality of insect larvae may explain lower total leaf damage observed previously in plots in this forest exposed to elevated CO2. By subtly altering aspects of leaf chemistry, the ever-increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will change the trophic dynamics in forest ecosystems. PMID:17540072

Knepp, Rachel G; Hamilton, Jason G; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

2007-06-01

8

Comparative Study of Total Hydroperoxides and Antioxidant Defense System in the Indian Tropical Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, in Diapausing and Non-Diapausing Generations  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the total hydroperoxides, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, and ascorbic acid contents were determined in different developmental stages of the non-diapause and the diapause generation of the tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The results showed stage-specific significantly higher levels of total hydroperoxides, catalase, and ascorbic acid contents in the non-diapause as compared to the diapause generation (p < 0.05). However, a significantly enhanced level of glutathione-S-transferase activity was observed in mature 5th instar larvae of the diapause generation (p < 0.05). In the case of pupae, significantly higher levels of total hydroperoxides, catalase, and glutathione-s-transferase activity were observed in the non-diapause generation (p < 0.05). These results could be the effect of intensive metabolic transformation that takes place in tissues of the non-diapause generation and causes increased production of reactive oxygen species, such as hydroperoxides. The results suggest that antioxidants play an important role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species. PMID:24786341

Jena, Karmabeer; Kar, Prasanta K.; Babu, Chittithoti S.; Giri, Shantakar; Singh, Shyam S.; Prasad, Bhagwan C.

2013-01-01

9

Bio-inspired fabrication of fibroin cryogels from the muga silkworm Antheraea assamensis for liver tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Conventional scaffold fabrication techniques result in narrow pore architectures causing a limited interconnectivity and use of porogens, which affects the bio- or cyto-compatibility. To ameliorate this, cryogels are immensely explored due to their macro-porous nature, ease in fabrication, using ice crystals as porogens, the shape property, easy reproducibility and cost-effective fabrication technique. Cryogels in the present study are prepared from nonmulberry Indian muga silk gland protein fibroin of Antheraea assamensis using two different fabrication temperatures (-20 and -80 °C). Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is used to solubilize fibroin, which in turn facilitates gelation by accelerating the ß-sheet formation. Ethanol is employed to stabilize the 3D network and induces bimodal porosity. The gels thus formed demonstrate increased ß-sheet content (FTIR) and a considerable effect of pre-freezing temperatures on 3D micro-architectures. The cryogels are capable of absorbing large amounts of water and withstanding mechanical compression without structure deformation. Further, cell impregnated cryogels well support the viability of human hepatocarcinoma cells (live/dead assay). The formation of cellular aggregates (confocal laser and scanning electron microscope), derivation in metabolic activity and proliferation rate are obtained in constructs fabricated at different temperatures. In summary, the present work reveals promising insights in the development of a biomimetic functional template for biomedical therapeutics and liver tissue engineering. PMID:24002731

Kundu, Banani; Kundu, S C

2013-10-01

10

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N

Keeling, Patrick

11

Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination  

PubMed Central

In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4%) were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2%) were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4%) were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151) was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination. PMID:19564928

Li, Yu-Ping; Xia, Run-Xi; Wang, Huan; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2009-01-01

12

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

13

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None;)

2006-07-05

14

Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: Transcriptome Analysis of Arma chinensis Fed on Artificial Diet and Chinese Oak Silk Moth Antheraea pernyi Pupae  

PubMed Central

Background The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler). This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample’s assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10?5), and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10?5), retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological roles of the differentially expressed genes enable us to predict effects of some dietary ingredients and subsequently propose formulation improvements to artificial diets. PMID:23593338

Zou, Deyu; Coudron, Thomas A.; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Mengqing; Chen, Hongyin

2013-01-01

15

Silkworm larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None;)

2007-08-04

16

Understanding the variability of properties in Antheraea pernyi silk fibres.  

PubMed

Variability is a common feature of natural silk fibres, caused by a range of natural processing conditions. Better understanding of variability will not only be favourable for explaining the enviable mechanical properties of animal silks but will provide valuable information for the design of advanced artificial and biomimetic silk-like materials. In this work, we have investigated the origin of variability in forcibly reeled Antheraea pernyi silks from different individuals using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) combined with the effect of polar solvent penetration. Quasi-static tensile curves in different media have been tested to show the considerable variability of tensile properties between samples from different silkworms. The DMTA profiles (as a function of temperature or humidity) through the glass transition region of different silks as well as dynamic mechanical properties after high temperature and water annealing are analysed in detail to identify the origin of silk variability in terms of molecular structures and interactions, which indicate that different hydrogen bonded structures exist in the amorphous regions and they are notably different for silks from different individuals. Solubility parameter effects of solvents are quantitatively correlated with the different glass transitions values. Furthermore, the overall ordered fraction is shown to be a key parameter to quantify the variability in the different silk fibres, which is consistent with DMTA and FTIR observations. PMID:25030083

Wang, Yu; Guan, Juan; Hawkins, Nick; Porter, David; Shao, Zhengzhong

2014-09-01

17

PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO2 Reduces Performance of  

E-print Network

,weexaminedhostplantpreferenceandlarvalperformanceofageneralist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. LarvaePLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO2 Reduces Performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) RACHEL G. KNEPP,1 JASON G. HAMILTON,2 ARTHUR R. ZANGERL,3 MAY R

DeLucia, Evan H.

18

Silkworm life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworms lay eggs to reproduce. Silkworm larvae hatch from these eggs. The larvae constantly eat only one thing- mulberry leaves. The larvae will spin silk cocoons for metamorphosis. The adults mate after emerging from the cocoon and the female will lay many small eggs.

Hubert Ludwig (None;)

2004-11-27

19

Nucleation of hydroxyapatite on Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin film.  

PubMed

Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin, which is spun from a wild silkworm, has increasingly attracted interest in the field of tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on A. pernyi fibroin film. Von Kossa staining proved that A. pernyi fibroin had Ca binding activity. The A. pernyi fibroin film was mineralized with HAp crystals by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate solutions. Spherical crystals were nucleated on the A. pernyi fibroin film according to scanning electron microscopeimaging results. The FT-IR and X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed that these spherical crystals were HAp. The results of in vitro cell culture using MG-63 cells demonstrated that the mineralized A. pernyi fibroin film showed excellent cytocompatibility and sound improvement of the MG-63 cellviability. PMID:24211958

Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Mandal, Namita; Zhu, Liangjun

2014-01-01

20

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with

Zhengzhong Shao; Fritz Vollrath

2002-01-01

21

Ligand binding to six recombinant pheromone-binding proteins of Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Binding properties of six heterologously expressed pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) identified in the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi were studied using tritium-labelled pheromone components, ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate ((3)H-Ac1) and ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal ((3)H-Ald), common to both species. In addition, a known ligand of PBP and inhibitor of pheromone receptor cells, the tritium-labelled esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-1,1,1-trifluoropropanone ((3)H-DTFP), was tested. The binding of ligands was measured after native gel electrophoresis and cutting gel slices. In both species, PBP1 and PBP3 showed binding of (3)H-Ac1. In competition experiments with (3)H-Ac1 and the third unlabelled pheromone component, ( E, Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate (Ac2), the PBP1 showed preferential binding of Ac1, whereas PBP3 preferentially bound Ac2. The PBP2 of both species bound (3)H-Ald only. All of the six PBPs strongly bound (3)H-DTFP. Among unlabelled pheromone derivatives, alcohols were revealed to be the best competitors for (3)H-Ac1 and (3)H-Ald bound to PBPs. No pH influence was found for (3)H-Ac1 binding to, or its release from, the PBP3 of A. polyphemus and A. pernyi between pH 4.0 and pH 7.5. The data indicate binding preference of each of the three PBP-subtypes (1-3) for a specific pheromone component and support the idea that PBPs contribute to odour discrimination, although to a smaller extent than receptor activation. PMID:12879348

Maida, R; Ziegelberger, G; Kaissling, K-E

2003-09-01

22

Assessment of freestanding membranes prepared from Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin as a potential vehicle for corneal epithelial cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Freestanding membranes created from Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) offer a potential vehicle for corneal cell transplantation since they are transparent and support the growth of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Fibroin derived from the wild silkworm Antheraea pernyi (APSF) might provide a superior material by virtue of containing putative cell-attachment sites that are absent from BMSF. Thus we have investigated the feasibility of producing transparent, freestanding membranes from APSF and have analysed the behaviour of HCE cells on this material. No significant differences in cell numbers or phenotype were observed in short term HCE cell cultures established on either fibroin. Production of transparent freestanding APSF membranes, however, proved to be problematic as cast solutions of APSF were more prone to becoming opaque, displayed significantly lower permeability and were more brittle than BMSF-membranes. Cultures of HCE cells established on either membrane developed a normal stratified morphology with cytokeratin pair 3/12 being immuno-localized to the superficial layers. We conclude that while it is feasible to produce transparent freestanding membranes from APSF, the technical difficulties associated with this biomaterial, along with an absence of enhanced cell growth, currently favour the continued development of BMSF as a preferred vehicle for corneal cell transplantation. Nevertheless, it remains possible that refinement of techniques for processing APSF might yet lead to improvements in the handling properties and performance of this material. PMID:24565906

Hogerheyde, Thomas A; Suzuki, Shuko; Stephenson, Sally A; Richardson, Neil A; Chirila, Traian V; Harkin, Damien G; Bray, Laura J

2014-04-01

23

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with spider silk by changing their spinning habits, rather than by having their silk genes altered.

Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

2002-08-01

24

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

2012-06-01

25

Characterization of tyrosine-rich Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (SF) hydrolysate were characterized using UV-VIS spectrometer, amino acid composition and heavy metal contents to explore its potential sources for food or cosmetic additives. The hydrolyzed A. pernyi SF was separated into two parts: (a) SFA, alanine-rich fraction and (b) SFB, tyrosine-rich fraction. SFB exhibited strong absorption peaks at 210 and 280 nm due to the presence of the tyrosine. Heavy metal analysis showed that arsenic and mercury did not detect. Other heavy metals, which includes lead, cadmium, etc., were recorded only a trace amount. Therefore, A. pernyi SF hydrolysate could be safely used as sources of food, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals. PMID:20937302

Lee, Kwang-gill; Kweon, HaeYong; Yeo, Joo-hong; Woo, SoonOk; Han, SangMi; Kim, Jong-Ho

2011-01-01

26

Silkworm protein: its possibility as an actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of silkworm (Bombyx mori) protein as a base material of biomimetic actuator was investigated in this paper. Silkworm films were prepared from high concentrations of regenerated fibroin in aqueous solution. Films with thickness of about 100 ?m were prepared for coating electrodes. The cast silk films were coated by very thin gold electrode on both sides of the film. Tensile test of cast film showed bi-modal trend, which is typical stress-strain relation of polymeric film. As the test of a possible biomimetic actuator, silkworm film actuator provides bending deformations according to the magnitude and frequency of the applied electric filed. Although the present bending deformation of silkworm film actuator is smaller than that of Electro-Active Paper actuator, it provides the possibility of biomimetic actuator.

Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Myung, Seung Jun; Kim, Heung Soo; Jung, Woochul; Kim, Jaehwan

2006-03-01

27

The Diapause Hormone of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1924, Watanabe1 postulated that silkworm eggs overwinter as a result of receiving an `inhibitory' substance from the mother moths, but the existence of the substance has not hitherto been substantiated experimentally. On the other hand, I have found2 that the suboesophageal ganglion of the silkworm is responsible for the hibernation of silkworm eggs; but the organ that furnishes the

Kinsaku Hasegawa

1957-01-01

28

Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus with Homology to the CD36 Family of  

E-print Network

Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. The morphology of the A

Vogt, Richard G.

29

Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm.  

PubMed

Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2014-09-01

30

Comparative methylomics between domesticated and wild silkworms implies possible epigenetic influences on silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to wild species, which have typically evolved phenotypes over long periods of natural selection, domesticates rapidly gained human-preferred agronomic traits in a relatively short-time frame via artificial selection. Under domesticated conditions, many traits can be observed that cannot only be due to environmental alteration. In the case of silkworms, aside from genetic divergence, whether epigenetic divergence played a role in domestication is an unanswered question. The silkworm is still an enigma in that it has two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT2) but their functionality is unknown. Even in particular the functionality of the widely distributed DNMT1 remains unknown in insects in general. Results By embryonic RNA interference, we reveal that knockdown of silkworm Dnmt1 caused decreased hatchability, providing the first direct experimental evidence of functional significance of insect Dnmt1. In the light of this fact and those that DNA methylation is correlated with gene expression in silkworms and some agronomic traits in domesticated organisms are not stable, we comprehensively compare silk gland methylomes of 3 domesticated (Bombyx mori) and 4 wild (Bombyx mandarina) silkworms to identify differentially methylated genes between the two. We observed 2-fold more differentiated methylated cytosinces (mCs) in domesticated silkworms as compared to their wild counterparts, suggesting a trend of increasing DNA methylation during domestication. Further study of more domesticated and wild silkworms narrowed down the domesticates’ epimutations, and we were able to identify a number of differential genes. One such gene showing demethyaltion in domesticates correspondently displays lower gene expression, and more interestingly, has experienced selective sweep. A methylation-increased gene seems to result in higher expression in domesticates and the function of its Drosophila homolog was previously found to be essential for cell volume regulation, indicating a possible correlation with the enlargement of silk glands in domesticated silkworms. Conclusions Our results imply epigenetic influences at work during domestication, which gives insight into long time historical controversies regarding acquired inheritance. PMID:24059350

2013-01-01

31

Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.  

PubMed

Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling ;clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal multiple times in quick succession, producing trains that last over 1 min and include 50-55 clicks. Individual clicks within a train are on average 24.7 ms in duration, often consisting of multiple components. Clicks are audible in a quiet room, measuring 58.1-78.8 dB peSPL at 10 cm. They exhibit a broadband frequency that extends into the ultrasound spectrum, with most energy between 8 and 18 kHz. Our hypothesis that clicks function as acoustic aposematic signals, was supported by several lines of evidence. Experiments with forceps and domestic chicks correlated sound production with attack, and an increase in attack rate was positively correlated with the number of signals produced. In addition, sound production typically preceded or accompanied defensive regurgitation. Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. The prevalence and adaptive significance of warning sounds in caterpillars is discussed. PMID:17337712

Brown, Sarah G; Boettner, George H; Yack, Jayne E

2007-03-01

32

Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house  

SciTech Connect

The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

1980-01-01

33

SilkDB: a knowledgebase for silkworm biology and genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Silkworm Knowledgebase (SilkDB) is a web- based repository for the curation, integration and study of silkworm genetic and genomic data. With the recent accomplishment of a 6X draft genome sequence of the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), SilkDB provides an integrated representation of the large-scale, genome-wide sequence assembly, cDNAs, clusters of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), mutants, single

Jing Wang; Qingyou Xia; Ximiao He; Mingtao Dai; Jue Ruan; Jie Chen; Guo Yu; Haifeng Yuan; Yafeng Hu; Ruiqiang Li; Tao Feng; Chen Ye; Cheng Lu; Jun Wang; Songgang Li; Gane Ka-shu Wong; Huanming Yang; Jian Wang; Zhonghuai Xiang; Zeyang Zhou; Jun Yu

2005-01-01

34

Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Thermotolerance  

PubMed Central

A tropical climate prevails in most of the sericultural areas in India, where temperature increases during the summer lead to adverse effects on temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and cause crop losses. Screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyxmori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant breeds/hybrids. In the current study, the aim was to identify potential bivoltine silkworm strains specific for tolerance to high temperature. The third day of fifth stage silkworm larvae of bivoltine strains were subjected to high temperature of 36 ± 1° C with RH of 50 ± 5 % for six hours (10:00–16:00) every day until spinning for three consecutive generations. Highly significant differences were found among all genetic traits of bivoltine silkworm strains in the treated groups. Three groups of silkworm resulted including susceptible, moderately tolerant, and tolerant by utilizing pupation rate or survival rate with thermal stress as the index for thermotolerance. Furthermore, based on the overall silkworm rearing performance of nine quantitative genetic traits such as larval weight, cocoon yield by number and weight, pupation, single cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and denier, three bivoltine silkworm strains, BD2-S, SOF-BR and BO2 were developed as having the potential for thermotolerance. The data from the present study enhance knowledge for the development of thermo tolerant silkworm breeds/ hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22225406

Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Subbarao, Sure Venkata; Misra, Sunil; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

2011-01-01

35

The Isolation of Cricket Paralysis Virus from the Emperor Gum Moth, Antheraea eucalypti Scott, and its Infectivity towards a Range of Insect Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three virus-like particles have been isolated from diseased larvae of Antheraea eucalypti. Serological tests established that one of them was indistinguishable from cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). CrPV isolated from crickets and from Antheraea were cross-infectious, and crickets could acquire lethal doses of the virus by feeding on infected Antheraea larvae. In addition to two species of Teleogryllus, three other

Carl Reinganum

1975-01-01

36

Directly obtaining pristine magnetic silk fibers from silkworm.  

PubMed

By feeding the silkworms with the nano Fe3O4 powder together with mulberry leaves, we directly obtained silkworm spun pristine magnetic silk fiber, MSF. To compare with the normal SF found that this MSF not only has expected magnetic properties, but also has enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties, e.g. stress and strain. PMID:24269584

Wang, Jun-Ting; Li, Lu-Lu; Feng, Lei; Li, Jin-Fan; Jiang, Lin-Hai; Shen, Qing

2014-02-01

37

Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

2007-04-01

38

Odour-source localization system mimicking behaviour of silkworm moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for localizing odour sources by mimicking the behaviour of silkworm moths is proposed. A male silkworm moth is able to localize its female counterpart by tracking airborne sexual pheromone. Through the observation of this behaviour, we have confirmed that wing vibrations are effective in enhancing the directivity of the odour stimulus. An artificial system with this mechanism

H. Ishida; K. Hayashi; M. Takakusaki; T. Nakamoto; T. Moriizumi; R. Kanzaki

1995-01-01

39

An Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Map of the Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is a lepidopteran insect with a long history of significant agricultural value. We have constructed the first amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map of the silkworm B. mori at a LOD score of 2.5. The mapping AFLP markers were genotyped in 47 progeny from a backcross population of the cross no. 782 3

Yuan-De Tan; Chunling Wan; Yufang Zhu; Chen Lu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Hong-Wen Deng

40

Silkworm nucleotide databases - Current trends and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori serves as an ideal representative of lepidopteran species for a variety of scientific studies. As a result, databases have been created to organize information pertaining to the silkworm genome that is subject to constant updating. Of these, four main databases are important for store nucleotide information in the form of genomic data, ESTs and microsatelites.

Nicole Koshy; Kangayam M. Ponnuvel; Randhir K. Sinha; S. M. H. Qadri

41

Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

42

Three pheromone-binding proteins in olfactory sensilla of the two silkmoth species Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Females of the sibling silkmoth species Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi use the same three sex pheromone components in different ratios to attract conspecific males. Accordingly, the sensory hairs on the antennae of males contain three receptor cells sensitive to each of the pheromone components. In agreement with the number of pheromones used, three different pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) could be identified in pheromone-sensitive hairs of both species by combining biochemical and molecular cloning techniques. MALDI-TOF MS of sensillum lymph droplets from pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of male A. polyphemus revealed the presence of three major peaks with m/z of 15702, 15752 and 15780 and two minor peaks of m/z 15963 and 15983. In Western blots with four antisera raised against different silkmoth odorant-binding proteins, immunoreactivity was found only with an anti-(Apol PBP) serum. Free-flow IEF, ion-exchange chromatography and Western blot analyses revealed at least three anti-(Apol PBP) immunoreactive proteins with pI values between 4.4 and 4.7. N-Terminal sequencing of these three proteins revealed two proteins (Apol PBP1a and Apol PBP1b) identical in the first 49 amino acids to the already known PBP (Apol PBP1) [Raming, K. , Krieger, J. & Breer, H. (1989) FEBS Lett. 256, 2215-2218] and a new PBP having only 57% identity with this amino-acid region. Screening of antennal cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the N-terminal end of the new A. polyphemus PBP, led to the discovery of full length clones encoding this protein in A. polyphemus (Apol PBP3) and in A. pernyi (Aper PBP3). By screening the antennal cDNA library of A. polyphemus with a digoxigenin-labelled A. pernyi PBP2 cDNA [Krieger, J., Raming, K. & Breer, H. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1088, 277-284] a homologous PBP (Apol PBP2) was cloned. Binding studies with the two main pheromone components of A. polyphemus and A. pernyi, the (E,Z)-6, 11-hexadecadienyl acetate (AC1) and the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal (ALD), revealed that in A. polyphemus both Apol PBP1a and the new Apol PBP3 bound the 3H-labelled acetate, whereas no binding of the 3H-labelled aldehyde was found. In A. pernyi two PBPs from sensory hair homogenates showed binding affinity for the AC1 (Aper PBP1) and the ALD (Aper PBP2), respectively. PMID:10806387

Maida, R; Krieger, J; Gebauer, T; Lange, U; Ziegelberger, G

2000-05-01

43

Female Attacus atlas respond to pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a comparative electrophysiological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to their own or to A. atlas pheromone. Male A. atlas do not detect any of the A. polyphemus compounds but only the conspecific female gland extracts. Both male A. atlas and female A. polyphemus possess PBP and GOBP but lack the pheromone-degrading esterases of male Antheraea. The results indicate that the two species use quite distinct classes of chemicals as pheromones. In spite of this, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the PBPs show homology of 68%. PMID:11124211

Maida, R; Ziesmann, J

2001-01-01

44

Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2011-01-01

45

Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2011-09-01

46

Detection of peptidoglycan and ?-glucan with silkworm larvae plasma test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to detect peptidoglycan and (1 ? 3)-?-d-glucan with silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) derived from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori was developed. SLP contains all of the factors of the pro-phenol oxidase cascade, an important self-defense mechanism of insects. Peptidoglycan or (1 ? 3)-?-d-glucan initiates the cascade, in which pro-phenol oxidase is finally activated to phenol oxidase.

Masakazu Tsuchiya; Nobuo Asahi; Fukiko Suzuoki; Masaaki Ashida; Shuji Matsuura

1996-01-01

47

Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

2014-01-01

48

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

49

Larval Legs of Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori Are Prototypes for the Adult Legs  

E-print Network

LETTER Larval Legs of Mulberry Silkworm Bombyx mori Are Prototypes for the Adult Legs Amit Singh,1; silkworm; limb development; lepidoptera; imaginal disc; drosophila INTRODUCTION During evolution there has during pupal metamorphosis to give rise to adult derivatives (Cohen, 1993). The mulberry silkworm Bombyx

Singh, Amit

50

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman Microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman mori and Samia cynthia ricini silkworms, and from the spider Nephila edulis. It is shown that.19 ( 0.02, respectively, even though the two types of silkworm fibroins strongly differ in their primary

Pezolet, Michel

51

Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection  

E-print Network

Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection Yoko insects. Yet many methods remain to be adapted to non- drosophilid species. The silkworm, B. mori, has established for silkworm, including stable transgenesis of the germline (Tamura et al., 2000) targeted gene

Â?urovec, Michal

52

A new mapping method for quantitative trait loci of silkworm  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm is the basis of sericultural industry and the model organism in insect genetics study. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying economically important traits of silkworm is of high significance for promoting the silkworm molecular breeding and advancing our knowledge on genetic architecture of the Lepidoptera. Yet, the currently used mapping methods are not well suitable for silkworm, because of ignoring the recombination difference in meiosis between two sexes. Results A mixed linear model including QTL main effects, epistatic effects, and QTL × sex interaction effects was proposed for mapping QTLs in an F2 population of silkworm. The number and positions of QTLs were determined by F-test and model selection. The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was employed to estimate and test genetic effects of QTLs and QTL × sex interaction effects. The effectiveness of the model and statistical method was validated by a series of simulations. The results indicate that when markers are distributed sparsely on chromosomes, our method will substantially improve estimation accuracy as compared to the normal chiasmate F2 model. We also found that a sample size of hundreds was sufficiently large to unbiasedly estimate all the four types of epistases (i.e., additive-additive, additive-dominance, dominance-additive, and dominance-dominance) when the paired QTLs reside on different chromosomes in silkworm. Conclusion The proposed method could accurately estimate not only the additive, dominance and digenic epistatic effects but also their interaction effects with sex, correcting the potential bias and precision loss in the current QTL mapping practice of silkworm and thus representing an important addition to the arsenal of QTL mapping tools. PMID:21276233

2011-01-01

53

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. IV. Segmentation and branch formation.  

PubMed

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure; its flagellum consists of about 30 stem segments each giving off two pairs of side branches. The antenna develops during the pupal stage (lasting in total about 21 days) from a leaf-shaped anlage by incisions proceeding from the periphery towards the prospective antennal stem. Primary incisions, starting about 3 days after apolysis, form double branches, which arethen split into single branches by parallel running secondary incisions. The initial pattern of tracheae and peripheral nerves is completely rearranged during these morphogenetic processes which are finished 9-10 days after apolysis. In Antheraea the dorsal and ventral epithelial monolayers of the antennal anlage are successively subdivided during development into a pattern of repetitive epithelial zones. Within the first day after apolysis alternating stripes of sensillogenic and non-sensillogenic epithelium are differentiating. Then the latter are further subdivided, and at last four different stripelike zones (I-IV) can be discriminated. Long basal protrusions of the epidermal cells ('epidermal feet'), and most probably haemocytes, seem to be involved in the reconstruction of the epithelium: both show characteristic arrangements within the antennal anlage during successive developmental stages. PMID:18621244

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1993-06-01

54

[Emergy analysis of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China].  

PubMed

Mulberry-silkworm ecosystem is one of the important agro-ecosystems in China. Based on the principles and methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the interior structure of mulberry-silkworm ecosystem and its relationship with exterior environment and economy. Some emergy indices for this ecosystem were quantitatively calculated, and compared with those of the agro-ecosystem in China. The results showed that the emergy investment ratio, emergy yield ratio, environmental loading ratio and emergy sustainability index was 3.78, 4.68, 0.18 and 26.0, respectively, suggesting the low environmental pressure and good ecological benefit in mulberry-silkworm ecosystem in China. Hi-technology was required to further decrease the labor force input and enhance the comprehensive utilization of sericultural resources. PMID:16706044

Chen, Mingang; Jin, Peihua; Huang, Lingxia; Lu, Xingmeng

2006-02-01

55

CURRENT UNDERSTANDING OF OAKS AND OAK WILT  

E-print Network

populace, and is prominent in literature � often as a symbol of strength or character. There are many susceptibility of red oaks to both oak wilt and sudden oak death (SOD), these differences in wood anatomy may

Harrington, Thomas C.

56

Breeding of a Silkworm Variety for Synnemata Production of Isaria tenuipes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted out to select a silkworm variety suitable for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes. Four kinds of the mulberry silkworm varieties, Bombyx mori, were hybridized using a Japanese parental line and a Chinese parental line, and used to test for synemata formation in I. tenuipes. The larval period of normal silkworms was 22 hr longer than the silkworms inoculated with this fungus. Among the silkworm varieties tested, Hachojam had the shortest larval period with 23.02 days. The non-cocooning silkworm had a shorter larval period than the cocoon producing silkworms. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 9% higher than that of silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Hachojam had the highest infection rate at 99.8%, but no significant difference was observed for the infection rate by silkworm variety. The production of synnemata was the best in JS171 × CS188 with an incidence rate of 99.3%, followed by Hachojam, and Chugangjam. The synnemata produced from Hachojam were the heaviest and showed white or milky-white in color. PMID:23956651

Kang, Pil-Don; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kim, Kee-Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2010-09-01

57

Identification of cytoskeletal proteins in the antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi.  

PubMed

Although the overall cytoskeletal morphology of the olfactory dendrite in the antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi is known, the cytoskeleton proteins that structurally and functionally support these structures remain to be identified in this paper, we describe the identification of tubulin, actin and intermediate filament-like proteins in the olfactory dendrites, and motor proteins such as kinesin and unconventional myosin in the antennal branches by the use of antibodies. We also show that the tubulins within the olfactory dendrites and in the antennal branches are acetylated. This study provides valuable information concerning the possible role of these proteins in transduction, transport and motility, as is evident in other systems. PMID:8905709

Kumar, G L; Maida, R; Keil, T A

1996-08-12

58

Esterase activity in the olfactory sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We studied in individual males of Antheraea polyphemus the activity of the sensillar esterase, a pheromone-degrading enzyme present in the sensillum lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor cells. In parallel, receptor potentials from single pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea were recorded. Our screening revealed a large variability of the enzyme activity in individuals with similar electrophysiological responses. In some moths the sensillar esterase was not detectable, i.e. present with 100-fold less activity. However, such variable esterase activity showed no correlation to the time course of the receptor potential. Thus, enzymatic pheromone degradation does not seem to be involved in the rapid pheromone inactivation at the end of the stimulus, but rather serves as the final pheromone sequestration step. PMID:7605955

Maida, R; Ziegelberger, G; Kaissling, K E

1995-03-27

59

Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs. PMID:3001718

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

1985-12-01

60

Hormonal control of muscle atrophy and degeneration in the moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

The intersegmental muscles of the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer) can undergo two forms of degenerative changes: a wasting atrophy that lasts about 6 days or rapid dissolution that is completed within 30 h. Muscle atrophy is induced by a dramatic decline in the endogenous titres of the steroid moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. 20-Hydroxyecdysone appears to act as a trophic factor for the muscles as infusion or injection of this steroid blocks further atrophy of the muscle. The normal decline of 20-hydroxyecdysone also allows the muscles to become competent to respond to the peptide eclosion hormone. Eclosion hormone is then released and acts directly on these muscles to induce rapid cell death which is morphologically and physiologically distinct from steroid-regulated atrophy. PMID:6491588

Schwartz, L M; Truman, J W

1984-07-01

61

Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Two proteins of the IP3 transduction pathway were identified by Western blots in homogenates of isolated pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. A 110 kDa protein was recognized by an antiserum raised against the Drosophila phospholipase C beta (PLC beta p121) and a 80kDa protein was labelled by an antiserum against a synthetic peptide of a conserved region of protein kinase C (PKC). Incubation of homogenized sensory hairs with the main sex pheromone component, (E,Z) 6-11 hexadecadienyl acetate, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of PKC compared to controls without pheromone. In contrast, incubation with pheromone did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKC by the membrane permeable dioctanoylglycerol led to excitation of the pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons. These data support the current concept that pheromone perception of moths is mediated by the IP3 transduction pathway. PMID:10852242

Maida, R; Redkozubov, A; Ziegelberger, G

2000-06-01

62

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

63

Cytological evidence for holocentric chromosomes of the silkworms, Bombyx mori and B. mandarina, (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the centromere and the orientation in meiosis of silkworm chromosomes were investigated using the trivalent of the F1 hybrid between the wild and domestic silkworm and X-ray-induced aberrant chromosomes as well as normal silkworm chromosomes. The results of the experiments were as follows: (1) Pro-metaphase chromosomes showed no distinct primary constriction even after treatment with hypotonic solution,

Akio Murakami; Hirotami T. Imai

1974-01-01

64

Construction of transformed, cultured silkworm cells and transgenic silkworm using the site-specific integrase system from phage ?C31.  

PubMed

The Streptomyces bacteriophage, ?C31, uses a site-specific integrase enzyme to perform efficient recombination. The recombination system uses specific sequences to integrate exogenous DNA from the phage into a host. The sequences are known as the attP site in the phage and the attB site in the host. The system can be used as a genetic manipulation tool. In this study it has been applied to the transformation of cultured BmN cells and the construction of transgenic Bombyx mori individuals. A plasmid, pSK-attB/Pie1-EGFP/Zeo-PASV40, containing a cassette designed to express a egfp-zeocin fusion gene, was co-transfected into cultured BmN cells with a helper plasmid, pSK-Pie1/NLS-Int/NSL. Expression of the egfp-zeocin fusion gene was driven by an ie-1 promoter, downstream of a ?C31 attB site. The helper plasmid encoded the ?C31 integrase enzyme, which was flanked by two nuclear localization signals. Expression of the egfp-zeocin fusion gene could be observed in transformed cells. The two plasmids were also transferred into silkworm eggs to obtain transgenic silkworms. Successful integration of the fusion gene was indicated by the detection of green fluorescence, which was emitted by the silkworms. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the attB site had been cut, to allow recombination between the attB and endogenous pseudo attP sites in the cultured silkworm cells and silkworm individuals. PMID:24990696

Yin, Yajuan; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

2014-10-01

65

Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

2010-09-01

66

Use of silkworms to evaluate the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen.  

PubMed

Injection of a Japanese cedar pollen suspension into silkworm hemolymph kills the silkworms. A certain species of bacteria proliferated in the hemolymph of the dead silkworms. A 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that the proliferating bacteria were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Among them, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis exhibited hemolysis against sheep red blood cells and were lethal to mice. A culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens showed enzyme activity toward the pectic membrane of cedar pollen. These results suggest that silkworms as an animal model are useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen. PMID:24071577

Hu, Yuan; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2013-08-01

67

Keywords. Bombyx mori; Distal-less (Dll); nubbin (nub), silkworm; wing development; wingless (wg) Equal contributions from both authors.  

E-print Network

167 Keywords. Bombyx mori; Distal-less (Dll); nubbin (nub), silkworm; wing development; wingless organization of appendages which develop by various mechanisms. In the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori a pair

Kango-Singh, Madhuri

68

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt, and Clyde F. Martin  

E-print Network

First-Order, Networked Control Models of Swarming Silkworm Moths Musad A. Haque, Magnus Egerstedt to predict observed, biological behaviors. In particular, we study the silkworm moth, the Bombyx Mori, and we by the female moths, as is the case in actual silkworm moths as well. I. INTRODUCTION The research on multi

Egerstedt, Magnus

69

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one

Lulin Huang; Tingcai Cheng; Pingzhen Xu; Daojun Cheng; Ting Fang; Qingyou Xia; Georg Häcker

2009-01-01

70

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. RobertâÂÂs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

71

Molecular spring: from spider silk to silkworm silk  

E-print Network

In this letter, we adopt a new approach combining theoretical modeling with silk stretching measurements to explore the mystery of the structures between silkworm and spider silks, leading to the differences in mechanical response against stretching. Hereby the typical stress-strain profiles are reproduced by implementing the newly discovered and verified "$\\beta$-sheet splitting" mechanism, which primarily varies the secondary structure of protein macromolecules; our modeling and simulation results show good accordance with the experimental measurements. Hence, it can be concluded that the post-yielding mechanical behaviors of both kinds of silks are resulted from the splitting of crystallines while the high extensibility of spider dragline is attributed to the tiny $\\beta$-sheets solely existed in spider silk fibrils. This research reveals for the first time the structural factors leading to the significant difference between spider and silkworm silks in mechanical response to the stretching force. Addition...

Wu, Xiang; Du, Ning; Xu, Gang-Qin; Li, Bao-Wen

2009-01-01

72

Genome segment 5 of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus encodes a bona fide guanylyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV), a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects non mulberry Indian silk worm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains eleven segmented double stranded RNA in its genome (S1-S11). Some of its genome segments (S1-S3, and S6-S11) have been previously characterized but genome segment encoding the viral guanylyltransferase which helps in RNA capping has not been characterized. Results In this study genome segment 5 (S5) of AmCPV was converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S5 consisted of 2180 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 1818 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 606 amino acids with molecular mass of ~65 kDa (p65). Bioinformatics analysis showed presence of KLRS and HxnH motifs as observed in some other reoviral guanylyltransferase and suggests that S5 may encodes viral guanylyltransferase. The ORF of S5 was expressed in E. coli as 65 kDa his tagged fusion protein, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibody was raised. Immunoblot analysis of virion particles with the purified antibody showed specific immunoreactive band and suggests p65 as a viral structural protein. Functional analysis showed that recombinant p65 possesses guanylyltransferase activity, and transfers GMP moiety to the 5' diphosphate (A/G) ended viral RNA after the formation of p65-GMP complex for capping. Kinetic analysis showed Km of this enzyme for GTP and RNA was 34.24 uM and 98.35 nM, respectively. Site directed mutagenesis at K21A in KLRS motif, and H93A or H105A in HxnH motif completely abolished the autoguanylylation activity and indicates importance of these residues at these sites. Thermodynamic analysis showed p65-GTP interaction was primarily driven by enthalpy (?H?=?-399.1?±?4.1 kJ/mol) whereas the p65-RNA interaction by favorable entropy (0.043?±?0.0049 kJ/ mol). Conclusion Viral capping enzymes play a critical role in the post transcriptional or post replication modification in case of RNA virus. Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S5 indicates that S5 encoded p65 through its guanylyltransferase activity can transfer guanine residue to the 5' end of viral RNA for capping. Further studies will help to understand complete capping process of cypoviral RNA during viral replication within the viral capsid. PMID:24649879

2014-01-01

73

Transgenic silkworms produce recombinant human type III procollagen in cocoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the generation of transgenic silkworms that produce cocoons containing recombinant human collagen. A fusion cDNA was constructed encoding a protein that incorporated a human type III procollagen mini-chain with C-propeptide deleted, a fibroin light chain (L-chain), and an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This cDNA was ligated downstream of the fibroin L-chain promoter and inserted into a piggyBac

Masahiro Tomita; Hiroto Munetsuna; Tsutomu Sato; Takahiro Adachi; Rika Hino; Masahiro Hayashi; Katsuhiko Shimizu; Namiko Nakamura; Toshiki Tamura; Katsutoshi Yoshizato

2002-01-01

74

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

75

A Draft Sequence for the Genome of the Domesticated Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.

Qingyou Xia; Zeyang Zhou; Cheng Lu; Daojun Cheng; Fangyin Dai; Bin Li; Ping Zhao; Xingfu Zha; Tingcai Cheng; Chunli Chai; Guoqing Pan; Jinshan Xu; Chun Liu; Ying Lin; Jifeng Qian; Yong Hou; Zhengli Wu; Guanrong Li; Minhui Pan; Chunfeng Li; Yihong Shen; Xiqian Lan; Lianwei Yuan; Tian Li; Hanfu Xu; Guangwei Yang; Yongji Wan; Yong Zhu; Maode Yu; Weide Shen; Dayang Wu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Jun Yu; Jun Wang; Ruiqiang Li; Jianping Shi; Heng Li; Guangyuan Li; Jianning Su; Xiaoling Wang; Guoqing Li; Zengjin Zhang; Qingfa Wu; Jun Li; Qingpeng Zhang; Ning Wei; Jianzhe Xu; Haibo Sun; Le Dong; Dongyuan Liu; Shengli Zhao; Xiaolan Zhao; Qingshun Meng; Fengdi Lan; Xiangang Huang; Yuanzhe Li; Lin Fang; Changfeng Li; Dawei Li; Yongqiao Sun; Zhenpeng Zhang; Zheng Yang; Yanqing Huang; Yan Xi; Qiuhui Qi; Dandan He; Haiyan Huang; Xiaowei Zhang; Zhiqiang Wang; Wenjie Li; Yuzhu Cao; Yingpu Yu; Hong Yu; Jinhong Li; Jiehua Ye; Huan Chen; Yan Zhou; Bin Liu; Jing Wang; Jia Ye; Hai Ji; Shengting Li; Peixiang Ni; Jianguo Zhang; Yong Zhang; Hongkun Zheng; Bingyu Mao; Wen Wang; Chen Ye; Songgang Li; Jian Wang; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Huanming Yang

2004-01-01

76

Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

2008-03-01

77

Microsatellites in the silkworm, Bomby× mori : Abundance, polymorphism, and strain characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized microsatellites (simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci) from the silkworm genome. The screening of a partial genomic library by the conventional hybridization method led to the isolation of 28 microsatellites harbouring clones. The abundance of (CA)n repeats in the silkworm genome was akin to those reported in the other organisms such as honey bee, pig, and

K. Damodar Reddy; E. G. Abraham; J. Nagaraju

1999-01-01

78

Silkworm hemolymph as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of silkworm hemolymph was investigated as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in insect cell culture. Cells were adapted to grow in reduced FBS medium supplemented with silkworm hemolymph through a gradual adaptation process. FBS concentration in the medium could be reduced to 1% without decrease in cell growth rate and maximum cell concentration by adding 5%

Sung Ho Ha; Tai Hyun Park; Sam-Eun Kim

1996-01-01

79

Antheraea pernyi Silk Fiber: A Potential Resource for Artificially Biospinning Spider Dragline Silk  

PubMed Central

The outstanding properties of spider dragline silk are likely to be determined by a combination of the primary sequences and the secondary structure of the silk proteins. Antheraea pernyi silk has more similar sequences to spider dragline silk than the silk from its domestic counterpart, Bombyx mori. This makes it much potential as a resource for biospinning spider dragline silk. This paper further verified its possibility as the resource from the mechanical properties and the structures of the A. pernyi silks prepared by forcible reeling. It is surprising that the stress-strain curves of the A. pernyi fibers show similar sigmoidal shape to those of spider dragline silk. Under a controlled reeling speed of 95?mm/s, the breaking energy was 1.04 × 105?J/kg, the tensile strength was 639 MPa and the initial modulus was 9.9 GPa. It should be noted that this breaking energy of the A. pernyi silk approaches that of spider dragline silk. The tensile properties, the optical orientation and the ?-sheet structure contents of the silk fibers are remarkably increased by raising the spinning speeds up to 95?mm/s. PMID:20454537

Zhang, Yaopeng; Yang, Hongxia; Shao, Huili; Hu, Xuechao

2010-01-01

80

Molecular cloning and characterization of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus polyhedrin gene and its variant forms  

SciTech Connect

The segments 10 (S10) of the 11 double stranded RNA genomes from Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) encoding a novel polyhedrin polypeptide was converted to cDNA, cloned, and sequenced. Three cDNA clones consisting of 1502 (AmCPV10-1), 1120 (AmCPV10-2), and 1415 (AmCPV10-3) nucleotides encoding polyhedrin of 254, 339, and 319 amino acids with molecular masses of 29, 39, and 37 kDa, respectively, were obtained, and verified by Northern analysis. These clones showed 70-94% sequence identity among them but none with any sequences in databases. The expression of AmCPV10-1 cDNA encoded polyhedrin in Sf-9 cells was detected by immunoblot analysis and formation of polyhedra by electron microscopy, as observed in AmCPV-infected gut cells, but no expression of AmCPV10-2 or AmCPV10-3 cDNA was detected, indicating that during AmCPV replication, along with functional S10 RNA, some defective variant forms of S10 RNAs are packaged in virion particles.

Sinha-Datta, Uma [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Ghosh, Ananta K. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)]. E-mail: aghosh@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.in

2005-07-08

81

Probing a pheromone binding protein of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by endogenous tryptophan fluorescence.  

PubMed

One subtype of the pheromone binding proteins of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1) has been analysed exploiting the two endogenous tryptophan residues as fluorescent probe. The intrinsic fluorescence exhibited a rather narrow spectrum with a maximum at 336 nm. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that one of the tryptophan residues (Trp37) is located in a hydrophobic environment whereas Trp127 is more solvent exposed, as was predicted modeling the ApolPBP1 sequence on the proposed structure of the Bombyx mori pheromone binding protein. Monitoring the interaction of ApolPBP1 as well as its Trp mutants with the three species-specific pheromone compounds by recording the endogenous fluorescence emission revealed profound differences; whereas (E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal induced a dose-dependent quenching of the fluorescence, both (E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate and (E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate elicited an augmentation of the endogenous fluorescence. These data indicate that although ApolPBP1 can bind all three pheromones, there are substantial differences concerning their interaction with the protein, which may have important functional implications. PMID:11804795

Bette, Stefanie; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2002-03-01

82

A calcium-activated nonspecific cation channel from olfactory receptor neurones of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Single-channel patch-clamp techniques were used to identify and characterize a Ca2(+)-activated nonspecific cation channel (CAN channel) on insect olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) from antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus. The CAN channel was found both in acutely isolated ORNs from developing pupae and in membrane vesicles from mature ORNs that presumably originated from inner dendritic segments. Amplitude histograms of the CAN single-channel currents presented well-defined peaks corresponding to at least four channel substates each having a conductance of about 16 pS. Simultaneous gating of the substates was achieved by intracellular Ca2(+) with an EC(50) value of about 80 nmol(-l). Activity of the CAN channel could be blocked by application of amiloride (IC(50)<100 nmoll(-1)). Moreover, in the presence of l ?moll(-1) Ca2+,opening of the CAN channel was totally suppressed by 10 ?moll(-1) cyclic GMP,whereas ATP (1 mmoll(-1)) was without effect. We suggest that the CAN channel plays a specific role in modulation of cell excitability and in shaping the voltage response of ORNs. PMID:22141156

Zufall, F; Hatt, H

1991-11-01

83

Redox-shift of the pheromone-binding protein in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

In pheromone-sensitive hairs of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, two electrophoretically distinct pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are present. They indicate no amino acid sequence diversity according to peptide mapping, but differ in their redox state, as shown by free-sulfhydryl-group-specific cleavage at cysteine residues with 2-nitro-5-thiocyanobenzoic acid. In kinetic studies, the pheromone was initially bound mainly by the reduced PBP but later by the oxidized PBP, where all six cysteine residues form disulfide bonds. This redox shift was observed only in the homogenate of isolated olfactory hairs, where proteins of the sensillum lymph and receptive dendrites are present. In control experiments with purified binding proteins, the proportion of pheromone bound to the oxidized PBP did not increase with increasing incubation time, suggesting that disulfide formation does not occur spontaneously but is mediated by the sensory hairs, possibly by interaction with the receptor cell membrane. These data suggest that arriving hydrophobic pheromone molecules are first bound by the reduced PBP and transported through the aqueous sensillum lymph towards the receptor molecules of the dendritic membrane. The oxidized complex might not be able to activate further receptors and, thus, effectively deactivate the pheromone molecules within the sensillum lymph. PMID:7588707

Ziegelberger, G

1995-09-15

84

Characterization of four pupal wing cuticular protein genes of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Three different clones have been isolated from a genomic library of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by employing a subtractive hybridization technique. The clones with inserts of 13-16 kb of DNA each, code for mRNAs expressed in the wing epidermis during JH induced second pupal cuticle deposition. While two of the clones code for a single mRNA each, the third one codes for two mRNAs. All the four mRNAs code for distinct polypeptides that can be precipitated with antibodies raised against pupal cuticular proteins. These genes are activated at the same period of pupal development and their transcripts follow similar patterns of accumulation. Although these genes are expressed in a tissue and time specific manner attesting to their pupal wing epidermal specificity, three of them are expressed in the adult wing epidermis also, but not at the larval stage. While DNAs from other silkmoths and insects hybridize to these genes, only one of the A. polyphemus genes hybridizes to RNA from second pupal wings of two other silkmoths tested. PMID:7517270

Kumar, M N; Sridhara, S

1994-03-01

85

Antennal-specific pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating behaviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concentration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone concentration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori that are capable of catabolizing long chain, unsaturated aldehydes such as their aldehyde pheromones. These soluble enzymes are associated uniquely with male and female antennae and have molecular masses of 175 and 130 kDa, respectively. The A. polyphemus aldehyde oxidase has been localized to the olfactory sensilla which contain the pheromone receptor cell dendrites. These same sensilla contain a previously described sensilla-specific esterase that degrades the acetate ester component of A. polyphemus pheromone. We propose that sensillar pheromone-degrading enzymes modulate pheromone concentration in the receptor space and hence play a dynamic role in the pheromone-mediated reproductive behaviors of these animals. PMID:2246254

Rybczynski, R; Vogt, R G; Lerner, M R

1990-11-15

86

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10,000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia are characterized by rectangularly shaped rhabdoms containing parallel microvilli arranged in groups that are oriented perpendicular to each other. In all other ommatidia, the proximal parts of the rhabdoms show radially arranged microvilli, whereas the distal parts may reveal different patterns, frequently with microvilli in two directions or sometimes even in one direction. Moreover, the microvilli of all distal cells are arranged in parallel to meridians of the eyes. By virtue of these structural features the eyes should enable this moth not only discrimination of the plane of polarized light but also skylight-orientation via the polarization pattern, depending on moon position. The receptor cells exhibit only small alterations during daylight within the natural diurnal cycle. However, under illumination with different monochromatic lights of physiological intensity, receptor cells can be unbalanced: Changes in ultrastructure of the rhabdomeres and the cytoplasm of such cells are evident. The effects are different in the daytime and at night. These findings are discussed in relation to the breakdown and regeneration of microvilli and the influence of the diurnal cycle. They are compared with results on photoreceptor membrane turnover in eyes of other arthropod species. PMID:3383218

Anton-Erxleben, F; Langer, H

1988-05-01

87

Development of advanced antimicrobial and sterilized plasma polypropylene grafted muga (antheraea assama) silk as suture biomaterial.  

PubMed

Surface modification of silk fibroin (SF) materials using environmentally friendly and non-hazardous process to tailor them for specific application as biomaterials has drawn a great deal of interest in the field of biomedical research. To further explore this area of research, in this report, polypropylene (PP) grafted muga (Antheraea assama) SF (PP-AASF) suture is developed using plasma treatment and plasma graft polymerization process. For this purpose, AASF is first sterilized in argon (Ar) plasma treatment followed by grafting PP onto its surface. AASF is a non-mulberry variety having superior qualities to mulberry SF and is still unexplored in the context of suture biomaterial. AASF, Ar plasma treated AASF (AASFAr ) and PP-AASF are subjected to various characterization techniques for better comparison and the results are attempted to correlate with their observed properties. Excellent mechanical strength, hydrophobicity, antibacterial behavior, and remarkable wound healing activity of PP-AASF over AASF and AASFAr make it a promising candidate for application as sterilized suture biomaterial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 355-365, 2014. PMID:23913788

Gogoi, Dolly; Choudhury, Arup Jyoti; Chutia, Joyanti; Pal, Arup Ratan; Khan, Mojibur; Choudhury, Manash; Pathak, Pallabi; Das, Gouranga; Patil, Dinkar S

2014-04-01

88

Functional analysis of the inhibitor of apoptosis genes in Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) plays an important role in cell apoptosis. We cloned two novel IAP family members, Ap-iap1 and Ap-iap2, from Antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus (ApNPV) genome. Ap-IAP1 contains two baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains followed by a RING domain, but Ap-IAP2 has only one BIR domain and RING. The result of transient expression in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) showed that Ap-iap1 blocked cell apoptosis induced by actinomycin D treatment and also rescued the p35 deficient Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) to replicate in Sf9 cells, while Ap-iap2 does not have this function. Several Ap-IAP1 truncations were constructed to test the activity of BIRs or RING motif to inhibit cell apoptosis. The results indicated that BIRs or RING of Ap-IAP1 had equally function to inhibit cell apoptosis. Therefore deletion of above both of the above domains could not block apoptosis induced by actinomycin D or rescue the replication of AcMNPV Delta p35. We also screened two phage-display peptides that might interact with Ap-IAP1. PMID:20437152

Yan, Feng; Deng, Xiaobei; Yan, Junpeng; Wang, Jiancheng; Yao, Lunguang; Lv, Songya; Qi, Yipeng; Xu, Hua

2010-04-01

89

Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin for targeted gene delivery of VEGF165-Ang-1 with PEI.  

PubMed

Vascularization is a crucial challenge in tissue engineering. One solution for this problem is to implant scaffolds that contain functional genes that promote vascularization by providing angiogenic growth factors via a gene delivery carrier. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is a gene delivery carrier with high transfection efficiency but with cytotoxicity. To solve this problem, we utilized Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), which has favorable cytocompatibility and biodegradability, RGD sequences and a negative charge, in conjunction with PEI, as the delivery vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165-angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene simultaneous expression plasmid, creating an ASF/PEI/pDNA complex. The results suggested that the zeta potential of the ASF/PEI/pDNA complex was significantly lower than that of the PEI/pDNA complex. Decreased nitrogen and increased oxygen on the surface of the complex demonstrated that the ASF had successfully combined with the surface of the PEI/pDNA. Furthermore, the complexes resisted digestion by nucleic acid enzymes and degradation by serum. L929 cells were cultured and transfected in vitro and improved cytotoxicity was found when the cells were transfected with ASF/PEI/pDNA compared with PEI/pDNA. In addition, the transfection efficiency and VEGF secretion increased. In general, this study provides a novel method for decreasing the cytotoxicity of PEI gene delivery vectors and increasing transfection efficiency of angiogenesis-related genes. PMID:24867887

Ma, Caili; Lv, Linlin; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; You, Renchuan; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-06-01

90

A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide a unique model system for detailed analyzes of the interplay between the various elements underlying pheromone reception. Efforts to identify pheromone receptors of Antheraea polyphemus have led to the identification of a candidate pheromone receptor (ApolOR1). This receptor was found predominantly expressed in male antennae, specifically in neurons located beneath pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea. The ApolOR1-expressing cells were found to be surrounded by supporting cells co-expressing all three ApolPBPs. The response spectrum of ApolOR1 was assessed by means of calcium imaging using HEK293-cells stably expressing the receptor. It was found that at nanomolar concentrations ApolOR1-cells responded to all three pheromones when the compounds were solubilized by DMSO and also when DMSO was substituted by one of the three PBPs. However, at picomolar concentrations, cells responded only in the presence of the subtype ApolPBP2 and the pheromone (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. These results are indicative of a specific interplay of a distinct pheromone component with an appropriate binding protein and its related receptor subtype, which may be considered as basis for the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the pheromone detection system. PMID:20011135

Forstner, Maike; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2009-01-01

91

Porphyromonas gingivalis Peptidoglycans Induce Excessive Activation of the Innate Immune System in Silkworm Larvae*  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen that causes inflammation in human periodontal tissue, killed silkworm (Bombyx mori, Lepidoptera) larvae when injected into the blood (hemolymph). Silkworm lethality was not rescued by antibiotic treatment, and heat-killed bacteria were also lethal. Heat-killed bacteria of mutant P. gingivalis strains lacking virulence factors also killed silkworms. Silkworms died after injection of peptidoglycans purified from P. gingivalis (pPG), and pPG toxicity was blocked by treatment with mutanolysin, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme. pPG induced silkworm hemolymph melanization at the same dose as that required to kill the animal. pPG injection increased caspase activity in silkworm tissues. pPG-induced silkworm death was delayed by injecting melanization-inhibiting reagents (a serine protease inhibitor and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea), antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, glutathione, and catalase), and a caspase inhibitor (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Thus, pPG induces excessive activation of the innate immune response, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cell death in the host tissue. PMID:20702417

Ishii, Kenichi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2010-01-01

92

BmTEdb: a collective database of transposable elements in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the major insect model organisms, and its draft and fine genome sequences became available in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute ?40% of the silkworm genome. To better understand the roles of TEs in organization, structure and evolution of the silkworm genome, we used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches for identification of the silkworm TEs and identified 1308 silkworm TE families. These TE families and their classification information were organized into a comprehensive and easy-to-use web-based database, BmTEdb. Users are entitled to browse, search and download the sequences in the database. Sequence analyses such as BLAST, HMMER and EMBOSS GetORF were also provided in BmTEdb. This database will facilitate studies for the silkworm genomics, the TE functions in the silkworm and the comparative analysis of the insect TEs. Database URL: http://gene.cqu.edu.cn/BmTEdb/. PMID:23886610

Xu, Hong-En; Zhang, Hua-Hao; Xia, Tian; Han, Min-Jin; Shen, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ze

2013-01-01

93

Biological Effects of Low Energy Ar+ Ion Bombardment on Silkworm Eggs: a Novel Animal Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we found for the first time that silkworm eggs were able to survive in vacuum for a long period of time. Subsequently, low energy Ar+ ions with different energies and fluences were used to bombard silkworm eggs so as to explore the resulting biological effects. Results showed that (i) the exposure of silkworm eggs to vacuum within 10 min did not cause significant impact on the hatching rates, while the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 25 keV or 30 keV with fluences ranging from 2.6×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 to 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 caused a significant impact on the hatching rates, and the hatching rates decreased with the increase in the fluence and energy level; (ii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 or 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 resulted in a noticeable etching on the egg shell surface which could be observed by a scanning electron microscope; and (iii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 generated several mutant phenotypes which were observed in the 5th instar silkworms and a moth.

Xu, Jiaping; Wu, Yuejin; Liu, Xuelan; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

2009-06-01

94

Primed immune responses to gram-negative peptidoglycans confer infection resistance in silkworms.  

PubMed

A heightened immune response, in which immune responses are primed by repeated exposure to a pathogen, is an important characteristic of vertebrate adaptive immunity. In the present study, we examined whether invertebrate animals also exhibit a primed immune response. The LD50 of Gram-negative enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai in silkworms was increased 100-fold by pre-injection of heat-killed Sakai cells. Silkworms pre-injected with heat-killed cells of a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, did not have resistance to Sakai. Silkworms preinjected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli peptidoglycans, cell surface components of bacteria, were resistant to Sakai infection. Silkworms preinjected with S. aureus peptidoglycans, however, were not resistant to Sakai. Silkworms preinjected with heat-killed Sakai cells showed persistent resistance to Sakai infection even after pupation. Repeated injection of heat-killed Sakai cells into the silkworms induced earlier and greater production of antimicrobial peptides than a single injection of heat-killed Sakai cells. These findings suggest that silkworm recognition of Gram-negative peptidoglycans leads to a primed immune reaction and increased resistance to a second round of bacterial infection. PMID:24706746

Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2014-05-16

95

An amplified fragment length polymorphism map of the silkworm.  

PubMed Central

The silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is a lepidopteran insect with a long history of significant agricultural value. We have constructed the first amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genetic linkage map of the silkworm B. mori at a LOD score of 2.5. The mapping AFLP markers were genotyped in 47 progeny from a backcross population of the cross no. 782 x od100. A total of 1248 (60.7%) polymorphic AFLP markers were detected with 35 PstI/TaqI primer combinations. Each of the primer combinations generated an average of 35.7 polymorphic AFLP markers. A total of 545 (44%) polymorphic markers are consistent with the expected segregation ratio of 1:1 at the significance level of P = 0.05. Of the 545 polymorphic markers, 356 were assigned to 30 linkage groups. The number of markers on linkage groups ranged from 4 to 36. There were 21 major linkage groups with 7-36 markers and 9 relatively small linkage groups with 4-6 markers. The 30 linkage groups varied in length from 37.4 to 691.0 cM. The total length of this AFLP linkage map was 6512 cM. Genetic distances between two neighboring markers on the same linkage group ranged from 0.2 to 47 cM with an average of 18.2 cM. The sex-linked gene od was located between the markers P1T3B40 and P3T3B27 at the end of group 3, indicating that AFLP linkage group 3 was the Z (sex) chromosome. This work provides an essential basic map for constructing a denser linkage map and for mapping genes underlying agronomically important traits in the silkworm B. mori L. PMID:11238411

Tan, Y D; Wan, C; Zhu, Y; Lu, C; Xiang, Z; Deng, H W

2001-01-01

96

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22934597

Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

2012-01-01

97

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22938037

Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S.; Anuradha, Chebba M.; Kumar, Chitta S.

2012-01-01

98

mRNA populations during wing development in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Pupal wing tissue of the American silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus has been used as a model system to study 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone control of cuticle protein synthesis. Juvenile hormone does not affect either the content or rate of synthesis of RNA and protein of the wing tissue. both of which show linear increases during the first few days of hormonal treatment. Based on the fractionation of total RNA on oligo-dT columns the percent of mRNA remains the same throughout development after both hormone treatments. However, both the amount of poly-A+ RNA in the wing tissue, and its content of poly-A show considerable increases as a function of development. The products of translation of the various poly-A+ RNA populations in the cell-free wheatgerm system have been analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Qualitative changes occur during the first 24 h; the production of a mRNA coding for a protein of approx. 40 000 dalton is stimulated and the production of a mRNA coding for a protein of 29 000 dalton is greatly reduced. Only a few differences are observed between samples from the 2 hormone treatments. Over the next 5-15 days of development mainly quantitative changes are observed. Juvenile hormone application results in quantitative changes in specific mRNAs, but no new mRNAs unique to juvenile hormone action are observed. The data are consistent with the concept that in altering the epidermal developmental program, juvenile hormone is apparently modulating the action of 20-hydroxyecdysone. PMID:6173272

Katula, K; Gilbert, L I; Sridhara, S

1981-12-01

99

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

100

SPEED OF TOXIC ACTION OF ARSENIC IN THE SILKWORM  

PubMed Central

A micro burette, micro pipette, and methods for their use in quantitative toxicological investigations on mandibulate insects are described. It is suggested that the form of curves relating speed of toxic action to dosage may be explained by postulating suitable changes in rate of distribution, excretion, and cell penetration of poison as dosage varies. The speed of toxic action of pentavalent arsenic in the silkworm is proportional to an integral power of the dosage at lower concentrations, and to a fractional power of the dosage at higher concentrations. PMID:19872265

Campbell, F. L.

1926-01-01

101

Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac was less effective and 6E,11Z-16:Al showed only a small effect. In contrast, in subtype PBP2 pronounced structural changes were only induced by the 6E,11Z-16:Al, and the subtype PBP3 did not show any considerable changes in response to the pheromonal compounds. The UV-spectroscopic data suggest that histidine residues are likely to be involved in the ligand-induced structural changes of the proteins, and this notion was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. These results demonstrate that appropriate ligands induce structural changes in PBPs and provide evidence for ligand specificity of these proteins. PMID:12488967

Mohl, Claudia; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2002-10-01

102

Microarray-based gene expression profiles of silkworm brains  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. Results We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains at four stages including V7, P1, P3 and P5. A total of 4,550 genes were transcribed in at least one selected stage. Of these, clustering algorithms separated the expressed genes into stably expressed genes and variably expressed genes. The results of the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis of stably expressed genes showed that the ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation pathways were principal pathways. Secondly, four clusters of genes with significantly different expression patterns were observed in the 1,175 variably expressed genes. Thirdly, thirty-two neuropeptide genes, six neuropeptide-like precursor genes, and 117 cuticular protein genes were expressed in selected developmental stages. Conclusion Major characteristics of the transcriptional profiles in the brains of Bombyx mori at specific development stages were present in this study. Our data provided useful information for future research. PMID:21247463

2011-01-01

103

Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

2014-01-01

104

A comparative analysis of serpin genes in the silkworm genome  

PubMed Central

Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of proteins, most of which control protease-mediated processes by inhibiting their cognate enzymes. Sequencing of the silkworm genome provides an opportunity to investigate serpin structure, function, and evolution at the genome level. There are thirty-four serpin genes in Bombyx mori. Six are highly similar to their Manduca sexta orthologs that regulate innate immunity. Three alternative exons in serpin1 gene and four in serpin28 encode a variable region including the reactive site loop. Splicing of serpin2 pre-mRNA yields variations in serpin2A, 2A? and 2B. Sequence similarity and intron positions reveal the evolutionary pathway of seven serpin genes in group C. RT-PCR indicates an increase in the mRNA levels of serpin1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 25, 27, 32 and 34 in fat body and hemocytes of larvae injected with bacteria. These results suggest that the silkworm serpins play regulatory roles in defense responses. PMID:19150649

Zou, Zhen; Picheng, Zhao; Weng, Hua; Mita, Kazuei; Jiang, Haobo

2009-01-01

105

The adverse effects of phoxim exposure in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm is an important economic insect. Poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. In this study, Solexa sequencing technology was performed to profile the gene expression changes in the midgut of silkworms in response to 24h of phoxim exposure and the impact on detoxification, apoptosis and immune defense were addressed. The results showed that 254 genes displayed at least 2.0-fold changes in expression levels, with 148 genes up-regulated and 106 genes down-regulated. Cytochrome P450 played an important role in detoxification. Histopathology examination and transmission electron microscope revealed swollen mitochondria and disappearance of the cristae of mitochondria, which are the important features in insect apoptotic cells. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was confirmed. In addition, the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways were all inhibited using qRT-PCR. Our results could help better understand the impact of phoxim exposure on silkworm. PMID:23899924

Gu, ZhiYa; Zhou, YiJun; Xie, Yi; Li, FanChi; Ma, Lie; Sun, ShanShan; Wu, Yu; Wang, BinBin; Wang, JuMei; Hong, Fashui; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

2014-02-01

106

Evaluation of drug-induced tissue injury by measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in silkworm hemolymph  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies suggest silkworms can be used as model animals instead of mammals in pharmacologic studies to develop novel therapeutic medicines. We examined the usefulness of the silkworm larvae Bombyx mori as an animal model for evaluating tissue injury induced by various cytotoxic drugs. Drugs that induce hepatotoxic effects in mammals were injected into the silkworm hemocoel, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was measured in the hemolymph 1 day later. Results Injection of CCl4 into the hemocoel led to an increase in ALT activity. The increase in ALT activity was attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Injection of benzoic acid derivatives, ferric sulfate, sodium valproate, tetracycline, amiodarone hydrochloride, methyldopa, ketoconazole, pemoline (Betanamin), N-nitroso-fenfluramine, and D-galactosamine also increased ALT activity. Conclusions These findings indicate that silkworms are useful for evaluating the effects of chemicals that induce tissue injury in mammals. PMID:23137391

2012-01-01

107

Targeted Gene Expression Using the GAL4\\/UAS System in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the most well-studied insects in terms of both genetics and physiology and is recognized as the model lepidopteran insect. To develop an efficient system for analyzing gene function in the silkworm, we investigated the feasibility of using the GAL4\\/UAS system in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ-line transformation for targeted gene expression. To drive

Morikazu Imamura; Junichi Nakai; Satoshi Inoue; Guo Xing Quan; Toshio Kanda; Toshiki Tamura

108

Improvement of light penetration based silkworm gender identification with confined regions of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on our previous work on light penetration-based silkworm gender identification, we find that unwanted optical noises scattering from the surrounding area near the silkworm pupa and the transparent support are sometimes analyzed and misinterpreted leading to incorrect silkworm gender identification. To alleviate this issue, we place a small rectangular hole on a transparent support so that it not only helps the user precisely place the silkworm pupa but also functions as a region of interest (ROI) for blocking unwanted optical noises and for roughly locating the abdomen region in the image for ease of image processing. Apart from the external ROI, we also assign a smaller ROI inside the image in order to remove strong scattering light from all edges of the external ROI and at the same time speed up our image processing operations. With only the external ROI in function, our experiment shows a measured 86% total accuracy in identifying gender of 120 silkworm pupae with a measured average processing time of 38 ms. Combining the external ROI and the image ROI together revamps the total accuracy in identifying the silkworm gender to 95% with a measured faster 18 ms processing time.

Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Sa-ngiamsak, Chiranut

2013-06-01

109

An Adaptive Transposable Element Insertion in the Regulatory Region of the EO Gene in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Although there are many studies to show a key role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution of higher organisms, little is known about the molecular mechanisms. In this study, we found that a partial TE (Taguchi) inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the silkworm ecdysone oxidase (EO) gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme to reduce the titer of molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E). The TE insertion occurred during domestication of silkworm and the frequency of the TE insertion in the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) is high, 54.24%. The linkage disequilibrium in the TE inserted strains of the domesticated silkworm was elevated. Molecular population genetics analyses suggest that this TE insertion is adaptive for the domesticated silkworm. Luminescent reporter assay shows that the TE inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene functions as a 20E-induced enhancer of the gene expression. Further, phenotypic bioassay indicates that the silkworm with the TE insertion exhibited more stable developmental phenotype than the silkworm without the TE insertion when suffering from food shortage. Thus, the inserted TE in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene increased developmental uniformity of silkworm individuals through regulating 20E metabolism, partially explaining transformation of a domestication developmental trait in the domesticated silkworm. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of gene expression regulation in developmental transition of domesticated animals. PMID:25213334

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Han, Min-Jin; Cao, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Ze

2014-12-01

110

Phylogenetics of eggshell morphogenesis in Antheraea (lepidoptera: saturniidae): unique origin and repeated reduction of the aeropyle crown.  

PubMed

Integrated phylogenetic and developmental analyses should enhance our understanding of morphological evolution and thereby improve systematists' ability to utilize morphological characters, but case studies are few. The eggshell (chorion) of Lepidoptera (Insecta) has proven especially tractable experimentally for such analyses because its morphogenesis proceeds by extracellular assembly of proteins. This study focuses on a morphological novelty, the aeropyle crown, that arises at the end of choriogenesis in the wild silkmoth genus Antheraea. Aeropyle crowns are cylindrical projections, ending in prominent prongs, that surround the openings of breathing tubes (aeropyle channels) traversing the chorion. They occur over the entire egg surface in some species, are localized to a circumferential band in many others, and in some are missing entirely, thus exhibiting variation typical of discrete characters analyzed in morphological phylogenetics. Seeking an integrated developmental-phylogenetic view, we first survey aeropyle crown variation broadly across Antheraea and related genera. We then map these observations onto a robust phylogeny, based on three nuclear genes, to test the adequacy of character codings for aeropyle crown variation and to estimate the frequency and direction of change in those characters. Thirdly, we draw on previous studies of choriogenesis, supplemented by new data on gene expression, to hypothesize developmental-genetic bases for the inferred chorion character transformations. Aeropyle crowns are inferred to arise just once, in the ancestor of Antheraea, but to undergo four or more subsequent reductions without regain, a pattern consistent with Dollo's Law. Spatial distribution shows an analogous trend, though less clear-cut, toward reduction of coverage by aeropyle crowns. These trends suggest either that there is little or no natural selection on the details of the aeropyle crown structure or that evolution toward functional optima is ongoing, although no direct evidence exists for either. Genetic, biochemical, and microscopy studies point to at least two developmental changes underlying the origin of the aeropyle crown, namely, reinitiation of deposition of chorionic lamellae after the end of normal choriogenesis (i.e., heterochrony), and sharply increased production of underlying "filler" proteins that push the nascent final lamellae upward to form the crown (i.e., heteroposy). Identification of a unique putative cis-regulatory element shared by unrelated genes involved in aeropyle crown formation suggests a possible simple mechanism for repeated evolutionary reduction and spatial restriction of aeropyle crowns. PMID:16012096

Regier, Jerome C; Paukstadt, Ulrich; Paukstadt, Laela H; Mitter, Charles; Peigler, Richard S

2005-04-01

111

Measured behavioural latency in response to sex-pheromone loss in the large silk moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Males of the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) were video-recorded in a sustained-flight wind tunnel in a constant plume of sex pheromone. The plume was experimentally truncated, and the moths, on losing pheromone stimulus, rapidly changed their behaviour from up-tunnel zig-zag flight to lateral casting flight. The latency of this change was in the range 300-500 ms. Video and computer analysis of flight tracks indicates that these moths effect this switch by increasing their course angle to the wind while decreasing their air speed. Combined with previous physiological and biochemical data concerning pheromone processing within this species, this behavioural study supports the argument that the temporal limit for this behavioural response latency is determined at the level of genetically coded kinetic processes located within the peripheral sensory hairs. PMID:3209970

Baker, T C; Vogt, R G

1988-07-01

112

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

2006-11-01

113

Cyclic GMP levels and guanylate cyclase activity in pheromone-sensitive antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female sex pheromones applied to freshly isolated, living antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori led to an increase of cGMP. A 1:1 mixture of 2 pheromone components of Antheraea polyphemus blown for 10 sec in physiological concentrations over their antennal branches raised cGMP levels about 1.34-fold (+/- 0.08 SEM, n = 23) from a basal level of 3.0 +/- 0.6 (SEM, n = 20) pmol/mg protein. Similarly, bombykol elicited a 1.29-fold (+/- 0.13 SEM, n = 23) cGMP increase in antennae of male Bombyx mori from a basal level of 2.7 +/- 0.5 (SEM, n = 24) pmol/mg protein. No cross-sensitivity was found with respect to pheromones from either species. In antennae of female silkmoths, the cGMP response was missing upon stimulation with their own respective pheromones according to the known lack of pheromone receptor cells in the female. cAMP levels in the male antennae of 14.2 +/- 2.9 (SEM, n = 4) pmol/mg protein in A. polyphemus and 15.0 +/- 3.0 (SEM, n = 5) pmol/mg protein in B. mori were not affected by pheromone stimulation. Within 1-60 sec, the extent of cGMP increase in B. mori was independent of the duration of pheromone exposure. The levels of cGMP in pheromone-stimulated antennae of both species remained elevated for at least 10 min, i.e., much longer than the duration of the receptor potential measured in single-cell recordings. Guanylate cyclase activity was identified in homogenates of male and female antennae from both species. The Km of the guanylate cyclase from male B. mori for the preferential substrate MnGTP was 175 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1970356

Ziegelberger, G; van den Berg, M J; Kaissling, K E; Klumpp, S; Schultz, J E

1990-04-01

114

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

115

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

116

Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and ubiquitous in all living organisms, including animals, plants, insects, and microbes. It plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification, and pheromone degradation, neurogenesis and regulating development. Previous studies mainly used Dipteran Drosophila and mosquitoes as model organisms to investigate the roles of the insect COEs in insecticide resistance. However, genome-wide characterization of COEs in phytophagous insects and comparative analysis remain to be performed. Results Based on the newly assembled genome sequence, 76 putative COEs were identified in Bombyx mori. Relative to other Dipteran and Hymenopteran insects, alpha-esterases were significantly expanded in the silkworm. Genomics analysis suggested that BmCOEs showed chromosome preferable distribution and 55% of which were tandem arranged. Sixty-one BmCOEs were transcribed based on cDNA/ESTs and microarray data. Generally, most of the COEs showed tissue specific expressions and expression level between male and female did not display obvious differences. Three main patterns could be classified, i.e. midgut-, head and integument-, and silk gland-specific expressions. Midgut is the first barrier of xenobiotics peroral toxicity, in which COEs may be involved in eliminating secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves and contaminants of insecticides in diet. For head and integument-class, most of the members were homologous to odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE) and antennal esterase. RT-PCR verified that the ODE-like esterases were also highly expressed in larvae antenna and maxilla, and thus they may play important roles in degradation of plant volatiles or other xenobiotics. Conclusion B. mori has the largest number of insect COE genes characterized to date. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the gene expansion mainly occurred in silkworm alpha-esterases. Expression evidence indicated that the expanded genes were specifically expressed in midgut, integument and head, implying that these genes may have important roles in detoxifying secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves, contaminants in diet, and odorants. Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects. PMID:19930670

2009-01-01

117

Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

2009-04-01

118

Insect cytokine paralytic peptide activates innate immunity via nitric oxide production in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect cytokine paralytic peptide (PP) upregulates the expression of immune-related genes and contributes to host defense in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The present findings demonstrated that PP promotes nitric oxide (NO) production and induces the expression of NO synthase. A pharmacologic NO synthase inhibitor suppressed the PP-dependent (i) induction of immune-related genes, (ii) activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and (iii) killing delay of silkworm larvae by Staphylococcus aureus. The upstream mechanism of NO synthesis in insect immunity has been unknown, and the present results suggest for the first time that an insect cytokine induces NO and contributes to self-defense. PMID:23178406

Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oonishi, Tadahiro; Kamimura, Manabu; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2013-03-01

119

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing. PMID:23226833

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-01-01

120

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

121

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. VI. Experimental disturbance of antennal branch formation.  

PubMed

In the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the formation of the side branches of the quadripectinate antennal flagellum was disturbed by an experimental manipulation. Normally the side branches develop in the pupa via deep incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the centerline of the leaf-shaped antennal anlage. Local removal of the uppermost, pigmented cuticular layers of the pupal antennal pocket ('cuticular window') led to a local standstill of branch formation in the manipulated region of the pocket, most probably caused by increased evaporation of water through the remaining layers of meso- and endocuticle. These parts of the antenna retained an unbranched, plate-like shape. This early morphogenetic stage was conserved by the secretion of antennal cuticle. Besides cuticle formation, development of sensilla is not impeded by the manipulation. In the plate-shaped regions, the initial pattern formed by the sensilla in the antennal epidermis is preserved, because they maturate at their birth places. In the individual segments, the pattern of sensilla shows a mirror-like symmetry with respect to the segmental midline. From the edge to the midline, we found large s. trichodea, followed by small s. trichodea, s. basiconica, and s. coeloconica on the dorsal side whereas on the ventral side, there are only large s. trichodea and s. campaniformia. We conclude that the development of the featherlike antennal shape on the one hand and the development of sensilla and cuticle on the other hand are independent processes. PMID:18621301

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1995-06-01

122

Pheromone-binding proteins contribute to the activation of olfactory receptor neurons in the silkmoths antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are innervated by three types of receptor neurons each responding specifically to one of three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla surrounding the sensory dendrites contains three different types of pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in high concentrations. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Bombyx mori are supplied by two receptor neurons each tuned specifically to one of the two pheromone components bombykol and bombykal, but only one type of PBP has been found so far in these sensilla. Recombinant PBPs of both silkmoth species in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor neurons via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. Over a fairly broad range of pheromone concentrations the responses of the receptor neurons depended on both, the pheromone component and the type of the PBP. Therefore, the PBPs appear to contribute to the excitation of the receptor neurons. Furthermore, bombykal in combination with the expressed PBP of B. mori failed to activate the corresponding receptor neuron of B. mori, but did so if combined with one of the PBPs of A. polyphemus. Therefore, a still unknown binding protein involved in bombykal transport might be present in B. mori. PMID:14977808

Pophof, Blanka

2004-02-01

123

Revisiting the specificity of Mamestra brassicae and Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding proteins with a fluorescence binding assay.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), located in the sensillum lymph of pheromone-responsive antennal hairs, are thought to transport the hydrophobic pheromones to the chemosensory membranes of olfactory neurons. It is currently unclear what role PBPs may play in the recognition and discrimination of species-specific pheromones. We have investigated the binding properties and specificity of PBPs from Mamestra brassicae (MbraPBP1), Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1), Bombyx mori (BmorPBP), and a hexa-mutant of MbraPBP1 (Mbra1-M6), mutated at residues of the internal cavity to mimic that of BmorPBP, using the fluorescence probe 1-aminoanthracene (AMA). AMA binds to MbraPBP1 and ApolPBP1, however, no binding was observed with either BmorPBP or Mbra1-M6. The latter result indicates that relatively limited modifications to the PBP cavity actually interfere with AMA binding, suggesting that AMA binds in the internal cavity. Several pheromones are able to displace AMA from the MbraPBP1- and ApolPBP1-binding sites, without, however, any evidence of specificity for their physiologically relevant pheromones. Moreover, some fatty acids are also able to compete with AMA binding. These findings bring into doubt the currently held belief that all PBPs are specifically tuned to distinct pheromonal compounds. PMID:11274212

Campanacci, V; Krieger, J; Bette, S; Sturgis, J N; Lartigue, A; Cambillau, C; Breer, H; Tegoni, M

2001-06-01

124

Cloning of putative odorant-degrading enzyme and integumental esterase cDNAs from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Odorant-degrading enzymes have been postulated to participate in the fast deactivation of insect pheromones. These proteins are expressed specifically in the sensillar lymph of insect antennae in such low amounts that, hitherto, isolation and protein-based cDNA cloning has not been possible. Using degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid sequences of insect carboxylesterases and juvenile hormone esterases, we were able to amplify partial cDNA fragments, which were then used for the design of gene-specific primers for RACE. This bioinformatics approach led us to the cloning of cDNAs, encoding a putative odorant-degrading enzyme (Apol-ODE) and a putative integumental esterase (Apol-IE) from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. Apol-ODE had a predicted molecular mass of 59,994 Da, pI of 6.63, three potential N-glycosylation sites, and a putative catalytic site Ser characterized by the sequence Gly(195)-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Ala. Apol-IE gave calculated molecular mass of 61,694 Da, pI of 7.49, two potential N-glycosylation sites, and a putative active site with the sequence Gly(214)-Tyr-Ser-Ala-Gly. The transcript of Apol-ODE was detected by RT-PCR in male antennae and branches (sensillar tissues), but not in female antennae and other control tissues. Apol-IE was detected in male and female antennae as well as legs. PMID:12429129

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2002-12-01

125

Managing acute oak decline Practice Note  

E-print Network

Managing acute oak decline Practice Note FCPN015 April 2010 1 Pedunculate oak Oak trees in Britain `dieback' or `decline' is the name used to describe poor health in oak trees. The symptoms of oak decline; oak trees in Britain have been affected for the most part of the past century. Both species of oak

126

Intravital imaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin binding sites in the midgut of silkworm.  

PubMed

Identification of the resistance mechanism of insects against Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin is becoming an increasingly challenging task. This fact highlights the need for establishing new methods to further explore the molecular interactions of Cry1A toxin with insects and the receptor-binding region of Cry1A toxins for their wider application as biopesticides and a gene source for gene-modified crops. In this contribution, a quantum dot-based near-infrared fluorescence imaging method has been applied for direct dynamic tracking of the specific binding of Cry1A toxins, CrylAa and CrylAc, to the midgut tissue of silkworm. The in vitro fluorescence imaging displayed the higher binding specificity of CrylAa-QD probes compared to CrylAc-QD to the brush border membrane vesicles of midgut from silkworm. The in vivo imaging demonstrated that more CrylAa-QDs binding to silkworm midgut could be effectively and distinctly monitored in living silkworms. Furthermore, frozen section analysis clearly indicated the broader receptor-binding region of Cry1Aa compared to that of Cry1Ac in the midgut part. These observations suggest that the insecticidal activity of Cry toxins may depend on the receptor-binding sites, and this scatheless and visual near-infrared fluorescence imaging could provide a new avenue to study the resistance mechanism to maintain the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:24252542

Li, Na; Wang, Jing; Han, Heyou; Huang, Liang; Shao, Feng; Li, Xuepu

2014-02-15

127

Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus-induced differential gene expression in two silkworm strains of different susceptibility.  

PubMed

Digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the gene expression profiles of 4008 and p50 silkworm strains at 48 h after oral infection with BmCPV. 3,668,437 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected p50 silkworms and 3,540,790 clean tags in the control p50. By contrast, 4,498,263 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected 4008 silkworms and 4,164,250 clean tags in the control 4008. A total of 691 differentially expressed genes were detected in the infected 4008 DGE library and 185 were detected in the infected p50 DGE library, respectively. The expression profiles identified some important differentially expressed genes involved in signal transduction, enzyme activity and apoptotic changes, some of which were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results provide important clues on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion and resistance mechanism of silkworms against BmCPV infection. PMID:24525400

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

2014-04-15

128

Amino-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence of the Silkworm Prothoracicotropic Hormone: Homology with Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular forms of prothoracicotropic hormone were isolated from the head of the adult silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the amino acid sequence of 19 amino acid residues in the amino terminus of these prothoracicotropic hormones was determined. These residues exhibit significant homology with insulin and insulin-like growth factors.

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Hironori Ishizaki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki

1984-01-01

129

Amino Acid Sequence of a Prothoracicotropic Hormone of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of 4K-PTTH-II, one of three forms of the Mr 4400 prothoracicotropic hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori, active to brainless pupae of Samia cynthia ricini. Like vertebrate insulin, it consists of two nonidentical peptide chains (A and B chains). The A chain consists of 20 amino acid residues. The B chain is

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki; Susumu Y. Takahashi; Hironori Ishizaki

1986-01-01

130

Glucose Stimulates the Release of Bombyxin, an Insulin-Related Peptide of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of starvation and feeding on the release of bombyxin, a peptide of insulin superfamily in insects, from the larval brain of the silkworm Bombyx mori were investigated. Following starvation, the bombyxin titer in the hemolymph of larvae decreased, whereas its content in the brain increased. On the other hand, refeeding of the starved larvae resulted in an increase

Makoto Masumura; Shin'Ichiro Satake; Hironao Saegusa; Akira Mizoguchi

2000-01-01

131

The DNA content of sperm and hemocyte nuclei of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the size of the haploid genome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), amounts of Feulgen-DNA staining in individual nuclei of primary spermatocytes, spermatids, maturing sperm, and larval or pupal hemocytes were determined with an integrating microdensitometer and compared with the Feulgen-DNA levels found for chicken erythrocyte nuclei, or the sperm and erythrocyte nuclei of Xenopus laevis that were

Ellen M. Rasch

1974-01-01

132

Diapause hormone of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Structure, gene expression and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diapause hormone (DH) is a neuropeptide hormone which is secreted from the suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and is responsible for induction of embryonic diapause of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. DH is isolated from SGs and determined to be a 24 amino acid peptide amide. The cDNA encodes the polyprotein precursor from which DH, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and three other

Okitsugu Yamashita

1996-01-01

133

Synthesis of Blood Protein by the Fat Body in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE concentration of protein in the blood of insects changes remarkably in the course of metamorphosis1. I have shown that the concentration of blood protein increases after the middle period of the last larval instar2 in the silkworm. It is not yet clear, however, what organ is concerned in the synthesis of blood protein in larval stage, although there are

Hajime Shigematsu

1958-01-01

134

Conversion of Glycogen to Sorbitol and Glycerol in the Diapause Egg of the Bombyx Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the course of biochemical studies1 on the embryonic diapause of the Bombyx silkworm, it has been shown that the glycogen content of the egg decreases markedly at the onset of diapause and reaches the lowest level at about thirty days after oviposition. When diapause is broken by cold treatment, glycogen increases progressively even at low temperature and regains the

Haruo Chino

1957-01-01

135

Eicosanoids mediate induction of immune genes in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of cecropin and lysozyme genes is induced in response to bacterial peptidoglycan in the fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Specific inhibitors of either phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase significantly inhibit the induction of the immune genes both in vivo and in cultured fat body as detected by means of Northern hybridization. Arachidonic acid injected into the

Isao Morishima; Yoshiaki Yamano; Kenji Inoue; Noriyuki Matsuo

1997-01-01

136

Catalase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: Gene sequence, distribution, and overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living organisms require mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Catalase is one of the regulatory enzymes and facilitates the degradation of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Biochemical information on an insect catalase is, however, insufficient. Using mRNA from fat body of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a cDNA encoding a putative catalase was

Kohji Yamamoto; Yutaka Banno; Hiroshi Fujii; Fumio Miake; Nobuhiro Kashige; Yoichi Aso

2005-01-01

137

Transcriptional Profiling of Midgut Immunity Response and Degeneration in the Wandering Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Lepidoptera insects have a novel development process comprising several metamorphic stages during their life cycle compared with vertebrate animals. Unlike most Lepidoptera insects that live on nectar during the adult stage, the Bombyx mori silkworm adults do not eat anything and die after egg-laying. In addition, the midguts of Lepidoptera insects produce antimicrobial proteins during the wandering stage when the larval tissues undergo numerous changes. The exact mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear. Principal Findings We used the silkworm as a model and performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the midgut between the feeding stage and the wandering stage. Many genes concerned with metabolism, digestion, and ion and small molecule transportation were down-regulated during the wandering stage, indicating that the wandering stage midgut loses its normal functions. Microarray profiling, qRT-PCR and western blot proved the production of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) in the midgut during the wandering stage. Different genes of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway were up-regulated during the wandering stage. However, some key genes belonging to the Toll pathway showed no change in their transcription levels. Unlike butterfly (Pachliopta aristolochiae), the midgut of silkworm moth has a layer of cells, indicating that the development of midgut since the wandering stage is not usual. Cell division in the midgut was observed only for a short time during the wandering stage. However, there was extensive cell apoptosis before pupation. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis probably drives the continuous degeneration of the midgut in the silkworm since the wandering stage. Conclusions This study provided an insight into the mechanism of the degeneration of the silkworm midgut and the production of innate immunity-related proteins during the wandering stage. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis induces irreversible degeneration of the midgut. The Imd pathway probably regulates the production of antimicrobial peptides in the midgut during the wandering stage. PMID:22937093

Xiao, Guohua; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xuquan; Guan, Jingmin; Shao, Qimiao; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengshu; Ling, Erjun

2012-01-01

138

Cloning and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein in silkworm related to virus infection.  

PubMed

In this study, the full-length cDNA of a peptidoglycan recognition protein named BmPGRP-S3 was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It is 807bp and comprises the following: a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) with a length of 112bp, a 3'-UTR with a length of 92bp including a poly-adenylation signal sequence (AATAAA) and a poly(A) tail. The longest open reading frame (ORF) of BmPGRP-S3 is 603bp and encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 22.3kDa including a PGRP domain. Sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis results indicated that BmPGRP-S3 belongs to the group of insect PGRPs and is closer to BmPGRP-S4 with the highest identity of 68%. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the mRNA transcripts of BmPGRP-S3 were presented in all of the tissues, but were highest in the midgut. In the silkworm larvae infected with B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), the relative expression level of BmPGRP-S3 was upregulated. The DNA segment of a mature BmPGRP-S3 peptide was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. Western blot results revealed that mature BmPGRP-S3 could be detected in the hemolymph and midgut which were the most important immune tissues in silkworm. All the results suggested that BmPGRP-S3 may play an important role in the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection and provided helpful information for further studying the function of BmPGRP-S3 in silkworm. PMID:25218236

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

2014-11-15

139

Microarray analysis of the gene expression profile in the midgut of silkworm infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain an overall view on silkworm response to Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) infection, a microarray system comprising 22,987 oligonucluotide 70-mer probes was\\u000a employed to compare differentially expressed genes in the midguts of BmCPV-infected and normal silkworm larvae. At 72 h post-inoculation,\\u000a 258 genes exhibited at least 2.0-fold differences in expression level. Out of these, 135 genes

Ping Wu; Xiu Wang; Guang-xing Qin; Ting Liu; Yun-Feng Jiang; Mu-Wang Li; Xi-Jie Guo

2011-01-01

140

Purification and Molecular Cloning of an Inducible Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-kDa hemolymph protein, having strong affinity to the cell wall of Gram(-) bacteria, was purified from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding this Gram(-) bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) was isolated from an immunized silkworm fat body cDNA library and sequenced. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with known sequences revealed that GNBP contained a region

Won-Jae Lee; Jiing-Dwan Lee; Vladimir V. Kravchenko; Richard J. Ulevitch; Paul T. Brey

1996-01-01

141

Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori

Tomoko Motohashi; Tsukasa Shimojima; Tatsuo Fukagawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2005-01-01

142

Oak Leaf Roller and Springtime Defoliation of Live Oak Trees  

E-print Network

This publication explains how to minimize damage to live oak trees by the oak leaf roller and an associated caterpillar species, which occur throughout Texas but are most damaging in the Hill Country and South Texas....

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2004-03-26

143

Contemporary California Indians, Oaks, and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora  

E-print Network

39 Contemporary California Indians, Oaks, and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)1 Beverly R) the symbolic context of the foods in terms of ecological and social relationships that connect people to place of plant species affected by Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum). An overview follows of the impact

Standiford, Richard B.

144

Expression of SNMP-1 in olfactory neurons and sensilla of male and female antennae of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

SNMP-1 (sensory neuron membrane protein 1) is an olfactory-specific membrane-bound protein which is homologous with the CD36 receptor family. Previous light level immunocytochemical studies suggested that SNMP-1 was localized in the dendrites and distal cell body of sex-pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons (ORN); these studies further suggested SNMP-1 was expressed in only one of two to three neurons in male-specific pheromone-sensitive trichoid sensilla. To better understand the expression and localization of SNMP-1, an immunocytochemical study was performed using electron microscopy to visualize the distribution of SNMP-1 among the neurons of several classes of olfactory sensilla of both male and female antennae of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. SNMP-1 antigenicity was primarily restricted to the receptive dendritic membranes of ORNs of all sensilla types examined and was observed in cytosolic granules, but not plasma membranes, of the cell soma. Mean labeling densities ranged from 1 to 16 gold particles per micrometer of dendrite circumference; dendrites of trichoid and intermediate sensilla showed significantly higher labeling densities than those of basiconic sensilla. Larger dendrites of trichoid sensilla showed significantly higher mean labeling densities (13-16/micron) than smaller diameter dendrites (3-7/micron). Immunofluorescence studies using baculovirus expressed SNMP-1 and multiphoton photon laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) indicated that rSNMP-1, which was post-translationally processed to the in vivo molecular weight, was inserted into the plasma membrane in a topography presenting extracellular epitopes. These studies suggest SNMP-1 is a common feature of the ORNs, is asymmetrically expressed among functionally distinct neurons, and possesses a topography which permits interaction with components of the extracellular sensillum lymph. PMID:11320659

Rogers, M E; Steinbrecht, R A; Vogt, R G

2001-03-01

145

The solution NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP provides new insight into pheromone recognition by pheromone-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the antennae of male moth species play an important role in olfaction. They are carrier proteins, believed to transport volatile hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled olfactory receptor proteins. The roles of PBPs in molecular recognition and the mechanisms of pheromone binding and release are poorly understood. Here, we report the NMR structure of a PBP from the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. This is the first structure of a PBP with specific acetate-binding function in vivo. The protein consists of nine alpha-helices: alpha1a (residues 2-5), alpha1b (8-12), alpha1c (16-23), alpha2 (27-34), alpha3a (46-52), alpha3b (54-59), alpha4 (70-79), alpha5 (84-100) and alpha6 (107-125), held together by three disulfide bridges: 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117. A large hydrophobic cavity is located inside the protein, lined with side-chains from all nine helices. The acetate-binding site is located at the narrow end of the cavity formed by the helices alpha3b and alpha4. The pheromone can enter this cavity through an opening between the helix alpha1a, the C-terminal end of the helix alpha6, and the loop between alpha2 and alpha3a. We suggest that Trp37 may play an important role in the initial interaction with the ligand. Our analysis also shows that Asn53 plays the key role in recognition of acetate pheromones specifically, while Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Phe76, and Phe118 are responsible for non-specific binding, and Leu8 and Ser9 may play a role in ligand chain length recognition. PMID:15003458

Mohanty, Smita; Zubkov, Sergey; Gronenborn, Angela M

2004-03-19

146

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. V. Development of the peripheral nervous system.  

PubMed

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a feather-shaped structure consisting of about 30 flagellomeres, each of which gives off two pairs of side branches. During the pupal stage (lasting for 3 weeks), the antenna develops from a leaf-shaped, flattened epidermal sac ('antennal blade') via two series of incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the prospective antennal stem. The development of the peripheral nervous system was studied by staining the neurons with an antibody against horseradish peroxidase as well as by electron microscopy. The epithelium is subdivided in segmentally arranged sensillogenic regions alternating with non-sensillogenic regions. Immediately after apolysis, clusters consisting of 5 sensory neurons each and belonging to the prospective sensilla chaetica can be localized at the periphery of the antennal blade in the sensillogenic regions. During the first day following apolysis, the primordia of ca. 70,000 olfactory sensilla arise in the sensillogenic regions. Axons from their neurons are collected in segmentally arranged nerves which run towards the CNS along the dorsal as well as the ventral epidermis and are enveloped by a glial sheath. This 'primary innervation pattern' is completed within the second day after apolysis. A first wave of incisions ('primary incisions') subdivide the antennal blade into segmental 'double branches' without disturbing the innervation pattern. Then a second wave of incisions ('secondary incisions') splits the double branches into single antennal branches. During this process, the segmental nerves and their glial sheaths are disintegrated. The axons are then redistributed into single branch nerves while their glial sheath is reconstituted, forming the 'secondary', or adult, innervation pattern. The epidermis is backed by a basal lamina which is degraded after outgrowth of the axons, but is reconstituted after formation of the single antennal branches. PMID:18621300

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1995-06-01

147

SUDDEN OAK DEATH Field Meeting  

E-print Network

SUDDEN OAK DEATH Field Meeting Saturday, December 3, 1:00 p.m. Joaquin Miller Park - Craib Picnic Area (if raining, come to the Ranger Station) Learn about Sudden Oak Death management and see Death (SOD). SOD is a fungus-like mold that is killing oak trees in coastal California. Several samples

California at Berkeley, University of

148

of Oak Forests for Wildlife  

E-print Network

Fire Management of Oak Forests for Wildlife L-347 Natural Resource Ecology and Management Oklahoma and Ecosystem Management L-270--Snags, Cavity Trees, and Downed Logs Species such as this rare Diana fritillary,000 copies. 0111 GH. #12;Natural History More than 17 million acres of post oak - blackjack oak forest

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

149

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report DOE/ORO/2445 2012 #12;Cover Image Jeff Riggs Annual Site Environmental Report 2012 #12;DOE/ORO/2445 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Editors Graphic

Pennycook, Steve

150

Iowa's oldest oaks. [Quercus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring analysis revealed 33 living white oaks (Quercus alba) in Iowa that began growing before 1700. Core of wood 4 mm in diameter, each extracted from a radius of a tree trunk were analyzed. The oldest white oak, found in northeastern Warren County, began growing about 1570 and is thus over 410 years old. A chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) was

D. N. Duvick; T. J. Blasing

1983-01-01

151

The Royal Oak murals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This master's project was undertaken in the interdisciplinary studies department with the goal of providing a community resource detailing the saga of three New Deal-era murals in a Royal Oak school and the artists who painted them. This thesis also delves into whether the project of redeeming the murals can provide deeper understanding into the community in which we live.

Deborah S Anderson

2007-01-01

152

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

153

Prothoracicotropic activity of SBRPs, the insulin-like peptides of the saturniid silkworm Samia cynthia ricini.  

PubMed

Synthesis and secretion of the insect molting hormone ecdysteroid in the prothoracic glands (PGs) are stimulated by the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted by the brain. Bombyxins, insulin-like peptides of the silkworm Bombyx mori, show prothoracicotropic activity when administered to the saturniid silkworm Samia cynthia ricini, but they are inactive to B. mori itself. Recently, the genes for the bombyxin homologs of S. cynthia ricini (referred to as Samia bombyxin-related peptides, SBRPs) were cloned. To examine the prothoracicotropic activity of SBRPs on S. cynthia ricini, we synthesized two representative molecules, SBRP-A1 and -B1. They promoted pupa-to-adult development with ED(50) of 50 and 10 ng/pupa (EC(50) of 5 and 1 nM), respectively. PMID:10600544

Nagata, K; Maruyama, K; Kojima, K; Yamamoto, M; Tanaka, M; Kataoka, H; Nagasawa, H; Isogai, A; Ishizaki, H; Suzuki, A

1999-12-20

154

Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

155

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

PubMed Central

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin families, were upregulated at 24 hours post the infection. PMID:19956592

Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

2009-01-01

156

Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: silkworm inheritance experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912.  

PubMed

Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia attracted the attention of Kellogg, who was concerned with how experimental biology would be used to study the causes of natural selection. He challenged Toyama's conclusions that Mendelism alone could explain the inheritance patterns of silkworm characters such as cocoon color because they had been subject to hundreds of years of artificial selection, or breeding. This examination of the intersection of Japanese sericulture and American entomology probes how practical differences in scientific interests, societal responsibilities, and silkworm materiality were negotiated throughout the processes of legitimating Mendelian genetics on opposite sides of the Pacific. The ways in which Toyama and Kellogg assigned importance to certain silkworm properties show how conflicting intellectual orientations arose in studies of the same organism. Contestation about Mendelism took place not just on a theoretical level, but the debate was fashioned through each scientist's rationale about the categorization of silkworm breeds and races and what counted as "natural". This further mediated the acceptability of the silkworm not as an experimental organism, but as an appropriately "natural" insect with which to demonstrate laws of inheritance. All these shed light on the challenges that came along with the use of agricultural animals to convincingly articulate new biological principles. PMID:20665229

Onaga, Lisa

2010-01-01

157

Temperature dependent sorbitol utilization in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether the interconversion of glycogen and sorbitol at the initiation and termination of diapause in eggs of the silkworm,Bombyx mori was influenced by low temperatures (5°C and 1°C). The conversion of glycogen to sorbitol and glycerol at the initiation of diapause was not affected by exposure to 5°C and 1°C. Chilling diapause

Toshiharu Furusawa; Masayoshi Shikata; Okitsugu Yamashita

1982-01-01

158

The Effect of Heterosis and Inheritance of Quantitative Traits in Silkworm Exposed to Electromagnetic Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heterosis was studied in several quantitative traits of clone breed and interbreed silkworm hybrids exposed to electromagnetic irradiation (? = 1.6 cm, power density 700 µW\\/cm2) during postdiapause embryonic development. The influence of the type of reproduction on the manifestation of irradiation effects in the next generation was also examined. In hybrids, the resistance to low-intensity high-frequency

Ye. A. Boyko; S. V. Sukhanov; V. G. Shakhbazov

2004-01-01

159

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-01-01

160

MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA

Shiping Liu; Liang Zhang; Qibin Li; Ping Zhao; Jun Duan; Daojun Cheng; Zhonghuai Xiang; Qingyou Xia

2009-01-01

161

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The major royal jelly proteins\\/yellow (MRJP\\/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP\\/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. RESULTS: Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database,

Ai-Hua Xia; Qing-Xiang Zhou; Lin-Lin Yu; Wei-Guo Li; Yong-Zhu Yi; Yao-Zhou Zhang; Zhi-Fang Zhang

2006-01-01

162

Silvernanotherapy on the viral borne disease of silkworm Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiviral assays of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were made against BmNPV (Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus). Reduction of silver ions by sodium citrate and Spirulina platensis led to the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles of 40–60 and 7–16 nm size. Single cell protein (Spirulina platensis)-synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the strongest antiviral activity. Immunological studies made on the silkworm Bombyx

K. Govindaraju; S. Tamilselvan; V. Kiruthiga; G. Singaravelu

163

Genetic characterization of the silkworm Bombyx mori by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen diverse strains of the silkworm Bombyx mori were analysed using the simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-anchored PCR) or Inter-SSR-PCR (ISSR-PCR). A set of four 5¢-anchored and two 3¢-anchored repeat primers amplified a total of 239 bands out of which 184 (77%) were polymorphic. The 5¢-anchored primers revealed more distinct polymorphic markers than the 3¢-anchored primers and

K. DAMODAR REDDY; J. NAGARAJU; E. G. ABRAHAM

1999-01-01

164

Detection of Peptidoglycan and Endotoxin in Dialysate, Using Silkworm Larvae Plasma and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) reagent is activated by peptidoglycan (PG), a fragment of both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell wall, as well as ?-glucan (BG), a component of fungi. It is possible to measure contamination of gram-positive bacteria quantitatively by combining the conventional limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and PG measurement methods. Therefore, a more highly accurate analysis of dialysate

K. Tsuchida; Y. Takemoto; S. Yamagami; H. Edney; M. Niwa; M. Tsuchiya; T. Kishimoto; S. Shaldon

1997-01-01

165

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

166

Analysis of midgut gene expression profiles from different silkworm varieties after exposure to high temperature.  

PubMed

The silkworm is a poikilothermic animal, whose growth and development is significantly influenced by environmental temperature. To identify genes and metabolic pathways involved in the heat-stress response, digital gene expression analysis was performed on the midgut of the thermotolerant silkworm variety '932' and thermosensitive variety 'HY' after exposure to high temperature (932T and HYT). Deep sequencing yielded 6,211,484, 5,898,028, 5,870,395 and 6,088,303 reads for the 932, 932T, HY and HYT samples, respectively. The annotated genes associated with these tags numbered 4357, 4378, 4296 and 4658 for the 932, 932T, HY and HYT samples, respectively. In the HY-vs-932, 932-vs-932T, and HY-vs-HYT comparisons, 561, 316 and 281 differentially expressed genes were identified, which could be assigned to 179, 140 and 123 biological pathways, respectively. It was found that some of the biological pathways, which included oxidative phosphorylation, related to glucose and lipid metabolism, are greatly affected by high temperature and may lead to a decrease in the ingestion of fresh mulberry. When subjected to an early period of continuous heat stress, HSP genes, such as HSP19.9, HSP23.7, HSP40-3, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP70 binding protein, are up-regulated but then reduced after 24h and the thermotolerant '932' strain has higher levels of mRNA of some HSPs, except HSP70, than the thermosensitive variety during continuous high temperature treatment. It is suggested that HSPs and the levels of their expression may play important roles in the resistance to high temperature stress among silkworm varieties. This study has generated important reference tools that can be used to further analyze the mechanisms that underlie thermotolerance differences among silkworm varieties. PMID:25046138

Li, Qing Rong; Xiao, Yang; Wu, Fu Quan; Ye, Ming Qiang; Luo, Guo Qing; Xing, Dong Xu; Li, Li; Yang, Qiong

2014-10-01

167

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) to Infection by the Microsporidian Nosema bombycis  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia have attracted much attention because they infect a variety of species ranging from protists to mammals, including immunocompromised patients with AIDS or cancer. Aside from the study on Nosema ceranae, few works have focused on elucidating the mechanism in host response to microsporidia infection. Nosema bombycis is a pathogen of silkworm pébrine that causes great economic losses to the silkworm industry. Detailed understanding of the host (Bombyx mori) response to infection by N. bombycis is helpful for prevention of this disease. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by N. bombycis was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, B. mori genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, N. bombycis can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. N. bombycis also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of N. bombycis-specific response factors suggested their important roles in anti-microsporidia defense. Overall, this study primarily provides insight into the potential molecular mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction between B. mori and N. bombycis and may provide a foundation for further work on host-parasite interaction between insects and microsporidia. PMID:24386341

Pan, Guoqing; Li, Zhihong; Han, Bing; Xu, Jinshan; Lan, Xiqian; Chen, Jie; Yang, Donglin; Chen, Quanmei; Sang, Qi; Ji, Xiaocun; Li, Tian; Long, Mengxian; Zhou, Zeyang

2013-01-01

168

Establishment of transgenic silkworms expressing GAL4 specifically in the haemocyte oenocytoid cells.  

PubMed

Insect haemocytes play significant roles in innate immunity. The silkworm, a lepidopteran species, is often selected as the model for studies into the functions of haemocytes in immunity; however, our understanding of the role of haemocytes remains limited because the lack of haemocyte promoters for transgene expression makes genetic manipulations difficult. In the present study, we aimed to establish transgenic silkworm strains expressing GAL4 in their haemocytes. First, we identified three genes with strong expression in haemocytes, namely, lp44, Haemocyte Protease 1 (HP1) and hemocytin. Transgenic silkworms expressing GAL4 under the control of the putative promoters of these genes were then established and expression was examined. Although GAL4 expression was not detected in haemocytes of HP1-GAL4 or hemocytin-GAL4 strains, lp44-GAL4 exhibited a high level of GAL4 expression, particularly in oenocytoids. GAL4 expression was also detected in the midgut but in no other tissues, indicating that GAL4 expression in this strain is mostly oenocytoid-specific. Thus, we have identified a promoter that enables oenocytoid expression of genes of interest. Additionally, the lp44-GAL4 strain could also be used for other types of research, such as the functional analysis of genes in oenocytoids, which would facilitate advances in our understanding of insect immunity. PMID:24237591

Tsubota, T; Uchino, K; Kamimura, M; Ishikawa, M; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K; Sezutsu, H

2014-04-01

169

Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

2008-04-01

170

Efficient silkworm expression of human GPCR (nociceptin receptor) by a Bombyx mori bacmid DNA system  

SciTech Connect

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (G{sub i}{alpha}) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [{sup 35}S]GTP{gamma}S-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.

Kajikawa, Mizuho; Sasaki, Kaori [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Wakimoto, Yoshitaro; Toyooka, Masaru [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Motohashi, Tomoko; Shimojima, Tsukasa [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan)] [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Takeda, Shigeki [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Maenaka, Katsumi, E-mail: kmaenaka-umin@umin.net [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)] [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

2009-07-31

171

Shotgun strategy-based proteome profiling analysis on the head of silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect head is comprised of important sensory systems to communicate with internal and external environment and endocrine organs such as brain and corpus allatum to regulate insect growth and development. To comprehensively understand how all these components act and interact within the head, it is necessary to investigate their molecular basis at protein level. Here, the spectra of peptides digested from silkworm larval heads were obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Totally, 539 proteins with a low false discovery rate (FDR) were identified by searching against an in-house database with SEQUEST and X!Tandem algorithms followed by trans-proteomic pipeline (TPP) validation. Forty-three proteins had the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) greater than 10 which were too difficult to separate by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Four chemosensory proteins, one odorant-binding protein, two diapause-related proteins, and a lot of cuticle proteins, interestingly including pupal cuticle proteins were identified. The proteins involved in nervous system development, stress response, apoptosis and so forth were related to the physiological status of head. Pathway analysis revealed that many proteins were highly homologous with the human proteins which involved in human neurodegenerative disease pathways, probably implying a symptom of the forthcoming metamorphosis of silkworm. These data and the analysis methods were expected to be of benefit to the proteomics research of silkworm and other insects. PMID:20198493

Li, Jianying; Hosseini Moghaddam, S Hossein; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Boxiong

2010-08-01

172

A single-base deletion in an ABC transporter gene causes white eyes, white eggs, and translucent larval skin in the silkworm w-3 oe mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The w-3oe silkworm mutant has white eyes and eggs due to the absence of ommochrome pigments in the eye pigment cells and serosa cells. The mutant is also characterized by translucent larval skin resulting from a deficiency in the transportation of uric acid, which acts as a white pigment in larval epidermal cells. A silkworm homolog of the fruitfly white

Natuo Kômoto; Guo-Xing Quan; Hideki Sezutsu; Toshiki Tamura

2009-01-01

173

Oak Poisoning in Livestock.  

E-print Network

(19). "Tannin" is a generic name for a group of complex ~tructures widely distributed in the higher plants. The )tanninsu yield gallic acid when subjected to acid Ilysis. Commercial "tannic acid" is an example of a snnin and is obtained from... of o:k poisoning were observed. - Purified shin oak tannin and commercial tannic acid \\we fed to rabbits in parallel studies. The serium tan- nin levels (1 8) (expressed as "tannic acid" equivalent) \\yere determined periodically. The times of death...

Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

1966-01-01

174

Silkworm eggs: An ideal model for studying the biological effects of low energy Ar + ion interaction in animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of the current work was to study low energy Ar + ion beam interactions with silkworm eggs and thus provide further understanding of the mechanisms involved in ion bombardment-induced direct gene transfer into silkworm eggs. In this paper, using low-energy Ar + ion beam bombardment combined with piggyBac transposon, we developed a novel method to induce gene transfer in silkworm. Using bombardment conditions optimized for egg-incubation (25 keV with ion fluences of 800 × 2.6 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 in dry state under vacuum), vector pBac{3 × P3-EGFPaf} and helper plasmid pHA3pig were successfully transferred into the silkworm eggs. Our results obtained from by PCR assay and genomic Southern blotting analysis of the G1 generations provide evidence that low-energy ion beam can generate some craters that play a role in acting as pathways of exogenous DNA molecules into silkworm eggs.

Ling, Lin; Liu, Xuelan; Xu, Jiaping; You, Zhengying; Zhou, Jingbo

2011-09-01

175

77 FR 23506 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Region of Three Oaks Museum, Three Oaks, MI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Inventory Completion: The Region of Three Oaks Museum, Three Oaks, MI...SUMMARY: The Region of Three Oaks Museum has completed an...with the human remains may contact The Region of Three Oaks Museum. Repatriation...

2012-04-19

176

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

___________________________________________________________________________ Getting to Know OAK 1 Revised: 10/16/2013 Getting to Know OAK What is OAK? Vanderbilt's course management-8524 jeremy.elgin@vanderbilt.edu School of Nursing VUSN OAK Support Website http://www.nursing://www.vanderbilt.edu/oak/ and add to your Bookmarks or Favorites. Though we do our best to keep outages to a minimum, unscheduled

177

Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality. Declining trees first

Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

2008-01-01

178

The expression profile and promoter analysis of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase) is a key enzyme in the chitin decomposition process. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profile of GlcNAcases and the regulation mechanism for one of these genes, BmGlcNAcase1, in the silkworm. We performed sequence analysis of GlcNAcase. Using dual-spike-in qPCR method, we examined the expression of Bombyx ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases (BmGlcNAcases) in various tissues of silkworm as well as expression changes after stimulation with ecdysone. Using Bac-to-Bac system and luciferase reporter vectors, we further analyzed the promoter sequence of BmGlcNAcase1. The results showed that these proteins have a highly conserved catalytic domain. The expression levels of the BmGlcNAcase genes varied in different tissues, and were increased 48 h after exposure to ecdysone. BmGlcNAcase1 gene promoter with 5'-end serial deletions showed different levels of activity in various tissues, higher in the blood, skin and fat body. Deletion of the region from -347 to -223 upstream of BmGlcNAcase-1 gene abolished its promoter activity. This region contains the binding sites for key transcription factors including Hb, BR-C Z, the HSF and the typical TATA-box element. These results indicate that BmGlcNAcases are expressed at different levels in different tissues of the silkworm, but all are subjected to the regulation by ecdysone. BmGlcNAcase1 promoter analysis has paved a foundation for further study of the gene expression patterns. PMID:25001591

Zhai, Yuan-Fen; Huang, Ming-Xia; Wu, Yu; Zhao, Guo-Dong; Du, Jie; Li, Bing; Shen, Wei-de; Wei, Zheng-Guo

2014-10-01

179

Using Oak Characteristics to Guide Fire Regime Restoration in Mexican Pine-Oak and Oak Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Pine-oak forests cover 14.2 million hectares in Mexico, a country that has the richest pine and oak diversity in the world. These diverse forests are a source of goods and services for rural and urban society, but they are being degraded and deforested. A cause of degradation is the alteration of the fire regime caused by fire exclusion or

Dante Arturo Rodríguez-Trejo; Ronald L. Myers

2010-01-01

180

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

181

Morphological and physiological properties of pheromone-triggered flipflopping descending interneurons of the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The morphology of descending interneurons (DNs) which have arborizations in the lateral accessory lobe (LAL) of the protocerebrum, the higher order olfactory center, and have an axon in the ventral nerve cord (VNC), were characterized in the male silkworm moth, Bombyx mori.2.Two clusters (group I, group II) of DNs which have arborizations mainly in the LALs were morphologically characterized. The

R. Kanzaki; A. Ikeda; T. Shibuya

1994-01-01

182

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “¿?brain hormone”

CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

183

Genetic variants of protease inhibitors against fungal protease and ?-chymotrypsin from hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many electrophoretic variants of hemolymph inhibitors of proteases from Aspergillus mellus and pancreatic ?-chymotrypsin were found using 126 silkworm strains. Six inhibitors of the fungal protease were detected and eight of chymotryspin; the distribution of inhibitors among Japanese, Chinese, and European races was investigated. Comparison of electrophoretic patterns from F1 hybrids and parents showed that the offspring produce inhibitors of

M. Eguchi; K. Ueda; M. Yamashita

1984-01-01

184

Resistance of transgenic silkworm to BmNPV could be improved by silencing ie-1 and lef-1 genes.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated viral inhibition has been used in several organisms for improving viral resistance. In the present study, we reported the use of transgenic RNAi in preventing Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) multiplication in the transgenic silkworm B. mori. We targeted the BmNPV immediate-early-1 (ie-1) and late expression factor-1 (lef-1) genes in the transiently transfected BmN cells, in the stable transformed BmN cell line and in the transgenic silkworms. We generated four piggyBac-based vectors containing short double-stranded ie-1 RNA (sdsie-1), short double-stranded lef-1 RNA (sdslef-1), long double-stranded ie-1 RNA (ldsie-1) and both sdsie-1 and sdslef-1 (sds-ie1-lef1) expression cassettes. Strong viral repression was observed in the transiently transfected cells and in the stable transformed BmN cells transfected with sds-ie-1, sdslef-1, ldsie-1 or sds-ie-lef. The decrease of ie-1 mRNA level in the sds-ie1-lef1 transiently transfected cells was most obvious among the cells transfected with different vectors. The inhibitory effect of viral multiplication was decreased in a viral dose-dependent manner; the infection ratio of transfected cells for sds-ie-1, sdslef-1, ldsie-1 and sds-ie-lef decreased by 18.83%, 13.73%, 6.93% and 30.63%, respectively, compared with control cells 5 days after infection. We generated transgenic silkworms using transgenic vector piggyantiIE-lef1-neo with sds-ie1-lef1 expression cassette; the fourth instar larvae of transgenic silkworms of generation G5 exhibited stronger resistance to BmNPV, the mortalities for the transgenic silkworms and control silkworms were 60% and 100%, respectively, at 11 days after inoculation with BmNPV (10(6) occlusion bodies per ml). These results suggest that double-stranded RNA expression of essential genes of BmNPV is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity. PMID:24173242

Zhang, P; Wang, J; Lu, Y; Hu, Y; Xue, R; Cao, G; Gong, C

2014-01-01

185

Characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin family genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori in response to phoxim and chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

The organophosphorus pesticide poisoning of the silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the major events causing serious damage to sericulture. Some antioxidant enzymes play roles in regulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pesticides including phoxim and chlorpyrifos, but relatively little is known about their effects on the silkworm peroxiredoxin family genes. Here, five peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes have been identified in silkworm genome, and Prx genes of silkworm and mammalian homologs have apparent ortholog relationship. Based on the genomic DNA sequence, putative 5'-flanking region of five BmPrxs were obtained and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Their expression profiles exposed to different concentrations of phoxim and chlorpyrifos for 24h, 48h and 72h in midgut of silkworm were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that five BmPrxs and dual oxidase (BmDUOX) gene were all expressed in midgut of silkworm. After feeding with 0.375mg/L and 0.75mg/L phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h). However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72h). Similar to expose to phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h) under chlorpyrifos stress. However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72h) under chlorpyrifos stress. These results revealed that BmPrxs that can be located in mitochondria were able to protect cells even more efficiently than cytosolic from an oxidative stress caused by OP. In addition, BmDUOX was also induced by phomix and chlorpyrifos. Overall, our results indicate that a complex expression regulation of Prxs that play important roles in maintaining redox equilibrium state of silkworm to reduce oxidative damage caused by pesticide. PMID:25175646

Shi, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Ze; Jia, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Kun; An, Dong-Xu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Bao-Long; Yin, He-Nan

2014-09-01

186

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus of a continuing supply of breeding material in the form of weakened oaks suffering from `oak dieback and decline'. P.cylindrus appears to establish only in trees that are severely stressed or already dead

187

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

processionary is often most abundant on urban trees, along forest edges and in amenity woodlands. Oak. This coloration provides an effective camouflage against the bark of oak trees on which the adults often restOak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak

188

Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW) family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development. PMID:16884544

Xia, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Qing-Xiang; Yu, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Guo; Yi, Yong-Zhu; Zhang, Yao-Zhou; Zhang, Zhi-Fang

2006-01-01

189

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

190

Existence of Prophenoloxidase in Wing Discs: A Source of Plasma Prophenoloxidase in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In insects, hemocytes are considered as the only source of plasma prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO also exists in the hemocytes of the hematopoietic organ that is connected to the wing disc of Bombyx mori. It is unknown whether there are other cells or tissues that can produce PPO and release it into the hemolymph besides circulating hemocytes. In this study, we use the silkworm as a model to explore this possibility. Through tissue staining and biochemical assays, we found that wing discs contain PPO that can be released into the culture medium in vitro. An in situ assay showed that some cells in the cavity of wing discs have PPO1 and PPO2 mRNA. We conclude that the hematopoietic organ may wrongly release hemocytes into wing discs since they are connected through many tubes as repost in previous paper. In wing discs, the infiltrating hemocytes produce and release PPO probably through cell lysis and the PPO is later transported into hemolymph. Therefore, this might be another source of plasma PPO in the silkworm: some infiltrated hemocytes sourced from the hematopoietic organ release PPO via wing discs. PMID:22848488

Diao, Yupu; Lu, Anrui; Yang, Bing; Hu, Wenli; Peng, Qing; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Soderhall, Kenneth; Ling, Erjun

2012-01-01

191

Digital gene expression analysis in the midgut of 4008 silkworm strain infected with cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus.  

PubMed

Digital Gene Expression was performed to investigate the midgut transcriptome profile of 4008 silkworm strain orally infected with BmCPV. A total of 4,498,263 and 4,258,240 clean tags were obtained from the control and BmCPV-infected larvae. A total of 752 differentially expressed genes were detected, of which 649 were upregulated and 103 were downregulated. Analysis results of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway showed that 334 genes were involved in the ribosome and RNA transport pathways. Moreover, 408 of the 752 differentially expressed genes have a GO category and can be categorized into 41 functional groups according to molecular function, cellular component and biological process. Differentially expressed genes involved in signaling, gene expression, metabolic process, cell death, binding, and catalytic activity changes were detected in the expression profiles. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression of these genes. The upregulated expression levels of Calreticulin, FK506-binding protein, and protein kinase c inhibitor gene probably led to a calcium-dependent apoptosis in the BmCPV-infected cells. The results of this study may serve as a basis for future research not only on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion but also on the anti-BmCPV mechanism of silkworm. PMID:24211674

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Qian, He-ying; Qin, Guangxing; Guo, Xi-jie

2014-01-01

192

A novel peptide inhibitor of platelet aggregation from stiff silkworm, Bombyx batryticatus.  

PubMed

A novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide, named BB octapeptide, was isolated from stiff silkworm (Bombyx batryticatus) by gel filtration, anion-exchange, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the peptide was determined to be 885 Da using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the sequence was identified as Asp-Pro-Asp-Ala-Asp-IIe-Leu-Gln using the Edman degradation method. To test its biological activity, the peptide was chemically synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase synthesis method. BB octapeptide inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation that was induced by collagen and epinephrine, with the IC50 values of 91.14 ?M and 104.50 ?M, respectively. After intravenous administrated in mice (30 mg/kg, 4 days), BB octapeptide showed similar ex vivo efficacy of inhibiting platelet aggregation as aspirin (10 mg/kg). In addition, this peptide prevented paralysis and death in pulmonary thromboembolism model and significantly reduced ferric chloride-induced thrombus formation in rats. Moreover, it exhibited low cytotoxicity in a cellular model. In conclusion, this is the first report that a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide was isolated from stiff silkworm (B. batryticatus). Due to the excellent efficacy in reducing platelet aggregation and low toxicity, it can be a valuable lead compound for new drug design and development. PMID:24361453

Kong, Yi; Xu, Cheng; He, Zhi-Long; Zhou, Qiu-Mei; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Ming, Xin

2014-03-01

193

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

194

Nested retrotransposons on the W chromosome of the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina.  

PubMed

The W chromosome of the silkworms Bombyx mori or B. mandarina is recombinationally isolated from the Z chromosome and the autosomes. We previously characterized a female-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), designated W-Yamato, derived from the W chromosome of the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina. To further analyse the W chromosome of B. mandarina, we obtained a lambda phage clone that contains the W-Yamato RAPD sequence and sequenced the 16.7 kb DNA insert. We found that this DNA comprises a nested structure of at least seven elements: six retrotransposons and one transposable element-like sequence. The transposable element-like sequence is inserted into a micropia-like retrotransposon (Karate). The Karate and the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposon BMC1 are inserted into a 412-like retrotransposon (Judo). Furthermore, this Judo, and two non-LTR retrotransposons (Kurosawa and Kendo) are inserted into a Pao-like retrotransposon (Yamato). These results indicate that the retrotransposons inserted into the W chromosome are not efficiently removed but accumulate gradually as strata without recombination. PMID:12144695

Abe, H; Sugasaki, T; Terada, T; Kanehara, M; Ohbayashi, F; Shimada, T; Kawai, S; Mita, K; Oshiki, T

2002-08-01

195

Heritable Genome Editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with an associated protein (Cas9) system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and Cas9-mRNA into silkworm embryos. Mutation frequencies of 16.7–35.0% were observed in the injected generation, and DNA fragments deletions were also noted. Bm-ok mosaic mutants were used to test for mutant heritability due to the easily determined translucent epidermal phenotype of Bm-ok-disrupted cells. Two crossing strategies were used. In the first, injected Bm-ok moths were crossed with wild-type moths, and a 28.6% frequency of germline mutation transmission was observed. In the second strategy, two Bm-ok mosaic mutant moths were crossed with each other, and 93.6% of the offsprings appeared mutations in both alleles of Bm-ok gene (compound heterozygous). In summary, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can act as a highly specific and heritable gene-editing tool in Bombyx mori. PMID:25013902

Roy, Bhaskar; Dai, Junbiao; Miao, Yungen; Gao, Guanjun

2014-01-01

196

Diversity in Copy Number and Structure of a Silkworm Morphogenetic Gene as a Result of Domestication  

PubMed Central

The carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a major determinant of cocoon color, is likely to have been substantially influenced by domestication of this species. We analyzed the structure of the CBP gene in multiple strains of B. mori, in multiple individuals of the wild silkworm, B. mandarina (the putative wild ancestor of B. mori), and in a number of other lepidopterans. We found the CBP gene copy number in genomic DNA to vary widely among B. mori strains, ranging from 1 to 20. The copies of CBP are of several types, based on the presence of a retrotransposon or partial deletion of the coding sequence. In contrast to B. mori, B. mandarina was found to possess a single copy of CBP without the retrotransposon insertion, regardless of habitat. Several other lepidopterans were found to contain sequences homologous to CBP, revealing that this gene is evolutionarily conserved in the lepidopteran lineage. Thus, domestication can generate significant diversity of gene copy number and structure over a relatively short evolutionary time. PMID:21242537

Sakudoh, Takashi; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kuroki, Yoko; Fujiyama, Asao; Kohara, Yuji; Honda, Naoko; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Shimada, Toru; Nakagaki, Masao; Banno, Yutaka; Tsuchida, Kozo

2011-01-01

197

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000

Standiford, Richard B.

198

Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California1 William F. Elmendorf2  

E-print Network

Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California1 William F. Elmendorf2 Abstract: The City- sake, the oak tree. First adopted in 1972 as an Emergency City Council Proclamation, the City's Oak preservation ordinances within the State of Califor- nia. The current Oak Tree Ordinance has undergone twenty

Standiford, Richard B.

199

Changes in Soil Quality Due to Grazing and Oak Tree Removal in California Blue Oak  

E-print Network

Changes in Soil Quality Due to Grazing and Oak Tree Removal in California Blue Oak Woodlands1 Trina of grazing and oak tree removal on soil quality and fertility were examined in a blue oak (Quercus douglasii on soil quality; however, oak tree removal resulted in a decrease in most soil quality parameters

Standiford, Richard B.

200

Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84% of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms. PMID:24719047

Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

2014-08-01

201

Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis. PMID:24508345

Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2014-04-01

202

Mössbauer studies of subfossil oak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subfossil oak wood found in a dried-up bog in Bavaria, Germany, was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The bog oaks contain substantial amounts of iron taken up from the bog waters and presumably forming complexes with the tanning agents in the oak wood. The iron is mainly Fe3 + and much of this exhibits an uncommonly large quadrupole splitting of up to 1.6 mm/s that can tentatively be explained by the formation of oxo-bridged iron dimers. Only rarely, mainly in the dense wood of the roots of bog oaks, was divalent iron found. When the wood was ground to a powder the divalent iron oxidized to Fe3 + within hours. This suggests that iron is taken up from the bog water as Fe2 + and oxidizes only when the wood emerges from the water and comes into contact with air.

van Bürck, Uwe; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Lerf, Anton

2012-03-01

203

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments M - P Poison ivy Poison ivy, oak, and sumac Rash from poison ivy. ... to an emergency room immediately. Learn more about poison ivy: Poison ivy: Signs and symptoms Poison ivy: ...

204

Iowa's oldest oaks. [Quercus alba  

SciTech Connect

Tree-ring analysis revealed 33 living white oaks (Quercus alba) in Iowa that began growing before 1700. Core of wood 4 mm in diameter, each extracted from a radius of a tree trunk were analyzed. The oldest white oak, found in northeastern Warren County, began growing about 1570 and is thus over 410 years old. A chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) was also found which was more than 300 years old. Ring widths from the white oaks are well correlated with total precipitation for the twelve months preceding completion of ring formation in July. Reconstructions of annual (August-July) precipitation for 1680-1979, based on the tree rings, indicate that the driest annual period in Iowa was August 1799-July 1800, and that the driest decade began about 1816. Climatic information of this kind, pre-dating written weather records, can be used to augment those records and provide a longer baseline of information for use by climatologists and hydrologic planners.

Duvick, D.N.; Blasing, T.J.

1983-01-01

205

Oak Declines: The Problem of Defining the Sandra Denman  

E-print Network

Decline (slow effect) #12;5/30/20126 Types of Oak Decline In the Acute form of oak decline (AOD) trees to affect above ground parts of oak trees (stems and leaves) In the Chronic form of oak decline (COD is Chronic Oak Decline? Chronic Oak Decline is the term given to oak trees that decline and develop disease

206

Molecular characterization of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the giant silkmoth Antheraea pernyi: developmental appearance of PTTH-expressing cells and relationship to circadian clock cells in central brain.  

PubMed

Using a PCR strategy, we have cloned the cDNA for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the giant silkmoth, Antheraea pernyi. The A. pernyi PTTH cDNA encodes a preprohormone of 221 amino acids that is 51 and 71% identical at the amino acid level with Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini PTTHs, respectively. Bacterially expressed, recombinant A. pernyi PTTH stimulates adult development when injected into debrained pupae. PTTH protein (ca. 30 kDa by Western blot) and mRNA (ca. 0.9 kb by Northern blot) are expressed in brain. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization show that PTTH protein and mRNA are colocalized in L-NSC III from Day 4 of embryogenesis through adult life, with little variation in either protein or mRNA levels at the various ecdyses. A pair of cells expressing immunoreactivity for the circadian clock protein PER is located in the same region as PTTH-expressing L-NSC III in A. pernyi brain. However, double-label immunocytochemical studies show that PTTH and PER are located in different cells. The close anatomical location between PTTH- and PER-expressing cells suggests routes of communication between these two cell populations that may be important for the circadian control of PTTH release. PMID:8812139

Sauman, I; Reppert, S M

1996-09-15

207

Host Plant Selection by Larvae of the Muga Silk Moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the Role of the Antenna and Maxillary Palp  

PubMed Central

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D. S.; Deka, B.

2013-01-01

208

Snmp-1, a novel membrane protein of olfactory neurons of the silk moth Antheraea polyphemus with homology to the CD36 family of membrane proteins.  

PubMed

While olfactory neurons of silk moths are well known for their exquisite sensitivity to sex pheromone odorants, molecular mechanisms underlying this sensitivity are poorly understood. In searching for proteins that might support olfactory mechanisms, we characterized the protein profile of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we have named Snmp-1 (sensory neuron membrane protein-1). Northern blot analysis suggests that Snmp-1 is uniquely expressed in antennal tissue; in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analyses show that Snmp-1 is expressed in olfactory neurons and that the protein is localized to the cilia, dendrites, and somata but not the axons. Snmp-1 mRNA expression increases significantly 1-2 days before the end of adult development, coincident with the functional maturation of the olfactory system. Sequence analysis suggests Snmp-1 is homologous with the CD36 protein family, a phylogenetically diverse family of receptor-like membrane proteins. CD36 family proteins are characterized as having two transmembrane domains and interacting with proteinaceous ligands; Snmp-1 is the first member of this family identified in nervous tissue. These findings argue that Snmp-1 has an important role in olfaction; possible roles of Snmp-1 in odorant detection are discussed. PMID:9169446

Rogers, M E; Sun, M; Lerner, M R; Vogt, R G

1997-06-01

209

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. I. The leaf-shaped antenna of the pupa from diapause to apolysis.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure consisting of a central stem and ca. 120 side branches, which altogether carry about 70,000 olfactory sensilla. We investigate the development during the pupal phase. At the end of diapause, the antennal rudiment consists of a leaf-shaped, one-layered epidermal sac. It is supplied with oxygen via a central main trachea, which gives off numerous thin side branches. These are segmentally arranged into bundles which run to the periphery of the antennal blade. When the epidermis retracts from the pupal cuticle (apolysis; stage 1), it consists of cells which are morphologically uniform. The epidermal cells form a network of long, irregular basal protrusions (epidermal feet), which crisscross the antennal lumen. During the first day post-apolysis (stage 2), the antennal epidermis differentiates into alternating thick 'sensillogenic' and thin 'non-sensillogenic' areas arranged in stripes which run in parallel to the tracheal bundles. Numerous dark, elongated cells, which might be the sensillar stem cells, are scattered in the sensillogenic epithelium. A number of very early sensilla has been found at the distal edges of the sensillogenic stripes in positions which later will be occupied by sensilla chaetica. The whole antennal blade is enveloped by the transparent ecdysial membrane, consisting of the innermost layers of the pupal cuticle which are detached during apolysis. PMID:18620306

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

210

Study of protein conformation and orientation in silkworm and spider silk fibers using Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

Raman microspectroscopy has been used for the first time to determine quantitatively the orientation of the beta-sheets in silk monofilaments from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini silkworms, and from the spider Nephila edulis. It is shown that, for systems with uniaxial symmetry such as silk, it is possible to determine the order parameters P2 and P4 of the orientation distribution function from intensity ratios of polarized Raman spectra. The equations allowing the calculation of P2 and P4 using polarized Raman microspectroscopy for a vibration with a cylindrical Raman tensor were first derived and then applied to the amide I band that is mostly due to the C=O stretching vibration of the peptide groups. The shape of the Raman tensor for the amide I vibration of the beta-sheets was determined from an isotropic film of Bombyx mori silk treated with methanol. For both the Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini fibroin fibers, the values of P2 and P4 obtained are equal to -0.36 +/- 0.03 and 0.19 +/- 0.02, respectively, even though the two types of silkworm fibroins strongly differ in their primary sequences. For the Nephila edulis dragline silk, values of P2 and P4 of -0.32 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.02 were obtained, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the carbonyl groups are highly oriented perpendicular to the fiber axis and that the beta-sheets are oriented parallel to the fiber axis, in agreement with previous X-ray and NMR results. The most probable distribution of orientation was also calculated from the values of P2 and P4 using the information entropy theory. For the three types of silk, the beta-sheets are highly oriented parallel to the fiber axis. The orientation distributions of the beta-sheets are nearly Gaussian functions with a width of 32 degrees and 40 degrees for the silkworm fibroins and the spider dragline silk, respectively. In addition to these results, the comparison of the Raman spectra recorded for the different silk samples and the polarization dependence of several bands has allowed to clarify some important band assignments. PMID:15530039

Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Lefèvre, Thierry; Beaulieu, Lilyane; Asakura, Tetsuo; Pézolet, Michel

2004-01-01

211

Catalytic function of an ?-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is involved in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. A silkworm GST, belonging to a previously reported Epsilon-class GST family, was identified, named bmGSTE, cloned, and produced in Escherichia coli. Investigation of this enzyme's properties showed that it was able to catalyse glutathione (GSH) with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ethacrynic acid, and also that it possessed GSH-dependent peroxidase activity. The enzyme's highly conserved amino acid residues, including Ser11, His53, Val55, Ser68 and Arg112, were of interest regarding their possible involvement in its catalytic activity. These residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent kinetic analysis of bmGSTE mutants indicated that His53, Val55, and Ser68 were important for enzyme function. PMID:23803169

Yamamoto, K; Aso, Y; Yamada, N

2013-10-01

212

Starvation-responsive glycine-rich protein gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Four glycine-rich protein (GRP) genes were identified from expressed sequence tags of the maxillary galea of the silkworm. All four genes were expressed in the maxillary pulp, antenna, labrum, and labium, but none of the genes were expressed in most internal organs. Expression of one of the genes, termed bmSIGRP, was further increased approximately fivefold in the mouth region (including the maxilla, antenna, labrum, labium, and mandible) after 24 h of starvation. bmSIGRP expression peaked at 24 h and gradually declined during the subsequent 2 days. When a synthetic diet not containing proteins was fed, bmSIGRP expression increased significantly in the mouth region to levels similar to that observed in starved larvae. Synthetic diets that lacked vitamins or salts but contained amino acids did not significantly affect bmSIGRP expression. These results suggest that amino acid depletion increases bmSIGRP expression. PMID:25095972

Taniai, Kiyoko; Hirayama, Chikara; Mita, Kazuei; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2014-10-01

213

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Yu, Qi; Li, Xiao-Tong; Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

214

Embryonic thermosensitive TRPA1 determines transgenerational diapause phenotype of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the bivoltine strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic diapause is induced transgenerationally as a maternal effect. Progeny diapause is determined by the environmental temperature during embryonic development of the mother; however, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Bombyx TRPA1 ortholog (BmTrpA1) acts as a thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that is activated at temperatures above ? 21 °C and affects the induction of diapause in progeny. In addition, we show that embryonic RNAi of BmTrpA1 affects diapause hormone release during pupal-adult development. This study identifying a thermosensitive TRP channel that acts as a molecular switch for a relatively long-term predictive adaptive response by inducing an alternative phenotype to seasonal polyphenism is unique. PMID:24639527

Sato, Azusa; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kashio, Makiko; Yasukochi, Yuji; Tominaga, Makoto; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2014-04-01

215

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

216

Transcription of a silkworm tRNA(cAla) gene is directed by two AT-rich upstream sequence elements.  

PubMed Central

A region within 35 nucleotides upstream of the transcription initiation site of a variety of silkworm Class III templates is absolutely required for transcription in vitro. To determine whether the activity of this region can be attributed to a particular sequence element, we systematically replaced 4-5 bp segments of the region upstream of a silkworm tRNA(cAla) gene. We show that replacement of either of two AT-rich blocks markedly impairs promoter function, whereas replacement of other sequences has little or no effect. Additional mutants were constructed to test whether base composition or sequence is important for function of the AT blocks. We find that some sequences are more effective than others, but that various AT-rich sequences can direct transcription at a high level. Possible mechanisms by which such elements could act are discussed. Images PMID:8290347

Palida, F A; Hale, C; Sprague, K U

1993-01-01

217

ARTICLES: Synthesis of Biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2 Nanostructures by Silkworm Silk Template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and green technique has been developed to prepare hierarchical biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2, using silkworm silk as the template. Different from traditional immersion technics, the whole synthesis process depends more on the restriction or direction functions of the silkworm silk template. The analytic results showed that ZrO2-CeO2 exhibited a well-crystallized hierarchically interwoven hollow fiber structure with 16-28 ?m in diameter. The grain size of the sample calcined at 800 °C was about 14 nm. Consequently, the interwoven meshwork at three dimensions is formed due to the direction of biotemplate. The action mechanism is summarily discussed here. It may bring the biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2 nanomaterials with hierarchical interwoven structures to more applications, such as catalysts.

Zhang, Zong-jian; Li, Jia; Sun, Fu-sheng; Dickon, H. L. Ng; Luen Kwong, Fung

2010-06-01

218

Small Business Manager Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Keith Joy Small Business Manager Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Past, Present, and Future #12;2 OAK Excellence in Science and Technology Excellence in science and innovative solutions to complex problems

219

Sudden Oak Death Disease Progression in Oaks and Tanoaks1  

E-print Network

percent of bleeding coast live oaks were under active attack by ambrosia and bark beetles (Coleoptera a consistent and predictable sequence: bleeding, then beetle colonization, followed by emergence of Hypoxylon 380 past beetle activity during each March sampling period, from 2000 to 2003. Beetles had colonized

Standiford, Richard B.

220

Effect of RH2485 on development, metamorphosis and synthesis of major proteins in female silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological data on silkworm Bombyx mori are quite comparable to those of other lepidopteran pest insects, therefore, it is considered as a suitable model for exploring\\u000a effects of any new synthetic formulations. In this study, female V instar larvae of silk moth B. mori were chosen to evaluate the lethal and sublethal toxicity effects of RH-2485 (methoxyfenozide), a non-steroidal ecdysteroid

Ayyamperumal Rajathi; Jeyaraj Pandiarajan; Muthukalingan Krishnan

2010-01-01

221

Molecular Characterization, Tissue Distribution, Subcellular Localization and Actin-Sequestering Function of a Thymosin Protein from Silkworm  

PubMed Central

We identified a novel gene encoding a Bombyx mori thymosin (BmTHY) protein from a cDNA library of silkworm pupae, which has an open reading frame (ORF) of 399 bp encoding 132 amino acids. It was found by bioinformatics that BmTHY gene consisted of three exons and two introns and BmTHY was highly homologous to thymosin betas (T?). BmTHY has a conserved motif LKHTET with only one amino acid difference from LKKTET, which is involved in T? binding to actin. A His-tagged BmTHY fusion protein (rBmTHY) with a molecular weight of approximately 18.4 kDa was expressed and purified to homogeneity. The purified fusion protein was used to produce anti-rBmTHY polyclonal antibodies in a New Zealand rabbit. Subcellular localization revealed that BmTHY can be found in both Bm5 cell (a silkworm ovary cell line) nucleus and cytoplasm but is primarily located in the nucleus. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR showed that during silkworm developmental stages, BmTHY expression levels are highest in moth, followed by instar larvae, and are lowest in pupa and egg. BmTHY mRNA was universally distributed in most of fifth-instar larvae tissues (except testis). However, BmTHY was expressed in the head, ovary and epidermis during the larvae stage. BmTHY formed complexes with actin monomer, inhibited actin polymerization and cross-linked to actin. All the results indicated BmTHY might be an actin-sequestering protein and participate in silkworm development. PMID:22383992

Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Changrong; Lv, Zhengbing; Fang, Dailing; Wang, Dan; Nie, Zuoming; Yu, Wei; Lan, Hanglian; Jiang, Caiying; Zhang, Yaozhou

2012-01-01

222

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac

Toshiki Tamura; Chantal Thibert; Corinne Royer; Toshio Kanda; Abraham Eappen; Mari Kamba; Natuo Kômoto; Jean-Luc Thomas; Bernard Mauchamp; Gérard Chavancy; Paul Shirk; Malcolm Fraser; Jean-Claude Prudhomme; Pierre Couble

2000-01-01

223

Bmmarl: a basal lineage of the mariner family of transposable elements in the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a transposable element, called Bmmarl, from the genome of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori. This element has features of the Tcl-mariner superfamily of transposable elements. Bmmarl was first detected as a fragment in the 5? region of the larval serum protein (BmLSP) gene. Six genomic clones characterized each differed from a consensus sequence by 3–5 insertions and deletions,

Hugh M. Robertson; Michele L. Asplund

1996-01-01

224

A Dense Genetic Map of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Covering All Chromosomes Based on 1018 Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori, containing 1018 genetic markers on all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Most of the markers, covering z2000 cM, were randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs amplified with primer-pairs in combinations of 140 commercially available decanucleotides. In addition, eight known genes and five visible mutations were mapped. Bombyx homo- logues of

Yuji Yasukochi

225

Pheromone-triggered flip-flopping interneurons in the ventral nerve cord of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A group of extracellularly recorded descending interneurons in the ventral nerve cord of the male silkworm mothBombyx mori share a common flip-flopping input. In response to repeated stimuli these flip-flopping interneurons switch back and forth between long lasting high and low firing rates (Figs. 1, 2).2.Changes in the level of the female pheromone bombykol in an airstream directed at the

Robert M. Olberg

1983-01-01

226

Bombyxin, an Insulin-Related Peptide of Insects, Reduces the Major Storage Carbohydrates in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an insect insulin-related peptide, bombyxin, on carbohydrate metabolism were investigated in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Bombyxin lowered the concentration of the major hemolymph sugar, trehalose, in a dose-dependent manner when injected into neck-ligated larvae. Bombyxin also caused elevated trehalase activity in the midgut and muscle, suggesting that bombyxin induces hypotrehalosemia by promoting the hydrolysis of hemolymph trehalose

Shin'Ichiro Satake; Makoto Masumura; Hironori Ishizaki; Koji Nagata; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi

1997-01-01

227

Where Has All the White Oak Gone?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the disappearance of white oaks in the US. Before European settlement, vast areas of deciduous forest in what is now the eastern United States were dominated by oak species. Among these species, white oak (Quercus alba) reigned supreme. White oak tended to grow at lower elevations but was distributed across a broad range of sites, from wet mesic to subxeric, and grew on all but the wettest and most xeric, rocky, or nutrient-poor soils. A comparison of witness tree data from early land surveys and data on modern-day forest composition revealed a drastic decline in white oak throughout the eastern forest. By contrast, other dominant oaks, such as red oak (Quercus rubra) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), often exhibited higher frequency in recent studies than in surveys of the original forest. The frequency of red oak witness trees before European settlement was quite low, generally under 5% in most forests. Red oak's distribution was apparently limited by a lower tolerance to fire and drought and a greater dependence on catastrophic disturbances than that of white oak. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, much of the eastern forest was decimated by land clearing, extensive clear-cutting, catastrophic fires, chestnut blight, and then fire suppression and intensive deer browsing. These activities had the greatest negative impact on the highly valued white oak, while promoting the expansion of red oak and chestnut oak. More recently, however, recruitment of all the dominant upland oaks has been limited on all but the most xeric sites. Thus, the dynamic equilibrium in the ecology of upland oaks that existed for thousands of years has been destroyed in the few centuries following European settlement.

MARC D. ABRAMS (;)

2003-10-01

228

Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori exhibits posttranslational biotinylation and phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Biotin-dependent human acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are integral in homeostatic lipid metabolism. By securing posttranslational biotinylation, ACCs perform coordinated catalytic functions allosterically regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and citrate. The production of authentic recombinant ACCs is heeded to provide a reliable tool for molecular studies and drug discovery. Here, we examined whether the human ACC2 (hACC2), an isoform of ACC produced using the silkworm BmNPV bacmid system, is equipped with proper posttranslational modifications to carry out catalytic functions as the silkworm harbors an inherent posttranslational modification machinery. Purified hACC2 possessed genuine biotinylation capacity probed by biotin-specific streptavidin and biotin antibodies. In addition, phosphorylated hACC2 displayed limited catalytic activity whereas dephosphorylated hACC2 revealed an enhanced enzymatic activity. Moreover, hACC2 polymerization, analyzed by native page gel analysis and atomic force microscopy imaging, was allosterically regulated by citrate and the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation modulated citrate-induced hACC2 polymerization process. Thus, the silkworm BmNPV bacmid system provides a reliable eukaryotic protein production platform for structural and functional analysis and therapeutic drug discovery applications implementing suitable posttranslational biotinylation and phosphorylation. PMID:24740690

Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Park, Enoch Y

2014-10-01

229

Expression and purification of cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) using silkworm larvae targeting for an antimicrobial therapeutic agent.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), both synthetic and from natural sources, have raised interest recently as potential alternatives to antibiotics. Cyto-insectotoxin (Cit1a) is a 69-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide isolated from the venom of the central Asian spider Lachesana tarabaevi. The synthetic gene Cit1a fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was expressed as the EGFP-Cit1a fusion protein using a cysteine protease-deleted Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP(-)) bacmid in silkworm larva and pupa. The antimicrobial effect of the purified protein was assayed using disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EGFP-Cit1a was also measured against several bacterial strains and showed similar antimicrobial activity to that of the synthetic Cit1a reported earlier. The EGFP-Cit1a fusion protein showed antibiotic activity toward gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria at the micromolar concentration level. These results show that active Cit1a can be produced and purified in silkworm, although this peptide is insecticidal. This study demonstrates the potential of active Cit1a purified from silkworms to use as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:24728600

Ali, M P; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2014-08-01

230

Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively. PMID:23403062

Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

2013-03-01

231

Involvement of MicroRNAs in Infection of Silkworm with Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus (BmCPV)  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is one of the most important pathogens of silkworm. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in regulating host-pathogen interaction. However, there are limited reports on the miRNAs expression profiles during insect pathogen challenges. In this study, four small RNA libraries from BmCPV-infected midgut of silkworm at 72 h post-inoculation and 96 h post-inoculation and their corresponding control midguts were constructed and deep sequenced. A total of 316 known miRNAs (including miRNA*) and 90 novel miRNAs were identified. Fifty-eight miRNAs displayed significant differential expression between the infected and normal midgut (P value ?=?2.0 or silkworm. PMID:23844171

Wu, Ping; Han, Shaohua; Chen, Tao; Qin, Guangxing; Li, Long; Guo, Xijie

2013-01-01

232

Silkworm HP1a transcriptionally enhances highly expressed euchromatic genes via association with their transcription start sites.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein across different eukaryotic species and is crucial for heterochromatin establishment and maintenance. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, encodes two HP1 proteins, BmHP1a and BmHP1b. In order to investigate the role of BmHP1a in transcriptional regulation, we performed genome-wide analyses of the transcriptome, transcription start sites (TSSs), chromatin modification states and BmHP1a-binding sites of the silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We identified a number of BmHP1a-binding loci throughout the silkworm genome and found that these loci included TSSs and frequently co-occurred with neighboring euchromatic histone modifications. In addition, we observed that genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs were relatively highly expressed in BmN4 cells. RNA interference-mediated BmHP1a depletion resulted in the transcriptional repression of highly expressed genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs, whereas genes not coupled with BmHP1a-binding regions were less affected by the treatment. These results demonstrate that BmHP1a binds near TSSs of highly expressed euchromatic genes and positively regulates their expression. Our study revealed a novel mode of transcriptional regulation mediated by HP1 proteins. PMID:25237056

Shoji, Keisuke; Hara, Kahori; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu

2015-02-01

233

Identification of a microspordium isolated from Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and characterization of its pathogenicity in silkworms.  

PubMed

A new microsporidium isolated from Megacopta cribraria was characterized by both biological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, its pathogenicity to silkworms was also studied. The spores are oval in shape and measured 3.64 ± 0.2 × 2.20 ± 0.2 ?m in size. Its ultrastructure is characteristic of the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 13-14 polar filament coils and posterior vacuole. Its life cycle includes meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts and mature spores, with a typical diplokaryon in each stage and propagation in a binary fission. A phylogenetic tree based on SSU rRNA and rRNA ITS gene sequence analysis further indicated that the parasite is closely related to Nosema bombycis and should be placed in the genus Nosema and sub-group 'true' Nosema. Furthermore, the microsporidium heavily infects lepidopteran silkworm insect and can be transmitted per os (horizontally) and transovarially (vertically). Our findings showed that the microsporidium belongs to the 'true' Nosema group within the genus Nosema and heavily infects silkworms. Based on the information obtained during this study, we named this new microsporidium isolated from M. cribraria as Nosema sp. MC. PMID:25173855

Xing, Dongxu; Li, Li; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; Li, Qingrong; Xiao, Yang; Dai, Fanwei; Yang, Qiong

2014-11-01

234

Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of molecular mechanisms associated with low silk production in silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the low fibroin production of the ZB silkworm strain, we used both SDS-PAGE-based and gel-free-based proteomic techniques and transcriptomic sequencing technique. Combining the data from two different proteomic techniques was preferable in the characterization of the differences between the ZB silkworm strain and the original Lan10 silkworm strain. The correlation analysis showed that the individual protein and transcript were not corresponded well, however, the differentially changed proteins and transcripts showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. In the ZB strain, numerous ribosomal proteins and transcripts were down-regulated, along with the transcripts of translational related elongation factors and genes of important components of fibroin. The proteasome pathway was significantly enhanced in the ZB strain, indicating that protein degradation began on the third day of fifth instar when fibroin would have been produced in the Lan10 strain normally and plentifully. From proteome and transcriptome levels of the ZB strain, the energy-metabolism-related pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and citrate cycle were enhanced, suggesting that the energy metabolism was vigorous in the ZB strain, while the silk production was low. This may due to the inefficient energy employment in fibroin synthesis in the ZB strain. These results suggest that the reason for the decreasing of the silk production might be related to the decreased ability of fibroin synthesis, the degradation of proteins, and the inefficiency of the energy exploiting. PMID:24428189

Wang, Shao-Hua; You, Zheng-Ying; Ye, Lu-Peng; Che, Jiaqian; Qian, Qiujie; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhong, Bo-Xiong

2014-02-01

235

Original article Oak tree improvement in Indiana  

E-print Network

Original article Oak tree improvement in Indiana MV Coggeshall Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Vallonia State Nursery, Vallonia, IN 47281 USA Summary — Oak tree improvement in the state 11 species/year. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of the oak tree improvement pro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Science Education Programs at Oak Ridge  

E-print Network

Virgin Islands and 56 foreign countries were represented. E ducation by the Numbers Select Acronyms DOE UScience Education Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory This publication spotlights the Science Education Programs at ORNL, which are administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak

Ronquist, Fredrik

237

Serotonin Receptor B May Lock the Gate of PTTH Release/Synthesis in the Chinese Silk Moth, Antheraea pernyi; A Diapause Initiation/Maintenance Mechanism?  

PubMed Central

The release of prothoracicotropic hormone, PTTH, or its blockade is the major endocrine switch regulating the developmental channel either to metamorphosis or to pupal diapause in the Chinese silk moth, Antheraea pernyi. We have cloned cDNAs encoding two types of serotonin receptors (5HTRA and B). 5HTRA-, and 5HTRB-like immunohistochemical reactivities (-ir) were colocalized with PTTH-ir in two pairs of neurosecretory cells at the dorsolateral region of the protocerebrum (DL). Therefore, the causal involvement of these receptors was suspected in PTTH release/synthesis. The level of mRNA5HTRB responded to 10 cycles of long-day activation, falling to 40% of the original level before activation, while that of 5HTRA was not affected by long-day activation. Under LD 16:8 and 12:12, the injection of dsRNA5HTRB resulted in early diapause termination, whereas that of dsRNA5HTRA did not affect the rate of diapause termination. The injection of dsRNA5HTRB induced PTTH accumulation, indicating that 5HTRB binding suppresses PTTH synthesis also. This conclusion was supported pharmacologically; the injection of luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, plus 5th inhibited photoperiodic activation under LD 16:8, while that of 5,7-DHT, induced emergence in a dose dependent fashion under LD 12:12. The results suggest that 5HTRB may lock the PTTH release/synthesis, maintaining diapause. This could also work as diapause induction mechanism. PMID:24223937

Takeda, Makio

2013-01-01

238

Ligand binding turns moth pheromone-binding protein into a pH sensor: effect on the Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 conformation.  

PubMed

In moths, pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for the transport of the hydrophobic pheromones to the membrane-bound receptors across the aqueous sensillar lymph. We report here that recombinant Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1) picks up hydrophobic molecule(s) endogenous to the Escherichia coli expression host that keeps the protein in the "open" (bound) conformation at high pH but switches to the "closed" (free) conformation at low pH. This finding has bearing on the solution structures of undelipidated lepidopteran moth PBPs determined thus far. Picking up a hydrophobic molecule from the host expression system could be a common feature for lipid-binding proteins. Thus, delipidation is critical for bacterially expressed lipid-binding proteins. We have shown for the first time that the delipidated ApolPBP1 exists primarily in the closed form at all pH levels. Thus, current views on the pH-induced conformational switch of PBPs hold true only for the ligand-bound open conformation of the protein. Binding of various ligands to delipidated ApolPBP1 studied by solution NMR revealed that the protein in the closed conformation switches to the open conformation only at or above pH 6.0 with a protein to ligand stoichiometry of approximately 1:1. Mutation of His(70) and His(95) to alanine drives the equilibrium toward the open conformation even at low pH for the ligand-bound protein by eliminating the histidine-dependent pH-induced conformational switch. Thus, the delipidated double mutant can bind ligand even at low pH in contrast to the wild type protein as revealed by fluorescence competitive displacement assay using 1-aminoanthracene and solution NMR. PMID:19758993

Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Prusti, Rabi K; Mohanty, Smita

2009-11-13

239

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.). II. Changes after motor nerve section.  

PubMed

In the moth Antheraea polyphemed at the onset of adult development. The subsequent breakdown of the isolated motor stulongated vesicles similar in structure to channels of smooth ER, appear in large numbers in the axoplasm. Their nature as well as the functional aspects of early axonal changes are discussed. From the 7th day onward two types of axonal breakdown become prominent. The first is characterized 0y swelling axon profiles, distorted vesicles and strongly shrunken mitochondria, uhile shrinking axon profiles containing tightly packed mitochondria and unaltered vesicles are typical of the second. Both types presumably take place independently of each other in different axon terminals. Axons and the contents of at least the first type are finally removed by transformation into lamellar bodies. Glial processes obviously behave independently of degenerating terminals; they loose any contact with them and never act as phagocytes for axon remnants. During the whole period of breakdown undifferentiated contacts between nerve fibers and muscle anlagen are present but synaptic structures as in normal developing dlm have never been observed. This fact, in comparison with earlier studies, suggests a lack of trophic nervous activity on the muscle anlagen tissue. A short time after removal of the isolated stumps new nerve tracts appear between dlm-fibers (which are, of course, strongly retarded in development). They are presumably sensory wing nerves which lack a guide structure to the central target, due to axotomy. Neuromuscular contacts or even junctions formed by axons of these nerves have occasionally been detected on the dlm. Their nature is discussed. Wallerian axon degeneration is compared to the normal, metamorphic breakdown of the innervation of the larval dlm-precursor. In contrast to the former, glial processes here remain in contact with the terminals. Glia and axons first swell. Then most glial processes are transformed into lamellar bodies whereas neurites shrink and become electron-dense. Axonal organelles remain intact for a long period. PMID:1201608

Nüesch, H; Stocker, R F

1975-12-10

240

Structural basis of ligand binding and release in insect pheromone-binding proteins: NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 at pH 4.5.  

PubMed

The NMR structure of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1 at pH 4.5, ApolPBP1A, was determined at 20 degrees C. The structure consists of six alpha-helices, which are arranged in a globular fold that encapsulates a central helix alpha7 formed by the C-terminal polypeptide segment 131-142. The 3D arrangement of these helices is anchored by the three disulfide bonds 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117, which were identified by NMR. Superposition of the ApolPBP1A structure with the structure of the homologous pheromone-binding protein of Bombyx mori at pH 4.5, BmorPBPA, yielded an rmsd of 1.7 A calculated for the backbone heavy-atoms N, Calpha and C' of residues 10-142. In contrast, the present ApolPBP1A structure is different from a recently proposed molecular model for a low-pH form of ApolPBP1 that does not contain the central helix alpha7. ApolPBP1 exhibits a pH-dependent transition between two different globular conformations in slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale similar to BmorPBP, suggesting that the two proteins use the same mechanism of ligand binding and ejection. The extensive sequence homology observed for pheromone-binding proteins from moth species further implies that the previously proposed mechanism of ligand ejection involving the insertion of a C-terminal helix into the pheromone-binding site is a general feature of pheromone signaling in moths. PMID:17884092

Damberger, Fred F; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S; Wüthrich, Kurt

2007-11-01

241

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.) I. Normal adult development.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of neuromuscular connections on developing dorsolongitudinal flight muscles were studied in the moth Antheraea polyphemus. Undifferentiated membrane contacts between axon terminals and muscle-fiber anlagen are present in the diapause pupa. They persist during the period of nerve outgrowth, which probably provides a pathway of contact guidance. By the 4th day of adult development some of these contact areas have differentiated into structures similar to neuromuscular junctions although differentiation of muscle structure does not start earlier than the eighth day. Dense-cored vesicles are abundant in many axon terminals at the beginning of development. They later decrease in number quite rapidly. The significance of the above-mentioned early junctions, their possible mode of action and the role of the dense-cored vesicles are discussed. It is proposed that they exercise a stimulating (trophic) influence on the growth of the undifferentiated muscular tissue. The imaginal neuromuscular junctions are formed during the second half of adult development. Clusters of vesicles and electron-dense depositions along the inner face of the axo- and lemma seem to initiate junction formation. Glial processes then grow between the axo- and sarcolemma and divide the large contact area into several small segments. Mutual invaginations and protrusions of the sarcolemma and the glial cell membrane subsequently form an extensive "rete synapticum." Six days before eclosion the glial and sarcoplasmic parts of the rete synapticum are similar in size. Up to eclosion, all glial processes shrink and increase in electron density. Most of the observations are discussed also in relation to findings in vertebrates. PMID:1149098

Stocker, R F; Nüesch, H

1975-06-01

242

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. II. Differential mitoses of 'dark' precursor cells create the Anlagen of sensilla.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus develops from a one-layered, flattened epidermal sac during the pupal phase. Within the first day post-apolysis (developmental stages 1 and 2), this epithelium differentiates into 'sensillogenic' and 'nonsensillogenic' regions, while numerous slender 'dark cells' interpreted as the precursor cells of sensilla arise in the former. Approximately between the first and second day post-apolysis (developmental stage 3), the dark cells retract to the apical pole of the epidermis, assume a round shape, and undergo a series of differential mitoses with spindles usually oriented parallel to the epidermal surface. These mitoses finally yield the Anlagen of the olfactory sensilla trichodea, each consisting of mostly 6-7 dark cells arranged side by side. In most of the Anlagen, 3-4 of these cells are situated more basally, each giving off a slender apical process which together are arranged in a fascicle. These are the prospective 2-3 sensory neurons plus the thecogen cell, which most probably is a sister cell of the former. Three additional cells are arranged more apically and partly enclose the fascicle of presumed sensory and thecogen cell processes. These are interpreted as the trichogen plus 2 tormogen cells, one of the latter degenerating later during development. In the basal region of the sensillogenic epidermis, massive signs of cell degeneration have been found. At stage 3, the basal epidermal feet in the non-sensillogenic regions have assumed a more uniform orientation as compared with the preceding stages. PMID:18620326

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

243

Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin-coated PEI/DNA complexes for targeted gene delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 cells.  

PubMed

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors. PMID:24776757

Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

244

76 VOL. 104VEGETATION OF THE OAK OPENINGS Description of Vegetation of the Oak Openings of Northwestern Ohio at  

E-print Network

, 23% Oak Woodland, 7% Oak Barrens, and tree layer as a subdominant. Quercus palustris was also a subdominant in Oak Barrens and Wet Prairie. Tree density averaged 90 trees/ha in Oak Woodland, 14 in Oak Savanna, 2 in Oak Barrens, and

Gottgens, Hans

245

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review  

SciTech Connect

This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

1992-01-01

246

Molecular Chaperone-Assisted Production of Human ?-1,4- N -Acetylglucosaminyltransferase in Silkworm Larvae Using Recombinant BmNPV Bacmids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, human ?-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT) fused with GFPuv (GFPuv-?4GnT) was expressed using both a transformed cell system and silkworm larvae. A Tn-pXgp-GFPuv-?4GnT cell line, isolated after expression vector transfection, produced 106 mU\\/ml of ?4GnT activity in suspension culture.\\u000a When Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus containing a GFPuv-?4GnT fusion gene (BmNPV-CP\\u000a ?\\/GFPuv-?4GnT) bacmid was injected into silkworm larvae, ?4GnT activity in larval hemolymph

Makoto Nakajima; Tatsuya Kato; Shin Kanamasa; Enoch Y. Park

2009-01-01

247

Induction of dauer pupae by fenoxycarb in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Topical application of fenoxycarb (1 &mgr;g per animal) at 129 or 132 h of the fifth instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, did not induce morphological abnormalities in the pupal stage, but these animals became dauer (permanent) pupae. This condition of B. mori and the endocrine events leading to permanent pupae are discussed in this work. Application of fenoxycarb at 132 h of the fifth instar elicited a high ecdysteroid titre in the pharate pupal stage and a steadily high ecdysteroid titre in the pupal stage. The fenoxycarb-induced permanent pupae had non-degenerating prothoracic glands that secreted low amounts of ecdysteroid and did not respond to recombinant prothoracicotropic hormone (rPTTH) late in the pupal stage. The Bombyx PTTH titre in the haemolymph, determined by a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, was lower than that of controls at the time of pupal ecdysis, but higher than controls later in the pupal stage in fenoxycarb-treated animals. After application of fenoxycarb, its haemolymph level, measured by ELISA, reached a peak at pupal ecdysis, then remained low. These results suggest that the fenoxycarb-mediated induction of permanent pupae is only partially a brain-centred phenomenon. It also involves alterations in the hormonal interplay that govern both the initiation of pupal-adult differentiation and changes in the steroidogenic pathway of the prothoracic glands of B. mori. PMID:12770048

Dedos, S G.; Szurdoki, F; Székács, A; Mizoguchi, A; Fugo, H

2002-09-01

248

Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.  

PubMed

Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

2014-04-01

249

A new continuous cell line from larval ovaries of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new continuous cell line from ovarian tissue of commercial variety "Kolar Gold" of silkworm, Bombyx mori, was established and designated as DZNU-Bm-12. The tissue was grown in MGM-448 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 3% heat-inactivated B. mori hemolymph at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. The migration of partially attached small round refractive cells from the fragments of ovarioles began from the beginning of explantation. The cells multiplied partially attached in the primary culture initially, and some of them become freely suspended after 20 passages. The cells were adapted to MGM-448 and TNM-FH media each with 10% FBS and the population doubling time of cell line was about 36 and 24 hr, respectively. The chromosome number was near diploid at initial passages and slightly increased at 176th passage, but a few tetraploids and hexaploids were also observed. DNA profiles using simple sequence repeat loci established the differences between DZNU-Bm-12 and DZNU-Bm-1 and most widely used Bm-5 and BmN cell lines. The cell line was found susceptible to B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) with 85-90% of the cells harboring BmNPV and having an average of 3-17 OBs/infected cell. We suggest the usefulness of this cell line in BmNPV-based baculoviral expression system and also for studying in vitro virus replication. PMID:19357932

Khurad, Arun M; Zhang, Min-Juan; Deshmukh, Chanchal G; Bahekar, Ravindra S; Tiple, Ashish D; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2009-09-01

250

Molecular Expression of the Scribble Complex Genes, Dlg, Scrib and Lgl, in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Scribble protein complex genes, consisting of lethal giant larvae (Lgl), discs large (Dlg) and scribble (Scrib) genes, are components of an evolutionarily conserved genetic pathway that links the cell polarity in cells of humans and Drosophila. The tissue expression and developmental changes of the Scribble protein complex genes were documented using qRT-RCR method. The Lgl and Scrib genes could be detected in all the experimental tissues, including fat body, midgut, testis/ovary, wingdisc, trachea, malpighian tubule, hemolymph, prothoracic gland and silk gland. The Dlg gene, mainly expressed only in testis/ovary, could not be detected in prothoracic gland and hemolymph. In fat body, there were two higher expression stages of the three genes. The highest peak of the expression of the Lgl and Scrib genes in wingdisc lay at the 1st day of the 5th instar, but the Dlg gene was at 3rd day of 5th instar. The above results indicate that Scribble complex genes are involved in the process of molting and development of the wingdisc in the silkworm. This will be useful in the future for the elucidation of the detailed biological function of the three genes Scrib, Dlg and Lgl in B. mori. PMID:24705163

Qi, Hai-Sheng; Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2013-01-01

251

Functional characterization of the vitellogenin promoter in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Genetic transformation and genome editing technologies have been successfully established in the lepidopteran insect model, the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, providing great potential for functional genomics and practical applications. However, the current lack of cis-regulatory elements in B.?mori gene manipulation research limits further exploitation in functional gene analysis. In the present study, we characterized a B.?mori endogenous promoter, Bmvgp, which is a 798-bp DNA sequence adjacent to the 5'-end of the vitellogenin gene (Bmvg). PiggyBac-based transgenic analysis shows that Bmvgp precisely directs expression of a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), in a sex-, tissue- and stage-specific manner. In transgenic animals, EGFP expression can be detected in the female fat body from larval-pupal ecdysis to the following pupal and adult stage. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that EGFP expression can be activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is consistent with endogenous Bmvg expression. These data indicate that Bmvgp is an effective endogenous cis-regulatory element in B.?mori. PMID:24828437

Xu, J; Wang, Y Q; Li, Z Q; Ling, L; Zeng, B S; You, L; Chen, Y Z; Aslam, A F M; Huang, Y P; Tan, A J

2014-10-01

252

Structural insights into the ligand binding and releasing mechanism of Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1: role of the C-terminal tail.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in lepidopteran moths selectively transport the hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger the neuronal response. Moth PBPs are known to bind ligand at physiological pH and release it at acidic pH while undergoing a conformational change. Two molecular switches are considered to play a role in this mechanism: (i) protonation of His(70) and His(95) situated at one end of binding pocket and (ii) switch of the unstructured C-terminus at the other end of the binding pocket to a helix that enters the pocket. We have reported previously the role of the histidine-driven switch in ligand release for Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1). Here we show that the C-terminus plays a role in the ligand release and binding mechanism of ApolPBP1. The C-terminus truncated mutants of ApolPBP1 (ApolPBP1?P129-V142 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A?P129-V142) exist only in the bound conformation at all pH levels, and they fail to undergo pH- or ligand-dependent conformational switching. Although these proteins could bind ligands even at acidic pH unlike wild-type ApolPBP1, they had ~4-fold reduced affinity for the ligand at both acidic and physiological pH compared to that of wild-type ApolPBP1 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A. Thus, apart from helping in ligand release at acidic pH, the C-terminus in ApolPBP1 also plays an important role in ligand binding and/or locking the ligand in the binding pocket. Our results are in stark contrast to those reported for BmorPBP and AtraPBP, where C-terminus truncated proteins had similar or increased pheromone binding affinity at any pH. PMID:23327454

Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Mohanty, Smita

2013-02-12

253

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth. Antheraea polyphemus, III. Development of olfactory sensilla and the properties of hair-forming cells.  

PubMed

During adult development of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the anlagen of olfactory sensilla arise within the first 2 days post-apolysis in the antennal epidermis (stage 1-3). Approximately on the second day, the primary dendrites as well as the axons grow out from the sensory neurons (stage 4). The trichogen cells start to grow apical processes approximately on the third day, and these hair-forming 'sprouts' reach their definite length around the ninth day (stages 5-6). Then the secretion of cuticle begins, the cuticulin layer having formed on day 10 (stage 7a). The primary dendrites are shed, the inner dendritic segments as well as the thecogen cells retract from the prospective hair bases, and the inner tormogen cells degenerate around days 10/11 (stage 7b). The hair shafts of the basiconic sensilla are completed around days 12/13 (stage 7c), and those of the trichoid sensilla around days 14/15 (stage 7d). The trichogen sprouts retract from the hairs after having finished cuticle formation, and the outer dendritic segments grow out into the hairs: in the basiconic sensilla directly through, and in the trichoid sensilla alongside, the sprouts. The trichogen sprouts contain numerous parallel-running microtubules. Besides their cytoskeletal function, these are most probably involved in the transport of membrane vesicles. During the phase of cuticle deposition, large numbers of vesicles are transported anterogradely from the cell bodies into the sprouts, where they fuse with the apical cell membrane and release their electron-dense contents (most probably cuticle precursors) to the outside. As the cuticle grows in thickness, the surface area of the sprouts is reduced by endocytosis of coated vesicles. When finally the sprouts retract from the completed hairs, the number of endocytotic vesicles is further increased and numerous membrane cisterns seem to be transported retrogradely along the microtubules to the cell bodies. Here the membrane material will most probably be used again in the formation of the sensillum lymph cavities. Thus, the trichogen cells are characterized by an intensive membrane recycling. The sensillum lymph cavities develop between days 16-20 (stage 8), mainly via apical invaginations of the trichogen cells. The imago emerges on day 21. PMID:18621189

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1991-01-01

254

Structural Insights into the Ligand Binding and Releasing Mechanism of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1: Role of the C-terminal Tail  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in lepidopteran moths selectively transport the hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger the neuronal response. Moth PBPs are known to bind ligand at physiological pH and release it at acidic pH while undergoing a conformational change. Two molecular switches are considered to play a role in this mechanism: (i) Protonation of His70 and His95 situated at one end of binding pocket, and (ii) Switch of the unstructured C-terminus at the other end of the binding pocket to a helix that enters the pocket. We have reported previously the role of the histidine-driven switch in ligand release for Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1). Here we show that the C-terminus plays a role in ligand release and binding mechanism of ApolPBP1. The C-terminus truncated mutants of ApolPBP1 (ApolPBP1?P129-V142 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A?P129-V142) exist only in the bound conformation at all pH levels, and they fail to undergo pH- or ligand- dependent conformational switch. Although these proteins could bind ligands even at acidic pH unlike the wild-type ApolPBP1, they had ~4 fold reduced affinity towards the ligand at both acidic and physiological pH than that of ApolPBP1wt and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A. Thus, apart from helping in the ligand-release at acidic pH, the C-terminus in ApolPBP1 also plays an important role in ligand binding and/or locking the ligand in the binding pocket. Our results are in stark contrast to those reported for BmorPBP and AtraPBP, where C-terminus truncated proteins had similar or increased pheromone-binding affinity at any pH. PMID:23327454

Katre, Uma V.; Mazumder, Suman; Mohanty, Smita

2013-01-01

255

Susceptibility to Sudden Oak Death in California Bay Laurel1  

E-print Network

of 100s of thousands of oak and tan oak trees. California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) has been for predicting risk of P. ramorum spread from bay laurel to oak and tan oak trees, an important consideration225 Susceptibility to Sudden Oak Death in California Bay Laurel1 Brian Anacker,2 Nathan Rank,2

Standiford, Richard B.

256

Herbaceous Responses to Livestock Grazing in Californian Oak Woodlands  

E-print Network

oak trees in California (modified from Pavlik and others 1991). precipitation occurring primarily). Dominant trees in the oak woodland include blue oak (Quercus douglasii), valley oak (Q. lobata), interiorHerbaceous Responses to Livestock Grazing in Californian Oak Woodlands: A Review for Habitat

Standiford, Richard B.

257

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatial pattern dynamics of oak mortality and associated  

E-print Network

of thousands of oak and tanoak trees (coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, California black oak, Q. kelloggii and Garbelotto 2003). The primary symptom of sudden oak death on affected trees is the production of a viscousORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatial pattern dynamics of oak mortality and associated disease symptoms

Kelly, Maggi

258

Petition to Participate in Oakes College Commencement for Students Not Affiliated with Oakes College  

E-print Network

Petition to Participate in Oakes College Commencement for Students Not Affiliated with Oakes College Name: ___________________________________________________ First Middle Last Major: __________________________________________________ Single Double Combined Minors are not announced/included in program College Affiliation

Belanger, David P.

259

Determination of Albendazole and Metabolites in Silkworm Bombyx mori Hemolymph by Ultrafast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905–0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%–103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%–108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%–105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%–106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321

Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong

2014-01-01

260

Structure-function relationship of SW-AT-1, a serpin-type protease inhibitor in silkworm.  

PubMed

Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10-5 M-1s-1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10-6 M-1s-1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4-10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed. PMID:24901510

Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

261

Structure-Function Relationship of SW-AT-1, a Serpin-Type Protease Inhibitor in Silkworm  

PubMed Central

Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10?5 M?1s?1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10?6 M?1s?1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4–10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed. PMID:24901510

Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

262

Estimating the potential effects of sudden oak death on oak-dependent birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death (SOD), a disease induced by the fungus-like pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, threatens to seriously reduce or eliminate several oak species endemic to the west coast of North America. We investigated how the disappearance of one of these species, coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), may affect populations of five resident oak-affiliated California birds – acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), Nuttall’s

William B. Monahan; Walter D. Koenig

2006-01-01

263

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium New Relationships Among the Sudden Oak  

E-print Network

Oak Death Pathogen, Bark and Ambrosia Beetles, and Fungi Colonizing Coast Live Oaks1 Nadir Erbilgin,2 rates of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) on mechanically inoculated coast live oaks the role of bark and ambrosia beetle infestation in the introduction and/or stimulation of decay fungi

Standiford, Richard B.

264

IMPORTANCE OF OAK AMBROSIA BEETLES IN PREDISPOSING COAST LIVE OAK TREES TO WOOD DECAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attacks by the oak ambrosia beetle (Monothrum scutellare) accelerated and increased the amount of wood decay in stems of downed coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) trees. When permethrin insecticide was sprayed on oak bark surface, the ambrosia beetles produced only one-fourth as many galleries in the sapwood as compared to sapwood beneath the unsprayed bark surface. Although decay fungi initiated

Maggi Kelly

2004-01-01

265

Phytophthora species in oak ecosystems in Turkey and their association with declining oak trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1999 to 2001, a survey on the occurrence of Phytophthora spp. in the rhizosphere soil of healthy and declining oak trees was conducted in 51 oak stands in Turkey. Seven Phytophthora spp. were recovered from six out of the nine oak species sampled: P. cinnamomi , P. citricola , P. cryptogea , P. gonapodyides , P. quercina , Phytophthora

Y. Balci; E. Halmschlager

2003-01-01

266

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Quantification of Sudden Oak Death  

E-print Network

important oak (Quercus sp.) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) trees with little indication of slowing tree that exhibited spectral characteristics of trees killed by sudden oak death within each host that the remote mapping systematically underestimated the actual number of trees killed by sudden oak death. Tree

Standiford, Richard B.

267

EFFECTS OF MIDSTORY REMOVAL ON BLACK OAK (QUERCUS VELUTINA) AND WHITE OAK (QUERCUS ALBA) REGENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of dense understories in eastern forests has created low light environments that hinder the development of advance oak reproduction. Studies have shown that a midstory removal can enhance these light conditions and promote the development of competitive oak seedlings. Previous studies have been primarily focused on oaks found on productive sites, and there is little knowledge of this

David Lee Parrott

2011-01-01

268

Effects of added CeCl3 on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.  

PubMed

One of the most important agents causing lethal disease in the silkworm is the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), while low-dose rare earths are demonstrated to increase immune capacity in animals. However, very little is known about the effects of added CeCl(3) on decreasing BmNPV infection of silkworm. The present study investigated the effects of added CeCl(3) to an artificial diet on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to BmNPV infection. Our findings indicated that added CeCl(3) significantly decreased inhibition of growth and mortality of fifth-instar larvae caused by BmNPV infection. Furthermore, the added CeCl(3) obviously decreased lipid peroxidation level and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), (·)OH, and NO and increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione contents in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. In addition, the added CeCl(3) could significantly promote acetylcholine esterase activity and attenuate the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. These findings suggested that added CeCl(3) may relieve oxidative damage and neurotoxicity of silkworm caused by BmNPV infection via increasing antioxidant capacity and acetylcholine esterase activity. PMID:22076733

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Cui, Yaling; Gong, Xiaolan; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-01

269

Electron transport and bulk-like behavior of Wiedemann-Franz law for sub-7 nm-thin iridium films on silkworm silk.  

PubMed

For ultrathin metallic films, either supported or free-standing, the inside nanocrystalline nature significantly reduces the electron and thermal transport. Quantum mechanical reflection of electrons at the grain boundary reduces the electrical conductivity further than the thermal conductivity, leading to a Lorenz number in the order of 7.0 × 10(-8) W ? K(-2), much higher than that of the bulk counterpart. We report on a finding that for ultrathin (0.6-6.3 nm) iridium films coated on degummed silkworm silk fibroin, the electron transport is around 100-200% higher than that of the same film on glass fiber, even though the grain size of Ir film on silkworm silk is smaller than that on glass fiber. At the same time, the thermal conductivity of the Ir film is smaller or close to that of the film on glass fiber. Its Lorenz number is found close to that of bulk crystalline Ir despite the nanocrystalline structure in the Ir films. This is similar to the behavior of metallic glasses. Our study of gold films on silkworm silk reveals the same trend of change as compared to that on glass fiber. Electron hopping and tunneling in silkworm silk is speculated to be responsible for the observed electron transport. The finding points out that silk could provide a better substrate for flexible electronics with significantly faster electron transport. PMID:24988039

Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

2014-07-23

270

Radial growth and climate responses of white oak (Quercus alba) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at the northern distribution limit of white oak in Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare radial growth patterns between white oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) growing at the northern distribution limit of white oak; and (2) to assess if the radial growth of white oak at its northern distribution limit is controlled by cold temperature. Location The study was

J. C. Tardif; F. Conciatori; P. Nantel; D. Gagnon

2006-01-01

271

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone-Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

272

Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

2012-02-01

273

Protective Effect of the Silkworm Protein 30Kc6 on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Damaged by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)  

PubMed Central

Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti-apoptotic mechanism of the 30K family proteins, but also provide important information on prevention and treatment of human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23840859

Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

2013-01-01

274

1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) is a 13,574-ha (33,542-acre) federally owned site located in the counties of Anderson and Roane in eastern Tennessee. The ORR is home to two major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex). Also located on

unknown authors

275

BmICE-2 is a novel pro-apoptotic caspase involved in apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In this study we identified a potential pro-apoptotic caspase gene, Bombyx mori(B. mori)ICE-2 (BmICE-2) which encoded a polypeptide of 284 amino acid residues, including a (169)QACRG(173) sequence which surrounded the catalytic site and contained a p20 and a p10 domain. BmICE-2 expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibited high proteolytic activity for the synthetic human initiator caspase-9 substrates Ac-LEHD-pNA, but little activity towards the effector caspase-3 substrates Ac-DEVD-pNA. When BmICE-2 was transiently expressed in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells, we found that the high proteolytic activity for Ac-LEHD-pNA triggered caspase-3-like protease activity resulting in spontaneous cleavage and apoptosis in these cells. This effect was not replicated in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. In addition, spontaneous cleavage of endogenous BmICE-2 in BmN-SWU1 cells could be induced by actinomycin D. These results suggest that BmICE-2 may be a novel pro-apoptotic gene with caspase-9 activity which is involved apoptotic processes in BmN-SWU1 silkworm B. mori cells. PMID:24491540

Yi, Hua-Shan; Pan, Cai-Xia; Pan, Chun; Song, Juan; Hu, Yan-Fen; Wang, La; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

2014-02-28

276

Monoubiquitination-dependent chromatin loading of FancD2 in silkworms, a species lacking the FA core complex.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is required for activation and operation of the DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair pathway, although the precise mechanism of the FA pathway remains largely unknown. A critical step in the FA pathway is the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 catalyzed by a FA core complex. This modification appears to allow FANCD2 to coordinate ICL repair with other DNA repair proteins on chromatin. Silkworm, Bombyx mori, lacks apparent homologues of the FA core complex. However, BmFancD2 and BmFancI, the putative substrates of the complex, and BmFancL, the putative catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase, are conserved. Here, we report that the silkworm FancD2 is monoubiquitinated depending on FancI and FancL, and stabilized on chromatin, following MMC treatment. A substitution of BmFancD2 at lysine 519 to arginine abolishes the monoubiquitination, but not the interaction between the FancD2 and FancI. In addition, we demonstrated that depletion of BmFancD2, BmFancI or BmFancL had effects on cell proliferation in the presence of MMC. These results suggest that the FA pathway in B. mori works in the same manner as that in vertebrates. PMID:22513077

Sugahara, Ryohei; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2012-06-15

277

Germline transformation of the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using a piggyBac transposon-derived vector.  

PubMed

We have developed a system for stable germline transformation in the silkworm Bombyx mori L. using piggyBac, a transposon discovered in the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni. The transformation constructs consist of the piggyBac inverted terminal repeats flanking a fusion of the B. mori cytoplasmic actin gene BmA3 promoter and the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A nonautonomous helper plasmid encodes the piggyBac transposase. The reporter gene construct was coinjected into preblastoderm eggs of two strains of B. mori. Approximately 2% of the individuals in the G1 broods expressed GFP. DNA analyses of GFP-positive G1 silkworms revealed that multiple independent insertions occurred frequently. The transgene was stably transferred to the next generation through normal Mendelian inheritance. The presence of the inverted terminal repeats of piggyBac and the characteristic TTAA sequence at the borders of all the analyzed inserts confirmed that transformation resulted from precise transposition events. This efficient method of stable gene transfer in a lepidopteran insect opens the way for promising basic research and biotechnological applications. PMID:10625397

Tamura, T; Thibert, C; Royer, C; Kanda, T; Abraham, E; Kamba, M; Komoto, N; Thomas, J L; Mauchamp, B; Chavancy, G; Shirk, P; Fraser, M; Prudhomme, J C; Couble, P; Toshiki, T; Chantal, T; Corinne, R; Toshio, K; Eappen, A; Mari, K; Natuo, K; Jean-Luc, T; Bernard, M; Gérard, C; Paul, S; Malcolm, F; Jean-Claude, P; Pierre, C

2000-01-01

278

In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

2006-03-24

279

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, a Dual Functional Protein Involved in the Immune Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

280

Activation of BmGSTd1 promoter and regulation by transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large family of multifunctional enzymes, many of which play an important role in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. In this research, firstly, we measured the rutin-induced transcriptional level of BmGSTd1 gene by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and dual spike-in strategy. The activities of the BmGSTd1 promoter in various tissues of silkworm were measured by firefly luciferase activity and normalized by the Renilla luciferase activity. Results showed that the activity of the BmGSTd1 promoter were highest in Malpighian tubule, followed by fat body, silk gland, hemocyte, epidermis, and midgut. The essential region for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity was -1573 to -931bp in Malpighian tubule and fat body of silkworm. Promoter truncation analysis using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in BmN cells showed that the region -1288 to -1202bp for BmGSTd1 gene was essential for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis of this region revealed several potential transcriptional regulatory elements such as Bcd and Kr. The mutation of core base of Kr site demonstrated that Kr functioned positively in rutin-mediated BmGSTd1 transcription. PMID:25172212

Zhao, Guodong; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Yunlei; Du, Jie; Li, Bing; Chen, Yuhua; Xu, Yaxiang; Shen, Weide; Xia, Qingyou; Wei, Zhengguo

2014-11-10

281

Seasoning mixed-oak fuelwood  

SciTech Connect

In trials in Rhode Island, logs of Quercus velutina and Q. alba were cut into 18-inch lengths, split if diameter is greater than 5 inches and stacked in racks with plywood sides to simulate a continuous stack. Racks were shaded or unshaded, and with or without weather protection. Trials were started on six dates during September 1978 - April 1980. Storage racks were weighed monthly and apparent percentage moisture was calculated assuming that all weight changes resulted from water loss. From the results it was concluded that weather protection with good air circulation is desirable for seasoning mixed-oak fuelwood. Cutting in spring or early summer gives faster initial drying than cutting in autumn or winter, but is unlikely to result in 20% moisture content by the following heating season. Without protection, moisture content less than 30% are unlikely. Shade locations resulted in slower drying rates. 3 references.

McKiel, C.G.; Husband, T.P.

1986-01-01

282

Oaks Belowground: Mycorrhizas, Truffles, and Small Mammals1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oaks depend on hidden diversity belowground. Oregon white oaks (Quercus garryana) form ectomycorrhizas with more than 40 species of fungi at a 25-ha site. Several of the most common oak mycorrhizal fungi form hypogeous fruiting bodies or truffles in the upper layer of mineral soil. We collected 18 species of truffles associated with Oregon white oak. Truffles do not release

Jonathan Frank; Seth Barry; Joseph Madden

283

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae),  

E-print Network

-conifer forests in San Diego County. GSOB prefers mature oak trees but occasionally attacks smaller oaksThe goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected

Ishida, Yuko

284

NH Big Tree of the Month Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus  

E-print Network

NH Big Tree of the Month Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus By Anne Krantz - UNH Extension Big Tree Team of white oak. It has taken years to figure out this tree species, as oaks can hybridize or cross pollinate on the Hillsborough Big Tree Team. Recently, I made arrangements to re-measure a chestnut oak growing nearby

New Hampshire, University of

285

Landscape Dynamics of the Spread of Sudden Oak Death  

E-print Network

-temporalof native oak trees in California. We present a landscape-scale dynamics of Sudden Oak Death (SOD oak trees and tanoaks in the CoastSecond-order spatial point-pattern analysis techniques RangesLandscape Dynamics of the Spread of Sudden Oak Death Maggi Kelly and Ross K. Meentemeyer describing

Kelly, Maggi

286

Small mammal response to oak savanna restoration in northwest Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of this thesis was to determine if differences existed in the composition of the small mammal community in oak savannas relative to the community found in adjacent oak woodland. Specifically, from June to August 2009, I estimated and compared abundance, density, and micro-habitat affiliations of small mammals in two oak savanna and four oak woodland sites at

Valerie J Clarkston

2011-01-01

287

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BPWorkshop-2005 - LRB OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY presented by L.R. Baylor in collaboration with P.B. Parks*, S

288

Detection of peptidoglycan and endotoxin in dialysate, using silkworm larvae plasma and limulus amebocyte lysate methods.  

PubMed

Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) reagent is activated by peptidoglycan (PG), a fragment of both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell wall, as well as beta-glucan (BG), a component of fungi. It is possible to measure contamination of gram-positive bacteria quantitatively by combining the conventional limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and PG measurement methods. Therefore, a more highly accurate analysis of dialysate can be made using both SLP and LAL methods to detect endotoxin (ET) and/or PG contamination. We studied the effects of contaminated dialysate on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by producing various cytokines in vitro. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) was used as the biologically active minimum constituent of PG. A total of 54 dialysate samples were obtained under sterile conditions from 4 sites: (1) reverse osmosis water unit; (2) proportioning unit; (3) multiple dialysate preparation console, and (4) personal dialysate preparation console, at 9 dialysis facilities. To detect bacterial contamination, the samples were measured with LAL(C), LAL(G) and SLP methods. PBMC were collected from 10 healthy controls and from 10 hemodialysis patients and cultured for 24 h with ET, MDP, ET + MDP and contaminated dialysate. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in the culture medium supernatants were measured using the ELISA method. PG was not detected in dialysate from sites 1 or 2. However, dialysate from the inlet of the dialyzer at the bedside monitor of the central supply and personal console showed 4.1 +/- 6.1 ng/ml for site 3 (in 7 of 18 samples) and 3.3 +/- 4.6 ng/ml for site 4 (in 3 of 18 samples). Contamination by PG alone and complex contamination by PG and ET were also detected. Furthermore, IL-1Ra, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production by PBMC increased in accordance with the concentrations of MDP. Cytokine production was enhanced 5-10 times more where MDP and ET coexisted than where either MDP or ET existed alone, showing the synergic effects of MDP and ET. Based on these results, there is a high possibility that PG may also be a pyrogen in the dialysate prior to this study. ET had been considered the only pyrogen in dialysate. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the existence of both ET and PG in investigating dialysate contamination. PMID:9127331

Tsuchida, K; Takemoto, Y; Yamagami, S; Edney, H; Niwa, M; Tsuchiya, M; Kishimoto, T; Shaldon, S

1997-01-01

289

Geotrichum silvicola sp. nov., a novel asexual arthroconidial yeast species related to the genus Galactomyces.  

PubMed

Four strains of an asexual arthroconidial yeast species were isolated from Drosophila flies in two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil and two strains from oak tasar silkworm larvae (Antheraea proylei) in India. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 large subunit rRNA gene showed that this yeast represented a novel species of the genus Geotrichum, described as Geotrichum silvicola sp. nov. The novel species was related to the ascogenous genus Galactomyces. The closest relatives of Geotrichum silvicola were Galactomyces sp. strain NRRL Y-6418 and Galactomyces geotrichum. The type culture of Geotrichum silvicola is UFMG-354-2T (=CBS 9194T=NRRL Y-27641T). PMID:15657028

Pimenta, Raphael S; Alves, Priscila D D; Corrêa, Ary; Lachance, Marc-André; Prasad, G S; Rajaram; Sinha, B R R P; Rosa, Carlos A

2005-01-01

290

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES OF CYNIPINI  

E-print Network

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES-mail: simorita@ncsu.edu) Abstract.--Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.; Fagaceae) as their host plant. Previously

Hammerton, James

291

Practice Note Monitoring the oak processionary  

E-print Network

at two sites in west London*. An intensive programme of monitoring and control was quickly established, and land owners and managers. *Up-to-date distribution maps of the oak processionary moth can be found

292

Geographic Information Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Geographic Information Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U to carry out activities in intermodal freight planning and policy making. It uses a routing model to assign

293

Juvenile Hormone Analogues, methoprene and fenoxycarb dose-dependently enhance certain enzyme activities in the silkworm Bombyx mori (L).  

PubMed

Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 microg and 3.0 fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues. PMID:18678927

Mamatha, Devi M; Kanji, Vijaya K; Cohly, Hari H P; Rao, M Rajeswara

2008-06-01

294

Juvenile Hormone Analogues, Methoprene and Fenoxycarb Dose-Dependently Enhance Certain Enzyme Activities in the Silkworm Bombyx Mori (L)  

PubMed Central

Use of Juvenile Hormone Analogues (JHA) in sericulture practices has been shown to boost good cocoon yield; their effect has been determined to be dose-dependent. We studied the impact of low doses of JHA compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb on selected key enzymatic activities of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Methoprene and fenoxycarb at doses of 1.0 ?g and 3.0fg/larvae/48 hours showed enhancement of the 5th instar B. mori larval muscle and silkgland protease, aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALAT), adenosine triphosphate synthase (ATPase) and cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO) activity levels, indicating an upsurge in the overall oxidative metabolism of the B.mori larval tissues. PMID:18678927

Mamatha, Devi M.; Kanji, Vijaya K.; Cohly, Hari H.P.; Rao, M. Rajeswara

2008-01-01

295

Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

1990-10-01

296

October 2003 / Vol. 53 No. 10 BioScience 927 Paleoecological studies indicate that oak species  

E-print Network

United States. Among the oaks, white oak (Quercus alba) reigned supreme (Abrams 1992, Whitney 1994 the eastern United States were dominated by oak species. Among these species, white oak (Quercus alba) reigned oaks, such as red oak (Quercus rubra) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), often exhibited higher

Abrams, Marc David

297

Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm.  

PubMed

When the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb was topically applied to the silkworm Bombyx mori at the beginning of the 3rd or 4th (penultimate) instar, an extra larval molt was induced. The 5th instar period was shortened to about 5 days and the extra 6th instar ranged from 8 to more than 20 days, depending on the dose applied. Starvation before fenoxycarb treatment strongly enhanced the incidence of extra molting up to 100%. When 1 ng was applied in the 4th instar after a 2-day starvation, most larvae underwent an extra molt, metamorphosed to pupae, then to fertile adults. Combining starvation and fenoxycarb application thus induces a perfect extra molt efficiently. In perfect extra molting larvae, profiles of total ecdysteroid titer during the 4th and 5th instars were similar to that during the 4th instar in the control, and the ecdysteroid profile during the extra 6th instar was similar to that during the control 5th (last) instar. At ecdysteroid peaks, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and ecdysone (E), generally regarded as the active molting hormone and its precursor, had similar titers in the 6th instar, whereas E was much less than 20E in the 4th and 5th instars in the extra molting larvae. E was also abundant only in the last larval instar in the control. These results suggest that both 20E and E contents are important for regulation of larval molt and metamorphosis in silkworms and that fenoxycarb triggers the extra molt by inducing an additional larval molt type of ecdysteroid surge before the last larval instar. PMID:12392697

Kamimura, Manabu; Kiuchi, Makoto

2002-10-01

298

Genome-Wide Identification and Immune Response Analysis of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein. PMID:22348050

Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

299

Genetic Analysis of the Electrophysiological Response to Salicin, a Bitter Substance, in a Polyphagous Strain of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+pph) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose–response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F1 generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF1 progeny between F1 females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF1 progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus. PMID:22649537

Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2012-01-01

300

Phytophthora ramorum Infection in Coast Live Oaks and Shreve's Oaks Treated With  

E-print Network

insecticide permethrin in prolonging the life of infected coast live oaks and the closely related Shreve oaks for spraying with permethrin twice each year, in August and February, prior to beetle flight periods, following and in the total area affected per tree. Permethrin treatment prevented colonization through March and April 2003

Standiford, Richard B.

301

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

and 1960s, and with the creation of DOE in the 1970s, ORNL became an international center for the studyOak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL is the largest science and energy national laboratory in the DOE system. ORNL's scientific programs focus on materials, neutron

Pennycook, Steve

302

Rheological properties of native silk fibroins from domestic and wild silkworms, and flow analysis in each spinneret by a finite element method.  

PubMed

Silkworms can produce strong and tough fibers at room temperature and from an aqueous solution. Therefore, it seems useful to study the mechanism of fiber formation by silkworms for development of synthetic polymers with excellent mechanical properties. The rheological behaviors of native silk dopes stored in the silk glands of Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini were clarified, and flow simulations of the dopes in each spinneret were performed with a Finite Element Method. Dynamic viscoelastic measurements revealed that silk fibroin stored in silk glands forms a transient network at room temperature, and that the molecular weight for the network node corresponds to the molecular weight of a heterodimer of H-chain and L-chain (B. mori) and a homodimer of H-chains (S. c. ricini), respectively. Also, each dope exhibited zero-shear viscosity and then shear thinning like polymer melts. In addition, shear thickening due to flow-induced crystallization was observed. The critical shear rate for crystallization of B. mori dopes was smaller than that of S. c. ricini dopes. From the flow simulation, it is suggested that domestic and wild silkworms are able to crystallize the dopes in the stiff plate region by controlling shear rate using the same magnitude of extrusion pressure despite differences in rheological properties. PMID:19317399

Moriya, Motoaki; Roschzttardtz, Frederico; Nakahara, Yusuke; Saito, Hitoshi; Masubuchi, Yuichi; Asakura, Tetsuo

2009-04-13

303

Middle region of FancM interacts with Mhf and Rmi1 in silkworms, a species lacking the Fanconi anaemia (FA) core complex.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway is responsible for interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair. Among the FA core complex components, FANCM is believed to act as a damage sensor for the ICL-blocked replication fork and also as a molecular platform for FA core complex assembly and interaction with Bloom's syndrome (BS) complex that is thought to play an important role in the processing of DNA structures such as stalled replication forks. In the present study, we found that in silkworms, Bombyx mori, a species lacking the major FA core complex components (FANCA, B, C, E, F, and G), FancM is required for FancD2 monoubiquitination and cell proliferation in the presence of mitomycin C (MMC). Silkworm FancM (BmFancM) was phosphorylated in the middle regions, and the modification was associated with its subcellular localization. In addition, BmFancM interacted with Mhf1, a histone-fold protein, and Rmi1, a subunit of the BS complex, in the different regions. The interaction region containing at least these two protein-binding domains played an essential role in FancM-dependent resistance to MMC. Our results suggest that BmFancM also acts as a platform for recruitment of both the FA protein and the BS protein, although the silkworm genome seems to lose FAAP24, a FancM-binding partner protein in mammals. PMID:24286570

Sugahara, R; Mon, H; Lee, J M; Kusakabe, T

2014-04-01

304

Enhanced gene expression in insect cells and silkworm larva by modified polyhedrin promoter using repeated Burst sequence and very late transcriptional factor-1.  

PubMed

The Burst of expression from polyhedrin (polh) promoter during very late phase of baculovirus infection requires a sequence located between TAAG and the translation initiation site, typically referred to as burst sequence (BS). The expression of polh promoter is stimulated by specifically binding of very late transcriptional factor 1 (VLF-1) to BS. In order to enhance the production of recombinant proteins the polh promoter was modified via a multiple BS bacmid system in which the number of BSs was increased. Compared to an expression from a normal polh promoter, ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in High Five insect cells was three times higher with a modified polh promoter containing two BSs. Using a modified polh promoter that contains nine BSs in silkworm expression system, ?1-3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (?3GnT2) activity per larva was 6.8-fold higher than control. Furthermore, the co-expression of modified promoters along with VLF-1-enhanced ?3GnT activity. Thus, an increased optimal number of BS and its co-expression with VLF-1 leads to the production of higher level of gene expression in insect cells and silkworm larvae. This new modified promoter engineered in the current study is the strongest promoter for overexpressing foreign proteins in an eukaryotic cell and system, thus leading a progress in baculovirus-insect cell and silkworm biotechnology. PMID:20717974

Manohar, Suganthi Lavender; Kanamasa, Shin; Nishina, Takuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2010-12-15

305

Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD  

PubMed Central

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry.

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

306

Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

307

Working and Learning Among California Oaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school children and their families, "Working Among the Oaks" has focused on connecting with the agricultural and environmental communities. For example, the Ranching Sustainability Self-Assessment Program is an ambitious, long-range project with tremendous potential to aid private landowners throughout California in implementing sustainable ranching practices. We've made great progress through the efforts of an impressive committee of local private landowners, ranch managers and resource professionals. They believe that this can be a powerful non-regulatory tool to guide private landowners through everyday decision-making processes. Most importantly, this is a tool that could be adapted for use throughout California oak woodland. The Self Assessment Program, along with the supporting Workshops, have stimulated discussion and interest in sustainable ranching among people with diverse experiences and backgrounds. "Learning and Working Among the Oaks" together reach the full spectrum of oak conservation stakeholders, from kids to grandparents, town residents to ranching families, environmental groups to farm and vineyard managers, and more. The diversity of these stakeholders helps us identify collaborative education and research opportunities to support education and management of the 3 million ha of California oak woodlands.

Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

2009-04-01

308

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

309

Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide  

SciTech Connect

Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

Kato, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan) and Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

2007-08-03

310

Programmed cell death: cytochemical and X-ray microanalytical characterization of calcium compartments in neuromuscular junctions during the normal breakdown of the intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Calcium stores were cytochemically demonstrated using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate method in the neuromuscular junctions of the degenerating intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. The elemental composition of punctate precipitates of the reaction product was determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of unstained thin sections by energy-dispersive spectrometry and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry. The wavelength-dispersive spectra collected over terminal axons demonstrate a significant calcium signal and a trace of antimony. During the rapid lytic phase of spontaneous muscle degeneration, the calcium punctate deposits were detected in presynaptic terminals in the following sites: the synaptic vesicles and the mitochondria. Calcium precipitates were also found in the dense bodies and the mitochondria encountered in the glial convolutions. No calcium deposit was seen in the synaptic clefts and intercellular spaces of the subsynaptic reticulum of type I and type II. A comparison of calcium to antimony ratios between the terminal axons and the sarcoplasmic lysosomes revealed highly significant differences (P less than 0.001). Such a variability of the calcium to antimony ratio may be related to different conditions of precipitation or antimony diffusion in the different cell compartments. It was concluded that such synaptic terminals do not appear damaged in spite of the muscle degeneration and presumably continue to perform vital functions while the muscles are no longer contractile 20 h after adult ecdysis. PMID:3410737

Beaulaton, J

1988-03-01

311

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-07-01

312

Effects of Cattle Management on Oak Regeneration in Northern Californian Mediterranean Oak Woodlands  

PubMed Central

Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n?=?4) and only with wildlife (n?=?4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

Lopez-Sanchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

2014-01-01

313

Reduction of isoprene emissions from live oak (Quercus fusiformis) with oak wilt.  

PubMed

Many plants emit isoprene, a hydrocarbon that has important influences on atmospheric chemistry. Pathogens may affect isoprene fluxes, both through damage to plant tissue and by changing the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. Live oaks (Quercus fusiformis (Small) Sarg. and Q. virginiana Mill) are major emitters of isoprene in the southern United States, and oak populations in Texas are being dramatically reduced by oak wilt, a widespread fungal vascular disease. We investigated the effects of oak wilt on isoprene emissions from live oak leaves (Q. fusiformis) in the field, as a first step in exploring the physiological effects of oak wilt on isoprene production and the implications of these effects for larger-scale isoprene fluxes. Isoprene emission rates per unit dry leaf mass were 44% lower for actively symptomatic leaves than for leaves on healthy trees (P = 0.033). Isoprene fluxes were significantly negatively correlated with rankings of disease activity in the host tree (fluxes in leaves on healthy trees > healthy leaves on survivor trees > healthy leaves on the same branch as symptomatic leaves > symptomatic leaves; isoprene per unit dry mass: Spearman's rho = -0.781, P = 0.001; isoprene per unit leaf area: Spearman's rho = -0.652, P = 0.008). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 57 and 63%, respectively, in symptomatic relative to healthy leaves (P < 0.05); these reductions were proportionally greater than the reductions in isoprene emissions. Low isoprene emission rates in symptomatic leaves are most simply explained by physiological constraints on isoprene production, such as water stress as a result of xylem blockage, rather than direct effects of the oak wilt fungus on isoprene synthesis. The effects of oak wilt on leaf-level isoprene emission rates are probably less important for regional isoprene fluxes than the reduction in oak leaf area across landscapes. PMID:12651496

Anderson, Laurel J.; Harley, Peter C.; Monson, Russell K.; Jackson, Robert B.

2000-11-01

314

1Oak Ridge National Laboratory Science & Technology Highlights  

E-print Network

1Oak Ridge National Laboratory Science & Technology Highlights Published by Oak Ridge National-core-aluminum conductor cables, these overloaded lines can sag into trees, causing short circuits. "Utilities may

Pennycook, Steve

315

Use of remote sensing and geographic information systems to study the epidemiology of oak wilt in Dallas, Texas  

E-print Network

Live Oak Live Oak Leaf Symptoms Red Oak Life Cycle Live Oak Life Cycle Local Transmission by Root Grafts Healttrv Red Oak Healtny Uve Oal' Dead love Oek Red Oak Leaf Symptoms Diseased Red Oak Transmission bv Root Graft. = Figure 1. Disease... Live Oak Live Oak Leaf Symptoms Red Oak Life Cycle Live Oak Life Cycle Local Transmission by Root Grafts Healttrv Red Oak Healtny Uve Oal' Dead love Oek Red Oak Leaf Symptoms Diseased Red Oak Transmission bv Root Graft. = Figure 1. Disease...

Camilli, Kim Suzanne

2012-06-07

316

Distribution of circadian clock-related proteins in the cephalic nervous system of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the circadian timing systems, input pathways transmit information on the diurnal environmental changes to a core oscillator that generates signals relayed to the body periphery by output pathways. Cryptochrome (CRY) protein participates in the light perception; period (PER), Cycle (CYC), and Doubletime (DBT) proteins drive the core oscillator; and arylalkylamines are crucial for the clock output in vertebrates. Using antibodies to CRY, PER, CYC, DBT, and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT), the authors examined neuronal architecture of the circadian system in the cephalic ganglia of adult silkworms. The antibodies reacted in the cytoplasm, never in the nuclei, of specific neurons. A cluster of 4 large Ia(1) neurons in each dorsolateral protocerebrum, a pair of cells in the frontal ganglion, and nerve fibers in the corpora cardiaca and corpora allata were stained with all antibodies. The intensity of PER staining in the Ia(1) cells and in 2 to 4 adjacent small cells oscillated, being maximal late in subjective day and minimal in early night. No other oscillations were detected in any cell and with any antibody. Six small cells in close vicinity to the Ia(1) neurons coexpressed CYC-like and DBT-like, and 4 to 5 of them also coexpressed aaNATlike immunoreactivity; the PER- and CRY-like antigens were each present in separate groups of 4 cells. The CYC- and aaNAT-like antigens were further colocalized in small groups of neurons in the pars intercerebralis, at the venter of the optic tract, and in the subesophageal ganglion. Remaining antibodies reacted with similarly positioned cells in the pars intercerebralis, and the DBT antibody also reacted with the cells in the subesophageal ganglion, but antigen colocalizations were not proven. The results imply that key components of the silkworm circadian system reside in the Ia(1) neurons and that additional, hierarchically arranged oscillators contribute to overt pacemaking. The retrocerebral neurohemal organs seem to serve as outlets transmitting central neural oscillations to the hemolymph. The frontal ganglion may play an autonomous function in circadian regulations. The colocalization of aaNAT- and CYC-like antigens suggests that the enzyme is functionally linked to CYC as in vertebrates and that arylalkylamines are involved in the insect output pathway. PMID:15523109

Sehadová, Hana; Markova, Elitza P; Sehnal, Frantisek; Takeda, Makio

2004-12-01

317

OAK DECLINES NEW DEFINITIONS AND NEW EPISODES IN BRITAIN  

E-print Network

visibility of deteriorating oak health in Britain and media reports on `Sudden Oak Death' have led to growing of ill health and the names that people use to describe it. Over the past century oaks in diminishing health have been said to be suffering from dieback or decline. In Britain, periodic episodes

318

Review article Tree improvement programs for European oaks  

E-print Network

Review article Tree improvement programs for European oaks: goals and strategies PS Savill, PJ, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK Summary — Most work concerned with the improvement of European oaks and wood science. oak / Quercus / breeding / genetic conservation / improvement Résumé — Programmes d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Oak Ridge ReseRvatiOn DOE/ORO/2379  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge ReseRvatiOn DOE/ORO/2379 Annual Site Environmental Report 2010 #12;Cover Image and Design Annual Site Environmental Report 2010 #12;DOE/ORO/2379 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Coordinating editors

Pennycook, Steve

320

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life Cycle Reimbursable Funding://www.ornl.gov/wfo/exthome.htm September 27, 2007 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Briefing Outline · Summary #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Secretary of Energy Legal Authority

321

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life Cycle Reimbursable Funding Project Closeout Process Summary #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 3 Secretary provisions of law. #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 4 How Federal Agencies Do

322

View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

323

Sudden Oak Death: Endangering California and Oregon Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death is a new disease affecting tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora) and oaks (Quercus spp) in California and Oregon, caused by the recently described pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. It has reached epi-demic proportions in several counties in central California, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. In addition to oaks and tanoak, P ramorum has been found in

David M. Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

2003-01-01

324

Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look  

E-print Network

Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look Ralph L. Phillips u Neil K. McDougald o Richard B. Standiford William E.Frost A 4-year study indicates that na- tive blue oak seedlings are prob- ably much the year of above- average rainfall. Blue oak (Quercusdouglasii)trees are a valuable economic and aesthetic

Standiford, Richard B.

325

An oak (Quercus agrifolia) specialist (Neotoma macrotis) and a sympatric generalist (Neotoma lepida) show similar intakes and digestibilities of oak.  

PubMed

Dietary specialization is thought to be rare in mammalian herbivores as a result of either a limitation in their detoxification system to metabolize higher doses of plant secondary compounds or deficiencies in nutrients present in a diet composed of a single species of plant. Neotoma macrotis is an oak specialist, whereas Neotoma lepida is a dietary generalist when sympatric with N. macrotis. We hypothesized that N. macrotis would have a higher tolerance for and digestibility of oak. We determined the two species' tolerances for oak by feeding them increasing concentrations of ground oak leaves until they could no longer maintain body mass. The highest concentration on which both species maintained body mass was 75% oak. There were no differences between the species in their abilities to digest dry matter, nitrogen, or fiber in the oak diets. The species' similar tolerances for oak were probably due to their similar abilities to digest and potentially assimilate the ground oak leaves. PMID:18544017

Skopec, Michele M; Haley, Shannon; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Dearing, M Denise

2008-01-01

326

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON TANNIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OAKS AND ON PALATABILITY OF OAK FORESTS  

E-print Network

by the biochemical defenses of black oak (Quercus velutina) and the feeding preference of the isopod Armadillidium and light and the danger of herbivory. Nutrient stressed plants invested more in defense then did fertilized

Vallino, Joseph J.

327

Living the Past at Oak Hill School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Hill School served elementary students in the 10th district of Washington County, Tennessee, from 1886 to 1952. After extensive restoration and a move to Historic Jonesborough, the one-room school now functions as a living history museum. Fourth-grade students spend a day following the 1892 curriculum for grade 4. A teacher's resource and…

Clark, Amy D.

2000-01-01

328

Doing Business with Oak Ridge National  

E-print Network

Doing Business with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented at the WM10 Symposia Keith S. Joy Director ORNL Small Business Programs Phoenix, AZ March 3, 2010 #12;· Generates $5.2 billion annually enterprise ­ Applying science and technology to real-world problems ­ Managing machinery of scientific

329

Assessing the Timber Quality of Standing Oak  

E-print Network

· Research we're doing · Preliminary results · Where we're heading #12;3/25/20113 Assessing the Timber;3/25/201118 Economic Impact of Shake Defects - Products Large diameter oak grown for: Most valuable Butt £5.50 - £10

330

Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

1980-03-01

331

Emergy analysis of the Oak Openings region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines an alternative to market valuation for determining worth through a case study of the Oak Openings region in Northwest Ohio, USA. Emergy analysis methods are explained, illustrated and used to tabulate environmental, cultural and economic subsystems of the region. The emergy yield ratio for the region at 1.57 suggests sustainability but is less than the findings of

Julie Brotje Higgins

2003-01-01

332

Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

Turner, J.W. [ed.

1995-02-01

333

Design assessment for the Bethel Valley FFA Upgrades at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed upgrades to Building 3025 and the Evaporator Area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Design assessments, specifications and drawings are provided. Building 3025 is a general purpose research facility utilized by the Materials and Ceramics Division to conduct research on irradiated materials. The Evaporator Area, building 2531, serves as the collection point for all low-level liquid wastes generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

NONE

1995-09-01

334

Mating Patterns of Black Oak Quercus velutina (Fagaceae) in a Missouri Oak-Hickory Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind-pollinated forest trees usually have high outcrossing rates, but allogamy does not necessarily translate into high pollen movement. The goal of this study was to determine the outcrossing rates, pollen pool genetic structure, and the size of the effective pollination neighborhood in a population of black oak, Quercus velutina, in a Missouri oak-hickory forest. Based on 6allozymeloci,12maternaltrees,and439progeniessampledalongatransectof1300m,wefoundcompleteoutcrossing(tm 5 1.000, P

JUAN F. FERNANDEZ-MANJARRES; J ACQUELYN IDOL; VICTORIA L. SORK

2006-01-01

335

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium Long-Term Trends in Coast Live Oak and  

E-print Network

September 2000 to September 2008. Dead Pr = tree dead as a result of P. ramorum; Late Pr = live trees with PProceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium 207 Long-Term Trends in Coast Live Oak stands change over time due to disease. P. ramorum canker was prevalent in the sampled coast live oak

Standiford, Richard B.

336

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

337

Sudden Oak Death Blitz: Native oaks need our help APRIL 19, 2013 6:57 PM BILL PRAMUK  

E-print Network

ominous than the invasive exotic plants: a dying coast live oak. The walk was organized by the NapaSudden Oak Death Blitz: Native oaks need our help APRIL 19, 2013 6:57 PM · BILL PRAMUK On a recent plants crowding and displacing the more delicate native plants. Along the way, I spotted something more

California at Berkeley, University of

338

Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in eastern Tennessee, in an area of moderate to high historical seismicity. Results from two separate seismic hazard analyses are presented. The EPRI/SOG analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, under the sponsorship of several electric utilities, for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States. The LLNL analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Both the EPRI/SOG and LLNL studies characterize earth-science uncertainty on the causes and characteristics of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States. This is accomplished by considering multiple hypotheses on the locations and parameters of seismic source zones and by considering multiple attenuation functions for the prediction of ground shaking given earthquake size and location. These hypotheses were generated by multiple expert teams and experts. Furthermore, each team and expert was asked to generate multiple hypotheses in order to characterize his own internal uncertainty. The seismic-hazard calculations are performed for all hypotheses. Combining the results from each hypothesis with the weight associated to that hypothesis, one obtains an overall representation of the seismic hazard at the Oak Ridge site and its uncertainty.

McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.F. [Risk Engineering, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, R.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering

1992-09-30

339

yellow and ebony Are the Responsible Genes for the Larval Color Mutants of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Many larval color mutants have been obtained in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Mapping of melanin-synthesis genes on the Bombyx linkage map revealed that yellow and ebony genes were located near the chocolate (ch) and sooty (so) loci, respectively. In the ch mutants, body color of neonate larvae and the body markings of elder instar larvae are reddish brown instead of normal black. Mutations at the so locus produce smoky larvae and black pupae. F2 linkage analyses showed that sequence polymorphisms of yellow and ebony genes perfectly cosegregated with the ch and so mutant phenotypes, respectively. Both yellow and ebony were expressed in the epidermis during the molting period when cuticular pigmentation occurred. The spatial expression pattern of yellow transcripts coincided with the larval black markings. In the ch mutants, nonsense mutations of the yellow gene were detected, whereas large deletions of the ebony ORF were detected in the so mutants. These results indicate that yellow and ebony are the responsible genes for the ch and so loci, respectively. Our findings suggest that Yellow promotes melanization, whereas Ebony inhibits melanization in Lepidoptera and that melanin-synthesis enzymes play a critical role in the lepidopteran larval color pattern. PMID:18854583

Futahashi, Ryo; Sato, Jotaro; Meng, Yan; Okamoto, Shun; Daimon, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru; Mita, Kazuei; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

2008-01-01

340

Evaluation of the properties of silk fibroin films from the non-mulberry silkworm Samia cynthia ricini for biomaterial design.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin from a domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the most widely used in biomaterial design. We report for the first time the preparation of a relatively smooth (granule free) film of the nonmulberry Samia cynthia ricini fibroin for comparative evaluation of its cell-supporting properties against those of the B. mori fibroin film. The granule formation on the S. c. ricini fibroin film was successfully prevented by facilitating proper rearrangement of the protein molecules, as monitored by FT-IR, by dialysis through a stepwise decrease in the urea concentration in the dialysis media. The lower contact angle of the S. c. ricini fibroin film, compared to the B. mori fibroin film, corresponds well to its lower hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino-acid ratio and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY). L929 murine fibroblast cells on the granule-free S. c. ricini fibroin films exhibited greater proliferation and spreading rates than those on the B. mori fibroin films, possibly attributable to its higher content of hydrophilic and positively charged amino acids. It further suggests that fabrication, modification and/or engineering of S. c. ricini fibroin may provide a better biomaterial scaffold design than the more commonly used B. mori fibroin. PMID:21029516

Mai-ngam, Katanchalee; Boonkitpattarakul, Kanhokthorn; Jaipaew, Jirayut; Mai-ngam, Bunpot

2011-01-01

341

Identification of a pentanucleotide telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)n, in the silkworm Bombyx mori and in other insects.  

PubMed Central

A pentanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGG)n, has been isolated from a silkworm genomic library, using cross-hybridization with a (TTNGGG)5 sequence, which is conserved among most eukaryotic telomeres. Both fluorescent in situ hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease experiments revealed major clusters of (TTAGG)n at the telomeres of all Bombyx chromosomes. To determine the evolutionary origin of this sequence, two types of telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)5 and a hexanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGGG)4, which is conserved mainly among vertebrate and several invertebrate telomeres so far examined, were hybridized to DNAs from a wide variety of eukaryotic species under highly stringent hybridization conditions. The (TTAGGG)5 oligonucleotide hybridized to genomic DNAs from vertebrates and several nonvertebrate species, as has been reported so far, but not to any DNAs from insects. On the other hand, the Bombyx type of telomere sequence, (TTAGG)n, hybridized to DNAs from 8 of 11 orders of insect species tested but not to vertebrate DNAs, suggesting that this TTAGG repetitive sequence is conserved widely among insects. Images PMID:8441388

Okazaki, S; Tsuchida, K; Maekawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H

1993-01-01

342

Casein kinase 2 during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: cDNA sequence, gene expression, and enzyme activity.  

PubMed

To clarify the property of casein kinase 2 (CK2) during early embryonic development in the silkworm, we compared the phosphorylation activities of CK2 in non-diapause and diapause eggs until 60 h after oviposition. In nondiapause eggs, the phosphorylated signals were found at each stage and became progressively stronger through each stage. On the other hand, in diapause eggs, the strongest phosphorylated signals were found at approximately 12 to 24 h after oviposition and became progressively weaker through each stage. To clarify the control mechanism of these enzyme activities, we tried to clone cDNAs encoding alpha- and beta-subunit of CK2 and analyze the gene expressions. The deduced amino acid sequence of the isolated cDNAs comprised 342 and 220 residues, and these sequences showed 85-90% identities to the alpha- and beta-subunit of CK2 in Spodoptera frugiperda. RT-PCR indicated that these genes were expressed in nondiapause and diapause eggs. However, these genes expressions were not parallel with the changes in CK2 activity. These results suggest that the changes in CK2 activity are regulated mainly at the level of post-transcription during embryonic development in Bombyx mori. PMID:16287624

Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Nakagoshi, Motoko; Kato, Tomomi; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

2005-12-01

343

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated female-specific sterility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Engineering sex-specific sterility is critical for developing transgene-based sterile insect technology. Targeted genome engineering achieved by customized zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) or clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems has been exploited extensively in a variety of model organisms; however, screening mutated individuals without a detectable phenotype is still challenging. In addition, genetically recessive mutations only detectable in homozygotes make the experiments time-consuming. In the present study, we model a novel genetic system in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, that results in female-specific sterility by combining transgenesis with TALEN technologies. This system induces sex-specific sterility at a high efficiency by targeting the female-specific exon of the B.?mori doublesex (Bmdsx) gene, which has sex-specific splicing isoforms regulating somatic sexual development. Transgenic animals co-expressing TALEN left and right arms targeting the female-specific Bmdsx exon resulted in somatic mutations and female mutants lost fecundity because of lack of egg storage and abnormal external genitalia. The wild-type sexual dimorphism of abdominal segment was not evident in mutant females. In contrast, there were no deleterious effects in mutant male moths. The current somatic TALEN technologies provide a promising approach for future insect functional genetics, thus providing the basis for the development of attractive genetic alternatives for insect population management. PMID:25125145

Xu, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; James, A A; Tan, A; Huang, Y

2014-12-01

344

Effects of RH-5992 on ecdysteroidogenesis of the prothoracic glands during the fourth larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Stage-dependent effects of RH-5992 on ecdysteroidogenesis of the prothoracic glands during the fourth larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were studied in the present report. When larvae were treated with RH-5992 during the early stages of the fourth larval instar (between day 0 and day 1), initially ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph were inhibited. However, 24 h after RH-5992 application, ecdysteroid levels were greatly increased as compared with those treated with acetone. The examination of the in vitro prothoracic gland activity upon RH-5992 application during the early stages of the fourth larval instar confirmed a short-term inhibitory effect. When RH-5992 was applied to the later stages of the fourth larval instar, no effects on both hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and prothoracic gland activity were observed. Addition of RH-5992 to incubation medium strongly inhibited ecdysteroid secretion by the prothoracic glands from the early fourth instar, indicating direct action of RH-5992 on ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands. Four hours after application with RH-5992 on day 1.5, prothoracic glands still showed an activated response to PTTH in both PTTH-cAMP signaling and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Moreover, addition of RH-5992 to incubation medium did not interfere with the stimulatory effect of the glands to PTTH in ecdysteroidogenesis. These results indicated that both PTTH-cAMP signaling and PTTH-ERK signaling may not be involved in short-term inhibitory regulation by RH-5992. PMID:18618762

Gu, Shi-Hong; Lin, Ju-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ling; Kou, Rong; Smagghe, Guy

2008-08-01

345

Identification, characterization, and crystal structure of an aldo-keto reductase (AKR2E4) from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A new member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily with 3-dehydroecdysone reductase activity was found in the silkworm Bombyx mori upon induction by the insecticide diazinon. The amino acid sequence showed that this enzyme belongs to the AKR2 family, and the protein was assigned the systematic name AKR2E4. In this study, recombinant AKR2E4 was expressed, purified to near homogeneity, and kinetically characterized. Additionally, its ternary structure in complex with NADP(+) and citrate was refined at 1.3Å resolution to elucidate substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme is a 33-kDa monomer and reduces dicarbonyl compounds such as isatin and 17?-hydroxy progesterone using NADPH as a cosubstrate. No NADH-dependent activity was detected. Robust activity toward the substrate inhibitor 3-dehydroecdysone was observed, which suggests that this enzyme plays a role in regulation of the important molting hormone ecdysone. This structure constitutes the first insect AKR structure determined. Bound NADPH is located at the center of the TIM- or (?/?)8-barrel, and residues involved in catalysis are conserved. PMID:24012638

Yamamoto, Kohji; Wilson, David K

2013-10-15

346

Yellow-e Determines the Color Pattern of Larval Head and Tail Spots of the Silkworm Bombyx mori*  

PubMed Central

Yellow proteins form a large family in insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are 14 yellow genes in the genome. Previous studies have shown that the yellow gene is necessary for normal pigmentation; however, the roles of other yellow genes in body coloration are not known. Here, we provide the first evidence that yellow-e is required for normal body color pattern in insect larvae. In two mutant strains, bts and its allele bts2, of the silkworm Bombyx mori, the larval head cuticle and anal plates are reddish brown instead of the white color found in the wild type. Positional cloning revealed that deletions in the Bombyx homolog of the Drosophila yellow-e gene (Bmyellow-e) were responsible for the bts/bts2 phenotype. Bmyellow-e mRNA was strongly expressed in the trachea, testis, and integument, and expression markedly increased at the molting stages. This profile is quite similar to that of Bmyellow, a regulator of neonatal body color and body markings in Bombyx. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that Bmyellow-e mRNA was heavily expressed in the integument of the head and tail in which the bts phenotype is observed. The present results suggest that Yellow-e plays a crucial role in the pigmentation process of lepidopteran larvae. PMID:19996320

Ito, Katsuhiko; Katsuma, Susumu; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2010-01-01

347

Silkworm Apolipophorin Protein Inhibits Hemolysin Gene Expression of Staphylococcus aureus via Binding to Cell Surface Lipoteichoic Acids*  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that a silkworm hemolymph protein, apolipophorin (ApoLp), binds to the cell surface of Staphylococcus aureus and inhibits expression of the saePQRS operon encoding a two-component system, SaeRS, and hemolysin genes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory mechanism of ApoLp on S. aureus hemolysin gene expression. ApoLp bound to lipoteichoic acids (LTA), an S. aureus cell surface component. The addition of purified LTA to liquid medium abolished the inhibitory effect of ApoLp against S. aureus hemolysin production. In an S. aureus knockdown mutant of ltaS encoding LTA synthetase, the inhibitory effects of ApoLp on saeQ expression and hemolysin production were attenuated. Furthermore, the addition of anti-LTA monoclonal antibody to liquid medium decreased the expression of S. aureus saeQ and hemolysin genes. In S. aureus strains expressing SaeS mutant proteins with a shortened extracellular domain, ApoLp did not decrease saeQ expression. These findings suggest that ApoLp binds to LTA on the S. aureus cell surface and inhibits S. aureus hemolysin gene expression via a two-component regulatory system, SaeRS. PMID:23873929

Omae, Yosuke; Hanada, Yuichi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

2013-01-01

348

White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

NONE

1996-11-01

349

Altered expression of testis-specific genes, piRNAs, and transposons in the silkworm ovary masculinized by a W chromosome mutation  

PubMed Central

Background In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, femaleness is strongly controlled by the female-specific W chromosome. Originally, it was presumed that the W chromosome encodes female-determining gene(s), accordingly called Fem. However, to date, neither Fem nor any protein-coding gene has been identified from the W chromosome. Instead, the W chromosome is occupied with numerous transposon-related sequences. Interestingly, the silkworm W chromosome is a source of female-enriched PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNAs are small RNAs of 23-30 nucleotides in length, which are required for controlling transposon activity in animal gonads. A recent study has identified a novel mutant silkworm line called KG, whose mutation in the W chromosome causes severe female masculinization. However, the molecular nature of KG line has not been well characterized yet. Results Here we molecularly characterize the KG line. Genomic PCR analyses using currently available W chromosome-specific PCR markers indicated that no large deletion existed in the KG W chromosome. Genetic analyses demonstrated that sib-crosses within the KG line suppressed masculinization. Masculinization reactivated when crossing KG females with wild type males. Importantly, the KG ovaries exhibited a significantly abnormal transcriptome. First, the KG ovaries misexpressed testis-specific genes. Second, a set of female-enriched piRNAs was downregulated in the KG ovaries. Third, several transposons were overexpressed in the KG ovaries. Conclusions Collectively, the mutation in the KG W chromosome causes broadly altered expression of testis-specific genes, piRNAs, and transposons. To our knowledge, this is the first study that describes a W chromosome mutant with such an intriguing phenotype. PMID:22452797

2012-01-01

350

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

1992-06-01

351

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

1992-06-01

352

ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89  

SciTech Connect

This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

1989-01-01

353

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1992-12-01

354

Leadership Computing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is running the world's largest Cray X1, the world's largest unclassified Cray XT3, and a Cray XD1. In this report we provide an overview of the applications requiring leadership computing and the performance characteristics of the various platforms at ORNL. We then discuss ways in which we are working with Cray to establish a roadmap that will provide 100's of teraflops of sustained performance while integrating a balance of vector and scalar processors.

Kuehn, Jeffery A [ORNL; Studham, Scott [ORNL; White III, James B [ORNL; Fahey, Mark R [ORNL; Carter, Steven M [ORNL; Nichols, Jeffrey A [ORNL

2005-05-01

355

Major Oak Diseases and Their Control.  

E-print Network

lasts 1-2 weeks trees go from yellow to brown. Control Measures Spreads Trees through Isolation Chemical Cultural rootgrafts affected Yes Healthy Yes No No Unknown Stressed Yes Yes Yes I I No Stressed No No Yes Lichens on small post oak... rainfall. On severely in fested trees, a second application may be required in 12 months. When using Kocide avoid drift to nearby sensitive plants and buildings. Lichens (Combined fungal and algal growth) Lichens assume several different shapes and col...

Johnson, Jerral D.; Appel, David N.

1984-01-01

356

Environmental restoration: Oak Ridge National Laboratory perspective  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is a multipurpose research facility managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for the US Deparment of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations (DOE). The operation of ORNL has resulted in a legacy of contaminated and potentially contaminated facilities, research areas, and waste management areas that may require remediation. The most recent inventory of remediation sites has identified approximately 400 individual sites that will require investigation and possibly remediation. The Remedial Action program (RAP) was established at ORNL in 1985 to conduct the investigations, studies,and remediation necessary to prevent unacceptable risks to the environment and to the public from this legacy of contaminated sites. Then, in 1989 a central Environmental Restoration program (ERP) was established that consolidates the previous RAPs at all five sites managed by Energy Systems for DOE. This paper describes how a program was developed to solve the large and diverse problems associated with the environmental restoration of the ORNL. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Garland, S.B. II.

1991-01-01

357

Stability analysis of White Oak Dam  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

NONE

1995-04-11

358

Hemolymph ecdysteroid titer and ecdysteroid-dependent developmental events in the last-larval stadium of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: role of low ecdysteroid titer in larval–pupal metamorphosis and a reappraisal of the head critical period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine regulation of larval–pupal metamorphosis was studied in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by measuring the following changes: hemolymph ecdysteroid titer, the secretory activity of prothoracic glands and the responsiveness of larvae to ecdysteroids and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), with regard to developmental events such as the occurrence of spinneret pigmentation, initiation of cocoon spinning and onset of wandering stage as

Sho Sakurai; Masae Kaya; Shin'Ichirol Satake

1998-01-01

359

Effects of the biosynthesis and signaling pathway of ecdysterone on silkworm (Bombyx mori) following exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori), a model Lepidoptera insect, is economically important. Its growth and development are regulated by endogenous hormones. During the process of transition from larvae to pupae, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays an important role. The recent surge in consumer products and applications using metallic nanoparticles has increased the possibility of human or ecosystem exposure due to their unintentional release into the environment. We investigated the effects of exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the action of 20E in B. mori. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle treatment shortened the molting duration by 8 hr and prolonged the molting peak period by 10 %. Solexa sequencing profiled the changes in gene expression in the brain of fifth-instar B. mori in response to TiO2NPS exposure for 72 hr, to address the effects on hormone metabolism and regulation. Thirty one genes were differentially expressed. The transcriptional levels of pi3k and P70S6K, which are involved in the target of the rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway, were up-regulated. Transcriptional levels of four cytochrome P450 genes, which are involved in 20E biosynthesis, at different developmental stages (48, 96, 144, and 192 hr) at 5th instars of all displayed trends of increasing expression. Simultaneously, the ecdysterone receptors, also displayed increasing trends. The 20E titers at four developmental stages during the 5th instar were 1.26, 1.23, 1.72, and 2.16 fold higher, respectively, than the control group. These results indicate that feeding B. mori with TiO2 NPs stimulates 20E biosynthesis, shortens the developmental progression, and reduces the duration of molting. Thus, application of TiO2 NPs is of high significance for saving the labor force in sericulture, and our research provides a reference for the ecological problems in the field of Lepidoptera exposured to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. PMID:25139758

Li, Fanchi; Gu, Zhiya; Wang, Binbin; Xie, Yi; Ma, Lie; Xu, Kaizun; Ni, Min; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

2014-08-01

360

Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, ?(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=-?(d?/dt) - q/??, where ? is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ?, the dielectric constant and ?, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time ?, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and -q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[??/(?-??)](e-1/?-e-1/??) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D? and the stress drop, ?? give ?=D/D?=(??/? 0)(?/?). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/? and J=F/?? using ?? of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

Ikeya, Motoji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Huang, Qing-Hua

1998-05-01

361

Repression of tyrosine hydroxylase is responsible for the sex-linked chocolate mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation patterning has long interested biologists, integrating topics in ecology, development, genetics, and physiology. Wild-type neonatal larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are completely black. By contrast, the epidermis and head of larvae of the homozygous recessive sex-linked chocolate (sch) mutant are reddish brown. When incubated at 30 °C, mutants with the sch allele fail to hatch; moreover, homozygous mutants carrying the allele sch lethal (schl) do not hatch even at room temperature (25 °C). By positional cloning, we narrowed a region containing sch to 239,622 bp on chromosome 1 using 4,501 backcross (BC1) individuals. Based on expression analyses, the best sch candidate gene was shown to be tyrosine hydroxylase (BmTh). BmTh coding sequences were identical among sch, schl, and wild-type. However, in sch the ?70-kb sequence was replaced with ?4.6 kb of a Tc1-mariner type transposon located ?6 kb upstream of BmTh, and in schl, a large fragment of an L1Bm retrotransposon was inserted just in front of the transcription start site of BmTh. In both cases, we observed a drastic reduction of BmTh expression. Use of RNAi with BmTh prevented pigmentation and hatching, and feeding of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor also suppressed larval pigmentation in the wild-type strain, pnd+ and in a pS (black-striped) heterozygote. Feeding L-dopa to sch neonate larvae rescued the mutant phenotype from chocolate to black. Our results indicate the BmTh gene is responsible for the sch mutation, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis producing neonatal larval color. PMID:20615980

Liu, Chun; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Narukawa, Junko; Liu, Shi-Ping; Han, Yu; Futahashi, Ryo; Kidokoro, Kurako; Noda, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Tamura, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Akio; Banno, Yutaka; Dai, Fang-Ying; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

2010-01-01

362

Changes in the activity and the expression of detoxification enzymes in silkworms (Bombyx mori) after phoxim feeding.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an economically important insect. However, non-cocoon caused by chemical insecticide poisoning has largely hindered the development of sericulture. To explore the roles of detoxification enzymes in B. mori after insecticide poisoning, we monitored the activity changes of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, glutathione-S-transferase, and carboxylesterase in B. mori midgut and fatbody after phoxim feeding. At the same time, the expression levels of detoxification enzyme-related genes were also determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Compare to the control levels, the activity of P450 in the midgut and fatbody was increased to 1.72 and 6.72 folds; the activity of GST was no change in midgut, and in fatbody increased to 1.11 folds; the activity of carboxylesterase in the midgut was decreased to 0.69 folds, and in fatbody increased to 1.13 folds. Correspondingly, the expression levels of detoxifying enzyme genes CYP6ae22, CYP9a21, GSTo1 and Bmcce were increased to 15.99, 3.32, 1.86 and 2.30 folds in the midgut and to 3.58, 1.84, 2.14 and 4.21 folds in the fatbody after phoxim treatment. These results demonstrated the important roles of detoxification enzymes in phoxim metabolism. In addition, the detected activities of such enzymes were generally lower than those in cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera), which may contribute to the high susceptibility of B. mori to insecticides. Our findings laid the foundation for further investigations of the molecular mechanisms of organophosphorus pesticide metabolism in B. mori. PMID:24238284

Wang, Y H; Gu, Z Y; Wang, J M; Sun, S S; Wang, B B; Jin, Y Q; Shen, W D; Li, B

2013-01-01

363

Performance of spot-seeded oaks and walnut on an eastern Kentucky minesoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effects of fertilizer and herbaceous competition on the survival and growth of spot-seeded oaks and walnut was established in 1979. Species included bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), pin oak (Q. palustris), white oak (Q. alba), chestnut oak (Q. prinus), and black walnut (Juglans nigra). The treatments consisted of fertilizing with a fertilizer tablet and broadcast seeding a

Walter H. Davidson; Donald H. Graves; James M. Ringe; Thomas R. Cunningham

1991-01-01

364

Effects of Stump Diameter on Sprout Number and Size for Three Oak Species in a Pennsylvania  

E-print Network

of black oak sprouts peaked in the 20­50-cm classes, and trees in the 70­80-cm class produced the fewest oak than white oak. Keywords: stump sprout, oak, clearcut, regeneration O ak (Quercus) trees dominateFIELD NOTE Effects of Stump Diameter on Sprout Number and Size for Three Oak Species

Abrams, Marc David

365

Oak Tree Planting Project1 Sherryl L. Nives William D. Tietje William H. Weitkamp2  

E-print Network

Oak Tree Planting Project1 Sherryl L. Nives William D. Tietje William H. Weitkamp2 Abstract: An Oak and oak planting techniques. Out- reach efforts resulted in participation in the Oak Tree Planting Project-association groups: over 3,500 acorns were planted at about 1,200 sites (three acorns per site). The Oak Tree

Standiford, Richard B.

366

Associations Among Breeding Birds and Gambel Oak in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests with Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) are associated with higher bird abundance and diversity than are ponderosa pine forests lacking Gambel oak. Little is known, however, about specific structural characteristics of Gambel oak trees, clumps, and stands that may be important to birds in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak (hereafter pine-oak) forests. We examined associations among breeding birds

Stephanie Jentsch; R. William Mannan; Brett G. Dickson; William M. Block

2008-01-01

367

Expression of human papillomavirus 6b L1 protein in silkworm larvae and enhanced green fluorescent protein displaying on its virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 6b L1 capsid protein was expressed using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system in silkworm larvae. Two constructs, full-length L1 (500 a.a) and C-terminal-deleted short L1 (479 a.a), and three PCR-manipulated antigenic loops at amino acids 55-56, 174-175, and 348-349 regions were incorporated with whole enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Expressed in full, short L1 proteins and variants were purified in heparin affinity column chromatography and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. The presence of self-assembled virus-like particles (VLPs) and EGFP incorporation on the surface of VLPs were confirmed by the observation of transmission electron and immunoelectron microscopies, respectively. HPV 6b L1 major capsid protein was successfully expressed in silkworm, and effective manipulation on the antigenic regions showed the path to versatile vaccine development based on HPV L1-VLPs. PMID:23961359

Palaniyandi, Muthukutty; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

2012-01-01

368

Single amino acid mutation in an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene causes resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ab in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Bt toxins derived from the arthropod bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis are widely used for insect control as insecticides or in transgenic crops. Bt resistance has been found in field populations of several lepidopteran pests and in laboratory strains selected with Bt toxin. Widespread planting of crops expressing Bt toxins has raised concerns about the potential increase of resistance mutations in targeted insects. By using Bombyx mori as a model, we identified a candidate gene for a recessive form of resistance to Cry1Ab toxin on chromosome 15 by positional cloning. BGIBMGA007792-93, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter similar to human multidrug resistance protein 4 and orthologous to genes associated with recessive resistance to Cry1Ac in Heliothis virescens and two other lepidopteran species, was expressed in the midgut. Sequences of 10 susceptible and seven resistant silkworm strains revealed a common tyrosine insertion in an outer loop of the predicted transmembrane structure of resistant alleles. We confirmed the role of this ATP-binding cassette transporter gene in Bt resistance by converting a resistant silkworm strain into a susceptible one by using germline transformation. This study represents a direct demonstration of Bt resistance gene function in insects with the use of transgenesis. PMID:22635270

Atsumi, Shogo; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Narukawa, Junko; Kawai, Sawako; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Wada, Sanae; Kanda, Kohzo; Goldsmith, Marian R; Noda, Hiroaki

2012-06-19

369

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF OAK GALL WASPS (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex,cyclically parthenogenetic,life cycles and the ability to induce a wide,diversity of highly complex,species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become,a model,system,in community,ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schonrogge; Rachel J. Atkinson; David Bellido; Juli Pujade-Villar

2002-01-01

370

Economic implications of different cork oak forest management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agro-silvopastoral system ?montado? dominates the landscape of the south-western Iberian Peninsula, occupies approximately 3.1 million hectares of woodland in Spain and 1.2 million hectares in Portugal. The forest system ?montado? is mostly dominated by Mediterranean evergreen oaks such as cork oak (Quercus suber L.) and holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia). The ?montado? production system management aims the maintenance of a

António Cipriano Pinheiro; Nuno Almeida Ribeiro; Peter Surový; Alfredo Gonçalves

2008-01-01

371

Relationships between advance oak regeneration and biotic and abiotic factors.  

PubMed

Relationships between advance regeneration of four tree species (red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Q. montana Willd.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.)) and biotic (non-tree vegetation and canopy composition) and abiotic (soil series and topographic variables) factors were investigated in 52, mature mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachians. Aggregate height was used as a composite measure of regeneration abundance. Analyses were carried out separately for two physiographic provinces. Associations with tree regeneration were found for all biotic and abiotic factors both in partial models and full models. Red maple was abundant on most of the sites, but high red maple abundance was commonly associated with wet north-facing slopes with little or no cover of mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) and hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore). Regeneration of the three oak species was greatly favored by the abundance of overstory trees of their own kind. White oak regeneration was most abundant on south-facing, gentle, lower slopes with soils in the Buchanan series. Chestnut oak regeneration was more common on south-facing, steep upper slopes with stony soils. There was a positive association between chestnut oak and huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) Koch) cover classes. Northern red oak was more abundant on north-facing wet sites with Hazleton soil, and was associated with low occurrence of mountain-laurel and hay-scented fern. PMID:18450575

Fei, Songlin; Steiner, Kim C

2008-07-01

372

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fourth Science Symposium Sudden Oak Death in Redwood Forests  

E-print Network

Forests: Vegetation Dynamics in the Wake of Tanoak Decline1 Benjamin Ramage2 and Kevin O'Hara2 to experience drastic population declines and may even disappear entirely from redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests as a result of the exotic disease sudden oak death (SOD) (Maloney and others 2005, Mc

Silver, Whendee

373

Potential Effects of Sudden Oak Death on Birds in Coastal Oak Woodlands 1  

E-print Network

Tree pathogens can affect community composition and structure over wide areas. Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death (SOD), occurs in the wild in California from Humboldt County to southernmost Monterey County. P. ramorum has killed many trees at some sites and may spread to affect near and distant forests. The pathogen has not yet been detected in San Luis Obispo County outside of nurseries, but threatens coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodlands there. SOD-induced changes in vegetation structure and tree community composition may cascade to affect vertebrate communities. From 2002-2004 we counted breeding birds and measured habitat characteristics at 78 points distributed among four sites in coastal oak woodlands at high risk from SOD in San Luis Obispo County. Each point was visited three times each year to conduct 10-minute counts of all adult birds detected within 50 m. In 2004 we surveyed trees within 10 m of each point. We found 13 tree species; 63.8 percent of the individuals recorded were coast live oak and 19.6 percent were California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). We recorded 75 bird species at the census points. The most abundant species were Steller’s jay (Cyanocitta stelleri, 8.9 percent of individuals),

Donald E. Winslow; William D. Tietje

374

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Influence of Oak Woodland Composition  

E-print Network

be explained by local variation in tree species composition and forest structure. The degree to which patterns menziesii) (47 percent), black oak (Quercus kelloggii) (45 percent), madrone (Arbutus menziesii) (43 percent of symptomatic bay leaves. The results showed that bay laurel trees were infected more frequently than canker

Standiford, Richard B.

375

Sudden oak death 'here to stay' Jeanne Wirka, resident biologist at the Bouverie Preserve in Glen Ellen, stands next to a live oak that fell after it developed  

E-print Network

Sudden oak death 'here to stay' Jeanne Wirka, resident biologist at the Bouverie Preserve in Glen Ellen, stands next to a live oak that fell after it developed sudden oak death in the heavily wooded:10 p.m. As sudden oak death continues to ravage Sonoma County woodlands, a secluded creek near Glen

California at Berkeley, University of

376

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

E-print Network

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Oak in at the Comfort Inn. Dinner hosted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scattering Science Div. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Opening Remarks Dr. Bryan C. Chakoumakos Geoscientist

Pennycook, Steve

377

Tree shelters and weed control enhance growth and survival of natural blue oak seedlings  

E-print Network

1997. Tree shelters: An alternative for oak regeneration.oak stands, with con- siderable numbers of seedlings and treestree shelter types on microclimate and seedling performance of Oregon white oak and

2011-01-01

378

White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

Ahmed, S.B.

1994-01-01

379

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

380

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.  

PubMed

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-10-01

381

The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron Refurbishment Project  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) has been in operation for nearly fifty years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presently, it serves as the driver accelerator for the ORNL Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), where radioactive ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separation Online (ISOL) technique for post-acceleration by the 25URC tandem electrostatic accelerator. Operability and reliability of ORIC are critical issues for the success of HRIBF and have presented increasingly difficult operational challenges for the facility in recent years. In February 2010, a trim coil failure rendered ORIC inoperable for several months. This presented HRIBF with the opportunity to undertake various repairs and maintenance upgrades aimed at restoring the full functionality of ORIC and improving the reliability to a level better than what had been typical over the previous decade. In this paper, we present details of these efforts, including the replacement of the entire trim coil set and measurements of their radial field profile. Comparison of measurements and operating tune parameters with setup code predictions will also be presented.

Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Ball, James B [ORNL; Dowling, Darryl T [ORNL; Mosko, Sigmund W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL

2011-01-01

382

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

NONE

1995-09-01

383

Notes and Discussion Oak Regeneration Before and After Initial Restoration  

E-print Network

triacanthos (15%). Quercus macrocarpa was absent from this survey, which also revealed Q. alba saplings Oak Savanna Conference Paper ABSTRACT.--Unsuccessful oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration could result (Quercus spp.) regeneration has resulted in major changes in community structure (Loftis and McGee, 1993

384

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE MEALY-OAK GALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are commonly found on urban trees. In- duced by oviposition of insects and other arthropods, galls develop from woody tree tissues, forming shelters for develop- ing larvae. Few galls are physiologically harmful to the tree. Some, like the mealy-oak galls on live oak, are not only harmless but may harbor beneficial arthropods long after the gall-maker has departed. Because

David L. Morgan; Gordon W. Frankie

385

Stem galls affect oak foliage with potential consequences for herbivory  

E-print Network

. Budburst phenology, Cynipidae, gypsy moth, horned oak gall, insect­plant interactions, phytochemistry, pin oak, Quercus. Introduction Plant galls are complex entities that develop under the influence of both) or mutualistic (Cockerell, 1890; Bronner, 1983). Some have taken a plant-centric view, perceiving gall formation

Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

386

Review article Summer and winter embolism in oak  

E-print Network

in the vascular system. We conclude that embolism plays little role in the drought tolerance of oaks since droughtReview article Summer and winter embolism in oak: impact on water relations MT Tyree H Cochard 1-induced embolism occurs at more negative water potentials than are known to cause damage (eg, reduced growth

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

INFLUENCE OF FIRE ON MAMMALS IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of small mammals, little research has been conducted in eastern oak forests on the influence of fire on mammals. Several studies have documented little or no change in relative abundance or community measures for non-volant small mammals in eastern oak (Quercus spp.) forests following fires despite reductions in leaf litter, small woody debris, and changes in understory

Patrick D. Keyser; W. Mark Ford

388

Effects of Restoring Oak Savannas on Bird Communities and Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to restore and maintain oak savannas in North America, with emphasis on the use of pre- scribed fire, have become common. Little is known, however, about how restoration affects animal populations, especially those of birds. I compared the breeding densities, community structure, and reproductive success of birds in oak savannas maintained by prescribed fire (12 sites) with those in

JEFFREY D. BRAWN

2006-01-01

389

Patterns of oak regeneration in a Midwestern savanna restoration experiment  

E-print Network

Patterns of oak regeneration in a Midwestern savanna restoration experiment Lars A. Brudvig regeneration dynamics. We used a replicated large-scale restoration experiment with Midwestern oak savannas (USA) to understand spatial patterns of regeneration by the dominant overstory species, Quercus alba. Q

390

Review article Genetic improvement of oaks in North America  

E-print Network

Review article Genetic improvement of oaks in North America KC Steiner School of Forest Resources contexts of oak tree improvement in North America are described briefly, and the methods, species orchard to operational plantations. Quercus /genetic improvement / North america / review Résumé &mdash

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.

McMaster, Robert T.

2004-01-01

392

Geographic structure of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms in European oaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA polymorphisms have been detected by the conventional Southern-blotting hybridization method in four species of European oaks (Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. pyrenaica). Three polymorphisms, shared by at least three of these species, can be scored directly in ethidium bromidestained gels and were used in a broad survey of the level of differentiation of the oak

R. J. Petit; A. Kremer; D. B. Wagner

1993-01-01

393

DOE/ORO/2296 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

#12;#12;DOE/ORO/2296 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 on the World Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Coordinating editor Project manager, DOE-ORO David Page September 2009 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008

Pennycook, Steve

394

DOE/ORO/2261 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

#12;#12;DOE/ORO/2261 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2007 on the World Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Coordinating editor, Jane Parrott Project manager, DOE-ORO David Page September 2008 Prepared by Oak Ridge National

Pennycook, Steve

395

Author's personal copy Emergence of the sudden oak death  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Emergence of the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Niklaus J Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for causing the sudden oak death epidemic. This review documents reproductively isolated populations and underwent at least four global migration events. This recent work sheds

California at Berkeley, University of

396

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AAAS Symposium CO2 Fertilization: Boon U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY The boon vs. bust polarity applies especially to trees and forests Boon Amicus Journal Fall: 8 #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CO2 fertilization

397

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Tilt Option Discussion Issues Van Graves Phone Conference Sept 22, 2004 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY · Hg drainage provided either by tilting magnet

McDonald, Kirk

398

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Tri Cities Town Hall Forum August 9, 2006 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Doing Business with ORNL. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CI Rapid Purchasing Techniques · AVID ­ Just In Time Agreements - 1.5 million items

399

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia an interim report  

E-print Network

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia ­ an interim report K. Cufar1 , M. Zupancic1 , L and dating historical buildings or archaeological wood. Oak - mainly represented by pedunculate (Quercus (Abies alba) in SE Slovenia. A dendroclimatic analysis showed that tree-ring width variations

Cufar, Katarina

400

Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought  

E-print Network

Note Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought C Collet JM Guehl 1 �quipe-year-old sessile oak seedlings were submitted to drought developed at two different rates (0.050 and 0.013 MPa·day-1).Drought was controlled by combining levels of irrigation and grass competition. At the end

Boyer, Edmond

401

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/? bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5?- and 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found similar to the deduced amino acid sequence (without the transit peptide sequence) of the full length cDNA from M. alba. PMID:23284650

Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

2012-01-01

402

RIP-seq of BmAgo2-associated small RNAs reveal various types of small non-coding RNAs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. Previously, only microRNAs (miRNAs) and piRNAs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Furthermore, only ncRNAs (50-500nt) of intermediate size have been systematically identified in the silkworm. Results Here, we performed a systematic identification and analysis of small RNAs (18-50nt) associated with the Bombyx mori argonaute2 (BmAgo2) protein. Using RIP-seq, we identified various types of small ncRNAs associated with BmAGO2. These ncRNAs showed a multimodal length distribution, with three peaks at ~20nt, ~27nt and ~33nt, which included tRNA-, transposable element (TE)-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. The tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) were found at an extremely high abundance and accounted for 69.90% of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs. Northern blotting confirmed that many tRFs were expressed or up-regulated only in the BmNPV-infected cells, implying that the tRFs play a prominent role by binding to BmAgo2 during BmNPV infection. Additional evidence suggested that there are potential cleavage sites on the D, anti-codon and T?C loops of the tRNAs. TE-derived small RNAs and piRNAs also accounted for a significant proportion of the BmAgo2-associated small RNAs, suggesting that BmAgo2 could be involved in the maintenance of genome stability by suppressing the activities of transposons guided by these small RNAs. Finally, Northern blotting was also used to confirm the Bombyx 5.8 s rRNA-derived small RNAs, demonstrating that various novel small RNAs exist in the silkworm. Conclusions Using an RIP-seq method in combination with Northern blotting, we identified various types of small RNAs associated with the BmAgo2 protein, including tRNA-, TE-, rRNA-, snoRNA- and snRNA-derived small RNAs as well as miRNAs and piRNAs. Our findings provide new clues for future functional studies of the role of small RNAs in insect development and evolution. PMID:24074203

2013-01-01

403

Changes in Oak Gall Wasps Species Diversity (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Relation to the Presence of Oak Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe  

E-print Network

plant-mediated interactions between a native pathogen and a community of gall-forming insects on oakChanges in Oak Gall Wasps Species Diversity (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Relation to the Presence Ghosta1 1 Plant Protection Department- Sero Road- Agricultural Faculty, Urmia Univ., PO Box 165, Urmia

Erbilgin, Nadir

404

Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

NONE

1995-04-01

405

Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview  

SciTech Connect

In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

1993-09-01

406

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R. (USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States)); Wilkerson, R.B. (MK-Ferguson Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Zocolla, M. (Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States). Nashville District); Kauschinger, J.L. (Ground Engineering Services, Manchester, NH (United States))

1992-01-01

407

White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Wilkerson, R.B. [MK-Ferguson Co., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zocolla, M. [Corps of Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States). Nashville District; Kauschinger, J.L. [Ground Engineering Services, Manchester, NH (United States)

1992-12-01

408

Radiosurgery using heavy ion microbeams for biological study: Fate mapping of the cellular blastoderm-stage egg of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of heavy ions on embryogenesis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori using a collimated heavy ion microbeam from the vertical beam line of an AVF-cyclotron. Eggs were exposed to carbon ions at the cellular blastoderm stage. Microbeams were found to be extremely useful for radio-microsurgical inactivation of nuclei or cells in the target site. Spot irradiation caused abnormal embryos, which showed localized defects such as deletion, duplication and fusion, depending on dose, beam size and site of irradiation. The location and frequency of defects on the resultant embryos were closely correlated to the irradiation site. Based on this correlation, a fate map was established for the Bombyx egg at the cellular blastoderm stage.

Kiguchi, Kenji; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tu, Zhen-Li; Funayama, Tomoo; Watanabe, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

409

Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

1997-02-01

410

Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-01

411

Spatial Distribution of Oak Mistletoe as It Relates to Habits of Oak Woodland Frugivores  

PubMed Central

This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons. PMID:25389971

Wilson, Ethan A.; Sullivan, Patrick J.; Dickinson, Janis L.

2014-01-01

412

Oak tree and grazing impacts on soil properties and nutrients in a California oak woodland  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is great interest in understandinghow rangeland management practices affectthe long-term sustainability of California oakwoodland ecosystems through their influence onnutrient cycling. This study examines the effects ofoak trees and low to moderate intensity grazing onsoil properties and nutrient pools in a blue oak (Quercus douglasii H.&A.) woodland in the SierraNevada foothills of northern California. Fourcombinations of vegetation and management wereinvestigated:

R. A. DAHLGREN; M. J. SINGER; X. HUANG

1997-01-01

413

Longitudinal patterns in species richness and genetic diversity in European oaks and oak gallwasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

While latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity are well known for many taxa in Europe, there has been little analysis of\\u000a longitudinal patterns across Pleistocene glacial refugia. Here we analyze longitudinal patterns in two aspects of diversity\\u000a (species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity) for two trophically related groups of organisms – oaks (Fagaceae, genus\\u000a Quercus) and their associated gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Rachel J. Atkinson; Antonis Rokas; Graham N. Stone

414

Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989  

SciTech Connect

The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

1990-10-01

415

Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental report for 1990  

SciTech Connect

The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1990. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1990 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1.

Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

1991-09-01

416

Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

1995-11-01

417

BmToll9, an Arthropod conservative Toll, is likely involved in the local gut immune response in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Toll family of transmembrane proteins mediates signaling during the innate immune response in most animals. Toll9 is widespread in insects and has a unique signature, QHR, in its Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The introns in the TIR region are highly conserved among insects, suggesting the antiquity of Toll9 genes. Toll9 of Bombyx mori (BmToll9) was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. BmToll9 is constitutively expressed in egg, larval and adult stages prior to microbial challenge. BmToll9 is strongly expressed in the different parts of the gut, but weakly expressed in haemocytes, trachea, fat body, malpighian tubule and epidermis, and scarcely expressed in the silk glands. The injection of sterilized 0.85% NaCl solution inhibited BmToll9 expression in most tissues especially during the early responses. Staphylococcus aureus had no or limited effect on the expression of BmToll9 in the silkworm gut and fat body. But in epidermis, trachea, malpighian tubules and haemocytes, the expression of BmToll9 was significantly increased after S. aureus challenge. Infection of Escherichia coli significantly increased the BmToll9 expression in different parts of the gut as well as in epidermis, malpighian tubule and haemocytes. At 48h after feeding of the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, BmToll9 expression was significantly increased. Tissues responses to the injected and ingested bacteria showed that BmToll9 is probably involved in the local gut immune response in the silkworm. PMID:19723534

Wu, Shan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaomei; Cao, Pingsheng; Beerntsen, Brenda T; Ling, Erjun

2010-02-01

418

Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

1982-03-01

419

Optimization of Sampling Methods for Within-Tree Populations of Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)  

E-print Network

SAMPLING Optimization of Sampling Methods for Within-Tree Populations of Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes) mortality. Twenty-four northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., infested with red oak borer, were felled of 480 examined trees, and Donley and Rast (1984) examined the entire bole of 144 oaks in Pennsylvania

Stephen, Frederick M.

420

Effect of Phosphonate Treatments on Sudden Oak Death in Tanoak and  

E-print Network

(Lithocarpus densiflorus) and Shreve's oak (Quercus parvula var. Shrevei). Native stands of mature trees were263 Effect of Phosphonate Treatments on Sudden Oak Death in Tanoak and Shreve's Oak1 Doug Schmidt2 to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphonate chemical treatments for control of sudden oak death in tanoak

Standiford, Richard B.

421

Ecological Evidence of Intensive Cultivation of Oaks by California Indians: Implications  

E-print Network

. In the oak savannas of California the various species of native oaks occur as individual large trees on steeper slopes and in draws. Young trees are notably few or absent in oak savannas. The predominance and the strange forms of oaks (and other trees) are the result of plant husbandry practices by the local Indians

Standiford, Richard B.

422

Report on survey for Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

................................................................................................ 11 Figure 3. Small Fastigiate Oaks at an infestation site in 2007. Tree centre right with feeding-mature trees, in both cases a form of Pedunculate Oak known as Cypress Oak (Quercus robur f. fastigiataReport on survey for Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera

423

Drought susceptibility and xylem dysfunction in seedlings of 4 European oak species  

E-print Network

occurred in oak from the 1920s. A survey in 1987 in the UK has shown that 18% of oak trees had less than 10Note Drought susceptibility and xylem dysfunction in seedlings of 4 European oak species KH Higgs V June 1994; accepted 8 March 1995) Summary — Seedlings of oak (Quercus robur, Q petraea, Q cerris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Management and Conservation Article Associations Among Breeding Birds and Gambel Oak  

E-print Network

specific structural characteristics of Gambel oak trees, clumps, and stands that may be important to birds oak 7­ 15 cm in diameter at breast height. We also found evidence that large Gambel oak trees (!23 cm density of large pine trees !23 cm in diameter at breast height was low. Because large oak trees are rare

425

Biodiversity of Mycorrhizas on Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) in a Southern Oregon  

E-print Network

morphotypes including Cenococcum geophilum. Infection rates on oak roots were lowest on trees growingBiodiversity of Mycorrhizas on Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) in a Southern Oregon Savanna1 Lori L Garry oak or Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) is the dominant vegetation on the Whetstone Savanna

Standiford, Richard B.

426

Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany  

E-print Network

interannual to multi-decadal growth variations of 555 oak trees from Central-West Germany. A network of 13Complex climate controls on 20th century oak growth in Central-West Germany DAGMAR A. FRIEDRICHS,1 pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and 33 sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) site chronologies

Esper, Jan

427

2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species 31 AN ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OAK WILT  

E-print Network

dollars. Anoka County had nearly 3 million oak trees and 990 active infection centers in 2008. If oak wilt2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species 31 AN ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR OAK WILT IN ANOKA, or discontinued. Few analyses have attempted to carefully quantify those damages, especially for forest pests. Oak

Fried, Jeremy S.

428

The oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), a native of mainland Europe, is  

E-print Network

on oak trees in Brent, Ealing, Hounslow and Richmond boroughs. Its caterpillars feed on oak leaves after their habit of forming `nose-to-tail' processions. A silken nest on the trunk of an oak tree PestThe oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), a native of mainland Europe, is breeding

429

Regeneration of Oaks and Tanoak in Phytophthora ramorum-Affected Forests1  

E-print Network

mortality had tanoak seedlings, which could potentially grow to replace dead trees. Coast live oak seedlings were present in about 80 percent of all plots with coast live oak trees. About 6 to 8 percent of plots with coast live oak trees had mortality but no coast live oak seedlings. Less than half of all plots

Standiford, Richard B.

430

White Oak Rapid Death Survey OBSERVER NAME AND PHONE / EMAIL DATE  

E-print Network

DECLINING AND DEAD TREES TYPE OF TREES DECLINING AND DYING (ALL THAT APPLY): WHITE OAKS RED OAKS OTHER OF WHITE OAK TREES DECLINING AND DEAD: FEW MANY ALL NUMBER OF OTHER TREES DECLINING AND DEAD: NONE FEW MANYWhite Oak Rapid Death Survey OBSERVER NAME AND PHONE / EMAIL DATE LOCATION OF DECLINING AND DEAD

Noble, James S.

431

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-07-01

432

Precursor Polyprotein for Multiple Neuropeptides Secreted from the Suboesophageal Ganglion of the Silkworm Bombyx mori: Characterization of the cDNA Encoding the Diapause Hormone Precursor and Identification of Additional Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidergic neurons, which serve as source of various endocrine neuropeptides, were identified in the suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and brain of insects. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, SG is known to secrete two neuropeptides, diapause hormone (DH) responsible for induction of embryonic diapause and pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide, which share a pentapeptide amide, Phe-Xaa-Pro-Arg-Leu-NH_2 (Xaa = Gly or Ser), at the C

Yukihiro Sato; Masaaki Oguchi; Nobuo Menjo; Kunio Imai; Hiroyuki Saito; Motoko Ikeda; Minoru Isobe; Okitsugu Yamashita

1993-01-01

433

Transportation Decision Support Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Transportation Decision Support Systems Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC Passenger Flows Supply Chain Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle and implementation of automated transportation decision support models for the scheduling and routing of cargo

434

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

, and American Superconductor Corporation Partnerships:Partnerships: X. Li, M. Rupich, D. Verebelyi, C. Thieme, U. Schoop, T. Kodenkandath, W. Zhang, M. Teplitsky, and J. Scudiere (AMSC) #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

435

Original article Dating natural gaps in the holm oak forest  

E-print Network

of a holm oak and up to complete vegetation closure. The best marker appeared to be Phillyrea latifolia author who noted the existence of chablis in southern France and regeneration in these natural openings

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

19. DETAIL VIEW OF SKIFF BOW WITH OAK STEM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. DETAIL VIEW OF SKIFF BOW WITH OAK STEM AND FRAMES PLANKED IN CEDAR USING COPPER CLINCH NAILS. TRANSOM OF SECOND SKIFF CAN BE SEEN BACKGROUND. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

437

A study of shin oak (Quercus havardi) poisoning in cattle  

E-print Network

s canpesteu live. and slip. . '. gastr -', ;. is. l'ho matuze oak . oliectad tr. e lat, cer nart of'!azy ard d. led was ur;pala'- able, az!d the amount af zaocit nuppets had ! o be limited ir! ar;er to pet, tnem ta eat enough of the oak, The emacra! i... s canpesteu live. and slip. . '. gastr -', ;. is. l'ho matuze oak . oliectad tr. e lat, cer nart of'!azy ard d. led was ur;pala'- able, az!d the amount af zaocit nuppets had ! o be limited ir! ar;er to pet, tnem ta eat enough of the oak, The emacra! i...

Dollahite, James Walton

2012-06-07

438

Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).  

PubMed

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates. PMID:6451640

Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

1981-01-01

439

VIEW ALONG SEVENTEENTH STREET. NOTE THE MATURE SILK OAK TREES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW ALONG SEVENTEENTH STREET. NOTE THE MATURE SILK OAK TREES LINING THE STREET, WHICH DO NOT PROVIDE A CANOPY VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

440

OUTER RIM OF CIRCLE, WITH LIVE OAK TREE AT LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OUTER RIM OF CIRCLE, WITH LIVE OAK TREE AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND CEMETERY SECTION 25 IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO WEST. - Barrancas National Cemetery, Naval Air Station, 80 Hovey Road, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL