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1

Cloning and characterization of the first actin gene in Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first actin gene in Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Apactin) was cloned and characterized. Remarkably, two types of the Apactin cDNA clones were isolated from the pupal cDNA library, which differed by the length and sequence of 5' untranslated region (UTR). The open reading frame (ORF) of the Apactin gene is 1131 bp and encodes a protein of 376

Song Wu; Zhi-xing Xuan; Yu-Ping Li; Qun Li; Run-Xi Xia; Sheng-Lin Shi; Li Qin; Zhen-Dong Wang; Yan-Qun Liu

2010-01-01

2

Isolation and partial characterization of chromoprotein from the larval hemolymph of the Japanese oak silkworm ( Antheraea yamamai)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of two different hemolymph proteins (designated P-I and P-II) of the Japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai, were purified from the hemolymph of the fifth instar larvae using four chromatographic steps: (a) hydrophobic interaction chromatography; (b) ion exchange chromatography; (c) gel-filtration; and (d) reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These two proteins were separated by TSKgel Phenyl-5PW RP column

Hitoshi Saito; Hiromi Yamada; Yoshiomi Kato

1998-01-01

3

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: process optimization and composition determination.  

PubMed

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO(2) extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO(2) flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO(2). Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and ?-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively. PMID:22408458

Pan, Wen-Juan; Liao, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Zeng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2012-01-01

4

Molecular characterization of an Apolipophorin-III gene from the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3'-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi. PMID:25348706

Liu, Qiu-Ning; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Yang, Lin-Nan; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Dong-Ran; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

2015-03-01

5

Diapause-Associated Protein3 Functions as Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in the Chinese Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi)  

PubMed Central

To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying of diapause in Antheraea pernyi (A.pernyi), we cloned a novel diapause-associated protein 3 (DAP3) gene from A.pernyi by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and studied the biological functions. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene encodes 171 amino acids and has a conserved domain of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). Western blot and qRT-PCR results showed that DAP3 was mainly expressed in the pupal stage, and gradually decreased as diapause development. DAP3 was also expressed in 1st and 5th instar larvae of A.pernyi. In tissues of 5th instar larvae of A.pernyi, DAP3 was mainly expressed in the epidermis, followed by the head, hemolymph and fat body. To identify the SOD activity of DAP3, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector by inserting the coding region sequence into plasmid pET-28a (+) and obtained the purified rHIS-DAP3 fusion protein by Ni-NTA affinitive column. Importantly, we found the SOD activity of DAP3 fusion protein was approximately 0.6674 U/µg. To further confirm the SOD activity of DAP3 in vivo, we induced the oxidative stress model of pupae by UV irradiation. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein level of DAP3 significantly increased by UV irradiation. Furthermore, the SOD activity of the total lysate of pupae increased significantly at 10 min post UV irradiation and transiently returned to normal level afterwards. These results suggested that DAP3 might be a novel protein with SOD activity getting involved in regulation of diapause in A.pernyi. PMID:24613963

Yu, Wei; Shu, Jianhong; Zhang, Yaozhou

2014-01-01

6

Eicosanoids mediate sHSP 20.8 gene response to biotic stress in larvae of the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) can regulate protein folding and protect cells from stress. To investigate the role of sHSPs in the silk-producing insect Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi; Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), cDNA encoding HSP20.8 in A. pernyi, termed Ap-sHSP20.8, was identified as a 564bp ORF. The translated amino acid sequence encoded 187 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 20.8kDa and an isoelectronic point (pI) of 5.98; the sequence showed homology to sHSP chaperone proteins from other insects. Ap-sHSP20.8 mRNA transcript expression was abundant in the midgut and fat body and found to be both constitutive and inducible by infectious stimuli. Therefore, Ap-sHSP20.8 may play important roles in A. pernyi immune responses under biotic stress. Furthermore, we found that eicosanoids could mediate the induction of Ap-sHSP20.8 in the fat body and midgut. Our findings show that sHSPs may be promising molecules to target in order to cripple immunity in insect pests. PMID:25527122

Zhang, Cong-Fen; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Li, Jun; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

2015-05-10

7

Cocoon of the silkworm Antheraea pernyi as an example of a thermally insulating biological interface.  

PubMed

Biological materials are hierarchically organized complex composites, which embrace multiple practical functionalities. As an example, the wild silkworm cocoon provides multiple protective functions against environmental and physical hazards, promoting the survival chance of moth pupae that resides inside. In the present investigation, the microstructure and thermal property of the Chinese tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) cocoon in both warm and cold environments under windy conditions have been studied by experimental and numerical methods. A new computational fluid dynamics model has been developed according to the original fibrous structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon to simulate the unique heat transfer process through the cocoon wall. The structure of the Antheraea pernyi cocoon wall can promote the disorderness of the interior air, which increases the wind resistance by stopping most of the air flowing into the cocoon. The Antheraea pernyi cocoon is wind-proof due to the mineral crystals deposited on the outer layer surface and its hierarchical structure with low porosity and high tortuosity. The research findings have important implications to enhancing the thermal function of biomimetic protective textiles and clothing. PMID:25280854

Jin, Xing; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Weimin; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai

2014-09-01

8

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury  

PubMed Central

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2012-01-01

9

Silkworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworm moths lay eggs to reproduce. The eggs hatch into silkworm larvae. The larvae spin silk cocoons and use them as they change from larvae to silkworm moths. Silkworm larvae exclusively eat mulberry leaves and their cocoons are used by human to make silk products such as silk fabric.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

10

Foliage of oaks grown under elevated CO2 reduces performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

To understand how the increase in atmospheric CO2 from human activity may affect leaf damage by forest insects, we examined host plant preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. Larvae were fed leaves from Quercus alba L. and Quercus velutina Lam. grown under ambient or plus 200 microl/liter CO2 using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE). Lower digestibility of foliage, greater protein precipitation capacity in frass, and lower nitrogen concentration of larvae indicate that growth under elevated CO2 reduced the food quality of oak leaves for caterpillars. Consuming leaves of either oak species grown under elevated CO2 slowed the rate of development of A. polyphemus larvae. When given a choice, A. polyphemus larvae preferred Q. velutina leaves grown under ambient CO2; feeding on foliage of this species grown under elevated CO2 led to reduced consumption, slower growth, and greater mortality. Larvae compensated for the lower digestibility of Q. alba leaves grown under elevated CO2 by increasing the efficiency of conversion of ingested food into larval mass. Despite equivalent consumption rates, larvae grew larger when they consumed Q. alba leaves grown under elevated compared with ambient CO2. Reduced consumption, slower growth rates, and increased mortality of insect larvae may explain lower total leaf damage observed previously in plots in this forest exposed to elevated CO2. By subtly altering aspects of leaf chemistry, the ever-increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will change the trophic dynamics in forest ecosystems. PMID:17540072

Knepp, Rachel G; Hamilton, Jason G; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

2007-06-01

11

Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO 2 Reduces Performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how the increase in atmospheric CO2 from human activity may affect leaf damage by forest insects, we examined host plant preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. Larvae were fed leaves from Quercus alba L. and Quercus velutina Lam. grown under ambient or plus 200

Rachel G. Knepp; Jason G. Hamilton; Arthur R. Zangerl; May R. Berenbaum; Evan H. DeLucia

2007-01-01

12

Genetic characterization of a novel Iflavirus associated with vomiting disease in the Chinese oak silkmoth Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Larvae of the Chinese oak silkmoth (Antheraea pernyi) are often affected by AVD (A. pernyi vomiting disease), whose causative agent has long been suspected to be a virus. In an unrelated project we discovered a novel positive sense single-stranded RNA virus that could reproduce AVD symptoms upon injection into healthy A. pernyi larvae. The genome of this virus is 10,163 nucleotides long, has a natural poly-A tail, and contains a single, large open reading frame flanked at the 5' and 3' ends by untranslated regions containing putative structural elements for replication and translation of the virus genome. The open reading frame is predicted to encode a 3036 amino acid polyprotein with four viral structural proteins (VP1-VP4) located in the N-terminal end and the non-structural proteins, including a helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and 3C-protease, located in the C-terminal end of the polyprotein. Putative 3C-protease and autolytic cleavage sites were identified for processing the polyprotein into functional units. The genome organization, amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the virus is a novel species of the genus Iflavirus, with the proposed name of Antheraea pernyi Iflavirus (ApIV). PMID:24637949

Geng, Peng; Li, Wenli; Lin, Lan; de Miranda, Joachim R; Emrich, Scott; An, Lijia; Terenius, Olle

2014-01-01

13

Bio-inspired fabrication of fibroin cryogels from the muga silkworm Antheraea assamensis for liver tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Conventional scaffold fabrication techniques result in narrow pore architectures causing a limited interconnectivity and use of porogens, which affects the bio- or cyto-compatibility. To ameliorate this, cryogels are immensely explored due to their macro-porous nature, ease in fabrication, using ice crystals as porogens, the shape property, easy reproducibility and cost-effective fabrication technique. Cryogels in the present study are prepared from nonmulberry Indian muga silk gland protein fibroin of Antheraea assamensis using two different fabrication temperatures (-20 and -80 °C). Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is used to solubilize fibroin, which in turn facilitates gelation by accelerating the ß-sheet formation. Ethanol is employed to stabilize the 3D network and induces bimodal porosity. The gels thus formed demonstrate increased ß-sheet content (FTIR) and a considerable effect of pre-freezing temperatures on 3D micro-architectures. The cryogels are capable of absorbing large amounts of water and withstanding mechanical compression without structure deformation. Further, cell impregnated cryogels well support the viability of human hepatocarcinoma cells (live/dead assay). The formation of cellular aggregates (confocal laser and scanning electron microscope), derivation in metabolic activity and proliferation rate are obtained in constructs fabricated at different temperatures. In summary, the present work reveals promising insights in the development of a biomimetic functional template for biomedical therapeutics and liver tissue engineering. PMID:24002731

Kundu, Banani; Kundu, S C

2013-10-01

14

Studies on the Influence of Host Plants and Effect of Chemical Stimulants on the Feeding Behavior in the Muga Silkworm, Antheraea assamensis  

PubMed Central

The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polhantha Jussieu, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound ?-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. PMID:22243364

Neog, Kartik; Unni, Balagopalan; Ahmed, Giasuddin

2011-01-01

15

Studies on the influence of host plants and effect of chemical stimulants on the feeding behavior in the muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis.  

PubMed

The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polhantha Jussieu, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound ?-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. PMID:22243364

Neog, Kartik; Unni, Balagopalan; Ahmed, Giasuddin

2011-01-01

16

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None; )

2006-07-05

17

Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The insect predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou), is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Life history parameters were not as good for A. chinensis when reared on an artificial diet compared to Chinese oak silk moth p...

18

Silkworm larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None; )

2007-08-04

19

Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: Transcriptome Analysis of Arma chinensis Fed on Artificial Diet and Chinese Oak Silk Moth Antheraea pernyi Pupae  

PubMed Central

Background The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler). This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample’s assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10?5), and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10?5), retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological roles of the differentially expressed genes enable us to predict effects of some dietary ingredients and subsequently propose formulation improvements to artificial diets. PMID:23593338

Zou, Deyu; Coudron, Thomas A.; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Mengqing; Chen, Hongyin

2013-01-01

20

PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO2 Reduces Performance of  

E-print Network

,weexaminedhostplantpreferenceandlarvalperformanceofageneralist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. LarvaePLANTĐINSECT INTERACTIONS Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO2 Reduces Performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) RACHEL G. KNEPP,1 JASON G. HAMILTON,2 ARTHUR R. ZANGERL,3 MAY R

DeLucia, Evan H.

21

Silkworm life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworms lay eggs to reproduce. Silkworm larvae hatch from these eggs. The larvae constantly eat only one thing- mulberry leaves. The larvae will spin silk cocoons for metamorphosis. The adults mate after emerging from the cocoon and the female will lay many small eggs.

Hubert Ludwig (None; )

2004-11-27

22

Ligand binding to six recombinant pheromone-binding proteins of Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binding properties of six heterologously expressed pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) identified in the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi were studied using tritium-labelled pheromone components, ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate ( 3H-Ac1) and ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal ( 3H-Ald), common to both species. In addition, a known ligand of PBP and inhibitor of pheromone receptor cells, the tritium-labelled esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-1,1,1-trifluoropropanone ( 3H-DTFP),

R. Maida; G. Ziegelberger; K.-E. Kaissling

2003-01-01

23

Copy number variations among silkworms  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variations (CNVs), which are important source for genetic and phenotypic variation, have been shown to be associated with disease as well as important QTLs, especially in domesticated animals. However, little is known about the CNVs in silkworm. Results In this study, we have constructed the first CNVs map based on genome-wide analysis of CNVs in domesticated silkworm. Using next-generation sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR), we identified ~319 CNVs in total and almost half of them (~ 49%) were distributed on uncharacterized chromosome. The CNVs covered 10.8 Mb, which is about 2.3% of the entire silkworm genome. Furthermore, approximately 61% of CNVs directly overlapped with SDs in silkworm. The genes in CNVs are mainly related to reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition, which is consistent with the observations in mammals. Conclusions An initial CNVs map for silkworm has been described in this study. And this map provides new information for genetic variations in silkworm. Furthermore, the silkworm CNVs may play important roles in reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition. This study provided insight into the evolution of the silkworm genome and an invaluable resource for insect genomics research. PMID:24684762

2014-01-01

24

Extraction conditions of Antheraea mylitta sericin with high yields and minimum molecular weight degradation.  

PubMed

Although the technique for extracting the Bombyx mori sericin has been extensively known, the extraction of sericin from wild-silkworm cocoons is not yet standardized. The aim of this study was to find the optimal conditions for the extraction of sericin from Antheraea mylitta cocoons, with high yields and minimum degradation. We attempted to apply various protocols for the extraction of the A. mylitta sericin (AmS). Among these, we found that the extraction of AmS with a sodium carbonate solution exhibited the highest yield except the conventional soap-alkali extraction. To find the optimal conditions for the AmS extraction with the sodium carbonate, we changed the concentration of sodium carbonate and the treatment time. With an increase in the sodium carbonate concentration and the extraction time, the yield of AmS increased, but the molecular weight (MW) of AmS decreased. Considering the yield, molecular weight distribution (MWD) and amino acid composition of AmS, we suggest that the optimal conditions for the AmS extraction require treatment with 0.02 M sodium carbonate and boiling for 60 min. PMID:23026092

Yun, Haesung; Oh, Hanjin; Kim, Moo Kon; Kwak, Hyo Won; Lee, Jeong Yun; Um, In Chul; Vootla, Shyam Kumar; Lee, Ki Hoon

2013-01-01

25

Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees). Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. bombycis genome has greatly expanded due to the following three molecular mechanisms: 1) the proliferation of host-derived transposable elements, 2) the acquisition of many horizontally transferred genes from bacteria, and 3) the production of abundnant gene duplications. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events (e.g., tandem duplications) but also from large-scale events (e.g., segmental duplications) have never been seen so abundant in any reported microsporidia genomes. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability. Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and transposable element expansion. We also showed that the duplicated genes can serve as raw materials for evolutionary innovations possibly contributing to the increase of pathologenic ability. Based on our research, we propose that duplicated genes of N. bombycis should be treated as primary targets for treatment designs against pébrine. PMID:23496955

2013-01-01

26

Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling 'clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal

Sarah G. Brown; George H. Boettner; Jayne E. Yack

2007-01-01

27

Ligand binding to six recombinant pheromone-binding proteins of Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Binding properties of six heterologously expressed pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) identified in the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi were studied using tritium-labelled pheromone components, ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate ((3)H-Ac1) and ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal ((3)H-Ald), common to both species. In addition, a known ligand of PBP and inhibitor of pheromone receptor cells, the tritium-labelled esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-1,1,1-trifluoropropanone ((3)H-DTFP), was tested. The binding of ligands was measured after native gel electrophoresis and cutting gel slices. In both species, PBP1 and PBP3 showed binding of (3)H-Ac1. In competition experiments with (3)H-Ac1 and the third unlabelled pheromone component, ( E, Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate (Ac2), the PBP1 showed preferential binding of Ac1, whereas PBP3 preferentially bound Ac2. The PBP2 of both species bound (3)H-Ald only. All of the six PBPs strongly bound (3)H-DTFP. Among unlabelled pheromone derivatives, alcohols were revealed to be the best competitors for (3)H-Ac1 and (3)H-Ald bound to PBPs. No pH influence was found for (3)H-Ac1 binding to, or its release from, the PBP3 of A. polyphemus and A. pernyi between pH 4.0 and pH 7.5. The data indicate binding preference of each of the three PBP-subtypes (1-3) for a specific pheromone component and support the idea that PBPs contribute to odour discrimination, although to a smaller extent than receptor activation. PMID:12879348

Maida, R; Ziegelberger, G; Kaissling, K-E

2003-09-01

28

ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

29

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations. PMID:22744178

Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

2012-06-01

30

Spectral imaging analysis for silkworm gender classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effect of different wavelength spectra in the performance of our optical penetration-based silkworm pupa sex identification system. With available low-cost light emitting diodes (LEDs), each emitting different wavelength spectra at 468 nm, 565 nm, 639 nm, 940 nm, and broad white light, we find that the body of the silkworm pupa can block blue and near infrared light while allowing green and red light pass through. In particular, the red light can clearly highlight an important organ called "chitin gland" of the female, leading to high accuracy of silkworm gender identification. In our experiment with 120 silkworm pupae, measured high average 92.8% and lower average 87.5% accuracies in identifying silkworm gender are obtained under red and white light LEDs, respectively.

Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sa-Ngiamsak, Chiranut

2013-05-01

31

Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm.  

PubMed

Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2014-09-01

32

Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

33

Threshold and odor specificity of pheromone-sensitive neurons in the deutocerebrum of Antheraea pernyi and A. polyphemus (Saturnidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In extracellular recordings neurons were located in the deutocerebrum ofAntheraea pernyi andAntheraea polyphemus which are specifically excited by components found in the female sexual attractant glands of both species (Figs. 3, 4). Extracellular cobalt injections via the recording electrode revealed a certain morphological type of neuron with widely branching arborizations in a big mass of neuropile (“macroglomerulus”) in the dorsal

J. Boeckh; V. Boeckh

1979-01-01

34

Reconstruction and morphometry of silkmoth olfactory hairs: A comparative study of sensilla trichodea on the antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi (Insecta, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory trichoid hairs on the antennae of male Antheraea silkmoths were reconstructed with respect to the following parameters: number, shape, course, and dimensions of outer dendritic segments as well as the numbers of their microtubules; inner and outer dimensions of the cuticular hair shafts; and number and distribution of pores and pore tubules in the hair walls. The smallest distances

T. A. Keil

1984-01-01

35

Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Thermotolerance  

PubMed Central

A tropical climate prevails in most of the sericultural areas in India, where temperature increases during the summer lead to adverse effects on temperate bivoltine silkworm rearing and cause crop losses. Screening for thermotolerance in the silkworm, Bombyxmori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for the development of thermotolerant breeds/hybrids. In the current study, the aim was to identify potential bivoltine silkworm strains specific for tolerance to high temperature. The third day of fifth stage silkworm larvae of bivoltine strains were subjected to high temperature of 36 ± 1° C with RH of 50 ± 5 % for six hours (10:00–16:00) every day until spinning for three consecutive generations. Highly significant differences were found among all genetic traits of bivoltine silkworm strains in the treated groups. Three groups of silkworm resulted including susceptible, moderately tolerant, and tolerant by utilizing pupation rate or survival rate with thermal stress as the index for thermotolerance. Furthermore, based on the overall silkworm rearing performance of nine quantitative genetic traits such as larval weight, cocoon yield by number and weight, pupation, single cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and denier, three bivoltine silkworm strains, BD2-S, SOF-BR and BO2 were developed as having the potential for thermotolerance. The data from the present study enhance knowledge for the development of thermo tolerant silkworm breeds/ hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22225406

Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Subbarao, Sure Venkata; Misra, Sunil; Murty, Upadyayula Suryanarayana

2011-01-01

36

Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.  

PubMed

Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling ;clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal multiple times in quick succession, producing trains that last over 1 min and include 50-55 clicks. Individual clicks within a train are on average 24.7 ms in duration, often consisting of multiple components. Clicks are audible in a quiet room, measuring 58.1-78.8 dB peSPL at 10 cm. They exhibit a broadband frequency that extends into the ultrasound spectrum, with most energy between 8 and 18 kHz. Our hypothesis that clicks function as acoustic aposematic signals, was supported by several lines of evidence. Experiments with forceps and domestic chicks correlated sound production with attack, and an increase in attack rate was positively correlated with the number of signals produced. In addition, sound production typically preceded or accompanied defensive regurgitation. Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. The prevalence and adaptive significance of warning sounds in caterpillars is discussed. PMID:17337712

Brown, Sarah G; Boettner, George H; Yack, Jayne E

2007-03-01

37

?-Fructofuranosidase Genes of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Mulberry latex contains extremely high concentrations of alkaloidal sugar mimic glycosidase inhibitors, such as 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Although these compounds do not harm the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist, they are highly toxic to insects that do not normally feed on mulberry leaves. d-AB1 and DNJ are strong inhibitors of ?-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20); however, they do not affect the activity of?-fructofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.26). Although?-glucosidase genes are found in a wide range of organisms, ?-fructofuranosidase genes have not been identified in any animals so far. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of ?-fructofuranosidase genes (BmSuc1 and BmSuc2) from B. mori. The BmSuc1 gene was highly expressed in the midgut and silk gland, whereas the expression of BmSuc2 gene was not detected. BmSuc1 encodes a functional ?-fructofuranosidase, whose enzymatic activity was not inhibited by DNJ or d-AB1. We also showed that BmSUC1 protein localized within the midgut goblet cell cavities. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrated that BmSuc1 serves as a sugar-digesting enzyme in the silkworm physiology. This anomalous presence of the ?-fructofuranosidase gene in the B. mori genome may partly explain why the silkworm can circumvent the mulberry's defense system. PMID:18397891

Daimon, Takaaki; Taguchi, Tomohiro; Meng, Yan; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2008-01-01

38

Microarray-based gene expression profiles of silkworm brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Molecular genetic studies of Bombyx mori have led to profound advances in our understanding of the regulation of development. Bombyx mori brain, as a main endocrine organ, plays important regulatory roles in various biological processes. Microarray technology will allow the genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in silkworm brains. RESULTS: We reported microarray-based gene expression profiles in silkworm brains

Ling Gan; Xilong Liu; Zhonghuai Xiang; Ningjia He

2011-01-01

39

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia

Friederike Anton-Erxleben; Helmut Langer

1988-01-01

40

HORMONAL CONTROL OF MUSCLE ATROPHY AND DEGENERATION IN THE MOTH ANTHERAEA POLYPHEMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The intersegmental muscles of the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer) can undergo two forms of degenerative changes: a wasting atrophy that lasts about 6 days or rapid dissolution that is completed within 30 h. 2. Muscle atrophy is induced by a dramatic decline in the endogenous titres of the steroid moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. 3. 20-Hydroxyecdysone appears to act

LAWRENCE M. SCHWARTZ; JAMES W. TRUMAN

1984-01-01

41

Elektronenmikroskopische Beobachtungen über die Fusion myogener Zellen bei Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fusion of both myoblasts and ‘Muskelanlagezellen’ during development of the dorsolongitudinal muscles inAntheraea polyphemus (Lep.) is shown at the ultrastructural level. Several cytoplasmic bridges are formed simultaneously between the two cells. It is supposed that the effect of breakdown of both myoblast membrane and sarcolemma originates from the myoblast.

R. F. Stocker

1974-01-01

42

Similarity of reaction spectra and odor discrimination: single receptor cell recordings in Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general context of primary olfactory coding, the reaction spectra of 50 receptor cells to a total of 54 substances were electrophysiologically determined on base of dose response curves and quantitatively compared with regard to their similarity by methods of vector analysis. The receptor cells are distributed among 3 morphologically distinguishable sensilla on the antennae of the male silkmothAntheraea

Wolf A. Kafka

1987-01-01

43

Biomimetic Nucleation of Hydroxyapatite Crystals Mediated by Antheraea pernyi Silk Sericin Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Biomacromolecules have been used as templates to grow hydroxyapatite crystals (HAps) by biomineralization to fabricate mineralized materials for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Silk sericin is a protein with features desirable as a biomaterial, such as increased hydrophilicity and biodegradation. Mineralization of the silk sericin from Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silkworm has rarely been reported. Here, for the first time, nucleation of HAps on A. pernyi silk sericin (AS) was attempted through a wet precipitation method and consequently the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on mineralized AS were investigated. It was found that AS mediated the nucleation of HAps in the form of nanoneedles while self-assembling into ?-sheet conformation, leading to the formation of a biomineralized protein based biomaterial. The cell viability assay of BMSCs showed that the mineralization of AS stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation, showing that the resultant AS biomaterial is biocompatible. The differentiation assay confirmed that the mineralized AS significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs when compared to nonmineralized AS as well as other types of sericin (B. mori sericin), suggesting that the resultant mineralized AS biomaterial has potential in promoting bone formation. This result represented the first work proving the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs directed by silk sericin. Therefore, the biomineralization of A. pernyi silk sericin coupled with seeding BMSCs on the resultant mineralized biomaterials is a useful strategy to develop the potential application of this unexplored silk sericin in the field of bone tissue engineering. This study lays the foundation for the use of A. pernyi silk sericin as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:24666022

2015-01-01

44

Biomimetic nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals mediated by Antheraea pernyi silk sericin promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Biomacromolecules have been used as templates to grow hydroxyapatite crystals (HAps) by biomineralization to fabricate mineralized materials for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Silk sericin is a protein with features desirable as a biomaterial, such as increased hydrophilicity and biodegradation. Mineralization of the silk sericin from Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silkworm has rarely been reported. Here, for the first time, nucleation of HAps on A. pernyi silk sericin (AS) was attempted through a wet precipitation method and consequently the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on mineralized AS were investigated. It was found that AS mediated the nucleation of HAps in the form of nanoneedles while self-assembling into ?-sheet conformation, leading to the formation of a biomineralized protein based biomaterial. The cell viability assay of BMSCs showed that the mineralization of AS stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation, showing that the resultant AS biomaterial is biocompatible. The differentiation assay confirmed that the mineralized AS significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs when compared to nonmineralized AS as well as other types of sericin (B. mori sericin), suggesting that the resultant mineralized AS biomaterial has potential in promoting bone formation. This result represented the first work proving the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs directed by silk sericin. Therefore, the biomineralization of A. pernyi silk sericin coupled with seeding BMSCs on the resultant mineralized biomaterials is a useful strategy to develop the potential application of this unexplored silk sericin in the field of bone tissue engineering. This study lays the foundation for the use of A. pernyi silk sericin as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:24666022

Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; Zhang, Can; Chen, Yuyin; Zhu, Liangjun; Mao, Chuanbin; OuYang, Hongwei

2014-04-14

45

Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

46

Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science.  

PubMed

Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3-6 months). The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori shuttle vector, has eliminated the conventional tedious procedures required to identify and isolate recombinant viruses. Several technical improvements, including a cysteine protease or chitinase deletion bacmid and chaperone-assisted expression and coexpression, have led to significantly increased protein yields and reduced costs for large-scale production. Terminal N-acetyl glucosamine and galactose residues were found in the N-glycan structures produced by silkworms, which are different from those generated by insect cells. Genomic elucidation of silkworm has opened a new chapter in utilization of silkworm. Transgenic silkworm technology provides a stable production of recombinant protein. Baculovirus surface display expression is one of the low-cost approaches toward silkworm larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccines. The expression of pharmaceutically relevant proteins, including cell/viral surface proteins, membrane proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors, using silkworm larvae or cocoons has become very attractive. Silkworm biotechnology is an innovative and easy approach to achieve high protein expression levels and is a very promising platform technology in the field of life science. Like the "Silkroad," we expect that the "Bioroad" from Asia to Europe will be established by the silkworm expression system. PMID:19830419

Kato, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Mizuho; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y

2010-01-01

47

Cyclic GMP Levels and Guanylate Cyclase Activity in Pheromone Sensitive Antennae of the Silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex pheromones applied to freshly isolated, living antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori led to an increase of cGMP. A 1:l mixture of 2 pheromone components of Antheraea polyphemus blown for 10 set in physiological concentrations over their antenna1 branches raised cGMP levels about 1.34-fold (kO.08 SEM, n = 23) from a basal level of 3.0 f

G. Ziegelberger; M. J. van den Berg; K.-E. Kaissling; S. Klumpp; J. E. Schultz

48

Three pheromone-binding proteins in olfactory sensilla of the two silkmoth species Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Females of the sibling silkmoth species Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi use the same three sex pheromone components in different ratios to attract conspecific males. Accordingly, the sensory hairs on the antennae of males contain three receptor cells sensitive to each of the pheromone components. In agreement with the number of pheromones used, three different pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) could be identified in pheromone-sensitive hairs of both species by combining biochemical and molecular cloning techniques. MALDI-TOF MS of sensillum lymph droplets from pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of male A. polyphemus revealed the presence of three major peaks with m/z of 15702, 15752 and 15780 and two minor peaks of m/z 15963 and 15983. In Western blots with four antisera raised against different silkmoth odorant-binding proteins, immunoreactivity was found only with an anti-(Apol PBP) serum. Free-flow IEF, ion-exchange chromatography and Western blot analyses revealed at least three anti-(Apol PBP) immunoreactive proteins with pI values between 4.4 and 4.7. N-Terminal sequencing of these three proteins revealed two proteins (Apol PBP1a and Apol PBP1b) identical in the first 49 amino acids to the already known PBP (Apol PBP1) [Raming, K. , Krieger, J. & Breer, H. (1989) FEBS Lett. 256, 2215-2218] and a new PBP having only 57% identity with this amino-acid region. Screening of antennal cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the N-terminal end of the new A. polyphemus PBP, led to the discovery of full length clones encoding this protein in A. polyphemus (Apol PBP3) and in A. pernyi (Aper PBP3). By screening the antennal cDNA library of A. polyphemus with a digoxigenin-labelled A. pernyi PBP2 cDNA [Krieger, J., Raming, K. & Breer, H. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1088, 277-284] a homologous PBP (Apol PBP2) was cloned. Binding studies with the two main pheromone components of A. polyphemus and A. pernyi, the (E,Z)-6, 11-hexadecadienyl acetate (AC1) and the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal (ALD), revealed that in A. polyphemus both Apol PBP1a and the new Apol PBP3 bound the 3H-labelled acetate, whereas no binding of the 3H-labelled aldehyde was found. In A. pernyi two PBPs from sensory hair homogenates showed binding affinity for the AC1 (Aper PBP1) and the ALD (Aper PBP2), respectively. PMID:10806387

Maida, R; Krieger, J; Gebauer, T; Lange, U; Ziegelberger, G

2000-05-01

49

Female Attacus atlas respond to pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a comparative electrophysiological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to their own or to A. atlas pheromone. Male A. atlas do not detect any of the A. polyphemus compounds but only the conspecific female gland extracts. Both male A. atlas and female A. polyphemus possess PBP and GOBP but lack the pheromone-degrading esterases of male Antheraea. The results indicate that the two species use quite distinct classes of chemicals as pheromones. In spite of this, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the PBPs show homology of 68%. PMID:11124211

Maida, R; Ziesmann, J

2001-01-01

50

A CALCIUM-ACTIVATED NONSPECIFIC CATION CHANNEL FROM OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONES OF THE SILKMOTH ANTHERAEA POLYPHEMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single-channel patch-clamp techniques were used to identify and characterize a Ca2+-activated nonspecific cation channel (CAN channel) on insect olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) from antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus. The CAN channel was found both in acutely isolated ORNs from developing pupae and in membrane vesicles from mature ORNs that presumably originated from inner dendritic segments. Amplitude histograms of the

T. A. KEIL

51

Kinetic Properties of a Sex Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme: The Sensillar Esterase of Antheraea polyphemus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E, 11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life

Richard G. Vogt; Lynn M. Riddiford; Glenn D. Prestwich

1985-01-01

52

Identification and localization of visual pigments in the retina of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the compound eye of the moth Antheraea polyphemus, three types of visual pigments were found in extracts from the retina and by microspectrophotometry in situ. The absorption maxima of the receptor pigment P and the metarhodopsin M are at (1) P 520–530 nm, M 480–490 nm; (2) P 460–480 nm, M 530–540 nm; (3) P 330–340 nm, M 460–470

Helmut Langer; Gudrun Schmeinck; Friederike Anton-Erxleben

1986-01-01

53

Female Attacus atlas Respond to Pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a Comparative Electrophysiological and Biochemical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11- hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to

Rosario Maida; Jürgen Ziesmann

2001-01-01

54

Probing a pheromone binding protein of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by endogenous tryptophan fluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

One subtype of the pheromone binding proteins of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1) has been analysed exploiting the two endogenous tryptophan residues as fluorescent probe. The intrinsic fluorescence exhibited a rather narrow spectrum with a maximum at 336 nm. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that one of the tryptophan residues (Trp37) is located in a hydrophobic environment whereas Trp127 is more

Stefanie Bette; Heinz Breer; Jürgen Krieger

2002-01-01

55

Resolution of pheromone pulses in receptor cells of Antheraea polyphemus at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pheromone receptor cells of male Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae) to resolve stimulus pulses was determined at different temperatures (8°, 18°, 28°C). The cells were stimulated by repeated 20-ms puffs of the pheromone components (E, Z)-6, 11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. At higher temperatures, higher frequencies of stimulus pulses were resolved by the nerve-impulse response: about 1.25 pulses per

B. Kodadová

1996-01-01

56

Rhythms of male Antheraea polyphemus Attraction and female attractiveness, and an improved pheromone sythesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

WildAntheraea polyphemus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera:Saturniidae) males were attracted to synthetic pheromone and to laboratory-reared females from 23:00 (EDT) until dawn. Males were attracted to the synthetic pheromone at a mean time of 01:33 and to the females at 03:23 (EDT). Synthetic traps accumulated the most males (61 compared to 19 in the female-baited traps), but there was no large difference in

J. P. Kochansky; R. T. Cardé; E. F. Taschenberg; W. L. Roelofs

1977-01-01

57

Construction of transgenic silkworm spinning antibacterial silk with fluorescence.  

PubMed

A targeting vector consisting of a fusion gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene gfp and the antimicrobial peptide cecropin gene cec flanked by pieces of the 5' and 3' sequences of the fibroin L chain gene fib-L of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and a negative selection DsRed marker gene driven by the baculovirus immediate early gene 1 (i.e.-1) promoter, was used to target the silkworm genome in order to explore the possibility of improving the performance of silk. A transgenic silkworm with a green fluorescent cocoon was obtained and PCR analysis of its genome confirmed that the target genes had been integrated into the silkworm genome correctly. Furthermore, in the posterior silk glands of the G6 generation transformation silkworm, a band representing the fusion protein Fib-L-GFP-Cec with a molecular mass of 68.7 kDa was detected by western blotting with an antibody against GFP. An investigation of the number of bacteria attached to a cocoon showed the transgenic silkworm cocoon possessed antibacterial properties. These results suggested the performance of silk can be improved by modifying the fibroin gene. PMID:25223857

Li, Zhen; Jiang, Yue; Cao, Guangli; Li, Jingzhi; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

2015-01-01

58

Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

2014-01-01

59

CURRENT UNDERSTANDING OF OAKS AND OAK WILT  

E-print Network

the heartwood, white oak wood makes good wine barrels while red oak wood does not. Given the greater), and even human food (acorns are still eaten in parts of Asia). Before the advent of steel-hulled ships, oak

Harrington, Thomas C.

60

Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and\\u000a 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate\\u000a that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac

Claudia Mohl; Heinz Breer; Jürgen Krieger

2002-01-01

61

Engineering Silkworms for Resistance to Baculovirus Through Multigene RNA Interference  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture. PMID:23105011

Subbaiah, Edupalli V.; Royer, Corinne; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Satyavathi, Valluri V.; Babu, Adari Sobhan; Sivaprasad, Vankadara; Chavancy, Gérard; DaRocha, Martine; Jalabert, Audrey; Mauchamp, Bernard; Basha, Ibrahim; Couble, Pierre; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2013-01-01

62

Accumulation of 1-deoxynojirimycin in silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) contents in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, at different developmental stages and tissues were investigated by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 1-DNJ contents of silkworm larvae change significantly with their developmental stages. The male larvae showed higher accumulation efficiency of 1-DNJ than the females and also a significant variation was observed among the silkworm strains. The present results show that tissue distribution of 1-DNJ was significantly higher in blood, digestive juice, and alimentary canal, but no 1-DNJ was observed in the silkgland. Moreover, 1-DNJ was not found in silkworms fed with artificial diet that does not contain mulberry leaf powder. This proves that silkworms obtain 1-DNJ from mulberry leaves; they could not synthesize 1-DNJ by themselves. The accumulation and excretion of 1-DNJ change periodically during the larval stage. There was no 1-DNJ in the newly-hatched larvae and 1-DNJ was mainly accumulated during the early and middle stages of every instar, while excreted at later stages of larval development. Further, it is possible to extract 1-DNJ from the larval feces and it is optimal to develop the 1-DNJ related products for diabetic auxiliary therapy. PMID:20349525

Yin, Hao; Shi, Xin-qin; Sun, Bo; Ye, Jing-jing; Duan, Zu-an; Zhou, Xiao-ling; Cui, Wei-zheng; Wu, Xiao-feng

2010-04-01

63

Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes. PMID:21595916

2011-01-01

64

Olfactory dendrites of the silkmoth antheraea polyphemus cramer (Lepidoptera : Saturniidae) : immunofluorescent staining of cytoskeletal proteins and transmission electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show the presence of major cytoskeletal proteins : tubulin, globular actin, and intermediate filament-like protein, 2 motor proteins : kinesin and unconventional myosin, and fodrin, in the olfactory dendrites of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera : Saturniidae) by means of immunofluorescence microscopy. We also show cross-bridges between the membrane and the microtubules and between the

George L Kumar; Thomas A Keil

1998-01-01

65

Pheromone-binding Proteins Contribute to the Activation of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are innervated by three types of receptor neurons each responding specifically to one of three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla surrounding the sensory dendrites contains three different types of pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in high concentrations. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Bombyx mori are supplied by two receptor neurons

Blanka Pophof

2004-01-01

66

A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In An- theraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding pro- teins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide

Maike Forstner; Heinz Breer; Jürgen Krieger

2009-01-01

67

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the moth Antheraea polyphemus the innervation of the anlage of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle (dlm) was transected at the onset of adult development. The subsequent breakdown of the isolated motor stumps during early adult development was studied at the ultrastructural level. First reactions are seen on the second day of development when axonal mitochondria shrink. Later, elongated vesicles similar

H. Nüesch; R. F. Stocker

1975-01-01

68

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. V. Development of the peripheral nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a feather-shaped structure consisting of about 30 flagellomeres, each of which gives off two pairs of side branches. During the pupal stage (lasting for 3 weeks), the antenna develops from a leaf-shaped, flattened epidermal sac (‘antennal blade’) via two series of incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the prospective

Cornelia Steiner; Thomas a. Keil

1995-01-01

69

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. VI. Experimental disturbance of antennal branch formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the formation of the side branches of the quadripectinate antennal flagellum was disturbed by an experimental manipulation. Normally the side branches develop in the pupa via deep incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the centerline of the leaf-shaped antennal anlage. Local removal of the uppermost, pigmented cuticular layers of the pupal antennal pocket

Cornelia Steiner; Thomas A. Keil

1995-01-01

70

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of neuromuscular connections on developing dorsolongitudinal flight muscles was studied in the moth Antheraea polyphemus, Undifferentiated membrane contacts between axon terminals and muscle-fiber anlagen are present in the diapause pupa. They persist during the period of nerve outgrowth, which probably provides a pathway of contact guidance. By the 4th day of adult development some of these contact areas

R. F. Stocker; H. Nüesch

1975-01-01

71

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. IV. Segmentation and branch formation.  

PubMed

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure; its flagellum consists of about 30 stem segments each giving off two pairs of side branches. The antenna develops during the pupal stage (lasting in total about 21 days) from a leaf-shaped anlage by incisions proceeding from the periphery towards the prospective antennal stem. Primary incisions, starting about 3 days after apolysis, form double branches, which arethen split into single branches by parallel running secondary incisions. The initial pattern of tracheae and peripheral nerves is completely rearranged during these morphogenetic processes which are finished 9-10 days after apolysis. In Antheraea the dorsal and ventral epithelial monolayers of the antennal anlage are successively subdivided during development into a pattern of repetitive epithelial zones. Within the first day after apolysis alternating stripes of sensillogenic and non-sensillogenic epithelium are differentiating. Then the latter are further subdivided, and at last four different stripelike zones (I-IV) can be discriminated. Long basal protrusions of the epidermal cells ('epidermal feet'), and most probably haemocytes, seem to be involved in the reconstruction of the epithelium: both show characteristic arrangements within the antennal anlage during successive developmental stages. PMID:18621244

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1993-06-01

72

From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

73

Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce

Ling Tong; Xiaohui Yu; Hong Liu

2010-01-01

74

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. Robertâ??s concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

75

Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

2010-09-01

76

Construction of transformed, cultured silkworm cells and transgenic silkworm using the site-specific integrase system from phage ?C31.  

PubMed

The Streptomyces bacteriophage, ?C31, uses a site-specific integrase enzyme to perform efficient recombination. The recombination system uses specific sequences to integrate exogenous DNA from the phage into a host. The sequences are known as the attP site in the phage and the attB site in the host. The system can be used as a genetic manipulation tool. In this study it has been applied to the transformation of cultured BmN cells and the construction of transgenic Bombyx mori individuals. A plasmid, pSK-attB/Pie1-EGFP/Zeo-PASV40, containing a cassette designed to express a egfp-zeocin fusion gene, was co-transfected into cultured BmN cells with a helper plasmid, pSK-Pie1/NLS-Int/NSL. Expression of the egfp-zeocin fusion gene was driven by an ie-1 promoter, downstream of a ?C31 attB site. The helper plasmid encoded the ?C31 integrase enzyme, which was flanked by two nuclear localization signals. Expression of the egfp-zeocin fusion gene could be observed in transformed cells. The two plasmids were also transferred into silkworm eggs to obtain transgenic silkworms. Successful integration of the fusion gene was indicated by the detection of green fluorescence, which was emitted by the silkworms. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the attB site had been cut, to allow recombination between the attB and endogenous pseudo attP sites in the cultured silkworm cells and silkworm individuals. PMID:24990696

Yin, Yajuan; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

2014-10-01

77

Use of silkworms to evaluate the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen.  

PubMed

Injection of a Japanese cedar pollen suspension into silkworm hemolymph kills the silkworms. A certain species of bacteria proliferated in the hemolymph of the dead silkworms. A 16S rDNA analysis demonstrated that the proliferating bacteria were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Among them, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. weihenstephanensis exhibited hemolysis against sheep red blood cells and were lethal to mice. A culture filtrate of B. amyloliquefaciens showed enzyme activity toward the pectic membrane of cedar pollen. These results suggest that silkworms as an animal model are useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of bacteria attached to cedar pollen. PMID:24071577

Hu, Yuan; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2013-08-01

78

Mineralization and biocompatibility of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin film for potential bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the mineralization of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin. Mineralization of A. pernyi sericin was performed by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate. The inhibition of precipitation of calcium carbonate and von Kossa staining on A. pernyi sericin were tested, and the corresponding results prove that A. pernyi sericin has Ca binding activity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation shows that spherical crystals could be nucleated on the A. pernyi sericin film. These crystals were confirmed to be hydroxyapatite according to FT-IR and XRD spectra, indicating that A. pernyi sericin is capable of mineralization. In addition, cell adhesion and growth activity assay demonstrate that A. pernyi sericin shows excellent biocompatibility for the growth of MG-63 cells. PMID:24211968

Yang, Mingying; Mandal, Namita; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Min, Sijia; Zhu, Liangjun

2014-01-01

79

Hormonal control of muscle atrophy and degeneration in the moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

The intersegmental muscles of the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer) can undergo two forms of degenerative changes: a wasting atrophy that lasts about 6 days or rapid dissolution that is completed within 30 h. Muscle atrophy is induced by a dramatic decline in the endogenous titres of the steroid moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. 20-Hydroxyecdysone appears to act as a trophic factor for the muscles as infusion or injection of this steroid blocks further atrophy of the muscle. The normal decline of 20-hydroxyecdysone also allows the muscles to become competent to respond to the peptide eclosion hormone. Eclosion hormone is then released and acts directly on these muscles to induce rapid cell death which is morphologically and physiologically distinct from steroid-regulated atrophy. PMID:6491588

Schwartz, L M; Truman, J W

1984-07-01

80

Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Two proteins of the IP3 transduction pathway were identified by Western blots in homogenates of isolated pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. A 110 kDa protein was recognized by an antiserum raised against the Drosophila phospholipase C beta (PLC beta p121) and a 80kDa protein was labelled by an antiserum against a synthetic peptide of a conserved region of protein kinase C (PKC). Incubation of homogenized sensory hairs with the main sex pheromone component, (E,Z) 6-11 hexadecadienyl acetate, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of PKC compared to controls without pheromone. In contrast, incubation with pheromone did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKC by the membrane permeable dioctanoylglycerol led to excitation of the pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons. These data support the current concept that pheromone perception of moths is mediated by the IP3 transduction pathway. PMID:10852242

Maida, R; Redkozubov, A; Ziegelberger, G

2000-06-01

81

Esterase activity in the olfactory sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We studied in individual males of Antheraea polyphemus the activity of the sensillar esterase, a pheromone-degrading enzyme present in the sensillum lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor cells. In parallel, receptor potentials from single pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea were recorded. Our screening revealed a large variability of the enzyme activity in individuals with similar electrophysiological responses. In some moths the sensillar esterase was not detectable, i.e. present with 100-fold less activity. However, such variable esterase activity showed no correlation to the time course of the receptor potential. Thus, enzymatic pheromone degradation does not seem to be involved in the rapid pheromone inactivation at the end of the stimulus, but rather serves as the final pheromone sequestration step. PMID:7605955

Maida, R; Ziegelberger, G; Kaissling, K E

1995-03-27

82

Identification of cytoskeletal proteins in the antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi.  

PubMed

Although the overall cytoskeletal morphology of the olfactory dendrite in the antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi is known, the cytoskeleton proteins that structurally and functionally support these structures remain to be identified in this paper, we describe the identification of tubulin, actin and intermediate filament-like proteins in the olfactory dendrites, and motor proteins such as kinesin and unconventional myosin in the antennal branches by the use of antibodies. We also show that the tubulins within the olfactory dendrites and in the antennal branches are acetylated. This study provides valuable information concerning the possible role of these proteins in transduction, transport and motility, as is evident in other systems. PMID:8905709

Kumar, G L; Maida, R; Keil, T A

1996-08-12

83

Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs. PMID:3001718

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

1985-12-01

84

Survey and analysis of microsatellites in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: frequency, distribution, mutations, marker potential and their conservation in heterologous species.  

PubMed

We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of >/=15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and >/=5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2-14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

Prasad, M Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M; Madhu, M; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K; Nagaraju, J

2005-01-01

85

Sudden Oak Death Disease Progression in Oaks and Tanoaks1  

E-print Network

of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii379 Sudden Oak Death Disease Progression in Oaks and Tanoaks1 Brice A. McPherson2 , Sylvia R. Mori3 words: California black oak, coast live oak, Phytophthora ramorum, survival analysis, tanoak Abstract

Standiford, Richard B.

86

Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce leaves in the latter two developing stages. Therefore, it is nec-essary to investigate the biochemical components and respiration characteristics of silkworms raised with this method to supply data bases for the inclusion of silkworms in the system to conduct system experiments. The nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP) which are the grinded and freeze-dried silkworm on the 3rd day in the fifth developing stage containing protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids were determined with international standard analyzing methods in this study. The results showed that SP was rich in protein and amino acids. There were twelve kinds of essential vitamins, nine kinds of minerals and twelve kinds of fatty acids in SP. In contrast, SP had much better nutrient components than snail, fish, chicken, beef and pork as animal food for crew members. Moreover, 359 kCal can be generated per 100g of SP (dry weight). The respirations of silkworm during its whole growing process under two main physiological statuses which were eating and non-eating leaves were studied. According to the results measured by the animal respiration measuring system, there were much difference among the respirations of silkworms under the two main physiological statuses. The amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms when they were eating leaves were more than those under the non-eating status. Even under the same status, the respiration characteristics of silkworms in five different developing stages were also different from one an-other. The respiratory quotients of silkworms under two statuses are largely different (eating F=3.191, P<0.05; non-eating F=2.935, P <0.05). Moreover, the amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms in the first three developing stages were much more than those of the silkworms in the latter two developing stages per unit weight of leaves. These results concerning the nutrient compositions and respiration characteristics of silkworms can provide valuable data for the establishment of complex bioregenerative life support systems including different biological units in the lunar or mars bases in the future.

Tong, Ling; Yu, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong

87

MEASURED BEHAVIOURAL LATENCY IN RESPONSE TO SEX-PHEROMONE LOSS IN THE LARGE SILK MOTH ANTHERAEA POLYPHEMUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Males of the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) were video-recorded in a sustained-flight wind tunnel in a constant plume of sex pheromone. The plume was experimentally truncated, and the moths, on losing pheromone stimulus, rapidly changed their behaviour from up- tunnel zig-zag flight to lateral casting flight. The latency of this change was in the range

T. C. BAKER

1988-01-01

88

Binding and hydrolysis of radiolabeled pheromone and several analogs by male-specific antennal proteins of the moth Antheraea polyphemus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory hair proteins from antennae of males of the wild silk moth,Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) were incubated with radiolabeled 6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl acetate in the presence of unlabeled pheromone analogs as competitive inhibitors. The two extracellular proteins of importance, a highly active sensillar esterase and an abundant 15,000 mol wt binding protein, interact to degrade labeled pheromone less efficiently in the presence

Glenn D. Prestwich; Richard G. Vogt; Lynn M. Riddiford

1986-01-01

89

Proteomic Analysis of Larval Midgut from the Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

PubMed Central

The midgut is the major organ for food digestion, nutrient absorption and also a barrier for foreign substance. The 5th-instar larval stage of silkworm is very important for larval growth, development, and silk production. In the present study, we used 2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to analyze the midgut proteins from the 5th-instar larvae as well as the midgut proteins under starvation condition. A total of 96 proteins were identified in this study; and among them, 69 proteins were observed in midgut for the first time. We also found that the silkworm larval midgut responded to starvation by producing a 10?kDa heat shock protein and a diapause hormone precursor. PMID:21687556

Zhang, Sai; Xu, Yunmin; Fu, Qiang; Jia, Ling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2011-01-01

90

in silico identification of protein-protein interactions in Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The Domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, an economically important insect has been used as a lepidopteran molecular model next only to Drosophila. Compared to the genomic information in silkworm, the protein-protein interaction data are limited. Therefore experimentally identified PPI maps from five model organisms such as E.coli, C.elegans, D.melanogaster, H. sapiens, S. cerevisiae were used to infer the PPI network of silkworm using the well-recognized Interlog based method. Among the 14623 silkworm proteins, 7736 protein-protein interaction pairs were predicted which include 2700 unique proteins of the silkworms. Using the iPfam interaction domains and the gene expression data, these predictions were validated. In that 625 PPI pairs of predicted network were associated with the iPfam domain-domain interactions and the random network has average of 9. In the gene expression method, the average PCC value of the predicted network and random network was 0.29 and 0.23100±0.00042 respectively. It reveals that the predicted PPI networks of silkworm are highly significant and reliable. This is the first PPI network for the silkworm which will provide a framework for deciphering the cellular processes governing key metabolic pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori and available at SilkPPI (http://210.212.197.30/SilkPPI/). PMID:24616555

Sumathy, Ramasamy; Rao, Ashwath Southekal Krishna; Chandrakanth, Nalavadi; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

2014-01-01

91

in silico identification of protein-protein interactions in Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, an economically important insect has been used as a lepidopteran molecular model next only to Drosophila. Compared to the genomic information in silkworm, the protein-protein interaction data are limited. Therefore experimentally identified PPI maps from five model organisms such as E.coli, C.elegans, D.melanogaster, H. sapiens, S. cerevisiae were used to infer the PPI network of silkworm using the well-recognized Interlog based method. Among the 14623 silkworm proteins, 7736 protein-protein interaction pairs were predicted which include 2700 unique proteins of the silkworms. Using the iPfam interaction domains and the gene expression data, these predictions were validated. In that 625 PPI pairs of predicted network were associated with the iPfam domain-domain interactions and the random network has average of 9. In the gene expression method, the average PCC value of the predicted network and random network was 0.29 and 0.23100±0.00042 respectively. It reveals that the predicted PPI networks of silkworm are highly significant and reliable. This is the first PPI network for the silkworm which will provide a framework for deciphering the cellular processes governing key metabolic pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori and available at SilkPPI (http://210.212.197.30/SilkPPI/). PMID:24616555

Sumathy, Ramasamy; Rao, Ashwath Southekal Krishna; Chandrakanth, Nalavadi; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

2014-01-01

92

[Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].  

PubMed

To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE. PMID:12600031

Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

2002-08-01

93

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering 3 different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were found; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22934597

Ramesha, Chinnaswamy; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu Sugnana; Anuradha, Chevva M.; Kumar, Chitta Suresh

2012-01-01

94

Nutrigenetic Screening Strains of the Mulberry Silkworm, Bombyx mori, for Nutritional Efficiency  

PubMed Central

The activity of sericulture is declining due the reduction of mulberry production area in sericulture practicing countries lead to adverse effects on silkworm rearing and cocoon production. Screening for nutrigenetic traits in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is an essential prerequisite for better understanding and development of nutritionally efficient breeds/hybrids, which show less food consumption with higher efficiency conversion. The aim of this study was to identify nutritionally efficient polyvoltine silkworm strains using the germplasm breeds RMW2, RMW3, RMW4, RMG3, RMG1, RMG4, RMG5, RMG6 and APM1 as the control. The 1st day of 5th stage silkworm larvae of polyvoltine strains were subjected to standard gravimetric analysis until spinning for three consecutive generations covering three different seasons on 19 nutrigenetic traits. Highly significant (p ? 0.001) differences were found among all nutrigenetic traits of polyvoltine silkworm strains in the experimental groups. The nutritionally efficient polvoltine silkworm strains were resulted by utilizing nutrition consumption index and efficiency of conversion of ingesta/cocoon traits as the index. Higher nutritional efficiency conversions were found in the polyvoltine silkworm strains on efficiency of conversion of ingesta to cocoon and shell than control. Comparatively smaller consumption index, respiration, metabolic rate with superior relative growth rate, and quantum of food ingesta and digesta requisite per gram of cocoon and shell were shown; the lowest amount was in new polyvoltine strains compared to the control. Furthermore, based on the overall nutrigenetic traits utilized as index or ‘biomarkers’, three polyvoltine silkworm strains (RMG4, RMW2, and RMW3) were identified as having the potential for nutrition efficiency conversion. The data from the present study advances our knowledge for the development of nutritionally efficient silkworm breeds/hybrids and their effective commercial utilization in the sericulture industry. PMID:22938037

Chinnaswamy, Ramesha; Lakshmi, Hothur; Kumari, Savarapu S.; Anuradha, Chebba M.; Kumar, Chitta S.

2012-01-01

95

Probing a pheromone binding protein of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by endogenous tryptophan fluorescence.  

PubMed

One subtype of the pheromone binding proteins of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1) has been analysed exploiting the two endogenous tryptophan residues as fluorescent probe. The intrinsic fluorescence exhibited a rather narrow spectrum with a maximum at 336 nm. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that one of the tryptophan residues (Trp37) is located in a hydrophobic environment whereas Trp127 is more solvent exposed, as was predicted modeling the ApolPBP1 sequence on the proposed structure of the Bombyx mori pheromone binding protein. Monitoring the interaction of ApolPBP1 as well as its Trp mutants with the three species-specific pheromone compounds by recording the endogenous fluorescence emission revealed profound differences; whereas (E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal induced a dose-dependent quenching of the fluorescence, both (E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate and (E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate elicited an augmentation of the endogenous fluorescence. These data indicate that although ApolPBP1 can bind all three pheromones, there are substantial differences concerning their interaction with the protein, which may have important functional implications. PMID:11804795

Bette, Stefanie; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2002-03-01

96

A calcium-activated nonspecific cation channel from olfactory receptor neurones of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Single-channel patch-clamp techniques were used to identify and characterize a Ca2(+)-activated nonspecific cation channel (CAN channel) on insect olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) from antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus. The CAN channel was found both in acutely isolated ORNs from developing pupae and in membrane vesicles from mature ORNs that presumably originated from inner dendritic segments. Amplitude histograms of the CAN single-channel currents presented well-defined peaks corresponding to at least four channel substates each having a conductance of about 16 pS. Simultaneous gating of the substates was achieved by intracellular Ca2(+) with an EC(50) value of about 80 nmol(-l). Activity of the CAN channel could be blocked by application of amiloride (IC(50)<100 nmoll(-1)). Moreover, in the presence of l ?moll(-1) Ca2+,opening of the CAN channel was totally suppressed by 10 ?moll(-1) cyclic GMP,whereas ATP (1 mmoll(-1)) was without effect. We suggest that the CAN channel plays a specific role in modulation of cell excitability and in shaping the voltage response of ORNs. PMID:22141156

Zufall, F; Hatt, H

1991-11-01

97

Redox-shift of the pheromone-binding protein in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

In pheromone-sensitive hairs of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, two electrophoretically distinct pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are present. They indicate no amino acid sequence diversity according to peptide mapping, but differ in their redox state, as shown by free-sulfhydryl-group-specific cleavage at cysteine residues with 2-nitro-5-thiocyanobenzoic acid. In kinetic studies, the pheromone was initially bound mainly by the reduced PBP but later by the oxidized PBP, where all six cysteine residues form disulfide bonds. This redox shift was observed only in the homogenate of isolated olfactory hairs, where proteins of the sensillum lymph and receptive dendrites are present. In control experiments with purified binding proteins, the proportion of pheromone bound to the oxidized PBP did not increase with increasing incubation time, suggesting that disulfide formation does not occur spontaneously but is mediated by the sensory hairs, possibly by interaction with the receptor cell membrane. These data suggest that arriving hydrophobic pheromone molecules are first bound by the reduced PBP and transported through the aqueous sensillum lymph towards the receptor molecules of the dendritic membrane. The oxidized complex might not be able to activate further receptors and, thus, effectively deactivate the pheromone molecules within the sensillum lymph. PMID:7588707

Ziegelberger, G

1995-09-15

98

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10,000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia are characterized by rectangularly shaped rhabdoms containing parallel microvilli arranged in groups that are oriented perpendicular to each other. In all other ommatidia, the proximal parts of the rhabdoms show radially arranged microvilli, whereas the distal parts may reveal different patterns, frequently with microvilli in two directions or sometimes even in one direction. Moreover, the microvilli of all distal cells are arranged in parallel to meridians of the eyes. By virtue of these structural features the eyes should enable this moth not only discrimination of the plane of polarized light but also skylight-orientation via the polarization pattern, depending on moon position. The receptor cells exhibit only small alterations during daylight within the natural diurnal cycle. However, under illumination with different monochromatic lights of physiological intensity, receptor cells can be unbalanced: Changes in ultrastructure of the rhabdomeres and the cytoplasm of such cells are evident. The effects are different in the daytime and at night. These findings are discussed in relation to the breakdown and regeneration of microvilli and the influence of the diurnal cycle. They are compared with results on photoreceptor membrane turnover in eyes of other arthropod species. PMID:3383218

Anton-Erxleben, F; Langer, H

1988-05-01

99

Antennal-specific pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating behaviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concentration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone concentration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori that are capable of catabolizing long chain, unsaturated aldehydes such as their aldehyde pheromones. These soluble enzymes are associated uniquely with male and female antennae and have molecular masses of 175 and 130 kDa, respectively. The A. polyphemus aldehyde oxidase has been localized to the olfactory sensilla which contain the pheromone receptor cell dendrites. These same sensilla contain a previously described sensilla-specific esterase that degrades the acetate ester component of A. polyphemus pheromone. We propose that sensillar pheromone-degrading enzymes modulate pheromone concentration in the receptor space and hence play a dynamic role in the pheromone-mediated reproductive behaviors of these animals. PMID:2246254

Rybczynski, R; Vogt, R G; Lerner, M R

1990-11-15

100

Characterization of four pupal wing cuticular protein genes of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Three different clones have been isolated from a genomic library of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by employing a subtractive hybridization technique. The clones with inserts of 13-16 kb of DNA each, code for mRNAs expressed in the wing epidermis during JH induced second pupal cuticle deposition. While two of the clones code for a single mRNA each, the third one codes for two mRNAs. All the four mRNAs code for distinct polypeptides that can be precipitated with antibodies raised against pupal cuticular proteins. These genes are activated at the same period of pupal development and their transcripts follow similar patterns of accumulation. Although these genes are expressed in a tissue and time specific manner attesting to their pupal wing epidermal specificity, three of them are expressed in the adult wing epidermis also, but not at the larval stage. While DNAs from other silkmoths and insects hybridize to these genes, only one of the A. polyphemus genes hybridizes to RNA from second pupal wings of two other silkmoths tested. PMID:7517270

Kumar, M N; Sridhara, S

1994-03-01

101

Development of advanced antimicrobial and sterilized plasma polypropylene grafted muga (antheraea assama) silk as suture biomaterial.  

PubMed

Surface modification of silk fibroin (SF) materials using environmentally friendly and non-hazardous process to tailor them for specific application as biomaterials has drawn a great deal of interest in the field of biomedical research. To further explore this area of research, in this report, polypropylene (PP) grafted muga (Antheraea assama) SF (PP-AASF) suture is developed using plasma treatment and plasma graft polymerization process. For this purpose, AASF is first sterilized in argon (Ar) plasma treatment followed by grafting PP onto its surface. AASF is a non-mulberry variety having superior qualities to mulberry SF and is still unexplored in the context of suture biomaterial. AASF, Ar plasma treated AASF (AASFAr ) and PP-AASF are subjected to various characterization techniques for better comparison and the results are attempted to correlate with their observed properties. Excellent mechanical strength, hydrophobicity, antibacterial behavior, and remarkable wound healing activity of PP-AASF over AASF and AASFAr make it a promising candidate for application as sterilized suture biomaterial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 355-365, 2014. PMID:23913788

Gogoi, Dolly; Choudhury, Arup Jyoti; Chutia, Joyanti; Pal, Arup Ratan; Khan, Mojibur; Choudhury, Manash; Pathak, Pallabi; Das, Gouranga; Patil, Dinkar S

2014-04-01

102

Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin for targeted gene delivery of VEGF165-Ang-1 with PEI.  

PubMed

Vascularization is a crucial challenge in tissue engineering. One solution for this problem is to implant scaffolds that contain functional genes that promote vascularization by providing angiogenic growth factors via a gene delivery carrier. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is a gene delivery carrier with high transfection efficiency but with cytotoxicity. To solve this problem, we utilized Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), which has favorable cytocompatibility and biodegradability, RGD sequences and a negative charge, in conjunction with PEI, as the delivery vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165-angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene simultaneous expression plasmid, creating an ASF/PEI/pDNA complex. The results suggested that the zeta potential of the ASF/PEI/pDNA complex was significantly lower than that of the PEI/pDNA complex. Decreased nitrogen and increased oxygen on the surface of the complex demonstrated that the ASF had successfully combined with the surface of the PEI/pDNA. Furthermore, the complexes resisted digestion by nucleic acid enzymes and degradation by serum. L929 cells were cultured and transfected in vitro and improved cytotoxicity was found when the cells were transfected with ASF/PEI/pDNA compared with PEI/pDNA. In addition, the transfection efficiency and VEGF secretion increased. In general, this study provides a novel method for decreasing the cytotoxicity of PEI gene delivery vectors and increasing transfection efficiency of angiogenesis-related genes. PMID:24867887

Ma, Caili; Lv, Linlin; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; You, Renchuan; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-06-01

103

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2010-10-01

104

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

105

A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide a unique model system for detailed analyzes of the interplay between the various elements underlying pheromone reception. Efforts to identify pheromone receptors of Antheraea polyphemus have led to the identification of a candidate pheromone receptor (ApolOR1). This receptor was found predominantly expressed in male antennae, specifically in neurons located beneath pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea. The ApolOR1-expressing cells were found to be surrounded by supporting cells co-expressing all three ApolPBPs. The response spectrum of ApolOR1 was assessed by means of calcium imaging using HEK293-cells stably expressing the receptor. It was found that at nanomolar concentrations ApolOR1-cells responded to all three pheromones when the compounds were solubilized by DMSO and also when DMSO was substituted by one of the three PBPs. However, at picomolar concentrations, cells responded only in the presence of the subtype ApolPBP2 and the pheromone (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. These results are indicative of a specific interplay of a distinct pheromone component with an appropriate binding protein and its related receptor subtype, which may be considered as basis for the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the pheromone detection system. PMID:20011135

Forstner, Maike; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2009-01-01

106

A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus  

PubMed Central

Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide a unique model system for detailed analyzes of the interplay between the various elements underlying pheromone reception. Efforts to identify pheromone receptors of Antheraea polyphemus have led to the identification of a candidate pheromone receptor (ApolOR1). This receptor was found predominantly expressed in male antennae, specifically in neurons located beneath pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea. The ApolOR1-expressing cells were found to be surrounded by supporting cells co-expressing all three ApolPBPs. The response spectrum of ApolOR1 was assessed by means of calcium imaging using HEK293-cells stably expressing the receptor. It was found that at nanomolar concentrations ApolOR1-cells responded to all three pheromones when the compounds were solubilized by DMSO and also when DMSO was substituted by one of the three PBPs. However, at picomolar concentrations, cells responded only in the presence of the subtype ApolPBP2 and the pheromone (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. These results are indicative of a specific interplay of a distinct pheromone component with an appropriate binding protein and its related receptor subtype, which may be considered as basis for the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the pheromone detection system. PMID:20011135

Forstner, Maike; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2009-01-01

107

The adverse effects of phoxim exposure in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm is an important economic insect. Poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. In this study, Solexa sequencing technology was performed to profile the gene expression changes in the midgut of silkworms in response to 24h of phoxim exposure and the impact on detoxification, apoptosis and immune defense were addressed. The results showed that 254 genes displayed at least 2.0-fold changes in expression levels, with 148 genes up-regulated and 106 genes down-regulated. Cytochrome P450 played an important role in detoxification. Histopathology examination and transmission electron microscope revealed swollen mitochondria and disappearance of the cristae of mitochondria, which are the important features in insect apoptotic cells. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was confirmed. In addition, the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways were all inhibited using qRT-PCR. Our results could help better understand the impact of phoxim exposure on silkworm. PMID:23899924

Gu, ZhiYa; Zhou, YiJun; Xie, Yi; Li, FanChi; Ma, Lie; Sun, ShanShan; Wu, Yu; Wang, BinBin; Wang, JuMei; Hong, Fashui; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

2014-02-01

108

Analysis of silkworm gut microflora in the Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm (Bombyx mori L) has advantages in the nutritional composition, growth characteristics and other factors, it is regarded as animal protein source for astronauts in the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS).Due to the features of BLSS, silkworm breeding way is different from the conventional one (mulberry leaves throughout five instars): they were fed with mulberry and lettuce leaves during the 1st-3rd instars and 4th -5th instars, respectively. As the lettuce stem can be eaten by astronauts, the leaves not favored by humans can be insect's foodstuff. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the gut microbial composition, the type of dominant bacteria of silkworm raised with this way and the differences from the conventional breeding method, so as to reduce the mortality rate caused by the foodstuff change and to provide more animal protein for astronauts. In this study, 16srDNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method were used to analyze the silkworm gut microbial flora under two breeding manners. The results show that conventional and BLSS breeding way have six dominant bacteria in common: Clostridium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides, Paenibacillus. We also found Escherichia, Janthinobacterium, Sedimentibacter, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Arcobacter, Rothia, Polaribacter and Acinetobacter, Anaerofilum, Rummeliibacillus, Anaeroplasma, Serratia in the ground conventional and BLSS special breeding way, respectively. Changing the foodstuff of silkworm leads to the dynamic alteration of gut microbial. Dominant bacteria of the two breeding ways have diversities from each other. The ground conventional breeding way has more abundant bacteria than the BLSS one. Due to the lettuce leaves have replaced mulberry leaves at the beginning of the silkworm 4th instar, some silkworms can not survive without the bacteria that digest and absorb lettuce leaves. We suggest those dominant bacteria produced by the BLSS breeding way can be made probiotics then add to lettuce leaves to feed 4th instar silkworm. It is aimed at enhancing the nutrient absorption and resistance to disease regulated by silkworm gut, laying foundation for controlling the silkworm intestinal micro ecology in the BLSS, providing more high-quality animal protein for astronauts. Key word: BLSS, silkworm, dominant bacteria, gut microbial

Liang, Xue; Liu, lh64. Hong

2012-07-01

109

Snmp1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus with Homology to the CD36 Family of Membrane Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

While olfactory neurons of silk moths are well known for their exquisite sensitivity to sex pheromone odor- ants, molecular mechanisms underlying this sensitivity are poorly understood. In searching for proteins that might support olfactory mechanisms, we characterized the protein profile of olfactory neuron receptor mem- branes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus .W e have purified and cloned a

Matthew E. Rogers; Ming Sun; Michael R. Lerner; Richard G. Vogt

1997-01-01

110

New and highly efficient expression systems for expressing selectively foreign protein in the silk glands of transgenic silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed three different fibroin H-chain expression systems to estimate the efficacy of producing recombinant proteins\\u000a in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. The results showed that the three different EGFP\\/H-chain fusion genes were all expressed\\u000a selectively in the posterior silk gland of the transgenic silkworm. The recombinant protein content of transgenic silkworm\\u000a cocoons is up to 15% (w\\/w) when using

Aichun Zhao; Tianfu Zhao; Yuansong Zhang; Qingyou Xia; Cheng Lu; Zeyang Zhou; Zhonghuai Xiang; M. Nakagaki

2010-01-01

111

Characterization of multiple CYP9A genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the advances in the silkworm genome project, a new genome-wide analysis of cytochrome P450 genes was performed, focusing\\u000a mainly on gene duplication. All four CYP9A subfamily members from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were cloned by RT-PCR and designated CYP9A19–CYP9A22 by the P450 Nomenclature Committee. They each contain an open reading frame of 1,593 bp in length and encode a

Junwen Ai; Quanyou Yu; Tingcai Cheng; Fangyin Dai; Xuesong Zhang; Yong Zhu; Zhonghuai Xiang

2010-01-01

112

Comparison of Transformation Efficiency of piggyBac Transposon among Three Different Silkworm Bombyx mori Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation rate of three different strains of silkworm Bombyx mori was compared after the introduction of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-encoding genes into the silkworm eggs by microinjection of a mixture of piggyBac vector and helper plasmid containing a transposase-encoding sequence. Although there were no significant differences among the three strains in the percentages of fertile moths in microinjected

Boxiong ZHONG; Jianying LI; Jin'e CHEN; Jian YE; Songdong YU

2007-01-01

113

Mechanism of Enhanced Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus-Resistance by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Silkworm  

PubMed Central

The infection of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) in silkworms is often lethal. It is difficult to prevent, and its lethality is correlated with both viral particle characteristics and silkworm strains. Low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can promote silkworm growth and improve its resistance to organophosphate pesticides. In this study, TiO2 NPs’ effect on BmNPV resistance was investigated by analyzing the characteristics of BmNPV proliferation and transcriptional differences in silkworm midgut and the transcriptional changes of immunity related genes after feeding with TiO2 NPs. We found that low doses of TiO2 NPs improved the resistance of silkworm against BmNPV by 14.88-fold, with the mortalities of the experimental group and control group being 0.56% and 8.33% at 144 h, respectively. The proliferation of BmNPV in the midgut was significantly increased 72 h after infection in both experimental and control groups; the control group reached the peak at 120 h, while the experimental group took 24 more hours to reach the maximal value that was 12.63 times lower than the control, indicating that TiO2 NPs can inhibit BmNPV proliferation in the midgut. Consistently, the expression of the BmNPV-resistant gene Bmlipase-1 had the same increase pattern as the proliferation changes. Immune signaling pathway analysis revealed that TiO2 NPs inhibited the proliferation of silkworm BmNPV to reduce the activation levels of janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, while promoting the expression of Bmakt to improve the immunity. Overall, our results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs increase silkworm resistance against BmNPV by inhibiting virus proliferation and improving immunity in silkworms. PMID:25692869

Zhang, Hua; Ni, Min; Hong, Fashui; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

2015-01-01

114

mRNA populations during wing development in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Pupal wing tissue of the American silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus has been used as a model system to study 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone control of cuticle protein synthesis. Juvenile hormone does not affect either the content or rate of synthesis of RNA and protein of the wing tissue. both of which show linear increases during the first few days of hormonal treatment. Based on the fractionation of total RNA on oligo-dT columns the percent of mRNA remains the same throughout development after both hormone treatments. However, both the amount of poly-A+ RNA in the wing tissue, and its content of poly-A show considerable increases as a function of development. The products of translation of the various poly-A+ RNA populations in the cell-free wheatgerm system have been analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Qualitative changes occur during the first 24 h; the production of a mRNA coding for a protein of approx. 40 000 dalton is stimulated and the production of a mRNA coding for a protein of 29 000 dalton is greatly reduced. Only a few differences are observed between samples from the 2 hormone treatments. Over the next 5-15 days of development mainly quantitative changes are observed. Juvenile hormone application results in quantitative changes in specific mRNAs, but no new mRNAs unique to juvenile hormone action are observed. The data are consistent with the concept that in altering the epidermal developmental program, juvenile hormone is apparently modulating the action of 20-hydroxyecdysone. PMID:6173272

Katula, K; Gilbert, L I; Sridhara, S

1981-12-01

115

Improvement of light penetration based silkworm gender identification with confined regions of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on our previous work on light penetration-based silkworm gender identification, we find that unwanted optical noises scattering from the surrounding area near the silkworm pupa and the transparent support are sometimes analyzed and misinterpreted leading to incorrect silkworm gender identification. To alleviate this issue, we place a small rectangular hole on a transparent support so that it not only helps the user precisely place the silkworm pupa but also functions as a region of interest (ROI) for blocking unwanted optical noises and for roughly locating the abdomen region in the image for ease of image processing. Apart from the external ROI, we also assign a smaller ROI inside the image in order to remove strong scattering light from all edges of the external ROI and at the same time speed up our image processing operations. With only the external ROI in function, our experiment shows a measured 86% total accuracy in identifying gender of 120 silkworm pupae with a measured average processing time of 38 ms. Combining the external ROI and the image ROI together revamps the total accuracy in identifying the silkworm gender to 95% with a measured faster 18 ms processing time.

Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Sa-ngiamsak, Chiranut

2013-06-01

116

Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac was less effective and 6E,11Z-16:Al showed only a small effect. In contrast, in subtype PBP2 pronounced structural changes were only induced by the 6E,11Z-16:Al, and the subtype PBP3 did not show any considerable changes in response to the pheromonal compounds. The UV-spectroscopic data suggest that histidine residues are likely to be involved in the ligand-induced structural changes of the proteins, and this notion was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. These results demonstrate that appropriate ligands induce structural changes in PBPs and provide evidence for ligand specificity of these proteins. PMID:12488967

Mohl, Claudia; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2002-10-01

117

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

American Museum of Natural History

2001-01-01

118

Oak Poisoning in Livestock.  

E-print Network

, percent morbidity and percent mortality of calves fed Qzcercus stellata (post oak) ancl supplements. Antidotal feed contained 10 percent by weight calcium hydroxide. feed (10). Post oak (Q. .rte//a~a) was fed during tlv. 1 trial. The antidotal... breeding from 8 to 13 months of age and weighing from 160 to 393 pounds nt: 1 fed as much post oak (Q. stellata) as they would conhr c for 12 days. Six calves were fed an average of 26.7 per. cent of their body weight on post oak blossoms, buds nnrl...

Dollahite, J. W.; Housholder, G. T.; Camp, B. J.

1966-01-01

119

Zygotic amplification of secondary piRNAs during silkworm embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 23–30-nucleotide-long small RNAs that act as sequence-specific silencers of transposable elements in animal gonads. In flies, genetics and deep sequencing data have led to a hypothesis for piRNA biogenesis called the ping-pong cycle, where antisense primary piRNAs initiate an amplification loop to generate sense secondary piRNAs. However, to date, the process of the ping-pong cycle has never been monitored at work. Here, by large-scale profiling of piRNAs from silkworm ovary and embryos of different developmental stages, we demonstrate that maternally inherited antisense-biased piRNAs trigger acute amplification of secondary sense piRNA production in zygotes, at a time coinciding with zygotic transcription of sense transposon mRNAs. These results provide on-site evidence for the ping-pong cycle. PMID:21628432

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Arai, Yuji; Kadota, Koji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hara, Kahori; Sugano, Sumio; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2011-01-01

120

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

121

Evaluation of General Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Silkworm Extract Powder  

PubMed Central

The silkworm extract powder contain 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent ?-glycosidase inhibitor, has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. Therefore, natural products containing DNJ from mulberry leaves and silkworm are consumed as health functional food. The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of the silkworm extract powder, a health food which containing the DNJ. The repeated toxicity studies and gentic toxicity studies of the silkworm extract powder were performed to obtain the data for new functional food approval in MFDS. The safety was evaluated by a single-dose oral toxicity study and a 90 day repeated-dose oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats. The silkworm extract powder was also evaluated for its mutagenic potential in a battery of genetic toxicity test: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. The results of the genetic toxicology assays were negative in all of the assays. The approximate lethal dose in single oral dose toxicity study was considered to be higher than 5000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 day study, the dose levels were wet at 0, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg/day, and 10 animals/sex/dose were treated with oral gavage. The parameters that were monitored were clinical signs, body weights, food and water consumptions, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weights, and histopathological examination. No adverse effects were observed after the 90 day administration of the silkworm extract powder. The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of silkworm extract powder in the 90 day study was 2000 mg/kg/day in both sexes, and no target organ was identified. PMID:24578797

Heo, Hyun-Suk; Choi, Jae-Hun; Oh, Jung-Ja; Lee, Woo-Joo; Kim, Seong-Sook; Lee, Do-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kul; Song, Si-Whan; Kim, Kap-Ho; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Ryu, Kang-Sun

2013-01-01

122

Improvement of glycosylation structure by suppression of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidases in silkworm.  

PubMed

The baculovirus-silkworm recombinant protein expression system is an excellent method for achieving high-level expression and post-translational modifications, especially glycosylation. However, the presence of paucimannosidic-type N-glycan in glycoproteins restricts their clinical use. Paucimannosidic-type N-glycan is produced by insect-specific membrane-binding-type ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GlcNAcase). In the silkworm, BmGlcNAcase1, BmGlcNAcase2, and BmFDL are membrane-binding-type GlcNAcases. We investigated the localization of these GlcNAcases and found that BmFDL and BmGlcNAcase2 were mainly located in the fat body and hemolymph, respectively. The fat body is the main tissue of recombinant protein expression by baculovirus, and many glycoproteins are secreted into the hemolymph. These results suggest that inhibition of BmFDL and BmGlcNAcase2 could increase GlcNAc-type N-glycan levels. We therefore injected a GlcNAcase inhibitor into silkworms to investigate changes in the N-glycan structure of the glycoprotein expressed by baculovirus; modest levels of GlcNAc-type N-glycan were observed (0.8% of total N-glycan). Next, we generated a transgenic silkworm in which RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the BmFDL transcript level and enzyme activity to 25% and 50%, respectively, of that of the control silkworm. The proportion of GlcNAc-type N-glycan increased to 4.3% in the RNAi-transgenic silkworm. We conclude that the structure of N-glycan can be changed by inhibiting the GlcNAcases in silkworm. PMID:25193875

Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Suganuma, Masatoshi; Higa, Yukiko; Kataoka, Yukiko; Funaguma, Shunsuke; Okazaki, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takeo; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

2015-02-01

123

The expression profile and promoter analysis of ultraspiracle gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The nuclear receptor, ultraspiracle protein (USP), is a transcription factor and an essential component of a heterodimeric receptor complex with ecdysone receptor. However, the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of USP in silkworm are unknown. In this study, using dual-spike-in qPCR method, we examined the expression of Bombyx ultraspiracle gene (BmUSP) in various tissues of silkworm as well as expression changes after stimulation with ecdysone. The results showed that the expression levels of BmUSP gene varied in different tissues and were increased 2 h after exposure to ecdysone. To identify the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of USP gene expression in silkworm Bombyx mori, promoter truncation analyses were performed using the luciferase reporter assay and Bac-to-Bac expression system in several tissues of B. mori. BmUSP gene promoter with 5' end serial deletions showed different levels of activity in various tissues, higher in fat body and Malpighian tubule. Deletion of the region from -485 to -445 and -307 to -281 upstream of BmUSP gene abolished and increased its promoter activity, respectively. This region contains AP-1, Dfd transcription factor binding sites. These results indicate that BmUSP are expressed at different levels in different tissues of the silkworm, but all are subjected to the regulation by ecdysone. This study would provide an important foundation for investigating the mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation of BmUSP in the silkworm. PMID:25175165

Huang, Ming-xia; Du, Jie; Su, Bao-jin; Zhao, Guo-dong; Shen, Wei-de; Wei, Zheng-guo

2014-12-01

124

Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17?-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. PMID:25242521

Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

2014-10-10

125

FLP Recombinase-Mediated Site-Specific Recombination in Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive understanding of gene function and the production of site-specific genetically modified mutants are two major goals of genetic engineering in the post-genomic era. Although site-specific recombination systems have been powerful tools for genome manipulation of many organisms, they have not yet been established for use in the manipulation of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome. In this study, we achieved site-specific excision of a target gene at predefined chromosomal sites in the silkworm using a FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system. We first constructed two stable transgenic target silkworm strains that both contain a single copy of the transgene construct comprising a target gene expression cassette flanked by FRT sites. Using pre-blastoderm microinjection of a FLP recombinase helper expression vector, 32 G3 site-specific recombinant transgenic individuals were isolated from five of 143 broods. The average frequency of FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific excision in the two target strains genome was approximately 3.5%. This study shows that it is feasible to achieve site-specific recombination in silkworms using the FLP/FRT system. We conclude that the FLP/FRT system is a useful tool for genome manipulation in the silkworm. Furthermore, this is the first reported use of the FLP/FRT system for the genetic manipulation of a lepidopteran genome and thus provides a useful reference for the establishment of genome manipulation technologies in other lepidopteran species. PMID:22768245

Long, Ding-Pei; Zhao, Ai-Chun; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Yang; Lu, Wei-Jian; Guo, Qing; Handler, Alfred M.; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2012-01-01

126

Molecular characterization of heterochromatin proteins 1a and 1b from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin protein 1s (HP1s) are nonhistone chromosomal proteins that play a direct role in the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin structure. Similarly to Caenorhabditis elegans, silkworms possess holocentric chromosomes, in which diffused kinetochores extend along the length of each chromosome. We have isolated two silkworm HP1 homologues, BmHP1a and BmHP1b. Cytological analysis showed a unique localization of BmHP1s during cell division, in which these proteins first appear to dissociate from the chromosomes, but then return to enclose the chromosomes during metaphase. BmHP1s formed homo- and hetero-dimers and interacted with BmSu(var)3-9, which is a methyltransferase for histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9). We further showed, using a silkworm cell-based reporter system, that BmHP1b had higher transcriptional repression activity than BmHP1a, whereas BmHP1a interacted more strongly with BmSu(var)3-9 than did BmHP1b. These results suggest that silkworm HP1a and HP1b may play different roles in heterochromatin formation in holocentric silkworm chromosomes. PMID:22142192

Mitsunobu, H; Izumi, M; Mon, H; Tatsuke, T; Lee, J M; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2012-02-01

127

Silkworm pupae powder ingestion increases fat metabolism in swim-trained rats  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Many researchers are trying to solve the metabolic syndrome by utilizing a variety of nutritional control and exercise. Of those, silkworm pupae peptides are known to inhibit the synthesis of fat. Therefore, we examine the effect of fat metabolism by supplying silkworm pupae (SP) for 5-week in swim-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into four groups as a group (n = 32) fed a normal diet (CO) with exercise training (CE); a group fed a silkworm pupa diet (SPC) with an exercise training (SPE), respectively. [Results] Abdominal fat pads (abdominal and epididymal) weight were lowest in SPE. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol concentrations were lower in the SP and the SPE. HDL-cholesterol, however, was not different between groups. Liver AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) was increased in the CE and the SPE. Liver PPAR-? (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) was increased in the SPC and SPE. L-FABP (liver fatty acids binding protein) was increased by SP ingestion. Liver CPT-1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) protein expression was increased by exercise training only. [Conclusion] In the present study showed that the silkworm pupae intake and/or swimming exercise training activates fat metabolism to reduce the concentration of serum lipids. Thus, the silkworm pupae intake leads to a reduction in fat storage, this is considered to be effective in the inhibition of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25566449

Ryu, Sung Pil

2014-01-01

128

Measured behavioural latency in response to sex-pheromone loss in the large silk moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Males of the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) were video-recorded in a sustained-flight wind tunnel in a constant plume of sex pheromone. The plume was experimentally truncated, and the moths, on losing pheromone stimulus, rapidly changed their behaviour from up-tunnel zig-zag flight to lateral casting flight. The latency of this change was in the range 300-500 ms. Video and computer analysis of flight tracks indicates that these moths effect this switch by increasing their course angle to the wind while decreasing their air speed. Combined with previous physiological and biochemical data concerning pheromone processing within this species, this behavioural study supports the argument that the temporal limit for this behavioural response latency is determined at the level of genetically coded kinetic processes located within the peripheral sensory hairs. PMID:3209970

Baker, T C; Vogt, R G

1988-07-01

129

Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.  

PubMed

During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

2015-04-01

130

Cyclic GMP levels and guanylate cyclase activity in pheromone-sensitive antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female sex pheromones applied to freshly isolated, living antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori led to an increase of cGMP. A 1:1 mixture of 2 pheromone components of Antheraea polyphemus blown for 10 sec in physiological concentrations over their antennal branches raised cGMP levels about 1.34-fold (+/- 0.08 SEM, n = 23) from a basal level of 3.0 +/- 0.6 (SEM, n = 20) pmol/mg protein. Similarly, bombykol elicited a 1.29-fold (+/- 0.13 SEM, n = 23) cGMP increase in antennae of male Bombyx mori from a basal level of 2.7 +/- 0.5 (SEM, n = 24) pmol/mg protein. No cross-sensitivity was found with respect to pheromones from either species. In antennae of female silkmoths, the cGMP response was missing upon stimulation with their own respective pheromones according to the known lack of pheromone receptor cells in the female. cAMP levels in the male antennae of 14.2 +/- 2.9 (SEM, n = 4) pmol/mg protein in A. polyphemus and 15.0 +/- 3.0 (SEM, n = 5) pmol/mg protein in B. mori were not affected by pheromone stimulation. Within 1-60 sec, the extent of cGMP increase in B. mori was independent of the duration of pheromone exposure. The levels of cGMP in pheromone-stimulated antennae of both species remained elevated for at least 10 min, i.e., much longer than the duration of the receptor potential measured in single-cell recordings. Guanylate cyclase activity was identified in homogenates of male and female antennae from both species. The Km of the guanylate cyclase from male B. mori for the preferential substrate MnGTP was 175 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1970356

Ziegelberger, G; van den Berg, M J; Kaissling, K E; Klumpp, S; Schultz, J E

1990-04-01

131

Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and ubiquitous in all living organisms, including animals, plants, insects, and microbes. It plays important roles in xenobiotic detoxification, and pheromone degradation, neurogenesis and regulating development. Previous studies mainly used Dipteran Drosophila and mosquitoes as model organisms to investigate the roles of the insect COEs in insecticide resistance. However, genome-wide characterization of COEs in phytophagous insects and comparative analysis remain to be performed. Results Based on the newly assembled genome sequence, 76 putative COEs were identified in Bombyx mori. Relative to other Dipteran and Hymenopteran insects, alpha-esterases were significantly expanded in the silkworm. Genomics analysis suggested that BmCOEs showed chromosome preferable distribution and 55% of which were tandem arranged. Sixty-one BmCOEs were transcribed based on cDNA/ESTs and microarray data. Generally, most of the COEs showed tissue specific expressions and expression level between male and female did not display obvious differences. Three main patterns could be classified, i.e. midgut-, head and integument-, and silk gland-specific expressions. Midgut is the first barrier of xenobiotics peroral toxicity, in which COEs may be involved in eliminating secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves and contaminants of insecticides in diet. For head and integument-class, most of the members were homologous to odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE) and antennal esterase. RT-PCR verified that the ODE-like esterases were also highly expressed in larvae antenna and maxilla, and thus they may play important roles in degradation of plant volatiles or other xenobiotics. Conclusion B. mori has the largest number of insect COE genes characterized to date. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that the gene expansion mainly occurred in silkworm alpha-esterases. Expression evidence indicated that the expanded genes were specifically expressed in midgut, integument and head, implying that these genes may have important roles in detoxifying secondary metabolites of mulberry leaves, contaminants in diet, and odorants. Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects. PMID:19930670

2009-01-01

132

Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

2009-04-01

133

Efficacy of silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) chrysalis oil as a lipid source in adult Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The effects of silkworm chrysalis oil, rich in n-3 ?-linolenic acid (ALA), on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats were investigated. The rats were fed diets containing 7% soybean oil (control), silkworm chrysalis oil (SWO), or fish oil (FO) for 8weeks. Plasma triglyceride and glucose levels were significantly lower in the SWO group after 8weeks compared to the control and FO groups. The total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen levels were higher in the control group than in the SWO and FO groups at 8weeks post-consumption. However, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase levels were not significantly different among all groups. A higher arachidonic acid (AA) content was detected in the control group, while lower AA levels were observed with the increase in EPA and DHA in the SWO and FO groups. These results suggest that n-3 ?-linolenic acid-rich silkworm chrysalis oil can improve hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. PMID:25214076

Mentang, Feny; Maita, Masashi; Ushio, Hideki; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2011-08-01

134

Vitellogenin from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: An Effective Anti-Bacterial Agent  

PubMed Central

Silkworm, Bombyx mori, vitellogenin (Vg) was isolated from perivisceral fat body of day 3 of pupa. Both Vg subunits were co-purified as verified by mass spectrometry and immunoblot. Purified Vg responded to specific tests for major posttranslational modifications on native gels indicating its nature as lipo-glyco-phosphoprotein. The Vg fraction had strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microscopic images showed binding of Vg to bacterial cells and their destruction. When infected silkworm larvae were treated with purified Vg they survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. This result showed that Vg has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of bacteria in the silkworm fluid system without disturbing the regular metabolism of the host. PMID:24058454

Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Tulika; Kannan, Mani; König, Simone

2013-01-01

135

Immunolocalization of pheromone-binding protein and general odorant-binding protein in olfactory sensilla of the silk moths Antheraea and Bombyx  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of odorant-binding proteins among olfactory sensilla of three moth species was studied by immuno-electron microscopy. Two polyclonal antisera were used in a post-embedding labelling protocol on sections of cryo-substituted antennae. The first was directed against the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) of Antheraea polyphemus, the second against the general odorant-binding protein (GOBP) of the same species. Immunoblots showed that these

R. A. Steinbrecht; M. Laue; G. Ziegelberger

1995-01-01

136

Structural Basis of Ligand Binding and Release in Insect Pheromone-binding Proteins: NMR Structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 at pH 4.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NMR structure of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1 at pH 4.5, ApolPBP1A, was determined at 20 °C. The structure consists of six ?-helices, which are arranged in a globular fold that encapsulates a central helix ?7 formed by the C-terminal polypeptide segment 131–142. The 3D arrangement of these helices is anchored by the three disulfide bonds 19–54, 50–108 and

Fred F. Damberger; Yuko Ishida; Walter S. Leal; Kurt Wüthrich

2007-01-01

137

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students examine drawings of oak leaves and figure out how to classify and identify them. The printable six-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about classification and its importance to scientists, drawings of 12 different oak leaves, and a worksheet that includes step-by-step directions and areas for recording answers.

138

Comparative analysis of proteome maps of silkworm hemolymph during different developmental stages  

PubMed Central

Background The silkworm Bombyx mori is a lepidopteran insect with four developmental stages: egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa, and adult. The hemolymph of the silkworm is in an open system that circulates among all organs, and functions in nutrient and hormone transport, injury, and immunity. To understand the intricate developmental mechanisms of metamorphosis, silkworm hemolymph from different developmental stages, including the 3rd day of fifth instar, the 6th day of fifth instar, the 3rd day of pupation, the 8th day of pupal stage and the first day of the moth stage, was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Results Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that from the larval to moth stages, silkworm hemolymph proteins changed markedly. Not only did major proteins such as SP1, SP2, and the 30 K lipoprotein change, but other proteins varied greatly at different stages. To understand the functions of these proteins in silkworm development, 56 spots were excised from gels for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 34 proteins involved in metamorphosis, programmed cell death, food digestion, metabolism, and nutrient storage and transport. Most proteins showed different expression at different stages, suggesting functions in development and metamorphosis. An abundance of proteins related to immunity were found, including hemolin, prophenoloxidase, serine proteinase-like protein, paralytic peptide-binding protein, and protease inhibitor. Conclusions Proteomics research not only provides the opportunity for direct investigation of protein expression patterns, but also identifies many attractive candidates for further study. Two-dimensional maps of hemolymph proteins expressed during the growth and metamorphosis of the silkworm offer important insights into hemolymph function and insect metamorphosis. PMID:20822545

2010-01-01

139

Evaluation of therapeutic effects and pharmacokinetics of antibacterial chromogenic agents in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of dye compounds with antibacterial activity was evaluated in a silkworm model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Among 13 chromogenic agents that show antibacterial activity against S. aureus (MIC = 0.02 to 19 ?g/mL), rifampicin had a therapeutic effect. The ED(50) value in the silkworm model was consistent with that in a murine model. Other 12 dyes did not increase survival of the infected silkworms. We examined the reason for the lack of therapeutic efficacy. Amidol, pyronin G, and safranin were toxic to silkworms, which explained the lack of therapeutic effects. Fuchsin basic and methyl green disappeared quickly from the hemolymph after injection, suggesting that they are not stable in the hemolymph. Although coomassie brilliant blue R250/G250, cresyl blue, and nigrosin showed no toxic effects or instability in the hemolymph, they also did not have a therapeutic effect. The in vitro antibacterial actions of these dyes were inhibited by silkworm plasma or bovine serum albumin and filtration experiments demonstrated that cresyl blue bound to plasma proteins in the silkworm, suggesting that plasma protein binding inhibited the therapeutic efficacy of these four dyes. These findings indicate that drug screening using the silkworm infection model is useful for evaluating toxicity and pharmacokinetics of potential antibiotics. PMID:22491238

Fujiyuki, T; Imamura, K; Hamamoto, H; Sekimizu, K

2010-10-01

140

Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: Translocation and detoxification.  

PubMed

The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25mgkg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm. PMID:25703900

Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

2015-06-01

141

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

142

High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

2014-01-01

143

High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein  

PubMed Central

Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

2014-01-01

144

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman Microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman for the first time to determine quantitatively the orientation of the -sheets in silk monofilaments from Bombyx, for systems with uniaxial symmetry such as silk, it is possible to determine the order parameters P2 and P4

Pezolet, Michel

145

Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus-induced differential gene expression in two silkworm strains of different susceptibility.  

PubMed

Digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the gene expression profiles of 4008 and p50 silkworm strains at 48 h after oral infection with BmCPV. 3,668,437 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected p50 silkworms and 3,540,790 clean tags in the control p50. By contrast, 4,498,263 clean tags were identified in the BmCPV-infected 4008 silkworms and 4,164,250 clean tags in the control 4008. A total of 691 differentially expressed genes were detected in the infected 4008 DGE library and 185 were detected in the infected p50 DGE library, respectively. The expression profiles identified some important differentially expressed genes involved in signal transduction, enzyme activity and apoptotic changes, some of which were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results provide important clues on the molecular mechanism of BmCPV invasion and resistance mechanism of silkworms against BmCPV infection. PMID:24525400

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

2014-04-15

146

Phenol oxidase is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting which is regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. The molting process includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis excoriation etc. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the phenol oxidase was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that polyphenol oxidases are one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the role of ecdysone in regulation of molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of phenol oxidase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the phenol oxidase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. PPO1 RNAi induced phenol oxidase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae incomplete pupation. Overall, the results described that the phenol oxidase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23275200

Wang, Mei-xian; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Liang, Shuang; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2013-05-01

147

Expression and functions of dopa decarboxylase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori was regulated by molting hormone.  

PubMed

Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. Molting includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis shed and other series of continuous processes. Polyphenol oxidases, dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the dopa decarboxylase (BmDdc) was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that dopa decarboxylase is one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the regulation of ecdysone at the time of biological molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of dopa decarboxylase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was also observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the dopa decarboxylase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. BmDdc RNAi induced dopa decarboxylase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae appeared no pupation or incomplete pupation. BmDdc was mainly expressed and stored in the peripheral plasma area near the nucleus in BmN cells. In larval, BmDdc was mainly located in the brain and epidermis, which is consisted with its function in sclerotization and melanization. Overall, the results described that the dopa decarboxylase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23640098

Wang, Mei-xian; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Liang, Shuang; Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Kim, Jong-Nam; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

2013-06-01

148

Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of a cationic dye by a natural adsorbent—Silkworm pupa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the use of silkworm pupa, which is the waste of silk spinning industries has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of C.I. Basic Blue 41. The amino acid nature of the pupa provided a reasonable capability for dye removal. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by using various

B. Noroozi; G. A. Sorial; H. Bahrami; M. Arami

2007-01-01

149

Identification and characterization of Polycomb group genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in chromatin modifications for maintaining gene repression that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression, tumorigenesis, chromosome X-inactivation, and genomic imprinting in Drosophila melanogaster, mammals, and even plants. To characterize the orthologs of PcG genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, 13 candidates were identified from the updated silkworm genome sequence by using the fruit fly PcG genes as queries. Comparison of the silkworm PcG proteins with those from other insect species revealed that the insect PcG proteins shared high sequence similarity. High-level expressions of all the silkworm PcG genes were maintained through day 2 to day 7 of embryogenesis, and tissue microarray data on day 3 of the fifth instar larvae showed that their expression levels were relatively low in somatic tissues, except for Enhancer of zeste (E(Z)). In addition, knockdown of each PRC2 component, such as E(Z), Extra sex combs (ESC), and Suppressor of zeste 12 (SU(Z)12), considerably decreased the global levels of H3K27me3 but not of H3K27me2. Taken together, these results suggest that insect PcG proteins are highly conserved during evolution and might play similar roles in embryogenesis. PMID:22187347

Li, Zhiqing; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Sakashita, Kosuke; Zhu, Li; Xu, Jian; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2012-05-01

150

Identification of a midgut-specific promoter in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The midgut is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients and immune defense in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In an attempt to create a tool for midgut research, we cloned the 1080 bp P2 promoter sequence (P2P) of a highly expressed midgut-specific gene in the silkworm. The transgenic line (P2) was generated via embryo microinjection, in which the expression of EGFP was driven by P2P. There was strong green fluorescence only in the midgut of P2. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that P2P was a midgut-specific promoter with activity throughout the larval stage. A transgenic truncation experiment suggested that regions -305 to -214 and +107 to +181 were very important for P2P activity. The results of this study revealed that we have identified a midgut-specific promoter with a high level of activity in the silkworm that will aid future research and application of silkworm genes. PMID:23524268

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Dang, Yinghui; Peng, Zhengwen; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Shiping; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Sun, Qiang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-04-19

151

A BAC-based integrated linkage map of the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2004, draft sequences of the model lepidopteran Bombyx mori were reported using whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Because of relatively shallow genome coverage, the silkworm genome remains fragmented, hampering annotation and comparative genome studies. For a more complete genome analysis, we developed extended scaffolds combining physical maps with improved genetic maps. RESULTS: We mapped 1,755 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

Kimiko Yamamoto; Junko Nohata; Keiko Kadono-Okuda; Junko Narukawa; Motoe Sasanuma; Shun-ichi Sasanuma; Hiroshi Minami; Michihiko Shimomura; Yoshitaka Suetsugu; Yutaka Banno; Kazutoyo Osoegawa; Pieter J de Jong; Marian R Goldsmith; Kazuei Mita

2008-01-01

152

SUDDEN OAK DEATH Field Meeting  

E-print Network

SUDDEN OAK DEATH Field Meeting Saturday, December 3, 1:00 p.m. Joaquin Miller Park - Craib Picnic Area (if raining, come to the Ranger Station) Learn about Sudden Oak Death management and see Death (SOD). SOD is a fungus-like mold that is killing oak trees in coastal California. Several samples

California at Berkeley, University of

153

The Odorant Binding Protein Gene Family from the Genome of Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Chemosensory systems play key roles in the survival and reproductive success of insects. Insect chemoreception is mediated by two large and diverse gene superfamilies, chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins (OBPs). OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants from the environment to the olfactory receptors. Results We identified a family of OBP-like genes in the silkworm genome and characterized their expression using oligonucleotide microarrays. A total of forty-four OBP genes were annotated, a number comparable to the 57 OBPs known from Anopheles gambiae and 51 from Drosophila melanogaster. As seen in other fully sequenced insect genomes, most silkworm OBP genes are present in large clusters. We defined six subfamilies of OBPs, each of which shows lineage-specific expansion and diversification. EST data and OBP expression profiles from multiple larvae tissues of day three fifth instars demonstrated that many OBPs are expressed in chemosensory-specific tissues although some OBPs are expressed ubiquitously and others exclusively in non-chemosensory tissues. Some atypical OBPs are expressed throughout development. These results reveal that, although many OBPs are chemosensory-specific, others may have more general physiological roles. Conclusion Silkworms possess a number of OBPs genes similar to other insects. Their expression profiles suggest that many OBPs may be involved in olfaction and gustation as well as general carriers of hydrophobic molecules. The expansion of OBP gene subfamilies and sequence divergence indicate that the silkworm OBP family acquired functional diversity concurrently with functional constraints. Further investigation of the OBPs of the silkworm could give insights in the roles of OBPs in chemoreception. PMID:19624863

Gong, Da-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qing-You; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

2009-01-01

154

Identification of a novel strong and ubiquitous promoter/enhancer in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Transgenic techniques offer a valuable tool for determining gene functions. Although various promoters are available for use in gene overexpression, gene knockdown, and identification of transgenic individuals, there is nevertheless a lack of versatile promoters for such studies, and this dearth acts as a bottleneck, especially with regard to nonmodel organisms. Here, we succeeded in identifying a novel strong and ubiquitous promoter/enhancer in the silkworm. We identified a unique silkworm strain whose reporter gene showed strong and ubiquitous expression during the establishment of enhancer trap strains. In this strain, the transposon was inserted into the 5'UTR of hsp90, a housekeeping gene that is abundantly expressed in a range of tissues. To determine whether the promoter/enhancer of hsp90 could be used to induce strong gene expression, a 2.9-kb upstream genomic fragment of hsp90 was isolated (hsp90(P2.9k)), and its transcriptional activation activity was examined. Strikingly, hsp90(P2.9k) induced strong gene expression in silkworm cell cultures and also strongly induced gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. hsp90(P2.9k) also exhibited significant promoter/enhancer activity in Sf9, a cell culture from the armyworm, suggesting that this fragment might possibly be used as a gene expression tool in other Lepidoptera. We further found that 2.0 kb of hsp90(P2.9k) is sufficient for the induction of strong gene expression. We believe that this element will be of value for a range of studies such as targeted gene overexpression, gene knockdown and marker gene expression, not only in the silkworm but also in other insect species. PMID:24875626

Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Suzuki, Takao K; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Kayukawa, Takumi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Sezutsu, Hideki

2014-07-01

155

Cloning and expression analysis of a peptidoglycan recognition protein in silkworm related to virus infection.  

PubMed

In this study, the full-length cDNA of a peptidoglycan recognition protein named BmPGRP-S3 was identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It is 807 bp and comprises the following: a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) with a length of 112 bp, a 3'-UTR with a length of 92 bp including a poly-adenylation signal sequence (AATAAA) and a poly(A) tail. The longest open reading frame (ORF) of BmPGRP-S3 is 603 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 200 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 22.3 kDa including a PGRP domain. Sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis results indicated that BmPGRP-S3 belongs to the group of insect PGRPs and is closer to BmPGRP-S4 with the highest identity of 68%. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the mRNA transcripts of BmPGRP-S3 were presented in all of the tissues, but were highest in the midgut. In the silkworm larvae infected with B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), the relative expression level of BmPGRP-S3 was upregulated. The DNA segment of a mature BmPGRP-S3 peptide was inserted into the expression plasmid pET-28a(+) to construct a recombinant expression plasmid. Western blot results revealed that mature BmPGRP-S3 could be detected in the hemolymph and midgut which were the most important immune tissues in silkworm. All the results suggested that BmPGRP-S3 may play an important role in the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection and provided helpful information for further studying the function of BmPGRP-S3 in silkworm. PMID:25218236

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Qin, Guang-Xing; Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Xi-Jie

2014-11-15

156

A novel third chromosomal locus controls susceptibility to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Baculovirus demonstrates specific infection spectrums and thus one certain host exhibits particular response to single baculovirus isolate. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is considered to be not an innate pathogen to Bombyx mori, but some silkworm strains have been identified to be permissive to AcMNPV, indicating the positive or negative involvement of certain host factors in baculovirus replications in vivo. To provide a fundamental knowledge of this process, we performed large-scale screening to investigate the responses of 448 silkworm strains against recombinant AcMNPV inoculation. By genetic analysis between permissive and resistant strains identified, we further confirmed that a potential corresponding locus on chromosome 3 regulates host responses to AcMNPV in silkworm. Additionally, we found that it is available for AcMNPV-silkworm baculovirus expression vector system to produce proteins of interest. PMID:24337396

Xu, Jian; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Mon, Hiroaki; Li, Zhiqing; Zhu, Li; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Banno, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kaito; Lee, Jae Man

2014-04-01

157

Oral administration of a cholera toxin B subunit–insulin fusion protein produced in silkworm protects against autoimmune diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral administration of disease-specific autoantigens can induce oral immune tolerance and prevent or delay the onset of autoimmune disease symptoms. Here, we describe the construction of an edible vaccine consisting of a fusion protein composed of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and insulin that is produced in silkworm larvae at levels of up to 0.3mg\\/ml of hemolymph. The silkworm

Zhaohui Gong; Yongfeng Jin; Yaozhou Zhang

2005-01-01

158

Efficient large-scale protein production of larvae and pupae of silkworm by Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus bacmid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silkworm is one of the most attractive hosts for large-scale production of eukaryotic proteins as well as recombinant baculoviruses for gene transfer to mammalian cells. The bacmid system of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has already been established and widely used. However, the AcNPV does not have a potential to infect silkworm. We developed the first practical Bombyx mori

Tomoko Motohashi; Tsukasa Shimojima; Tatsuo Fukagawa; Katsumi Maenaka; Enoch Y. Park

2005-01-01

159

Purification and Molecular Cloning of an Inducible Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein from the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-kDa hemolymph protein, having strong affinity to the cell wall of Gram(-) bacteria, was purified from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The cDNA encoding this Gram(-) bacteria-binding protein (GNBP) was isolated from an immunized silkworm fat body cDNA library and sequenced. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with known sequences revealed that GNBP contained a region

Won-Jae Lee; Jiing-Dwan Lee; Vladimir V. Kravchenko; Richard J. Ulevitch; Paul T. Brey

1996-01-01

160

Insect-oak Interactions with Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Engelmann Oak (Q.  

E-print Network

in the growing urban areas surrounding Los Angeles and San Diego (Osborne 1989). Another oak species co-occurring determined the impact of insects on both acorns and seedlings of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee provide information that will aid in maintaining current oak stands. For acorns, the impact that insect

Standiford, Richard B.

161

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

162

Revisiting the specificity of Mamestra brassicae and Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding proteins with a fluorescence binding assay.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), located in the sensillum lymph of pheromone-responsive antennal hairs, are thought to transport the hydrophobic pheromones to the chemosensory membranes of olfactory neurons. It is currently unclear what role PBPs may play in the recognition and discrimination of species-specific pheromones. We have investigated the binding properties and specificity of PBPs from Mamestra brassicae (MbraPBP1), Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1), Bombyx mori (BmorPBP), and a hexa-mutant of MbraPBP1 (Mbra1-M6), mutated at residues of the internal cavity to mimic that of BmorPBP, using the fluorescence probe 1-aminoanthracene (AMA). AMA binds to MbraPBP1 and ApolPBP1, however, no binding was observed with either BmorPBP or Mbra1-M6. The latter result indicates that relatively limited modifications to the PBP cavity actually interfere with AMA binding, suggesting that AMA binds in the internal cavity. Several pheromones are able to displace AMA from the MbraPBP1- and ApolPBP1-binding sites, without, however, any evidence of specificity for their physiologically relevant pheromones. Moreover, some fatty acids are also able to compete with AMA binding. These findings bring into doubt the currently held belief that all PBPs are specifically tuned to distinct pheromonal compounds. PMID:11274212

Campanacci, V; Krieger, J; Bette, S; Sturgis, J N; Lartigue, A; Cambillau, C; Breer, H; Tegoni, M

2001-06-01

163

Pheromone-binding proteins contribute to the activation of olfactory receptor neurons in the silkmoths antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are innervated by three types of receptor neurons each responding specifically to one of three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla surrounding the sensory dendrites contains three different types of pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in high concentrations. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Bombyx mori are supplied by two receptor neurons each tuned specifically to one of the two pheromone components bombykol and bombykal, but only one type of PBP has been found so far in these sensilla. Recombinant PBPs of both silkmoth species in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor neurons via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. Over a fairly broad range of pheromone concentrations the responses of the receptor neurons depended on both, the pheromone component and the type of the PBP. Therefore, the PBPs appear to contribute to the excitation of the receptor neurons. Furthermore, bombykal in combination with the expressed PBP of B. mori failed to activate the corresponding receptor neuron of B. mori, but did so if combined with one of the PBPs of A. polyphemus. Therefore, a still unknown binding protein involved in bombykal transport might be present in B. mori. PMID:14977808

Pophof, Blanka

2004-02-01

164

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. VI. Experimental disturbance of antennal branch formation.  

PubMed

In the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the formation of the side branches of the quadripectinate antennal flagellum was disturbed by an experimental manipulation. Normally the side branches develop in the pupa via deep incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the centerline of the leaf-shaped antennal anlage. Local removal of the uppermost, pigmented cuticular layers of the pupal antennal pocket ('cuticular window') led to a local standstill of branch formation in the manipulated region of the pocket, most probably caused by increased evaporation of water through the remaining layers of meso- and endocuticle. These parts of the antenna retained an unbranched, plate-like shape. This early morphogenetic stage was conserved by the secretion of antennal cuticle. Besides cuticle formation, development of sensilla is not impeded by the manipulation. In the plate-shaped regions, the initial pattern formed by the sensilla in the antennal epidermis is preserved, because they maturate at their birth places. In the individual segments, the pattern of sensilla shows a mirror-like symmetry with respect to the segmental midline. From the edge to the midline, we found large s. trichodea, followed by small s. trichodea, s. basiconica, and s. coeloconica on the dorsal side whereas on the ventral side, there are only large s. trichodea and s. campaniformia. We conclude that the development of the featherlike antennal shape on the one hand and the development of sensilla and cuticle on the other hand are independent processes. PMID:18621301

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1995-06-01

165

Cloning of putative odorant-degrading enzyme and integumental esterase cDNAs from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Odorant-degrading enzymes have been postulated to participate in the fast deactivation of insect pheromones. These proteins are expressed specifically in the sensillar lymph of insect antennae in such low amounts that, hitherto, isolation and protein-based cDNA cloning has not been possible. Using degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid sequences of insect carboxylesterases and juvenile hormone esterases, we were able to amplify partial cDNA fragments, which were then used for the design of gene-specific primers for RACE. This bioinformatics approach led us to the cloning of cDNAs, encoding a putative odorant-degrading enzyme (Apol-ODE) and a putative integumental esterase (Apol-IE) from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. Apol-ODE had a predicted molecular mass of 59,994 Da, pI of 6.63, three potential N-glycosylation sites, and a putative catalytic site Ser characterized by the sequence Gly(195)-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Ala. Apol-IE gave calculated molecular mass of 61,694 Da, pI of 7.49, two potential N-glycosylation sites, and a putative active site with the sequence Gly(214)-Tyr-Ser-Ala-Gly. The transcript of Apol-ODE was detected by RT-PCR in male antennae and branches (sensillar tissues), but not in female antennae and other control tissues. Apol-IE was detected in male and female antennae as well as legs. PMID:12429129

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2002-12-01

166

Molecular characterization of genome segment 2 encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

SciTech Connect

Genome segment 2 (S2) from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S2 consisted of 3798 nucleotides with a long ORF encoding a 1116 amino acid long protein (123 kDa). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed 29% sequence identity and close relatedness of AmCPV S2 with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of other insect cypoviruses, suggesting a common origin of all insect cypoviruses. The ORF of S2 was expressed as 123 kDa soluble His-tagged fusion protein in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants which exhibited RdRp activity in an in vitro RNA polymerase assay without any intrinsic terminal transferase activity. Maximum activity was observed at 37 deg. C at pH 6.0 in the presence of 3 mM MgCl{sub 2.} Site directed mutagenesis confirmed the importance of the conserved GDD motif. This is the first report of functional characterization of a cypoviral RdRp which may lead to the development of anti-viral agents.

Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Roy, Sobhan; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Bagchi, Abhisek [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Ananta Kumar, E-mail: aghosh@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.i [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

2010-08-15

167

Identification and Expression Profiling of the BTB Domain-Containing Protein Gene Family in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The BTB domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. In this study, we identified 56 BTB domain-containing protein genes in the silkworm, in addition to 46 in the honey bee, 55 in the red flour beetle, and 53 in the monarch butterfly. Silkworm BTB protein genes were classified into nine subfamilies according to their domain architecture, and most of them could be mapped on the different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that silkworm BTB protein genes may have undergone a duplication event in three subfamilies: BTB-BACK-Kelch, BTB-BACK-PHR, and BTB-FLYWCH. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the orthologs of each of 13 BTB protein genes present a rigorous orthologous relationship in the silkworm and other surveyed insects, indicating conserved functions of these genes during insect evolution. Furthermore, several silkworm BTB protein genes exhibited sex-specific expression in larval tissues or at different stages during metamorphosis. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of insect BTB protein gene families but also provide a basis for further investigation of the functions of BTB protein genes in the silkworm. PMID:24895545

Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yonghu; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

168

Identification and Expression Profiling of the BTB Domain-Containing Protein Gene Family in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The BTB domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif. In this study, we identified 56 BTB domain-containing protein genes in the silkworm, in addition to 46 in the honey bee, 55 in the red flour beetle, and 53 in the monarch butterfly. Silkworm BTB protein genes were classified into nine subfamilies according to their domain architecture, and most of them could be mapped on the different chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that silkworm BTB protein genes may have undergone a duplication event in three subfamilies: BTB-BACK-Kelch, BTB-BACK-PHR, and BTB-FLYWCH. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the orthologs of each of 13 BTB protein genes present a rigorous orthologous relationship in the silkworm and other surveyed insects, indicating conserved functions of these genes during insect evolution. Furthermore, several silkworm BTB protein genes exhibited sex-specific expression in larval tissues or at different stages during metamorphosis. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of insect BTB protein gene families but also provide a basis for further investigation of the functions of BTB protein genes in the silkworm. PMID:24895545

Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yonghu; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

169

Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel vacuolar protein sorting 4 gene in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) protein is essential for the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway, virus budding process and cytokinesis. Vps4 has been identified and characterized from many species, but not from silkworm Bombyx mori. In this study, we firstly identified and cloned the silkworm homologous gene for VPS4, expressed it in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized the protein designated as BmVps4. The BmVps4 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,314 bp, and encodes a protein of 438 amino acid residues. BmVps4 is of high sequence-similarity to Vps4 proteins from other species. The recombinant BmVps4 shows ATPase activity, which can be stimulated by Mg(2+) and inhibited by dominant mutations. Together, our data suggest BmVps4 is the genuine silkworm homologue of Vps4. To our knowledge, this is the first-time characterization of any silkworm MVB proteins. This study will facilitate further investigation of silkworm MVB pathway and its possible roles in the infection and budding of B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), which is one of the most common and severe pathogens for silkworms. The cloned BmVps4 sequence is deposited in GenBank (Accession number GQ995504). PMID:23053938

Xia, Hengchuan; Zhang, Chunxia; Feng, Fan; Yuan, Yi; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Keming; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

2012-12-01

170

Production of small antibacterial peptides using silkworm-baculovirus protein expression system.  

PubMed

The recombinant proteins with strong antimicrobial activity are known to be very difficult to express using bacterial expression system. Here, human ?-defensin (DEFB) 1, DEFB2, and DEFB3 were successfully produced using a silkworm-baculovirus protein expression system. We have generated four baculoviruses for each DEFB protein to compare the effect of different peptide tags in secretion into silkworm larval hemolymph. Interestingly, the best performing peptide tags for the secretion were different among DEFBs: C-terminal GST-H8 tag for DEFB1, N-terminal H8 tag for DEFB2, and C-terminal H8 tag for DEFB3, respectively. In addition, the colony count assay demonstrated that the recombinant DEFB2 s showed antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus. PMID:23742088

Fukushima, Mai; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Jun; Furue, Masutaka; Tsuji, Gaku; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2013-01-01

171

Effective RNA interference in cultured silkworm cells mediated by overexpression of Caenorhabditis elegans SID-1.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism that catalyzes sequence-specific gene silencing and has been used for loss-of-function genetic screens in many organisms. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of Caenorhabditis elegans SID-1 (CeSID-1) could trigger effective gene silencing in the cultured silkworm cell line, BmN4 (BmN4-SID1). Soaking the BmN4-SID1 in dsRNA corresponding to endogenous target genes induced a significant decrease of the amount of mRNA or protein. A small amount of dsRNA was enough to silence the target gene in a few days. Overexpression of CeSID-1 did not affect the cell viability. Our results suggest that BmN4-SID1 can be used in many applications in silkworm cells and will become a valuable resource for gene analysis. PMID:22293577

Mon, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Ohkubo, Shinji; Tomita, Shuichiro; Lee, Jaeman; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2012-01-01

172

Utilization of silkworm cocoon waste as a sorbent for the removal of oil from water.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the utilization of silkworm cocoon waste, such as pierced or stained cocoons, as a sorbent material for the removal of motor and vegetable oils from water. The oil-sorption capacity, rate and reusability of the material were evaluated. The results show the high sorption capacity of the silkworm cocoon waste sorbent (42-52 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for motor oil and 37-60 g(oil)/g(sorbent) for vegetable oil). The oil sorbed onto the material could be recovered by squeezing the sorbent, and the squeezed material showed an oil-sorption capacity over 15 g(oil)/g(sorbent). We concluded that the material shows a high performance as a low cost and environmental friendly sorbent for the removal of oil from water. PMID:19008047

Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Shiori; Kurashima, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Ayaka; Haraguchi, Kazuma; Shirai, Koji; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Kiguchi, Kenji

2009-06-15

173

A Genome-Wide Survey for Host Response of Silkworm, Bombyx mori during Pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus Infection  

PubMed Central

Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin families, were upregulated at 24 hours post the infection. PMID:19956592

Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

2009-01-01

174

Effects of altered catecholamine metabolism on pigmentation and physical properties of sclerotized regions in the silkworm melanism mutant.  

PubMed

Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln) silkworm strain as a model. Injection of ?-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant) and Dazao (wild-type) silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research. PMID:22937004

Qiao, Liang; Li, Yuanhao; Xiong, Gao; Liu, Xiaofan; He, Songzhen; Tong, Xiaoling; Wu, Songyuan; Hu, Hai; Wang, Rixin; Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Lushi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Jie; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-01-01

175

Effects of Altered Catecholamine Metabolism on Pigmentation and Physical Properties of Sclerotized Regions in the Silkworm Melanism Mutant  

PubMed Central

Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln) silkworm strain as a model. Injection of ?-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant) and Dazao (wild-type) silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research. PMID:22937004

Liu, Xiaofan; He, Songzhen; Tong, Xiaoling; Wu, Songyuan; Hu, Hai; Wang, Rixin; Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Lushi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Jie; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-01-01

176

Temperature dependent sorbitol utilization in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether the interconversion of glycogen and sorbitol at the initiation and termination of diapause in eggs of the silkworm,Bombyx mori was influenced by low temperatures (5°C and 1°C). The conversion of glycogen to sorbitol and glycerol at the initiation of diapause was not affected by exposure to 5°C and 1°C. Chilling diapause

Toshiharu Furusawa; Masayoshi Shikata; Okitsugu Yamashita

1982-01-01

177

A New Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase in Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Affects Integument Pigmentation.  

PubMed

Dopamine is a precursor for melanin synthesis. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is involved in the melatonin formation in insects because it could catalyze the transformation from dopamine to dopamine-N-acetyldopamine. In this study, we identified a new AANAT gene in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and assessed its role in the silkworm. The cDNA of this gene encodes 233 amino acids that shares 57 % amino acid identity with the Bm-iAANAT protein. We thus refer to this gene as Bm-iAANAT2. To investigate the role of Bm-iAANAT2, we constructed a transgenic interference system using a 3xp3 promoter to suppress the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 in the silkworm. We observed that melanin deposition occurs in the head and integument in transgenic lines. To verify the melanism pattern, dopamine content and the enzyme activity of AANAT were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We found that an increase in dopamine levels affects melanism patterns on the heads of transgenic B. mori. A reduction in the enzyme activity of AANAT leads to changes in dopamine levels. We analyzed the expression of the Bm-iAANAT2 genes by qPCR and found that the expression of Bm-iAANAT2 gene is significantly lower in transgenic lines. Our results lead us to conclude that Bm-iAANAT2 is a new arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene in the silkworm and is involved in the metabolism of the dopamine to avoid the generation of melanin. PMID:25712907

Long, Yaohang; Li, Jiaorong; Zhao, Tianfu; Li, Guannan; Zhu, Yong

2015-04-01

178

MicroRNA expression profiling during the life cycle of the silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and function in diverse biological processes. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in Bombyx mori, but the temporal expression profiles of miRNAs corresponding to each stage transition over the entire life cycle of the silkworm remain to be established. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the correlation between miRNA

Shiping Liu; Liang Zhang; Qibin Li; Ping Zhao; Jun Duan; Daojun Cheng; Zhonghuai Xiang; Qingyou Xia

2009-01-01

179

Structure of insect chitin isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm ( Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitin samples in a ?-form structure were isolated from beetle larva cuticle and silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa exuvia by treatment with 1 N HCl and 1 N NaOH. Chitosan was prepared by treating them in 40% NaOH containing NaBH4. Chitin and chitosan were analyzed by X-ray, [13C]CP\\/MAS NMR, [13C]FT-NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. Insect chitin degraded more readily

M. Zhang; A. Haga; H. Sekiguchi; S. Hirano

2000-01-01

180

N-acetyltransferase (nat) Is a Critical Conjunct of Photoperiodism between the Circadian System and Endocrine Axis in Antheraea pernyi  

PubMed Central

Since its discovery in 1923, the biology of photoperiodism remains a mystery in many ways. We sought the link connecting the circadian system to an endocrine switch, using Antheraea pernyi. PER-, CLK- and CYC-ir were co-expressed in two pairs of dorsolateral neurons of the protocerebrum, suggesting that these are the circadian neurons that also express melatonin-, NAT- and HIOMT-ir. The results suggest that a melatonin pathway is present in the circadian neurons. Melatonin receptor (MT2 or MEL-1B-R)-ir in PTTH-ir neurons juxtaposing clock neurons suggests that melatonin gates PTTH release. RIA showed a melatonin rhythm with a peak four hours after lights off in adult brain both under LD16?8 (LD) and LD12?12 (SD), and both the peak and the baseline levels were higher under LD than SD, suggesting a photoperiodic influence. When pupae in diapause were exposed to 10 cycles of LD, or stored at 4°C for 4 months under constant darkness, an increase of NAT activity was observed when PTTH released ecdysone. DNA sequence upstream of nat contained E-boxes to which CYC/CLK could bind, and nat transcription was turned off by clk or cyc dsRNA. dsRNANAT caused dysfunction of photoperiodism. dsRNAPER upregulated nat transcription as anticipated, based on findings in the Drosophila melanogaster circadian system. Transcription of nat, cyc and clk peaked at ZT12. RIA showed that dsRNANAT decreased melatonin while dsRNAPER increased melatonin. Thus nat, a clock controlled gene, is the critical link between the circadian clock and endocrine switch. MT-binding may release PTTH, resulting in termination of diapause. This study thus examined all of the basic functional units from the clock: a photoperiodic counter as an accumulator of mRNANAT, to endocrine switch for photoperiodism in A. pernyi showing this system is self-complete without additional device especially for photoperiodism. PMID:24667367

Bembenek, Jadwiga; Hiragaki, Susumu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio

2014-01-01

181

The solution NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP provides new insight into pheromone recognition by pheromone-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the antennae of male moth species play an important role in olfaction. They are carrier proteins, believed to transport volatile hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled olfactory receptor proteins. The roles of PBPs in molecular recognition and the mechanisms of pheromone binding and release are poorly understood. Here, we report the NMR structure of a PBP from the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. This is the first structure of a PBP with specific acetate-binding function in vivo. The protein consists of nine alpha-helices: alpha1a (residues 2-5), alpha1b (8-12), alpha1c (16-23), alpha2 (27-34), alpha3a (46-52), alpha3b (54-59), alpha4 (70-79), alpha5 (84-100) and alpha6 (107-125), held together by three disulfide bridges: 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117. A large hydrophobic cavity is located inside the protein, lined with side-chains from all nine helices. The acetate-binding site is located at the narrow end of the cavity formed by the helices alpha3b and alpha4. The pheromone can enter this cavity through an opening between the helix alpha1a, the C-terminal end of the helix alpha6, and the loop between alpha2 and alpha3a. We suggest that Trp37 may play an important role in the initial interaction with the ligand. Our analysis also shows that Asn53 plays the key role in recognition of acetate pheromones specifically, while Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Phe76, and Phe118 are responsible for non-specific binding, and Leu8 and Ser9 may play a role in ligand chain length recognition. PMID:15003458

Mohanty, Smita; Zubkov, Sergey; Gronenborn, Angela M

2004-03-19

182

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. V. Development of the peripheral nervous system.  

PubMed

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a feather-shaped structure consisting of about 30 flagellomeres, each of which gives off two pairs of side branches. During the pupal stage (lasting for 3 weeks), the antenna develops from a leaf-shaped, flattened epidermal sac ('antennal blade') via two series of incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the prospective antennal stem. The development of the peripheral nervous system was studied by staining the neurons with an antibody against horseradish peroxidase as well as by electron microscopy. The epithelium is subdivided in segmentally arranged sensillogenic regions alternating with non-sensillogenic regions. Immediately after apolysis, clusters consisting of 5 sensory neurons each and belonging to the prospective sensilla chaetica can be localized at the periphery of the antennal blade in the sensillogenic regions. During the first day following apolysis, the primordia of ca. 70,000 olfactory sensilla arise in the sensillogenic regions. Axons from their neurons are collected in segmentally arranged nerves which run towards the CNS along the dorsal as well as the ventral epidermis and are enveloped by a glial sheath. This 'primary innervation pattern' is completed within the second day after apolysis. A first wave of incisions ('primary incisions') subdivide the antennal blade into segmental 'double branches' without disturbing the innervation pattern. Then a second wave of incisions ('secondary incisions') splits the double branches into single antennal branches. During this process, the segmental nerves and their glial sheaths are disintegrated. The axons are then redistributed into single branch nerves while their glial sheath is reconstituted, forming the 'secondary', or adult, innervation pattern. The epidermis is backed by a basal lamina which is degraded after outgrowth of the axons, but is reconstituted after formation of the single antennal branches. PMID:18621300

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1995-06-01

183

Expression of SNMP-1 in olfactory neurons and sensilla of male and female antennae of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

SNMP-1 (sensory neuron membrane protein 1) is an olfactory-specific membrane-bound protein which is homologous with the CD36 receptor family. Previous light level immunocytochemical studies suggested that SNMP-1 was localized in the dendrites and distal cell body of sex-pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons (ORN); these studies further suggested SNMP-1 was expressed in only one of two to three neurons in male-specific pheromone-sensitive trichoid sensilla. To better understand the expression and localization of SNMP-1, an immunocytochemical study was performed using electron microscopy to visualize the distribution of SNMP-1 among the neurons of several classes of olfactory sensilla of both male and female antennae of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. SNMP-1 antigenicity was primarily restricted to the receptive dendritic membranes of ORNs of all sensilla types examined and was observed in cytosolic granules, but not plasma membranes, of the cell soma. Mean labeling densities ranged from 1 to 16 gold particles per micrometer of dendrite circumference; dendrites of trichoid and intermediate sensilla showed significantly higher labeling densities than those of basiconic sensilla. Larger dendrites of trichoid sensilla showed significantly higher mean labeling densities (13-16/micron) than smaller diameter dendrites (3-7/micron). Immunofluorescence studies using baculovirus expressed SNMP-1 and multiphoton photon laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) indicated that rSNMP-1, which was post-translationally processed to the in vivo molecular weight, was inserted into the plasma membrane in a topography presenting extracellular epitopes. These studies suggest SNMP-1 is a common feature of the ORNs, is asymmetrically expressed among functionally distinct neurons, and possesses a topography which permits interaction with components of the extracellular sensillum lymph. PMID:11320659

Rogers, M E; Steinbrecht, R A; Vogt, R G

2001-03-01

184

Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

2008-04-01

185

Roles of Piwi Proteins in Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by HP1s in Cultured Silkworm Cells  

PubMed Central

Piwi proteins are part of a superfamily of Argonaute proteins, which are one of the core components of the RNA silencing pathway in many eukaryotes. Piwi proteins are thought to repress the transposon expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster Piwi was recently reported to associate with chromatin and to interact directly with the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a). However, similar interactions have not been reported in other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that silkworm Piwi proteins interact with HP1s in the nucleus. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has two Piwi proteins, Ago3 and Siwi, and two typical HP1 proteins, HP1a and HP1b. We found that HP1a plays an important role in the interaction between Ago3/Siwi and HP1b in the ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We also found that Ago3/Siwi regulates the transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. These results suggest that silkworm Piwi proteins function as a chromatin regulator in collaboration with HP1a and HP1b. PMID:24637637

Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhiqing; Mitsunobu, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Kaito; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2014-01-01

186

Roles of Piwi proteins in transcriptional regulation mediated by HP1s in cultured silkworm cells.  

PubMed

Piwi proteins are part of a superfamily of Argonaute proteins, which are one of the core components of the RNA silencing pathway in many eukaryotes. Piwi proteins are thought to repress the transposon expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster Piwi was recently reported to associate with chromatin and to interact directly with the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a). However, similar interactions have not been reported in other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that silkworm Piwi proteins interact with HP1s in the nucleus. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has two Piwi proteins, Ago3 and Siwi, and two typical HP1 proteins, HP1a and HP1b. We found that HP1a plays an important role in the interaction between Ago3/Siwi and HP1b in the ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We also found that Ago3/Siwi regulates the transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. These results suggest that silkworm Piwi proteins function as a chromatin regulator in collaboration with HP1a and HP1b. PMID:24637637

Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhiqing; Mitsunobu, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Kaito; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2014-01-01

187

Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene 1 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate into lactate and constitutes a major checkpoint of anaerobic glycolysis. Recently, LDH draws a great deal of attention for its potential to be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for various diseases, including cancer and malaria. Insect LDHs have been mainly identified from fruit fly and mosquitoes, but not from silkworm. In this study, a novel LDH homologue, designated as BmLDH1, was firstly identified and characterized from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The BmLDH1 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 996 bp, and encodes a protein of 331 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 36 kDa. Sequence comparison showed BmLDH1 is a highly conserved protein. RT-PCR revealed BmLDH1 is transcripted in all tissues and in all developmental stages tested, indicating its essential roles for silkworm physiology and development. The BmLDH1 gene was subcloned and expressed in E. coli, and was further characterized by Western blot and Mass Spectrometry. The expressed protein contained the LDH activity, and could be inhibited by reduced glutathione in vitro. Immunofluoresence showed that the BmLDH1 was located in the cytoplasm. The cloned BmLDH1 sequence was deposited in the GenBank (accession number EU334850). PMID:20852941

Xia, Hengchuan; Wu, Chao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Jing; Feng, Fan; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lin

2011-03-01

188

Characterization and recombinant protein expression of ferritin light chain homologue in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm genome encodes three iron storage proteins or ferritins, Fer1HCH, Fer2LCH, and Fer3HCH. Probing our EST library constructed from 1-day-old silkworm eggs revealed only Fer2LCH mRNA, which encoded for a protein with a predicted putative N-glycosylation site. Developmental and tissue expression analyses during embryogenesis revealed that Fer2LCH mRNA was abundant from 6 h to 6 days after oviposition. Transcriptional expression of Fer2LCH during the postembryonic stage is also high in the larval fat body and mid-gut, and then is upregulated in all pupal tissues tested. We found that Fer2LCH mRNA contains an iron-responsive element, suggesting this ferritin subunit is subject to translational control. Although ferritin expression has been shown to increase following immune challenge in other insects, the levels of Fer2LCH mRNA were not significantly induced following viral or bacterial infection of Bombyx mori. Using a baculovirus expression system we expressed recombinant BmFer2LCH protein, which was detectable in the cytoplasmic fraction, likely in a compartment of the secretory pathway, and was shown to undergo posttranslational modifications including N-glycosylation. In particular, rBmFer2LCH carbohydrate chains were composed of mannose and GlcNAc. We suggest that Fer2LCH is important for iron homeostasis and maintaining normal organ function in silkworms. PMID:23956199

Hong, Sun Mee; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2014-04-01

189

Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

190

Characterization and identification of the integrin family in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. Integrins are evolutionarily conserved from sponges to humans, and play vital roles in many physiological and pathological processes. To explore their diverse functions of integrins in insect, eleven integrins including six ? and five ? subunits were cloned and characterized from silkworm. Our results showed that integrins from silkworm own more family members compared to other invertebrates. Among those ? subunits, integrins ?1, ?2, and the other four subunits belong to PS1, PS2, and PS3 groups, respectively. The ? subunits mainly gather in the insect ?? group except the ?1 subunit which belongs to the insect ? group. Expression profiles demonstrated that the integrins exhibited distinct patterns, but were mainly expressed in hemocytes. ?1 and ?2 subunits are the predominant ones either in the embryogenesis or larva stages. Interestingly, integrins were significantly up-regulated after stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) in vivo. These results indicate that integrins perform diverse functions in hemocytes of silkworm. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the functional and evolutionary features of integrins. PMID:25064490

Zhang, Kui; Xu, Man; Su, Jingjing; Yu, Shuang; Sun, Zhongfeng; Li, Yutian; Zhang, Weibo; Hou, Jianbing; Shang, Lijun; Cui, Hongjuan

2014-10-01

191

When Oak Ordinances Fail: Unaddressed Issues of Oak Conservation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandate by the California Board of Forestry in 1993 required each of the 41 counties which have significant oak woodlands to develop programs for the ultimate protection of this resource. As of 2001, a few counties have planned for the sustainability of their oak woodlands, but some counties may not be addressing the key components that will determine the

Rudolph H. Light; Linda E. Pedroni

2002-01-01

192

Isolation and Characterization of Lipase-Producing Bacteria in the Intestine of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Reared on Different Forage  

PubMed Central

The silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), an oligophagous insect that mainly feeds on mulberry leaves, is susceptible to entomopathogen infection when reared with tricuspid cudrania leaves. A total of 56 dominant bacterial strains, classified into 12 phylotypes based on bacteriological properties and analysis of 16S rRNA genes, were isolated from the intestine of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Ten and seven phylotypes exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae reared with mulberry leaves and tricuspid cudrania leaves, respectively. Four of them are common in the intestine of the two treatment groups. By screening their lipolytic ability on a Rhodamine B agar plate, nine lipase-producing bacterial strains were obtained and classified into six genera, including Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Stenotrophomonas. Except for Stenotrophomonas, which is common in both, the other genera only exist in the intestine of the silkworm larvae fed with mulberry leaves. In addition, by culture and fermentation in vitro, the maximum cell density and lipase activity of lipase-producing bacteria were examined at about 48 hours. The results indicate that diet has a significant impact on the gut bacterial community, especially lipase-producing bacteria. We suggest that the difference of lipase-producing bacterial diversity might be related to disease resistance of the silkworm. PMID:22243438

Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Guang-Ying

2011-01-01

193

A review of the implications of heterozygosity and inbreeding on germplasm biodiversity and its conservation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Abstract Silkworm genebanks assume paramount importance as the reservoirs of biodiversity and source of alleles that can be easily retrieved for genetic enhancement of popular breeds. More than 4000 Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) strains are currently available and these strains are maintained through continuous sibling mating. This repeated sibling mating makes the populations of each strain more homozygous, but leads to loss of unique and valuable genes through the process of inbreeding depression. Hence, it is essential to maintain a minimal degree of heterozygosity within the population of each silkworm strain, especially in the traditional geographic strains, to avoid such loss. As a result, accurate estimation of genetic diversity is becoming more important in silkworm genetic resources conservation. Application of molecular markers help estimate genetic diversity much more accurately than that of morphological traits. Since a minimal amount of heterozygosity in each silkworm strain is essential for better conservation by avoiding inbreeding depression, this article overviews both theoretical and practical importance of heterozygosity together with impacts of inbreeding depression and the merits and demerits of neutral molecular markers for measurements of both heterozygosity and inbreeding depression in the silkworm Bombyx mori. PMID:21521139

Jingade, A H; Vijayan, K; Somasundaram, P; Srivasababu, G K; Kamble, C K

2011-01-01

194

Niemann-Pick disease type C2 protein induces triglyceride accumulation in silkworm and mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

Silkworm haemolymph induced both the cessation of growth and an increase in triglyceride (triacylglycerol) storage in BmN4 cells. We purified the growth inhibitory factor from the silkworm haemolymph and identified this protein as the Bombyx mori PP (promoting protein), an orthologue of NPC2 (Niemann-Pick disease type C2) protein. Recombinant silkworm NPC2 inhibited cellular proliferation and increased triglyceride accumulation in BmN4 cells. Injection of either the recombinant protein or antiserum of NPC2 into living silkworms increased or decreased respectively triglyceride levels in the fat body. A mutation that depletes the cholesterol-binding capacity did not abolish the activity of NPC2. We further revealed that NPC2 induced the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and that an AMPK inhibitor suppressed NPC2-dependent triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that NPC2 induces triglyceride accumulation via the activation of AMPK independently of its cholesterol-binding capacity in the silkworm. PMID:24438076

Adachi, Tatsuo; Ishii, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Yohei; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2014-04-01

195

Characterization and expression patterns of let-7 microRNA in the silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

PubMed Central

Background lin-4 and let-7, the two founding members of heterochronic microRNA genes, are firstly confirmed in Caenorhabditis elegans to control the proper timing of developmental programs in a heterochronic pathway. let-7 has been thought to trigger the onset of adulthood across animal phyla. Ecdysone and Broad-Complex are required for the temporal expression of let-7 in Drosophila melanogaster. For a better understanding of the conservation and functions of let-7, we seek to explore how it is expressed in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Results One member of let-7 family has been identified in silkworm computationally and experimentally. All known members of this family share the same nucleotides at ten positions within the mature sequences. Sequence logo and phylogenetic tree show that they are not only conserved but diversify to some extent among some species. The bmo-let-7 was very lowly expressed in ova harvested from newborn unmated female adult and in individuals from the first molt to the early third instar, highly expressed after the third molt, and the most abundant expression was observed after mounting, particularly after pupation. The expression levels were higher at the end of each instar and at the beginning of each molt than at other periods, coinciding with the pulse of ecdysone and BR-C as a whole. Using cultured ovary cell line, BmN-SWU1, we examined the effect of altered ecdysone levels on bmo-let-7 expression. The expression was also detected in various tissues of day 3 of the fifth instar and of from day 7 of the fifth to pupa, suggesting a wide distributing pattern with various signal intensities. Conclusion bmo-let-7 is stage- and tissue-specifically expressed in the silkworm. Although no signals were detected during embryonic development and first larval instar stages, the expression of bmo-let-7 was observed from the first molt, suggesting that it might also function at early larval stage of the silkworm. The detailed expression profiles in the whole life cycle and cultured cell line of silkworm showed a clear association with ecdysone pulse and a variety of biological processes. PMID:17651473

Liu, Shiping; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Hong, Kaili; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2007-01-01

196

Differentially Expressed Genes in the Cuticle and Hemolymph of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Injected with the Fungus Beauveria bassiana  

PubMed Central

The most important pathogenic fungus of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli ) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), which causes significant damage to sericulture production. Therefore, diagnosing fungal disease and developing new control measures are crucial to silk production. To better understand the responsive and interactive mechanisms between the host silkworm and this fungus, variations in silkworm gene expression were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization method following the injection of B. bassiana conidia. Two cDNA libraries were constructed, and 140 cDNA clones were isolated. Of the 50 differentially expressed genes identified, 45 (112 clones) were identified in the forward library, and 5 (28 clones) were identified in the reverse library. Expression profiling of six of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) verified that they were induced by the fungal challenge. The present study provides insight into the interaction between lepidopteran insects and pathogenic fungi. PMID:24794288

Hou, Cheng-Xiang; Qin, Guang-Xing; Liu, Ting; Mei, Xing-Lin; Li, Bing; Shen, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Xi-Jie

2013-01-01

197

Purification and Functional Characterization of a Protein: Bombyx mori Human Growth Hormone Like Protein in Silkworm Pupa  

PubMed Central

Human growth hormone (hGH) is a peptide hormone secreted by eosinophils of the human anterior pituitary, and a regulatory factor for a variety of metabolic pathways. A 30-kD protein from the pupa stage of silkworm was detected by Western blotting and confirmed by immunoprecipitation based on its ability to bind to anti-hGH antibody. This protein, named BmhGH-like protein, was purified from fresh silkworm pupas through low-temperature homogenization, filtration, and centrifugation to remove large impurity particles. The supernatants were precipitated, resuspended, and passed through a molecular sieve. Further purification by affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in pure protein for analysis by MS MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. An alignment with predicted proteins indicated that BmhGH-like protein consisted of two lipoproteins, which we named hGH-L1 and hGH-L2. These proteins belong to the ?-trefoil superfamily, with ? domains similar to the spatial structure of hGH. Assays with K562 cells demonstrated that these proteins could promote cell division in vitro. To further validate the growth-promoting effects, hGH-L2 was cloned from pupa cDNA to create recombinant silkworm baculovirus vBmNPV-hGH-L2, which was used to infect silkworm BmN cells at low titer. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the protein shortened the G0/G1 phase of the cells, and enabled the cells to rapidly traverse the G1/S phase transition point to enter S phase and promote cell division. Discovery of hGH-like protein in silkworm will once again arouse people’s interest in the potential medicinal value of silkworm and establish the basis for the development of new hormone drugs. PMID:25469649

Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Chen, Jian; Chen, Hao; Yu, Wei; Gai, Qijing; Zhang, Yaozhou

2014-01-01

198

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000

Standiford, Richard B.

199

Major Oak Diseases and Their Control.  

E-print Network

. The Texas A&M Univer sity System . such as a copper, zineb, maneb or a benomyl containing fungicide may be required if damage per sists. Apply necessary sprays in the spring during leaf emergence and repeat in 7 to 14 days as needed. Oak Leaf Blister... (Fungus - Taphrina caerulescens) Water oak, post oak, red oak and live oak are most often infected with the oak leaf blister fungus . Of these, water oak is the most susceptible. Leaves infected with the fungus have a distinct bulge on the leaf...

Johnson, Jerral D.; Appel, David N.

1984-01-01

200

A MC motif in silkworm Argonaute 1 is indispensible for translation repression.  

PubMed

Small RNA-mediated gene silencing is a fundamental gene regulatory mechanism, which is conserved in many organisms. Argonaute (Ago) family proteins in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) play crucial roles in RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, four Ago proteins have been identified, named as Ago1, Ago2, Ago3 and Siwi. Ago2 participates in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced RNAi, whereas Ago3 and Siwi are involved in the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. However, there is no experimental evidence concerning silkworm Ago1 (BmAgo1) in the RNAi mechanism. In the present study, we analysed the function of BmAgo1 in the microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNAi pathway using tethering and miRNA sensor reporter assays. These results clearly demonstrate that BmAgo1 plays an indispensable role in translation repression in silkworm. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation data indicated that BmAgo1 interacts with BmDcp2, an orthologue of mRNA-decapping enzyme 2 (Dcp2) protein in the Drosophila processing-bodies (P-bodies). Substitutions of two conserved phenylalanines (F522 and F557) by valines in the MC motif strongly impaired the function of BmAgo1 in translation repression and its localization in P-bodies, suggesting that these two amino acid residues in the MC motif of BmAgo1 are prerequisites for mRNA translation repression in B.?mori. PMID:23521747

Zhu, L; Masaki, Y; Tatsuke, T; Li, Z; Mon, H; Xu, J; Lee, J M; Kusakabe, T

2013-06-01

201

Novel protein of IBP from silkworm, Bombyx mori, involved in cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus infection.  

PubMed

In the present study, the full-length cDNA of a novel insulin-related peptide-binding protein (named BmIBP2) was identified from silkworm, Bombyx mori, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of BmIBP2 is 1293 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 61 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 335 bp with a poly-adenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail. The BmIBP2 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 298 amino acids, including an IG domain and an IGc2 domain, with a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.73 and a predicted molecular weight of 33.1 kDa. The BmIBP2 also has a signal peptide of 23 amino acids and a potential N-glycosylation site. The sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis indicated that BmIBP2 belongs to the group of invertebrates IBP and is closer to IGFBP7 than to the other IGFBPs in vertebrates. These findings suggest that BmIBP2 is a putative homolog of vertebrate endocrine factor IGFBP7 and has a functional similarity. By fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA transcripts of BmIBP2 were mainly detected in the midgut but were hardly detectable in the hemocytes, vasa mucosa, fat body, silk gland, head, testicle, ovary, and spiracle. After the silkworm larvae were infected by B. mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV), a significant up-regulation in the relative expression level of BmIBP2 was found. All the results suggested that BmIBP2 is a novel protein that plays an important role in the insulin-signal pathway and in the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. PMID:22401767

Gao, Kun; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Qian, He-Ying; Wu, Ping; Qin, Guang-xing; Liu, Ting; Shen, Zhong-yuan; Guo, Xi-jie

2012-05-01

202

Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

2010-04-01

203

Genomic analysis of carboxyl/cholinesterase genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) have pivotal roles in dietary detoxification, pheromone or hormone degradation and neurodevelopment. The recent completion of genome projects in various insect species has led to the identification of multiple CCEs with unknown functions. Here, we analyzed the phylogeny, expression and genomic distribution of 69 putative CCEs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Results A phylogenetic tree of CCEs in B. mori and other lepidopteran species was constructed. The expression pattern of each B. mori CCE was also investigated by a search of an expressed sequence tag (EST) database, and the relationship between phylogeny and expression was analyzed. A large number of B. mori CCEs were identified from a midgut EST library. CCEs expressed in the midgut formed a cluster in the phylogenetic tree that included not only B. mori genes but also those of other lepidopteran species. The silkworm, and possibly also other lepidopteran species, has a large number of CCEs, and this might be a consequence of the large cluster of midgut CCEs. Investigation of intron-exon organization in B. mori CCEs revealed that their positions and splicing site phases were strongly conserved. Several B. mori CCEs, including juvenile hormone esterase, not only showed clustering in the phylogenetic tree but were also closely located on silkworm chromosomes. We investigated the phylogeny and microsynteny of neuroligins in detail, among many CCEs. Interestingly, we found the evolution of this gene appeared not to be conserved between B. mori and other insect orders. Conclusions We analyzed 69 putative CCEs from B. mori. Comparison of these CCEs with other lepidopteran CCEs indicated that they had conserved expression and function in this insect order. The analyses showed that CCEs were unevenly distributed across the genome of B. mori and suggested that neuroligins may have a distinct evolutionary history from other insect order. It is possible that such an uneven genomic distribution and a unique neuroligin evolution are shared with other lepidopteran insects. Our genomic analysis has provided novel information on the CCEs of the silkworm, which will be of value to understanding the biology, physiology and evolution of insect CCEs. PMID:20546589

2010-01-01

204

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Report for 2012 on the World Wide Web http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt/ Project director Joan Hughes................................................................................................................................1-1 1.2 History of the Oak Ridge Reservation

Pennycook, Steve

205

Oak Ridge via State Route  

E-print Network

PARK (FORMERLY K-25 PLANT) OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (X-10) Y-12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX 1 2 SNS and THE SUPER 8 MOTEL NATIONAL ENERGY SECURITY CENTER NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH CENTER ETTP OBSERVATION

206

Mössbauer studies of subfossil oak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subfossil oak wood found in a dried-up bog in Bavaria, Germany, was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The bog oaks contain substantial amounts of iron taken up from the bog waters and presumably forming complexes with the tanning agents in the oak wood. The iron is mainly Fe3 + and much of this exhibits an uncommonly large quadrupole splitting of up to 1.6 mm/s that can tentatively be explained by the formation of oxo-bridged iron dimers. Only rarely, mainly in the dense wood of the roots of bog oaks, was divalent iron found. When the wood was ground to a powder the divalent iron oxidized to Fe3 + within hours. This suggests that iron is taken up from the bog water as Fe2 + and oxidizes only when the wood emerges from the water and comes into contact with air.

van Bürck, Uwe; Wagner, Friedrich E.; Lerf, Anton

2012-03-01

207

An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs. PMID:25739894

Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

2015-01-01

208

MicroRNA-281 regulates the expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoform B in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hundreds of Bombyx mori miRNAs had been identified in recent years, but their function in vivo remains poorly understood. The silkworm EcR gene (BmEcR) has three transcriptional isoforms, A, B1 and B2. Isoform sequences are different in the 3’UTR region of the gene, which is the case only in insects...

209

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT DIAPAUSE. IV. THE BRAIN AND PROTHORACIC GLANDS AS AN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN THE CECROPIA SILKWORM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous papers of this series (Williams, 1946b, 1947, 1948a) an endo crine basis was described for the production and termination of pupal diapause in the Cecropia silkworm. The onset of diapause was correlated with a temporary failure of the brain in secreting a hormone required for the initiation of adult development. The ultimate release of this “ż?brain hormone”

CARROLL M. WILLIAMS

210

Genetic mapping of Z chromosome and identification of W chromosome-specific markers in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the female is the heterogametic (ZW) sex and the male is homogametic (ZZ). The female heterogamety is a typical situation in the insect order Lepidoptera. Although the W chromosome in silkworm is strongly female determining, no W-linked gene for a morphological character has been found on it. The Z chromosome carries important traits of economic value as well as genes for various phenotypic traits, but only 2% of molecular information based on its relative size is known. Studies conducted so far indicate that the Z-linked genes are not dosage compensated. In the present study, we constructed a genetic map of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and fluorescent intersimple sequence repeat PCR (FISSR) markers for the Z chromosome using a backcross mapping population. A total of 16 Z-linked markers were identified, characterized, and mapped using od, a recessive trait for translucent skin as an anchor marker yielding a total recombination map of 334.5 cM. The linkage distances obtained suggested that the markers were distributed throughout the Z chromosome. Four RAPD and four SSR markers that were linked to W chromosome were also identified. The proposed mapping approach should be useful to identify and map sex-linked traits in the silkworm. The economic and evolutionary significance of Z- and W-linked genes in silkworm, in particular, and lepidopterans, in general, is discussed. PMID:15931240

Nagaraja, G M; Mahesh, G; Satish, V; Madhu, M; Muthulakshmi, M; Nagaraju, J

2005-08-01

211

The large-scale production of an artificial influenza virus-like particle vaccine in silkworm pupae.  

PubMed

We successfully established a mass production system for an influenza virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine using a synthetic H5 hemagglutinin (HA) gene codon-optimized for the silkworm. A recombinant baculovirus containing the synthetic gene was inoculated into silkworm pupae. Four days after inoculation, the hemagglutination titer in homogenates from infected pupae reached a mean value of 0.8 million hemagglutination units (HAU), approximately 2,000 ?g HA protein per pupa, more than 50-fold higher than that produced with an embryonated chicken egg. VLPs ranging from 30 nm to 300 nm in diameter and covered with a large number of spikes were detected in the homogenates. The spikes were approximately 14 nm long, similar to an authentic influenza HA spike. Detailed electron micrographs indicated that the VLP spike density was similar to that of authentic influenza virus particles. The results clearly show that the expression of a single HA gene can efficiently produce VLPs in silkworm pupae. When chickens were immunized with the pupae homogenate, the hemagglutination inhibition titer in their sera reached values of 2,048-8,192 after approximately 1 month. This is the first report demonstrating that a large amount of VLP vaccine could be produced by single synthetic HA gene in silkworm pupae. Our system might be useful for future vaccine development against other viral diseases. PMID:25448101

Nerome, Kuniaki; Sugita, Shigeo; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Hirose, Toshiharu; Matsuda, Sayaka; Majima, Kei; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Shibata, Toshikatsu; Poetri, Okti Nadia; Soejoedono, Retno D; Mayasari, Ni L P Ika; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Nerome, Reiko

2015-01-01

212

DNA fingerprinting using AFLP markers to search for markers associated with yield attributes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out on 11 Chinese and 12 Japanese silkworm strains maintained by the Center for the Technological Development of Sericulture (CDTS) germplasm bank, located in Pereira, Colombia. The goals were to determine the genetic population structure of the two groups and the association between molecular markers (AFLPs) and important productivity characters. Group analysis showed the separation of

Duverney A. Gaviria; Enrique Aguilar; Herman J. Serrano; Alvaro H. Alegria

2006-01-01

213

Programmed cell death: Cytochemical and X-ray microanalytical characterization of calcium compartments in neuromuscular junctions during the normal breakdown of the intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Calcium stores were cytochemically demonstrated using a combined oxalate—pyroantimonate method in the neuromuscular junctions of the degenerating intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmothAntheraea polyphemus. The elemental composition of punctate precipitates of the reaction product was determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of unstained thin sections by energy-dispersive spectrometry and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry. The wavelength-dispersive spectra collected over terminal axons demonstrate a

Jacques Beaulaton; Universitd Blaise

1988-01-01

214

Characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin family genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori in response to phoxim and chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

The organophosphorus pesticide poisoning of the silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the major events causing serious damage to sericulture. Some antioxidant enzymes play roles in regulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pesticides including phoxim and chlorpyrifos, but relatively little is known about their effects on the silkworm peroxiredoxin family genes. Here, five peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes have been identified in silkworm genome, and Prx genes of silkworm and mammalian homologs have apparent ortholog relationship. Based on the genomic DNA sequence, putative 5'-flanking region of five BmPrxs were obtained and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Their expression profiles exposed to different concentrations of phoxim and chlorpyrifos for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h in midgut of silkworm were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that five BmPrxs and dual oxidase (BmDUOX) gene were all expressed in midgut of silkworm. After feeding with 0.375 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h). However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72 h). Similar to expose to phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24 h) under chlorpyrifos stress. However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72 h) under chlorpyrifos stress. These results revealed that BmPrxs that can be located in mitochondria were able to protect cells even more efficiently than cytosolic from an oxidative stress caused by OP. In addition, BmDUOX was also induced by phomix and chlorpyrifos. Overall, our results indicate that a complex expression regulation of Prxs that play important roles in maintaining redox equilibrium state of silkworm to reduce oxidative damage caused by pesticide. PMID:25175646

Shi, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Ze; Jia, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Kun; An, Dong-Xu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Bao-Long; Yin, He-Nan

2014-09-01

215

Some observations on the structure and function of the spinning apparatus in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Silkworm silk has outstanding mechanical properties despite being spun at room temperature and from aqueous solution. Although it has been proposed that fiber formation is mainly induced by shearing and extensional flow in the spinneret, the detailed structure and function of the spinning apparatus of Bombyx mori silkworms are still not fully elucidated. In this paper we describe three aspects of the functional microanatomy of the spinning apparatus: changes in the diameter of the silk gland duct with distance along the duct, how the birefringence of the fibroin changes as it flows down the duct, and the detailed three-dimensional structure of the silk press and related structures. The existence of a double escaped nematic liquid crystal texture in the fibroin in a region of the duct is described. After this region the birefringence suddenly disappeared until the start of an internal draw down taper which commenced just before the silk press. In the internal draw down taper the birefringence increased dramatically to an asymptotic value as a thread was drawn from the fibroin gel. The structure of the silk press suggests that it acts as a restriction die whose diameter can be regulated. PMID:17206804

Asakura, Tetsuo; Umemura, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Yasumoto; Hirose, Haruko; Higham, James; Knight, David

2007-01-01

216

Advanced silk material spun by a transgenic silkworm promotes cell proliferation for biomedical application.  

PubMed

Natural silk fiber spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori is widely used not only for textile materials, but also for biofunctional materials. In the present study, we genetically engineered an advanced silk material, named hSFSV, using a transgenic silkworm, in which the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) protein was specifically synthesized in the middle silk gland and secreted into the sericin layer to surround the silk fiber using our previously optimized sericin1 expression system. The content of the recombinant hFGF1 in the hSFSV silk was estimated to be approximate 0.07% of the cocoon shell weight. The mechanical properties of hSFSV raw silk fiber were enhanced slightly compared to those of the wild-type raw silk fiber, probably due to the presence of the recombinant of hFGF1 in the sericin layer. Remarkably, the hSFSV raw silk significantly stimulated the cell growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the mitogenic activity of recombinant hFGF1 was well maintained and functioned in the sericin layer of hSFSV raw silk. These results show that the genetically engineered raw silk hSFSV could be used directly as a fine biomedical material for mass application. In addition, the strategy whereby functional recombinant proteins are expressed in the sericin layer of silk might be used to create more genetically engineered silks with various biofunctions and applications. PMID:24980060

Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Song, Chunnuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Peng, Zhixin; Peng, Zhangchuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

2014-12-01

217

Expression, purification and characterization of an atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) play important roles in protecting organisms against damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we cloned a cDNA of Bombyx mori peroxiredoxin 5 (BmPrx5), which contained a 565-bp open reading frame for a 188-residue protein. Sequence analysis indicated that BmPrx5 belongs to the atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Recombinant BmPrx5 purified from Escherichia coli showed antioxidant activity that removes H2 O2 and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the level of BmPrx5 mRNA in haemocytes increased early and decreased by 24?h after injection of H2 O2 whereas, in the fat body, the transcript level decreased at 6?h and increased at 12?h. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus infection resulted in higher levels of H2 O2 in the haemolymph and of BmPrx5 mRNA in haemocytes at 8?h postinfection. These data suggest that BmPrx5 acts as an antioxidant enzyme to protect the silkworm from oxidative damage induced by bacterial infection. Further study is needed to elucidate the exact role of BmPrx5 in the silkworm immune system. PMID:25512182

Zhang, L; Lu, Z

2015-04-01

218

Biochemical characterization of maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT-1 from silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism involved in gene expression of vertebrates and invertebrates. In general, DNA methylation profile is established by de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-3A, -3B) and maintainance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT-1). DNMT-1 has a strong substrate preference for hemimethylated DNA over the unmethylated one. Because the silkworm genome lacks an apparent homologue of de novo DNMT, it is still unclear that how silkworm chromosome establishes and maintains its DNA methylation profile. As the first step to unravel this enigma, we purified recombinant BmDNMT-1 using baculovirus expression system and characterized its DNA-binding and DNA methylation activity. We found that the BmDNMT-1 preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA despite binding to both unmethylated and hemimethylated DNA. Interestingly, BmDNMT-1 formed a complex with DNA in the presence or absence of methyl group donor, S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and the AdoMet-dependent complex formation was facilitated by Zn(2+) and Mn(2+). Our results provide clear evidence that BmDNMT-1 retained the function as maintenance DNMT but its sensitivity to metal ions is different from mammalian DNMT-1. PMID:25623240

Mitsudome, Takumi; Mon, Hiroaki; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Lee, Jae Man; Patil, Anandrao Ashok; Masuda, Atsushi; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Morokuma, Daisuke; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2015-03-01

219

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

220

Heritable Genome Editing with CRISPR/Cas9 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with an associated protein (Cas9) system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific guide RNA and Cas9-mRNA into silkworm embryos. Mutation frequencies of 16.7–35.0% were observed in the injected generation, and DNA fragments deletions were also noted. Bm-ok mosaic mutants were used to test for mutant heritability due to the easily determined translucent epidermal phenotype of Bm-ok-disrupted cells. Two crossing strategies were used. In the first, injected Bm-ok moths were crossed with wild-type moths, and a 28.6% frequency of germline mutation transmission was observed. In the second strategy, two Bm-ok mosaic mutant moths were crossed with each other, and 93.6% of the offsprings appeared mutations in both alleles of Bm-ok gene (compound heterozygous). In summary, the CRISPR/Cas9 system can act as a highly specific and heritable gene-editing tool in Bombyx mori. PMID:25013902

Roy, Bhaskar; Dai, Junbiao; Miao, Yungen; Gao, Guanjun

2014-01-01

221

Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of silkworm pupal oil applying the response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO(2)) of oil from desilked silkworm pupae was performed. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO(2) extraction. The effects of independent variables, including pressure, temperature, CO(2) flow rate, and extraction time, on the yield of oil were investigated. The statistical analysis showed that the pressure, extraction time, and the quadratics of pressure, extraction time, and CO(2) flow rate, as well as the interactions between pressure and temperature, and temperature and flow rate, showed significant effects on oil yield. The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 324.5 bar, 39.6 degrees C, 131.2 min, and 19.3 L/h. At this condition, the yield of oil was predicted to be 29.73%. The obtained silkworm pupal oil contained more than 68% total unsaturated fatty acids, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) accounted for 27.99% in the total oil. PMID:19414250

Wei, Zhao-Jun; Liao, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Hai-Xiang; Liu, Jian; Jiang, Shao-Tong

2009-09-01

222

Isolation and characterization of neutral lipids of desilked eri silkworm pupae grown on castor and tapioca leaves.  

PubMed

The neutral lipid of desilked eri silkworm pupae (Samia cynthia ricini) grown on two different host plants, castor (Ricinus communis Linn.) and tapioca (Manihot utilizsima Phol.) leaves, was extracted with hexane. The oil content in pupae was estimated to be in the range of 18-20% (dry basis). The pupal oil was found to be enriched with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) with palmitic acid as the second major fatty acid. The level of ALA in the oil of silkworm pupae was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) when grown on tapioca (58.3%) as compared to those grown on castor (42.9%). Other chemical parameters such as percent free fatty acid, peroxide value, phosphorus content, percent unsaponifiable matter, and composition of sterols were also determined in both of the oils and compared. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of triacylglycerol molecular species showed that the pupal oil is rich in molecular species with equivalent carbon numbers (ECN) C36, C40, C42, C44, and C48. There was a significantly higher level (P < 0.001) of trilinolenin (C36) in the oil of tapioca-based silkworm as compared to castor-based silkworm pupae. Regiospecific analysis of the oil showed a higher level of ALA at the sn-2 position of silkworm pupae grown on tapioca (60.2%) as compared to those grown on castor (47.3%) oil. Thus, the presence of a large amount of ALA and their predominance at the sn-2 position make the eri pupal oil highly nutritious, provided that the oxidative stability is ensured. PMID:16637689

Shanker, Kaki Shiva; Shireesha, Kudugunti; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Kumar, Sambharaju V L N; Srinivas, Chinta; Rao, Jammy V K; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

2006-05-01

223

OAK DECLINES NEW DEFINITIONS AND NEW EPISODES IN BRITAIN  

E-print Network

OAK visibility of deteriorating oak health in Britain and media reports on `Sudden Oak Death' have led to growing of ill health and the names that people use to describe it. Over the past century oaks

224

Differential effects of sugar-mimic alkaloids in mulberry latex on sugar metabolism and disaccharidases of Eri and domesticated silkworms: Enzymatic adaptation of Bombyx mori to mulberry defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry leaves (Morus spp.) exude latex rich in sugar-mimic alkaloids, 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), as a defense against herbivorous insects. Sugar-mimic alkaloids are inhibitors of sugar-metabolizing enzymes, and are toxic to the Eri silkworm, Samia ricini, a generalist herbivore, but not at all to the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist. To address the phenomena, we fed both

Chikara Hirayama; Kotaro Konno; Naoya Wasano; Masatoshi Nakamura

2007-01-01

225

Poison oak rash on the arm (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Poison oak rash on the arm. Several plants produce toxins that cause skin reaction. This is the appearance of poison oak dermatitis. Note the typical linear streaks produced either by scratching or brushing ...

226

Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California1 William F. Elmendorf2  

E-print Network

Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California1 William F. Elmendorf2 Abstract: The City- sake, the oak tree. First adopted in 1972 as an Emergency City Council Proclamation, the City's Oak Tree Ordinance has been considered by some, to be one of the first and toughest municipal native tree

Standiford, Richard B.

227

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Quantification of Sudden Oak Death  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 49 Quantification of Sudden Oak Death ramorum, the plant pathogen causing the forest disease known as sudden oak death. First confirmed in 2000 tree that exhibited spectral characteristics of trees killed by sudden oak death within each host

Standiford, Richard B.

228

Potential Effects of Sudden Oak Death on the Oak Woodland Bird Community of Coastal  

E-print Network

., Carmel Valley, CA 93924. #12;GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-196 196 Introduction Sudden oak death (SOD195 Potential Effects of Sudden Oak Death on the Oak Woodland Bird Community of Coastal California1 population declines as a result of sudden oak death (SOD). We investigated how the disappearance of two

Standiford, Richard B.

229

Where Has All the White Oak Gone?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the disappearance of white oaks in the US. Before European settlement, vast areas of deciduous forest in what is now the eastern United States were dominated by oak species. Among these species, white oak (Quercus alba) reigned supreme. White oak tended to grow at lower elevations but was distributed across a broad range of sites, from wet mesic to subxeric, and grew on all but the wettest and most xeric, rocky, or nutrient-poor soils. A comparison of witness tree data from early land surveys and data on modern-day forest composition revealed a drastic decline in white oak throughout the eastern forest. By contrast, other dominant oaks, such as red oak (Quercus rubra) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), often exhibited higher frequency in recent studies than in surveys of the original forest. The frequency of red oak witness trees before European settlement was quite low, generally under 5% in most forests. Red oak's distribution was apparently limited by a lower tolerance to fire and drought and a greater dependence on catastrophic disturbances than that of white oak. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, much of the eastern forest was decimated by land clearing, extensive clear-cutting, catastrophic fires, chestnut blight, and then fire suppression and intensive deer browsing. These activities had the greatest negative impact on the highly valued white oak, while promoting the expansion of red oak and chestnut oak. More recently, however, recruitment of all the dominant upland oaks has been limited on all but the most xeric sites. Thus, the dynamic equilibrium in the ecology of upland oaks that existed for thousands of years has been destroyed in the few centuries following European settlement.

MARC D. ABRAMS (; )

2003-10-01

230

Molecular Markers for Biomass Traits: Association, Interaction and Genetic Divergence in Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Improvement of high yielding, disease resistant silkworm strains became imminent to increase production of silk, which is a major revenue earner for sericulturists. Since environment interacts with phenotype, conventional breeding did not result in commendable yield improvement in synthetic strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Identification of DNA markers associated with different economically important biomass traits and its introgression could assist molecular breeding and expression of stabilized high yielding characters, but genetic basis of most quantitative traits in silkworm is poorly understood due to its polygenic control. Correlation analysis (R = 0.9) revealed significant interrelation among biomass traits viz., larval duration (TLD), larval weight (LWT), cocoon weight (CWT), shell weight (SWT), shell ratio (SR) and floss content. PCR using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers revealed 92% polymorphism among 14 tropical and temperate strains of B. mori, with average diversity index of 0.747. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) selected 35 ISSR markers positively or negatively correlated with different biomass traits, illustrated polygenic control. ISSR marker 830.8(1050bp) was significantly associated with LWT, CWT, SWT, SR and floss content, indicated its pleiotropic role. Two ISSR markers, 835.5(1950bp) and 825.9(710bp) showed significant association with floss content and TLD. These markers were segregated in F(2) generation and Chi-square test confirmed (chi(2) = ~45; P < 0.05) its genetic contribution to the associated biomass traits. Strains, with both positively and negatively correlated markers, had intermediate mean value for biomass traits (eg. SWT = 0.17 +/- 0.014 g in GNM and Moria) indicated interaction of loci in natural populations. Low yielding Indian strains grouped together by Hierarchical clustering. Chinese and Japanese strains were distributed in the periphery of ALSCAL matrix indicated convergence of genetic characters in Indian strains. Average genetic distance between Chinese strains and Indian strains (0.193) significantly (P < 0.01) varied from that between Chinese and Japanese strains. Interaction of loci and allelic substitutions induced phenotypic plasticity in temperate B. mori populations on tropic adaptation in India. These outcomes show possibility to combine favorable alleles at different QTL to increase larval, cocoon and shell weight. PMID:19662204

Pradeep, Appukuttannair R; Jingade, Anuradha H; Urs, Raje S

2007-01-01

231

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Small.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) operations in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and associated areas. · Cleanup commercial uses for many Oak Ridge facilities. #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 CONTACT INFORMATION · Basic BJC

232

Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 69GTR-NRS-P-102 OAK SAVANNA RESTORATION: OAK RESPONSE TO FIRE AND THINNING  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 69GTR-NRS-P-102 OAK SAVANNA for restoration of oak savanna, oak woodlands, pine-bluestem woodlands, and pine savanna for application but with 4-year burn regime treatment units. We included two additional thinning treatments, the oak-savanna

233

Embryonic thermosensitive TRPA1 determines transgenerational diapause phenotype of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the bivoltine strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic diapause is induced transgenerationally as a maternal effect. Progeny diapause is determined by the environmental temperature during embryonic development of the mother; however, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Bombyx TRPA1 ortholog (BmTrpA1) acts as a thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that is activated at temperatures above ? 21 °C and affects the induction of diapause in progeny. In addition, we show that embryonic RNAi of BmTrpA1 affects diapause hormone release during pupal-adult development. This study identifying a thermosensitive TRP channel that acts as a molecular switch for a relatively long-term predictive adaptive response by inducing an alternative phenotype to seasonal polyphenism is unique. PMID:24639527

Sato, Azusa; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kashio, Makiko; Yasukochi, Yuji; Tominaga, Makoto; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2014-04-01

234

Cre-mediated targeted gene activation in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

Cre-mediated recombination is widely used to manipulate defined genes spatiotemporally in vivo. The present study evaluated the Cre/loxP system in Bombyx mori by establishing two transgenic lines. One line contained a Cre recombinase gene controlled by a sericin-1 gene (Ser1) promoter. The other line contained a loxP-Stop-loxP-DsRed cassette driven by the same Ser1 promoter. The precise deletion of the Stop fragment was found to be triggered by Cre-mediated site-specific excision, and led to the expression of DsRed fluorescence protein in the middle silk glands of all double-transgenic hybrids. This result was also confirmed by phenotypical analysis. Hence, the current study demonstrated the feasibility of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in B. mori, and opened a new window for further refining genetic tools in silkworms. PMID:23264031

Duan, Jianping; Xu, Hanfu; Ma, Sanyuan; Guo, Huizhen; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

2013-06-01

235

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry.

Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-03-01

236

Embryonic thermosensitive TRPA1 determines transgenerational diapause phenotype of the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In the bivoltine strain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, embryonic diapause is induced transgenerationally as a maternal effect. Progeny diapause is determined by the environmental temperature during embryonic development of the mother; however, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Bombyx TRPA1 ortholog (BmTrpA1) acts as a thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel that is activated at temperatures above ?21 °C and affects the induction of diapause in progeny. In addition, we show that embryonic RNAi of BmTrpA1 affects diapause hormone release during pupal-adult development. This study identifying a thermosensitive TRP channel that acts as a molecular switch for a relatively long-term predictive adaptive response by inducing an alternative phenotype to seasonal polyphenism is unique. PMID:24639527

Sato, Azusa; Sokabe, Takaaki; Kashio, Makiko; Yasukochi, Yuji; Tominaga, Makoto; Shiomi, Kunihiro

2014-01-01

237

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.  

PubMed

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry. PMID:24651079

Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

238

Poison Ivy, Oak and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

If you spend time outdoors, chances are you have been bothered by poison ivy, poison oak or poison sumac at some point. Most people are sensitive to the plants' oily sap. The sap is in the root, stems, ... skin and how sensitive you are to it. Problems can also happen if the ...

239

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... A "black dot variant" has been described. (The oil from the plant leaves a black dot on the skin.) Extreme ... to wash all potentially exposed areas since the oil of the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has ...

240

of Oak Forests for Wildlife  

E-print Network

Fire Management of Oak Forests for Wildlife L-347 Natural Resource Ecology and Management Oklahoma Elmore Extension Wildlife Specialist John R. Weir Research Associate Terrence G. Bidwell Extension trees, and biodiversity that are beneficial to wildlife. Wildlife Foods White-tailed deer, turkey

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

241

Transgenic characterization of two testis-specific promoters in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Sex-specific regulatory elements are key components for developing insect genetic sexing systems. The current insect genetic sexing system mainly uses a female-specific modification system whereas little success was reported on male-specific genetic modification. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance, a transgene-based, female-specific lethality system has been established based on sex-specific alternative splicing factors and a female-specific promoter BmVgp (vitellogenin promoter) has been identified. However, no male-specific regulatory elements have yet been identified. Here we report the transgenic identification of two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in a testis-specific manner in B.?mori. Putative promoter sequences from the B.?mori Radial spoke head 1 gene (BmR1) and beta-tubulin 4 gene (Bm?4) were introduced using piggybac-based germline transformation. In transgenic silkworms, expression of the reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) directed by either BmR1 promoter (BmR1p) or Bm?4p showed precisely testis-specific manners from the larval to adult stage. Furthermore, EGFP expression of these two transgenic lines showed different localization in the testis, indicating that BmR1p or Bm?4p might be used as distinct regulatory elements in directing testis-specific gene expression. Identification of these testis-specific promoters not only contributes to a better understanding of testis-specific gene function in insects, but also has potential applications in sterile insect techniques for pest management. PMID:25387604

Xu, J; Bi, H; Chen, R; Aslam, A F M; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; Huang, Y; Tan, A

2015-04-01

242

Two Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Paralogues Involved in Cell Proliferation and Spermatogenesis in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) specifically acts in ADP/ATP exchange through the mitochondrial inner membrane. This transporter protein thereby plays a significant role in energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Most mammals have four paralogous ANT genes (ANT1-4) and utilize these paralogues in different types of cells. The fourth paralogue of ANT (ANT4) is present only in mammals and reptiles and is exclusively expressed in testicular germ cells where it is required for meiotic progression in the spermatocytes. Here, we report that silkworms harbor two ANT paralogues, the homeostatic paralogue (BmANTI1) and the testis-specific paralogue (BmANTI2). The BmANTI2 protein has an N-terminal extension in which the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequence are distributed as in human ANT4. An expression analysis showed that BmANTI2 transcripts were restricted to the testis, suggesting the protein has a role in the progression of spermatogenesis. By contrast, BmANTI1 was expressed in all tissues tested, suggesting it has an important role in homeostasis. We also observed that cultured silkworm cells required BmANTI1 for proliferation. The ANTI1 protein of the lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (PxANTI1), but not those of other insect species (or PxANTI2), restored cell proliferation in BmANTI1-knockdown cells suggesting that ANTI1 has similar energy metabolism functions across the Lepidoptera. Our results suggest that BmANTI2 is evolutionarily divergent from BmANTI1 and has developed a specific role in spermatogenesis similar to that of mammalian ANT4. PMID:25742135

Sugahara, Ryohei; Jouraku, Akiya; Nakakura, Takayo; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Takenori; Shinohara, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Hideto; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

2015-01-01

243

Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane. PMID:24052236

Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

2013-12-01

244

Cloning and Expression Analysis of the Bombyx mori ?-amylase Gene (Amy) from the Indigenous Thai Silkworm Strain, Nanglai  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase is a common enzyme for hydrolyzing starch. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), ?-amylase is found in both digestive fluid and hemolymph. Here, the complete genomic sequence of the Amy gene encoding ?-amylase from a local Thai silkworm, the Nanglai strain, was obtained. This gene was 7981 bp long with 9 exons. The full length Amy cDNA sequence was 1749 bp containing a 1503 bp open reading frame. The ORF encoded 500 amino acid residues. The deduced protein showed 81–54% identity to other insect ?-amylases and more than 50% identity to mammalian enzymes. Southern blot analysis revealed that in the Nanglai strain Amy is a single-copy gene. RT- PCR showed that Amy was transcribed only in the foregut. Transgenic B. mori also showed that the Amy promoter activates expression of the transgene only in the foregut. PMID:21529256

Ngernyuang, Nipaporn; Kobayashi, Isao; Promboon, Amornrat; Ratanapo, Sunanta; Tamura, Toshiki; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

2011-01-01

245

Purification and characterization of a 1,3-?-D-glucan recognition protein from Antheraea pernyi larve that is regulated after a specific immune challenge  

PubMed Central

Pattern recognition receptors are known to participate in the activation of Prophenoloxidase system. In this study, a 1,3-?-D-glucan recognition protein was detected for the first time in Antheraea pernyi larvae (Ap-?GRP). Ap-?GRP was purified to 99.9% homogeneity from the hemolymph using traditional chromatographic methods. Ap-?GRP specifically bind 1,3-?-D-glucan and yeast, but not E. coli or M. luteus. The 1,3-?-D-glucan dependent phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the hemolymph inhibited by anti-Ap-?GRP antibody could be recovered by addition of purified Ap-?GRP. These results demonstrate that Ap-?GRP acts as a biosensor of 1,3-?-Dglucan to trigger the Prophenoloxidase system. A trace mount of 1,3-?-D-glucan or Ap-?GRP alone was unable to trigger the proPO system, but they both did. Ap-?GRP was specifically degraded following the activation of proPO with 1,3-?-Dglucan. These results indicate the variation in the amount of Ap-?GRP after specific immune challenge in A. pernyi hemolymph is an important regulation mechanism to immune response. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 264-269] PMID:23710637

Jinghai, Zhang; Yuntao, Zhang; Jiaoshu, Lin; Tianyi, Wang; Chunfu, Wu; Rong, Zhang

2013-01-01

246

Snmp-1, a novel membrane protein of olfactory neurons of the silk moth Antheraea polyphemus with homology to the CD36 family of membrane proteins.  

PubMed

While olfactory neurons of silk moths are well known for their exquisite sensitivity to sex pheromone odorants, molecular mechanisms underlying this sensitivity are poorly understood. In searching for proteins that might support olfactory mechanisms, we characterized the protein profile of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we have named Snmp-1 (sensory neuron membrane protein-1). Northern blot analysis suggests that Snmp-1 is uniquely expressed in antennal tissue; in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analyses show that Snmp-1 is expressed in olfactory neurons and that the protein is localized to the cilia, dendrites, and somata but not the axons. Snmp-1 mRNA expression increases significantly 1-2 days before the end of adult development, coincident with the functional maturation of the olfactory system. Sequence analysis suggests Snmp-1 is homologous with the CD36 protein family, a phylogenetically diverse family of receptor-like membrane proteins. CD36 family proteins are characterized as having two transmembrane domains and interacting with proteinaceous ligands; Snmp-1 is the first member of this family identified in nervous tissue. These findings argue that Snmp-1 has an important role in olfaction; possible roles of Snmp-1 in odorant detection are discussed. PMID:9169446

Rogers, M E; Sun, M; Lerner, M R; Vogt, R G

1997-06-01

247

Binding and hydrolysis of radiolabeled pheromone and several analogs by male-specific antennal proteins of the mothAntheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Sensory hair proteins from antennae of males of the wild silk moth,Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) were incubated with radiolabeled 6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl acetate in the presence of unlabeled pheromone analogs as competitive inhibitors. The two extracellular proteins of importance, a highly active sensillar esterase and an abundant 15,000 mol wt binding protein, interact to degrade labeled pheromone less efficiently in the presence of certain unsaturated acetate analogs of the natural pheromone.Enzymatic hydrolysis of the acetate (or diazoacetate) was also examined for three pheromone analogs: [11,12-(3)H2]-6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, [11,12-(3)H2]-hexadecyl acetate, and [9,10-(3)H2]-9Z-tetradecenyl acetate. The former two are poor substrates at concentrations over four orders of magnitude. The 9Z-14:Ac, however, is the best alternative substrate for this in vitro pheromone metabolism system. Unlabeled 9Z-14: Ac is also the best competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of labeled 6E, 11Z-16: Ac. Whereas the tritiated natural pheromone shows a flat response (ca. 40% conversion) to increasing concentrations from 3 × 10(-9) to 3 × 10(-6) M, tritiated 9Z-14: Ac is degraded more rapidly at higher concentrations. PMID:24306783

Prestwich, G D; Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

1986-02-01

248

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. I. The leaf-shaped antenna of the pupa from diapause to apolysis.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure consisting of a central stem and ca. 120 side branches, which altogether carry about 70,000 olfactory sensilla. We investigate the development during the pupal phase. At the end of diapause, the antennal rudiment consists of a leaf-shaped, one-layered epidermal sac. It is supplied with oxygen via a central main trachea, which gives off numerous thin side branches. These are segmentally arranged into bundles which run to the periphery of the antennal blade. When the epidermis retracts from the pupal cuticle (apolysis; stage 1), it consists of cells which are morphologically uniform. The epidermal cells form a network of long, irregular basal protrusions (epidermal feet), which crisscross the antennal lumen. During the first day post-apolysis (stage 2), the antennal epidermis differentiates into alternating thick 'sensillogenic' and thin 'non-sensillogenic' areas arranged in stripes which run in parallel to the tracheal bundles. Numerous dark, elongated cells, which might be the sensillar stem cells, are scattered in the sensillogenic epithelium. A number of very early sensilla has been found at the distal edges of the sensillogenic stripes in positions which later will be occupied by sensilla chaetica. The whole antennal blade is enveloped by the transparent ecdysial membrane, consisting of the innermost layers of the pupal cuticle which are detached during apolysis. PMID:18620306

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

249

Inhibitors of Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Influencing the Transcripts Level of sHSP21.4 Gene Induced by Pathogen Infections, in Antheraea pernyi  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) can regulate protein folding and protect cells from stress. To investigate the role of sHSPs in the silk-producing insect Antheraea pernyi response to microorganisms, a sHsp gene termed as Ap-sHSP21.4, was identified. This gene encoded a 21.4 kDa protein which shares the conserved structure of insect sHsps and belongs to sHSP21.4 family. Ap-sHSP21.4 was highly expressed in fat body and up-regulated in midgut and fat body of A. pernyi challenged with Escherichia coli, Beauveria bassiana and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), which was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Meanwhile, knock down of Ap-sHSP21.4 with dsRNA result in the decrease at the expression levels of several immune response-related genes (defensin, Dopa decarboxylase, Toll1, lysozyme and Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor). Additionally, the impact of eicosanoid biosynthesis on the expression of Ap-sHSP21.4 response to NPV was determined using qPCR, inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis significantly suppress Ap-HSP21.4 expression upon NPV challenge. All together, Ap-sHSP21.4 was involved in the immunity of A. pernyi against microorganism and possibly mediated by eicosanoids pathway. These results will shed light in the understanding of the pathogen-host interaction in A. pernyi. PMID:25844646

Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guoqing; Li, Jun; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

2015-01-01

250

Inhibitors of Eicosanoid Biosynthesis Influencing the Transcripts Level of sHSP21.4 Gene Induced by Pathogen Infections, in Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) can regulate protein folding and protect cells from stress. To investigate the role of sHSPs in the silk-producing insect Antheraea pernyi response to microorganisms, a sHsp gene termed as Ap-sHSP21.4, was identified. This gene encoded a 21.4 kDa protein which shares the conserved structure of insect sHsps and belongs to sHSP21.4 family. Ap-sHSP21.4 was highly expressed in fat body and up-regulated in midgut and fat body of A. pernyi challenged with Escherichia coli, Beauveria bassiana and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), which was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Meanwhile, knock down of Ap-sHSP21.4 with dsRNA result in the decrease at the expression levels of several immune response-related genes (defensin, Dopa decarboxylase, Toll1, lysozyme and Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor). Additionally, the impact of eicosanoid biosynthesis on the expression of Ap-sHSP21.4 response to NPV was determined using qPCR, inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis significantly suppress Ap-HSP21.4 expression upon NPV challenge. All together, Ap-sHSP21.4 was involved in the immunity of A. pernyi against microorganism and possibly mediated by eicosanoids pathway. These results will shed light in the understanding of the pathogen-host interaction in A. pernyi. PMID:25844646

Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guoqing; Li, Jun; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

2015-01-01

251

Host plant selection by larvae of the muga silk moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the role of the antenna and maxillary palp.  

PubMed

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D S; Deka, B; Sen, A

2013-01-01

252

Silkworm HP1a transcriptionally enhances highly expressed euchromatic genes via association with their transcription start sites  

PubMed Central

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein across different eukaryotic species and is crucial for heterochromatin establishment and maintenance. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, encodes two HP1 proteins, BmHP1a and BmHP1b. In order to investigate the role of BmHP1a in transcriptional regulation, we performed genome-wide analyses of the transcriptome, transcription start sites (TSSs), chromatin modification states and BmHP1a-binding sites of the silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We identified a number of BmHP1a-binding loci throughout the silkworm genome and found that these loci included TSSs and frequently co-occurred with neighboring euchromatic histone modifications. In addition, we observed that genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs were relatively highly expressed in BmN4 cells. RNA interference-mediated BmHP1a depletion resulted in the transcriptional repression of highly expressed genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs, whereas genes not coupled with BmHP1a-binding regions were less affected by the treatment. These results demonstrate that BmHP1a binds near TSSs of highly expressed euchromatic genes and positively regulates their expression. Our study revealed a novel mode of transcriptional regulation mediated by HP1 proteins. PMID:25237056

Shoji, Keisuke; Hara, Kahori; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu

2014-01-01

253

Suppression of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by oral administration of a cholera toxin B subunit–insulin B chain fusion protein vaccine produced in silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral tolerance has been applied successfully as a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes. In this paper we constructed an edible vaccine consisting of a fusion protein composed of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and insulin B chain (InsB) that was produced in silkworm larvae. The silkworm larvae produced this fusion protein at

Zhaohui Gong; Yongfeng Jin; Yaozhou Zhang

2007-01-01

254

Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2008-12-01

255

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BPWorkshop-2005 - LRB OAK RIDGE.K. Combs, W.A. Houlberg, T.C. Jernigan, S. Maruyama#, L.W. Owen, G.L. Schmidt, D.A. Rasmussen Oak Ridge

256

Oak Declines: The Problem of Defining the Sandra Denman  

E-print Network

Oak Declines: The Problem of Defining the Problem Sandra Denman Surrey Woodland Forum Warren Farm of decline · Distinguish between Acute Oak decline (AOD); Chronic Oak Decline (COD) and Sudden Oak Death (SOD as well as other biological interactions #12;5/30/20125 Types of Oak Decline Difficult to tease

257

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review  

SciTech Connect

This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

1992-01-01

258

Utilization of evergreen and decidous oaks by the Californian oak moth Phryganidia californica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deciduous oak Quercus lobata was a better quality food source than the evergreen oak Q. agrifolia for the California oak moth Phryganidia californica: it supported higher growth rates, produced higher fecundity and survivorship, and higher efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) and efficiency of nitrogen utilization (NUE). Total polyphenols and astringency

Gilliam M. Puttick

1986-01-01

259

The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access to Sudden Oak Death Spatial Data1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to timely and accurate sudden oak death (SOD) location data is critical for SOD monitoring, management and research. Several websites (hereafter called the OakMapper sites) associated with sudden oak death monitoring efforts have been maintained with up-to- date SOD location information for over five years, providing information and maps of the most current spatial and attribute data on Phytophthora

K. Tuxen; M. Kelly

260

The Silkworm (Bombyx mori) microRNAs and Their Expressions in Multiple Developmental Stages  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in various physiological processes through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expressions and are involved in development, metabolism, and many other important molecular mechanisms and cellular processes. The Bombyx mori genome sequence provides opportunities for a thorough survey for miRNAs as well as comparative analyses with other sequenced insect species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 114 non-redundant conserved miRNAs and 148 novel putative miRNAs from the B. mori genome with an elaborate computational protocol. We also sequenced 6,720 clones from 14 developmental stage-specific small RNA libraries in which we identified 35 unique miRNAs containing 21 conserved miRNAs (including 17 predicted miRNAs) and 14 novel miRNAs (including 11 predicted novel miRNAs). Among the 114 conserved miRNAs, we found six pairs of clusters evolutionarily conserved cross insect lineages. Our observations on length heterogeneity at 5? and/or 3? ends of nine miRNAs between cloned and predicted sequences, and three mature forms deriving from the same arm of putative pre-miRNAs suggest a mechanism by which miRNAs gain new functions. Analyzing development-related miRNAs expression at 14 developmental stages based on clone-sampling and stem-loop RT PCR, we discovered an unusual abundance of 33 sequences representing 12 different miRNAs and sharply fluctuated expression of miRNAs at larva-molting stage. The potential functions of several stage-biased miRNAs were also analyzed in combination with predicted target genes and silkworm's phenotypic traits; our results indicated that miRNAs may play key regulatory roles in specific developmental stages in the silkworm, such as ecdysis. Conclusions/Significance Taking a combined approach, we identified 118 conserved miRNAs and 151 novel miRNA candidates from the B. mori genome sequence. Our expression analyses by sampling miRNAs and real-time PCR over multiple developmental stages allowed us to pinpoint molting stages as hotspots of miRNA expression both in sorts and quantities. Based on the analysis of target genes, we hypothesized that miRNAs regulate development through a particular emphasis on complex stages rather than general regulatory mechanisms. PMID:18714353

Luo, Qibin; Cai, Yimei; Lin, Wen-chang; Chen, Huan; Yang, Yue; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

2008-01-01

261

Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah.  

E-print Network

Ambrosia psilostachya woody Plants American beautyberry Callicarpa ammmmaana Live oak Quercus vi niana Post oak Querms ste lata Redbay T Persap bhia Saw greenbriar Smilax baa-nox Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah...

Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

1979-01-01

262

Effect of ATG initiation codon context motifs on the efficiency of translation of mRNA derived from exogenous genes in the transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The context sequence motif surrounding the ATG initiation codon influences mRNA translation efficiency and affects protein production; however, the optimal sequence differs among species. To determine the optimal sequence for production of recombinant proteins in a transgenic silkworm, we compared 14-nucleotide context motifs around the ATG (ATG-context) in 50 silkworm genes and found the following consensus: (A/T)AN(A/T)ATCAAAatgN. We were also able to define the least-common motif: CCN(C/G)CGN(C/T/G)(G/C/T)(T/G)atgC, which served as a negative control. To examine the regulatory role of these motifs in protein expression, we constructed reporter plasmids containing different ATG-context motifs together with either the luciferase gene or an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. These constructs were then used for comparison of luciferase reporter activity and EGFP production in BmN4 cells in vitro as well as in transgenic silkworms in vivo. We detected 10-fold higher luciferase activity in BmN4 cells transfected with the consensus ATG-context motif construct, compared to the negative control plasmid. ELISA measurements of EGFP translation products with the corresponding constructs in BmN4 cells showed consistently similar results. Interestingly, the translation efficiency of the novel consensus ATG-context motif did not show the highest activity in the transgenic silkworms in vivo, except for the fat body. The highest efficiency in the middle and posterior silk glands was produced by the sericin 1 context. Our results show that the ATG-context motifs differ among silkworm tissues. This result is important for the further improvement of the transgenic silkworm system for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:25674439

Tatematsu, Ken-Ichiro; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki

2014-01-01

263

Ligand binding turns moth pheromone-binding protein into a pH sensor: effect on the Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 conformation.  

PubMed

In moths, pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for the transport of the hydrophobic pheromones to the membrane-bound receptors across the aqueous sensillar lymph. We report here that recombinant Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1) picks up hydrophobic molecule(s) endogenous to the Escherichia coli expression host that keeps the protein in the "open" (bound) conformation at high pH but switches to the "closed" (free) conformation at low pH. This finding has bearing on the solution structures of undelipidated lepidopteran moth PBPs determined thus far. Picking up a hydrophobic molecule from the host expression system could be a common feature for lipid-binding proteins. Thus, delipidation is critical for bacterially expressed lipid-binding proteins. We have shown for the first time that the delipidated ApolPBP1 exists primarily in the closed form at all pH levels. Thus, current views on the pH-induced conformational switch of PBPs hold true only for the ligand-bound open conformation of the protein. Binding of various ligands to delipidated ApolPBP1 studied by solution NMR revealed that the protein in the closed conformation switches to the open conformation only at or above pH 6.0 with a protein to ligand stoichiometry of approximately 1:1. Mutation of His(70) and His(95) to alanine drives the equilibrium toward the open conformation even at low pH for the ligand-bound protein by eliminating the histidine-dependent pH-induced conformational switch. Thus, the delipidated double mutant can bind ligand even at low pH in contrast to the wild type protein as revealed by fluorescence competitive displacement assay using 1-aminoanthracene and solution NMR. PMID:19758993

Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Prusti, Rabi K; Mohanty, Smita

2009-11-13

264

Structural basis of ligand binding and release in insect pheromone-binding proteins: NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 at pH 4.5.  

PubMed

The NMR structure of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1 at pH 4.5, ApolPBP1A, was determined at 20 degrees C. The structure consists of six alpha-helices, which are arranged in a globular fold that encapsulates a central helix alpha7 formed by the C-terminal polypeptide segment 131-142. The 3D arrangement of these helices is anchored by the three disulfide bonds 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117, which were identified by NMR. Superposition of the ApolPBP1A structure with the structure of the homologous pheromone-binding protein of Bombyx mori at pH 4.5, BmorPBPA, yielded an rmsd of 1.7 A calculated for the backbone heavy-atoms N, Calpha and C' of residues 10-142. In contrast, the present ApolPBP1A structure is different from a recently proposed molecular model for a low-pH form of ApolPBP1 that does not contain the central helix alpha7. ApolPBP1 exhibits a pH-dependent transition between two different globular conformations in slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale similar to BmorPBP, suggesting that the two proteins use the same mechanism of ligand binding and ejection. The extensive sequence homology observed for pheromone-binding proteins from moth species further implies that the previously proposed mechanism of ligand ejection involving the insertion of a C-terminal helix into the pheromone-binding site is a general feature of pheromone signaling in moths. PMID:17884092

Damberger, Fred F; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S; Wüthrich, Kurt

2007-11-01

265

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.) I. Normal adult development.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of neuromuscular connections on developing dorsolongitudinal flight muscles were studied in the moth Antheraea polyphemus. Undifferentiated membrane contacts between axon terminals and muscle-fiber anlagen are present in the diapause pupa. They persist during the period of nerve outgrowth, which probably provides a pathway of contact guidance. By the 4th day of adult development some of these contact areas have differentiated into structures similar to neuromuscular junctions although differentiation of muscle structure does not start earlier than the eighth day. Dense-cored vesicles are abundant in many axon terminals at the beginning of development. They later decrease in number quite rapidly. The significance of the above-mentioned early junctions, their possible mode of action and the role of the dense-cored vesicles are discussed. It is proposed that they exercise a stimulating (trophic) influence on the growth of the undifferentiated muscular tissue. The imaginal neuromuscular junctions are formed during the second half of adult development. Clusters of vesicles and electron-dense depositions along the inner face of the axo- and lemma seem to initiate junction formation. Glial processes then grow between the axo- and sarcolemma and divide the large contact area into several small segments. Mutual invaginations and protrusions of the sarcolemma and the glial cell membrane subsequently form an extensive "rete synapticum." Six days before eclosion the glial and sarcoplasmic parts of the rete synapticum are similar in size. Up to eclosion, all glial processes shrink and increase in electron density. Most of the observations are discussed also in relation to findings in vertebrates. PMID:1149098

Stocker, R F; Nüesch, H

1975-06-01

266

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.). II. Changes after motor nerve section.  

PubMed

In the moth Antheraea polyphemed at the onset of adult development. The subsequent breakdown of the isolated motor stulongated vesicles similar in structure to channels of smooth ER, appear in large numbers in the axoplasm. Their nature as well as the functional aspects of early axonal changes are discussed. From the 7th day onward two types of axonal breakdown become prominent. The first is characterized 0y swelling axon profiles, distorted vesicles and strongly shrunken mitochondria, uhile shrinking axon profiles containing tightly packed mitochondria and unaltered vesicles are typical of the second. Both types presumably take place independently of each other in different axon terminals. Axons and the contents of at least the first type are finally removed by transformation into lamellar bodies. Glial processes obviously behave independently of degenerating terminals; they loose any contact with them and never act as phagocytes for axon remnants. During the whole period of breakdown undifferentiated contacts between nerve fibers and muscle anlagen are present but synaptic structures as in normal developing dlm have never been observed. This fact, in comparison with earlier studies, suggests a lack of trophic nervous activity on the muscle anlagen tissue. A short time after removal of the isolated stumps new nerve tracts appear between dlm-fibers (which are, of course, strongly retarded in development). They are presumably sensory wing nerves which lack a guide structure to the central target, due to axotomy. Neuromuscular contacts or even junctions formed by axons of these nerves have occasionally been detected on the dlm. Their nature is discussed. Wallerian axon degeneration is compared to the normal, metamorphic breakdown of the innervation of the larval dlm-precursor. In contrast to the former, glial processes here remain in contact with the terminals. Glia and axons first swell. Then most glial processes are transformed into lamellar bodies whereas neurites shrink and become electron-dense. Axonal organelles remain intact for a long period. PMID:1201608

Nüesch, H; Stocker, R F

1975-12-10

267

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. II. Differential mitoses of 'dark' precursor cells create the Anlagen of sensilla.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus develops from a one-layered, flattened epidermal sac during the pupal phase. Within the first day post-apolysis (developmental stages 1 and 2), this epithelium differentiates into 'sensillogenic' and 'nonsensillogenic' regions, while numerous slender 'dark cells' interpreted as the precursor cells of sensilla arise in the former. Approximately between the first and second day post-apolysis (developmental stage 3), the dark cells retract to the apical pole of the epidermis, assume a round shape, and undergo a series of differential mitoses with spindles usually oriented parallel to the epidermal surface. These mitoses finally yield the Anlagen of the olfactory sensilla trichodea, each consisting of mostly 6-7 dark cells arranged side by side. In most of the Anlagen, 3-4 of these cells are situated more basally, each giving off a slender apical process which together are arranged in a fascicle. These are the prospective 2-3 sensory neurons plus the thecogen cell, which most probably is a sister cell of the former. Three additional cells are arranged more apically and partly enclose the fascicle of presumed sensory and thecogen cell processes. These are interpreted as the trichogen plus 2 tormogen cells, one of the latter degenerating later during development. In the basal region of the sensillogenic epidermis, massive signs of cell degeneration have been found. At stage 3, the basal epidermal feet in the non-sensillogenic regions have assumed a more uniform orientation as compared with the preceding stages. PMID:18620326

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

268

Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin-Coated PEI/DNA Complexes for Targeted Gene Delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 Cells  

PubMed Central

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors. PMID:24776757

Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

269

Production of a Chimeric Fibroin Light-chain Polypeptide in a Fibroin Secretion-deficient Naked Pupa Mutant of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelicNd-sandNd-sDmutations of the silkwormBombyx moriare mapped to the same locus as that of the fibroin light (L)-chain gene (Fib-L). The silkworm carrying the homozygousNd-sorNd-sDmutation secretes less than 0.3% of the normal level of fibroin and produces a thin cocoon (naked pupa). In this study, cDNA sequences of theNd-sandNd-sDL-chains were compared with the cDNA and genomic sequences of the L-chain

Kazuyuki Mori; Kazunori Tanaka; Yoshimi Kikuchi; Miho Waga; Shou Waga; Shigeki Mizuno

1995-01-01

270

Molecular characterization and inhibition analysis of the acetylcholinesterase gene from the silkworm maggot, Exorista sorbillans.  

PubMed

Several organophosphorus (OP) insecticides can selectively kill the silkworm maggot, Exorista sorbillans (Es) (Diptera: Tachinidae), while not obviously affecting the host (Bombyx mori) larvae, but the mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, the cDNA encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the field Es was isolated. One point mutation (Gly353Ala) was identified. The Es-353G AChE and Es-353A AChE were expressed in baculovirus- insect cell system, respectively. The inhibition results showed that for eserine and Chlorpyrifos, Es-353A AChE was significantly less sensitive than Es-353G AChE. Meanwhile, comparison of the I(50) values of eserine, dichlorvos, Chlorpyrifos and omethoate of recombinant Es AChEs with its host (Bombyx mori) AChEs indicated that, both Es AChEs are more sensitive than B. mori AChEs. The results give an insight of the mechanism that some OP insecticides can selectively kills Es while without distinct effect on its host, B. mori. PMID:20797321

Lang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Li, Bao-Ling; Yu, Lin-Lin; Lu, Xing-Meng; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2010-08-01

271

Increased expression of CSP and CYP genes in adult silkworm females exposed to avermectins.  

PubMed

We analyzed 20 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes of the silkworm Bombyx mori. We found a high number of retrotransposons inserted in introns. We then analyzed expression of the 20 BmorCSP genes across tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Relatively low expression levels of BmorCSPs were found in the gut and fat body tissues. We thus tested the effects of endectocyte insecticide abamectin (B1a and B1b avermectins) on BmorCSP gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that a single brief exposure to insecticide abamectin increased dramatically CSP expression not only in the antennae but in most tissues, including gut and fat body. Furthermore, our study showed coordinate expression of CSPs and metabolic cytochrome P450 enzymes in a tissue-dependent manner in response to the insecticide. The function of CSPs remains unknown. Based on our results, we suggest a role in detecting xenobiotics that are then detoxified by cytochrome P450 anti-xenobiotic enzymes. PMID:24677614

Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Xie, Hong-Yan; Lou, Qi-Nian; Lu, Xing-Bo; Liu, Guo-Xia; Picimbon, Jean-François

2015-04-01

272

Antennapedia is involved in the development of thoracic legs and segmentation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Homeotic genes, which are associated closely with body patterning of various species, specify segment identity. The Wedge eye-spot (Wes) is a new homeotic mutant located on the sixth linkage group. Homozygous Wes/Wes embryos are lethal and display a pair of antenna-like appendages under the mouthparts as well as fused thoracic segments. These mutants also exhibit a narrower eye-spot at the larval stage compared with the wild type. By positional cloning, we identified the candidate gene of the Wes locus, Bombyx mori Antennapedia (BmAntp). Two BmAntp transcripts were identified in the homozygote of the Wes mutant, including a normal form and an abnormal form with a 1570-bp insertion. Our data showed that the insertion element was a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-like transposon that destroyed the original open reading frame of BmAntp. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of normal BmAntp transcripts were increased markedly in the Wes heterozygous larvae compared with the wild type. Furthermore, we performed RNAi of BmAntp and observed fused thoracic segments and defective thoracic legs in the developing embryos. Our results indicated that BmAntp is responsible for the Wes mutant and has an important role in determining the proper development of the thoracic segments. Our identification of a homeotic mutation in the silkworm is an important contribution to our understanding of the regulation of Hox genes at different levels of expression. PMID:23652563

Chen, P; Tong, X L; Li, D D; Fu, M Y; He, S Z; Hu, H; Xiang, Z H; Lu, C; Dai, F Y

2013-01-01

273

Sexually biased transcripts at early embryonic stages of the silkworm depend on the sex chromosome constitution.  

PubMed

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, females are heterogametic (WZ) whereas males have two Z chromosomes. Femaleness of B. mori is determined by the presence of the W chromosome, suggesting that there is a dominant feminizing gene on this chromosome. Recently, by transcriptome analysis of B. mori embryos, we discovered that a single W-chromosome-derived PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the long-sought primary determinant of femaleness in B. mori. However, sexual bias in the transcriptome of B. mori early embryos has not yet been well characterized. Using deep sequencing data from molecularly sexed RNA of B. mori embryos, we identified and characterized 157 transcripts that are statistically differentially expressed between male and female early embryos. Most of the female-biased transcripts were transposons or repeat sequences that are produced presumably from the W chromosome. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these repetitive sequences are piRNA precursors. In contrast, male-biased genes were frequently transcribed from the Z chromosome, suggesting that dosage compensation in Z-linked genes does not occur or is incomplete at early embryonic stages. Our analysis has drawn a picture of a global landscape of sexually biased transcriptome during early B. mori embyogenesis and has suggested for the first time that most sexually biased embryonic transcripts depend on sex chromosomes. PMID:25615878

Kawamoto, Munetaka; Koga, Hikaru; Kiuchi, Takashi; Shoji, Keisuke; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu

2015-04-10

274

Effects of male silkworm pupa powder on the erectile dysfunction by chronic ethanol consumption in rats  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disorder that affects millions of men worldwide. ED is now considered an early manifestation of atherosclerosis, and consequently, a precursor of systemic vascular disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of male silkworm pupa powder (SWP) on the levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, nitrite, and glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation; libido; and erectile response of the corpus cavernosum of the rat penis. We induced ED in the study animals by oral administration of 20% ethanol over 8 weeks. The SWP-treated male rats were divided into 3 groups that were orally administered 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. The libido of the SWP-administered male rats was higher than that of the ethanol control group. In addition, the erectile response of the corpus cavernosum was restored in males on SWP administration, to a level similar to that of the normal group without ED. The testosterone concentration did not increase significantly. The lipid peroxidation in the corpus cavernosum of the male rats administered SWP decreased significantly. In contrast, compared to the ethanol group, SWP-administered male rats showed increased GSH levels in the corpus cavernosum. The level of nitrite and NOS expression in the corpus cavernosum of SWP-administered male rats increased significantly. These results indicated that SWP effectively restored ethanol-induced ED in male rats. PMID:22787481

Oh, Hong-Geun; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Young-Rye; Moon, Dea-In; Seo, Min-Young; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Oh, Mi-Ra; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Min-Gul; Jeon, Ji-Young; Shin, Sook-Jeong; Ryu, Kang-Sun; Chae, Soo-Wan

2012-01-01

275

Comparative Proteome Analysis of Multi-Layer Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cocoon has a multi-layer structure that provides optimal protection for silkworm pupa. Research on the mechanical properties of the multi-layer structure revealed structure-property relationships of the cocoon. Here, we investigated the protein components of the B. mori cocoon in terms of its multi-layer structure. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 286 proteins from the multiple cocoon layers. In addition to fibroins and sericins, we identified abundant protease inhibitors, seroins and proteins of unknown function. By comparing protein abundance across layers, we found that the outermost layer contained more sericin1 and protease inhibitors and the innermost layer had more seroin1. As many as 36 protease inhibitors were identified in cocoons, showing efficient inhibitory activities against a fungal protease. Thus, we propose that more abundant protease inhibitors in the outer cocoon layers may provide better protection for the cocoon. This study increases our understanding of the multi-layer mechanism of cocoons, and helps clarify the biological characteristics of cocoons. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001469. PMID:25860555

Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Pengchao; Guo, Xiaomeng; Song, Qianru; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

2015-01-01

276

Transgenic protein production in silkworm silk glands requires cathepsin and chitinase of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

The silkworm Bombyx mori represents an established in vivo system for the production of recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses have been extensively investigated and optimised for the expression of high protein levels inside the haemolymph of larvae and pupae of this lepidopteran insect. Current technology includes deletion of genes responsible for the activity of virus-borne proteases, which in wild-type viruses, cause liquefaction of the host insect and enhance horizontal transmission of newly synthesised virus particles. Besides the haemolymph, the silk gland of B. mori provides an additional expression system for recombinant proteins. In this paper, we investigated how silk gland can be efficiently infected by a Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). We demonstrated that the viral chitinase and the cysteine protease cathepsin are necessary to permit viral entry into the silk gland cells of intrahaemocoelically infected B. mori larvae. Moreover, for the first time, we showed AcMNPV crossing the basal lamina of silk glands in B. mori larvae, and we assessed a new path of infection of silk gland cells that can be exploited for protein production. PMID:24477386

Wöltje, Michael; Böbel, Melanie; Rheinnecker, Michael; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Franzetti, Eleonora; Saviane, Alessio; Cappellozza, Silvia

2014-05-01

277

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemolymph unable to substitute fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in animal cell culture media is an important source of nutrients for cell growth. However, the harvest and collection of FBS cause bioethical concerns. Efforts to reduce and preferably replace FBS with synthetic or other natural alternatives are continually being explored. Hemolymph silkworm (Bombyx mori) contains many nutrients needed for the process of metamorphosis. Therefore, there is possibility as an alternative nutritional supplement for cell culture to reduce the use of FBS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macrocomponent of hemolymph and the possibility as medium supplement for Spodoptera fugiperda (Sf9) cell culture. Proximate analyses showed that hemolymph contains 89.76% of water, 2.52 mg/mL carbohydrate, 2.35% fat and 55.61 mg/mL protein. Further protein analysis, it consists of 15 fractions containing molecular weight of 22 - 152 kDa. The use of hemolymph as FBS substitution in Sf9 cell culture with various concentrations was unable to maintain and support cell growth. Further research still needed by prior adaptation of the tissue culture to minimal nutrition media before introduction of the hemolymph as supplement.

Suparto, Irma H.; Khalam, Chandra Nur; Praira, Willy; Sajuthi, Dondin

2014-03-01

278

Redundant Mechanisms Recruit Actin into the Contractile Ring in Silkworm Spermatocytes  

PubMed Central

Cytokinesis is powered by the contraction of actomyosin filaments within the newly assembled contractile ring. Microtubules are a spindle component that is essential for the induction of cytokinesis. This induction could use central spindle and/or astral microtubules to stimulate cortical contraction around the spindle equator (equatorial stimulation). Alternatively, or in addition, induction could rely on astral microtubules to relax the polar cortex (polar relaxation). To investigate the relationship between microtubules, cortical stiffness, and contractile ring assembly, we used different configurations of microtubules to manipulate the distribution of actin in living silkworm spermatocytes. Mechanically repositioned, noninterdigitating microtubules can induce redistribution of actin at any region of the cortex by locally excluding cortical actin filaments. This cortical flow of actin promotes regional relaxation while increasing tension elsewhere (normally at the equatorial cortex). In contrast, repositioned interdigitating microtubule bundles use a novel mechanism to induce local stimulation of contractility anywhere within the cortex; at the antiparallel plus ends of central spindle microtubules, actin aggregates are rapidly assembled de novo and transported laterally to the equatorial cortex. Relaxation depends on microtubule dynamics but not on RhoA activity, whereas stimulation depends on RhoA activity but is largely independent of microtubule dynamics. We conclude that polar relaxation and equatorial stimulation mechanisms redundantly supply actin for contractile ring assembly, thus increasing the fidelity of cleavage. PMID:18767903

Chen, Wei; Foss, Margit; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Zhang, Dahong

2008-01-01

279

BmNPV resistance of silkworm larvae resulting from the ingestion of TiO? nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) causes infection in the silkworm that is often lethal. The infection is hard to prevent, partly because of the nature of the virus particles and partly because of the different strains of B. mori. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO? NPs) have been demonstrated to have antimicrobial properties. The present study investigated whether TiO? NPs added to an artificial diet can increase the resistance of B. mori larvae to BmNPV and examined the molecular mechanism behind any resistance shown. The results indicated that ingested TiO? NPs decreased reactive oxygen species and NO accumulation in B. mori larvae under BmNPV infection, which in turn led to a decrease in their growth inhibition and mortality. In addition, the TiO? NPs significantly promoted the expression of resistance-related genes, including those encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, acetylcholine esterase, carboxylesterase, heat shock protein 21, glutathione S transferase o1, P53, and transferring and of genes encoding cytochrome p302 and nitric oxide synthase. These findings are a useful addition to the understanding of the mechanism of BmNPV resistance of B. mori larvae in response to TiO? NPs addition. Such information also provides a theoretical basis for the use of TiO? NPs in sericulture. PMID:23054861

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Gui, Suxin; Sang, Xuezi; Sun, Qingqing; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-12-01

280

Original article Vulnerability of young oak seedlings  

E-print Network

to drought and to an inoculation with Ophiostoma querci (Georgevitch) Nannf G Simonin H Cochard C Delatour with Ophiostoma querci and water stress on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) were tested with potted saplings. O I Ophiostoma querci/ hydraulic conductivity / water relation- ships/ oak decline Résumé &mdash

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus and is not itself responsible for killing trees. Life cycle Adult Platypus cylindrus beetles are 6-8mm long, rather in cross- section Piles of fibrous frass mark entry points of Platypus cylindrus adults. #12;Tunnelling

282

Managing acute oak decline Practice Note  

E-print Network

have long suffered from dieback disorders but a new disease called acute oak decline is currently, which has a slow effect, and acute oak decline, which has a fast effect. Trees suffering from suffering from decline may appear `stag-headed'. Less often, trees may have a dark, watery fluid running

283

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

_____________________________________________________________________________ OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 iTunes U Instructor Guide 1 Revised: 08/12/2010 OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 iTunes U Instructor Guide Getting Started Before a connection to iTunes U can be made, the instructor must make a request through the course Control Panel. If an instructor has other iTunes U course

Simaan, Nabil

284

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

processionary is often most abundant on urban trees, along forest edges and in amenity woodlands. Oak to early September. Each female lays between 100 and 200 eggs on twigs and small branches in the canopy. This coloration provides an effective camouflage against the bark of oak trees on which the adults often rest

285

Determination of albendazole and metabolites in silkworm Bombyx mori hemolymph by ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905-0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%-103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%-108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%-105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%-106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321

Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong

2014-01-01

286

An optimized sericin-1 expression system for mass-producing recombinant proteins in the middle silk glands of transgenic silkworms.  

PubMed

The middle silk gland (MSG) of silkworm is thought to be a potential host for mass-producing valuable recombinant proteins. Transgenic MSG expression systems based on the usage of promoter of sericin1 gene (sericin-1 expression system) have been established to produce various recombinant proteins in MSG. However, further modifying the activity of the sericin-1 expression system to yield higher amounts of recombinant proteins is still necessary. In this study, we provide an alternative modification strategy to construct an efficient sericin-1 expression system by using the hr3 enhancer (hr3 CQ) from a Chongqing strain of the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and the 3'UTRs of the fibroin heavy chain (Fib-HPA), the fibroin light chain (Fib-LPA), and Sericin1 (Ser1PA) genes. We first analyzed the effects of these DNA elements on expression of luciferase, and found that the combination of hr3 CQ and Ser1PA was most effective to increase the activity of luciferase. Then, hr3 CQ and Ser1PA were used to modify the sericin1 expression system. Transgenic silkworms bearing these modified sericin1 expression vectors were generated by a piggyBac transposon mediated genetic transformation method. Our results showed that mRNA level of DsRed reporter gene in transgenic silkworms containing hr3 CQ and Ser1PA significantly increased by 9 fold to approximately 83 % of that of endogenous sericin1. As the results of that, the production of recombinant RFP increased by 16 fold to 9.5 % (w/w) of cocoon shell weight. We conclude that this modified sericin-1 expression system is efficient and will contribute to the MSG as host to mass produce valuable recombinant proteins. PMID:23435751

Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Yuan, Lin; Ma, Sanyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Duan, Xiaoli; Duan, Jianping; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2013-10-01

287

Determination of Albendazole and Metabolites in Silkworm Bombyx mori Hemolymph by Ultrafast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Albendazole is a broad-spectrum parasiticide with high effectiveness and low host toxicity. No method is currently available for measuring albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph. This study describes a rapid, selective, sensitive, synchronous and reliable detection method for albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph using ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The method is liquid-liquid extraction followed by UFLC separation and quantification in an MS/MS system with positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Precursor-to-product ion transitions were monitored at 266.100 to 234.100 for albendazole (ABZ), 282.200 to 208.100 for albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), 298.200 to 159.100 for albendazole sulfone (ABZSO2) and 240.200 to 133.100 for albendazole amino sulfone (ABZSO2-NH2). Calibration curves had good linearities with R2 of 0.9905–0.9972. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 1.32 ng/mL for ABZ, 16.67 ng/mL for ABZSO, 0.76 ng/mL for ABZSO2 and 5.94 ng/mL for ABZSO2-NH2. Recoveries were 93.12%–103.83% for ABZ, 66.51%–108.51% for ABZSO, 96.85%–105.6% for ABZSO2 and 96.46%–106.14% for ABZSO2-NH2, (RSDs <8%). Accuracy, precision and stability tests showed acceptable variation in quality control (QC) samples. This analytical method successfully determined albendazole and its metabolites in silkworm hemolymph in a pharmacokinetic study. The results of single-dose treatment suggested that the concentrations of ABZ, ABZSO and ABZSO2 increased and then fell, while ABZSO2-NH2 level was low without obvious change. Different trends were observed for multi-dose treatment, with concentrations of ABZSO and ABZSO2 rising over time. PMID:25255321

Li, Li; Xing, Dong-Xu; Li, Qing-Rong; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Ming-Qiang; Yang, Qiong

2014-01-01

288

Structure-Function Relationship of SW-AT-1, a Serpin-Type Protease Inhibitor in Silkworm  

PubMed Central

Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10?5 M?1s?1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10?6 M?1s?1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4–10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed. PMID:24901510

Liu, Cheng; Han, Yue; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

289

Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

Skipper, M.N.

1990-03-01

290

A Shark Liver Gene-Derived Active Peptide Expressed in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: Preliminary Studies for Oral Administration of the Recombinant Protein  

PubMed Central

Active peptide from shark liver (APSL) is a cytokine from Chiloscyllium plagiosum that can stimulate liver regeneration and protects the pancreas. To study the effect of orally administered recombinant APSL (rAPSL) on an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the APSL gene was cloned, and APSL was expressed in Bombyx mori N cells (BmN cells), silkworm larvae and silkworm pupae using the silkworm baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). It was demonstrated that rAPSL was able to significantly reduce the blood glucose level in mice with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin. The analysis of paraffin sections of mouse pancreatic tissues revealed that rAPSL could effectively protect mouse islets from streptozotocin-induced lesions. Compared with the powder prepared from normal silkworm pupae, the powder prepared from pupae expressing rAPSL exhibited greater protective effects, and these results suggest that rAPSL has potential uses as an oral drug for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future. PMID:23652883

Liu, Yunlong; Chen, Ying; Chen, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenping; Sheng, Qing; Chen, Jian; Yu, Wei; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Wu, Wutong; Wang, Lisha; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Li, Jun; Qian, Lian; Lv, Zhengbing

2013-01-01

291

Molecular cloning of an ecdysone receptor (B1 Isoform) homologue from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and its mRNA expression during wing disc development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported the isolation and sequence of a clone encoding a putative ecdysone receptor B1 isoform of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The predicted open reading frame encoded 543 amino acids, with 51%, 95% and 71% identities with the Drosophila melanogaster ecdysone receptor B1 isoform in the N terminal A\\/B region, DNA binding domain (C region) and ligand binding domain (E

Manabu Kamimura; Shuichiro Tomita; Haruhiko Fujiwara

1996-01-01

292

Effects of added CeCl3 on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.  

PubMed

One of the most important agents causing lethal disease in the silkworm is the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), while low-dose rare earths are demonstrated to increase immune capacity in animals. However, very little is known about the effects of added CeCl(3) on decreasing BmNPV infection of silkworm. The present study investigated the effects of added CeCl(3) to an artificial diet on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to BmNPV infection. Our findings indicated that added CeCl(3) significantly decreased inhibition of growth and mortality of fifth-instar larvae caused by BmNPV infection. Furthermore, the added CeCl(3) obviously decreased lipid peroxidation level and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), (·)OH, and NO and increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione contents in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. In addition, the added CeCl(3) could significantly promote acetylcholine esterase activity and attenuate the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. These findings suggested that added CeCl(3) may relieve oxidative damage and neurotoxicity of silkworm caused by BmNPV infection via increasing antioxidant capacity and acetylcholine esterase activity. PMID:22076733

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Cui, Yaling; Gong, Xiaolan; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-01

293

Phylogenetic overdispersion in Floridian oak communities.  

PubMed

Closely related species that occur together in communities and experience similar environmental conditions are likely to share phenotypic traits because of the process of environmental filtering. At the same time, species that are too similar are unlikely to co-occur because of competitive exclusion. In an effort to explain the coexistence of 17 oak species within forest communities in North Central Florida, we examined correlations between the phylogenetic relatedness of oak species, their degree of co-occurrence within communities and niche overlap across environmental gradients, and their similarity in ecophysiological and life-history traits. We show that the oaks are phylogenetically overdispersed because co-occurring species are more distantly related than expected by chance, and oaks within the same clade show less niche overlap than expected. Hence, communities are more likely to include members of both the red oak and the white + live oak clades than only members of one clade. This pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion arises because traits important for habitat specialization show evolutionary convergence. We hypothesize further that certain conserved traits permit coexistence of distantly related congeners. These results provide an explanation for how oak diversity is maintained at the community level in North Central Florida. PMID:15266381

Cavender-Bares, J; Ackerly, D D; Baum, D A; Bazzaz, F A

2004-06-01

294

Oaks Belowground: Mycorrhizas, Truffles, and Small Mammals1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oaks depend on hidden diversity belowground. Oregon white oaks (Quercus garryana) form ectomycorrhizas with more than 40 species of fungi at a 25-ha site. Several of the most common oak mycorrhizal fungi form hypogeous fruiting bodies or truffles in the upper layer of mineral soil. We collected 18 species of truffles associated with Oregon white oak. Truffles do not release

Jonathan Frank; Seth Barry; Joseph Madden

295

Small mammal response to oak savanna restoration in northwest Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of this thesis was to determine if differences existed in the composition of the small mammal community in oak savannas relative to the community found in adjacent oak woodland. Specifically, from June to August 2009, I estimated and compared abundance, density, and micro-habitat affiliations of small mammals in two oak savanna and four oak woodland sites at

Valerie J Clarkston

2011-01-01

296

Original article Genetic inventory of European oak populations  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic inventory of European oak populations: consequences for breeding and gene populations on the basis of isoenzyme markers and to perform a genetic inventory of European oak populations; The objective of the present study was to characterize the genetic variation in pedunculate oak and sessile oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

West Virginia University 1 Oak Ridge Associated Universities  

E-print Network

West Virginia University 1 Oak Ridge Associated Universities Oak Ridge Associated Universities Since 1957, students and faculty of West Virginia University have benefited from their membership in Oak and a contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORAU works with its

Mohaghegh, Shahab

298

Description of Facilities and Resources Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

1 Description of Facilities and Resources Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the UT-ORNL Joint Institute for Computational Sciences 1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Computer Facilities. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) hosts three petascale computing facilities: the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing

299

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Fusion Materials Research Steve Zinkle Materials Science & Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting Fusion Energy: Preparing for the NIF and ITER Era Oak Ridge, TN, December 4-5, 2007

300

May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra Christian Engelmann Network and Cluster Computing Group Computer Science and Mathematics Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, USA #12;May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Engelmann, Christian

301

September 26, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

September 26, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra Christian Engelmann Network and Cluster Computing Group Computer Science and Mathematics Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, USA #12;September 26, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National

Engelmann, Christian

302

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone–Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

303

Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Reproduction of Silkworm.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect and the model insect of Lepidoptera. Because of its high fecundity and short reproduction cycle, it has been widely used in reproduction and development research. The high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) show reproductive toxicity, while low concentrations of TiO2 NPs have been used as feed additive and demonstrated significant biological activities. However, whether the low concentrations of TiO2 NPs affect the reproduction of B. mori has not been reported. In this study, the growth and development of gonad of B. mori fed with a low concentration of TiO2 NPs (5 mg/L) were investigated by assessing egg production and expression of reproduction-related genes. The results showed that the low concentration of TiO2 NPs resulted in faster development of the ovaries and testes and more gamete differentiation and formation, with an average increase of 51 eggs per insect and 0.34?×?10(-4) g per egg after the feeding. The expressions of several reproduction-related genes were upregulated, such as the yolk-development-related genes Ovo-781 and vitellogenin (Vg) were increased by 5.33- and 6.77-folds, respectively. This study shows that TiO2 NPs feeding at low concentration can enhance the reproduction of B. mori, and these results are useful in developing new methods to improve fecundity in B. mori and providing new clues for its broad biological applications. PMID:25471203

Ni, Min; Li, Fanchi; Wang, Binbin; Xu, Kaizun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

2015-03-01

304

Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

2012-02-01

305

Sniffing by a silkworm moth: wing fanning enhances air penetration through and pheromone interception by antennae.  

PubMed

Many organisms increase the air or water flow adjacent to olfactory surfaces when exposed to appropriate chemical stimuli; such 'sniffing' samples fluid from a specific region and can increase the rate of interception of odorant molecules. We used hot-wire anemometry, high-speed videography and flow visualization to study air flow near the feathery olfactory antennae of male silkworm moths (Bombyx mori L.). When exposed to conspecific female sex pheromone, male B. mori flap their wings through a stroke angle of 90-110 degrees at approximately 40 Hz without flying. This behavior generates an unsteady flow of air (mean speed 0.3-0.4 m s(-1)) towards the antennae from the front of the male. A pulse of peak air speed occurs at each wing upstroke. The Womersley number (characterizing the damping of pulsatile flow through the gaps between the sensory hairs on the antennae) is less than 1; hence, pulses of faster air (at 40 Hz) should move between sensory hairs. Calculation of flow through arrays of cylinders suggest that this wing fanning can increase the rate of interception of pheromone by the sensory hairs on the antennae by at least an order of magnitude beyond that in still air. Although wing fanning produces air flow relative to the antennae that is approximately 15 times faster than that generated by walking at top speed (0.023 m s(-1)), air flow through the gaps between the sensory hairs is approximately 560 times faster because a dramatic increase in the leakiness of the feathery antennae to air flow occurs at the air velocities produced by fanning. PMID:10976034

Loudon, C; Koehl, M A

2000-10-01

306

Isolation, Purification, and Identification of an Important Pigment, Sepiapterin, from Integument of the lemon Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Sepiapterin is the precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin, an important coenzyme of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, the lack of which leads to a variety of physiological metabolic diseases or neurological syndromes in humans. Sepiapterin is a main pigment component in the integument of the lemon mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and is present there in extremely high content, so lemon is a valuable genetic resource to extract sepiapterin. In this study, an effective experimental system was set up for isolation and purification of sepiapterin from lemon silkworms by optimizing homogenization solvent, elution buffer, and separation chromatographic column. The results showed that ethanol was the most suitable solvent to homogenize the integument, with a concentration of 50% and solid:liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL). Sepiapterin was purified successively by column chromatography of cellulose Ecteola, sephadex G-25-150, and cellulose phosphate, and was identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry. A stable and accurate high performance liquid chromatography method was constructed to identify sepiapterin and conduct qualitative and quantitative analyses. Sepiapterin of high purity was achieved, and the harvest reached about 40 ug/g of integument in the experiments. This work helps to obtaining natural sepiapterin in large amounts in order to use the lemon B. mori mutant to produce BH4 in vitro. PMID:24773269

Wang, Jing; Wang, Wenjing; Liu, Chaoliang; Meng, Yan

2013-01-01

307

Identification of a functional element in the promoter of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) fat body-specific gene Bmlp3.  

PubMed

30K proteins are a group of structurally related proteins that play important roles in the life cycle of the silkworm Bombyx mori and are largely synthesized and regulated in a time-dependent manner in the fat body. Little is known about the upstream regulatory elements associated with the genes encoding these proteins. In the present study, the promoter of Bmlp3, a fat body-specific gene encoding a 30K protein family member, was characterized by joining sequences containing the Bmlp3 promoter with various amounts of 5' upstream sequences to a luciferase reporter gene. The results indicated that the sequences from -150 to -250bp and -597 to -675bp upstream of the Bmlp3 transcription start site were necessary for high levels of luciferase activity. Further analysis showed that a 21-bp sequence located between -230 and -250 was specifically recognized by nuclear factors from silkworm fat bodies and BmE cells, and could enhance luciferase reporter-gene expression 2.8-fold in BmE cells. This study provides new insights into the Bmlp3 promoter and contributes to the further clarification of the function and developmental regulation of Bmlp3. PMID:24853203

Xu, Hanfu; Deng, Dangjun; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Feng; Xia, Qingyou

2014-08-01

308

Impact of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-cotton on the honey bee and silkworm.  

PubMed

Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3(rd) day of 5(th) B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm(2)), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

2013-01-01

309

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, a Dual Functional Protein Involved in the Immune Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

310

Translationally controlled tumor protein, a dual functional protein involved in the immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Wang, Fei; Hu, Cuimei; Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

311

In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

2006-03-24

312

Activation of BmGSTd1 promoter and regulation by transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large family of multifunctional enzymes, many of which play an important role in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. In this research, firstly, we measured the rutin-induced transcriptional level of BmGSTd1 gene by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and dual spike-in strategy. The activities of the BmGSTd1 promoter in various tissues of silkworm were measured by firefly luciferase activity and normalized by the Renilla luciferase activity. Results showed that the activity of the BmGSTd1 promoter were highest in Malpighian tubule, followed by fat body, silk gland, hemocyte, epidermis, and midgut. The essential region for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity was -1573 to -931bp in Malpighian tubule and fat body of silkworm. Promoter truncation analysis using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in BmN cells showed that the region -1288 to -1202bp for BmGSTd1 gene was essential for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis of this region revealed several potential transcriptional regulatory elements such as Bcd and Kr. The mutation of core base of Kr site demonstrated that Kr functioned positively in rutin-mediated BmGSTd1 transcription. PMID:25172212

Zhao, Guodong; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Yunlei; Du, Jie; Li, Bing; Chen, Yuhua; Xu, Yaxiang; Shen, Weide; Xia, Qingyou; Wei, Zhengguo

2014-11-10

313

Ecdysone Receptor (EcR) Is Involved in the Transcription of Cell Cycle Genes in the Silkworm.  

PubMed

EcR (ecdysone receptor)-mediated ecdysone signaling pathway contributes to regulate the transcription of genes involved in various processes during insect development. In this work, we detected the expression of EcR gene in silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cells and found that EcR RNAi result in an alteration of cell shape, indicating that EcR may orchestrate cell cycle progression. EcR RNAi and EcR overexpression analysis revealed that in the cultured BmN4 cells, EcR respectively promoted and suppressed the transcription of E2F-1 and CycE, two genes controlling cell cycle progression. Further examination demonstrated that ecdysone application in BmN4 cells not only changed the transcription of these two cell cycle genes like that under EcR overexpression, but also induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In vivo analysis confirmed that E2F-1 expression was elevated in silk gland of silkworm larvae after ecdysone application, which is same as its response to ecdysone in BmN4 cells. However, ecdysone also promotes CycE transcription in silk gland, and this is converse with the observation in BmN4 cells. These results provide new insights into understanding the roles of EcR-mediated ecdysone signaling in the regulation of cell cycle. PMID:25654229

Qian, Wenliang; Kang, Lixia; Zhang, Tianlei; Meng, Meng; Wang, Yonghu; Li, Zhiqing; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun

2015-01-01

314

Structural insights into the ligand binding and releasing mechanism of Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1: role of the C-terminal tail.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in lepidopteran moths selectively transport the hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger the neuronal response. Moth PBPs are known to bind ligand at physiological pH and release it at acidic pH while undergoing a conformational change. Two molecular switches are considered to play a role in this mechanism: (i) protonation of His(70) and His(95) situated at one end of binding pocket and (ii) switch of the unstructured C-terminus at the other end of the binding pocket to a helix that enters the pocket. We have reported previously the role of the histidine-driven switch in ligand release for Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1). Here we show that the C-terminus plays a role in the ligand release and binding mechanism of ApolPBP1. The C-terminus truncated mutants of ApolPBP1 (ApolPBP1?P129-V142 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A?P129-V142) exist only in the bound conformation at all pH levels, and they fail to undergo pH- or ligand-dependent conformational switching. Although these proteins could bind ligands even at acidic pH unlike wild-type ApolPBP1, they had ~4-fold reduced affinity for the ligand at both acidic and physiological pH compared to that of wild-type ApolPBP1 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A. Thus, apart from helping in ligand release at acidic pH, the C-terminus in ApolPBP1 also plays an important role in ligand binding and/or locking the ligand in the binding pocket. Our results are in stark contrast to those reported for BmorPBP and AtraPBP, where C-terminus truncated proteins had similar or increased pheromone binding affinity at any pH. PMID:23327454

Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Mohanty, Smita

2013-02-12

315

Structural Insights into the Ligand Binding and Releasing Mechanism of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1: Role of the C-terminal Tail  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in lepidopteran moths selectively transport the hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger the neuronal response. Moth PBPs are known to bind ligand at physiological pH and release it at acidic pH while undergoing a conformational change. Two molecular switches are considered to play a role in this mechanism: (i) Protonation of His70 and His95 situated at one end of binding pocket, and (ii) Switch of the unstructured C-terminus at the other end of the binding pocket to a helix that enters the pocket. We have reported previously the role of the histidine-driven switch in ligand release for Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1). Here we show that the C-terminus plays a role in ligand release and binding mechanism of ApolPBP1. The C-terminus truncated mutants of ApolPBP1 (ApolPBP1?P129-V142 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A?P129-V142) exist only in the bound conformation at all pH levels, and they fail to undergo pH- or ligand- dependent conformational switch. Although these proteins could bind ligands even at acidic pH unlike the wild-type ApolPBP1, they had ~4 fold reduced affinity towards the ligand at both acidic and physiological pH than that of ApolPBP1wt and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A. Thus, apart from helping in the ligand-release at acidic pH, the C-terminus in ApolPBP1 also plays an important role in ligand binding and/or locking the ligand in the binding pocket. Our results are in stark contrast to those reported for BmorPBP and AtraPBP, where C-terminus truncated proteins had similar or increased pheromone-binding affinity at any pH. PMID:23327454

Katre, Uma V.; Mazumder, Suman; Mohanty, Smita

2013-01-01

316

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth. Antheraea polyphemus, III. Development of olfactory sensilla and the properties of hair-forming cells.  

PubMed

During adult development of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the anlagen of olfactory sensilla arise within the first 2 days post-apolysis in the antennal epidermis (stage 1-3). Approximately on the second day, the primary dendrites as well as the axons grow out from the sensory neurons (stage 4). The trichogen cells start to grow apical processes approximately on the third day, and these hair-forming 'sprouts' reach their definite length around the ninth day (stages 5-6). Then the secretion of cuticle begins, the cuticulin layer having formed on day 10 (stage 7a). The primary dendrites are shed, the inner dendritic segments as well as the thecogen cells retract from the prospective hair bases, and the inner tormogen cells degenerate around days 10/11 (stage 7b). The hair shafts of the basiconic sensilla are completed around days 12/13 (stage 7c), and those of the trichoid sensilla around days 14/15 (stage 7d). The trichogen sprouts retract from the hairs after having finished cuticle formation, and the outer dendritic segments grow out into the hairs: in the basiconic sensilla directly through, and in the trichoid sensilla alongside, the sprouts. The trichogen sprouts contain numerous parallel-running microtubules. Besides their cytoskeletal function, these are most probably involved in the transport of membrane vesicles. During the phase of cuticle deposition, large numbers of vesicles are transported anterogradely from the cell bodies into the sprouts, where they fuse with the apical cell membrane and release their electron-dense contents (most probably cuticle precursors) to the outside. As the cuticle grows in thickness, the surface area of the sprouts is reduced by endocytosis of coated vesicles. When finally the sprouts retract from the completed hairs, the number of endocytotic vesicles is further increased and numerous membrane cisterns seem to be transported retrogradely along the microtubules to the cell bodies. Here the membrane material will most probably be used again in the formation of the sensillum lymph cavities. Thus, the trichogen cells are characterized by an intensive membrane recycling. The sensillum lymph cavities develop between days 16-20 (stage 8), mainly via apical invaginations of the trichogen cells. The imago emerges on day 21. PMID:18621189

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1991-01-01

317

Sudden Oak Death Blitz: Native oaks need our help APRIL 19, 2013 6:57 PM BILL PRAMUK  

E-print Network

Sudden Oak Death Blitz: Native oaks need our help APRIL 19, 2013 6:57 PM · BILL PRAMUK On a recent, warbling vireo, purple finch, and black phoebe. It was a lot to take in in a short time. As we walked, I oak showed possible symptoms of Sudden Oak Death infection. The pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum

California at Berkeley, University of

318

Small Business Manager Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

· Applying our science and technology base to deliver "first-of-a-kind" security technologies and implement Institute for Neutron Sciences: User gateway to SNS and HFIR Oak Ridge will soon lead the world in neutron

319

Chloroplast DNA variation in European white oaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consortium of 16 laboratories have studied chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in European white oaks. A common strategy for molecular screening, based on restriction analysis of four PCR-amplified cpDNA fragments, was used to allow comparison among the different laboratories. A total of 2613 oak populations (12,214 individual trees from eight species) were sampled from 37 countries, and analysed with the

Rémy J. Petit; Ulrike M. Csaikl; Sándor Bordács; Kornel Burg; Els Coart; Joan Cottrell; Barbara van Dam; John D. Deans; Sylvie Dumolin-Lapčgue; Silvia Fineschi; Reiner Finkeldey; Amanda Gillies; Izabela Glaz; Pablo G. Goicoechea; Jan S. Jensen; Armin O. König; Andrew J. Lowe; Sřren F. Madsen; Gabor Mátyás; Robert C. Munro; Maria Olalde; Marie-Hélčne Pemonge; Flaviu Popescu; Danko Slade; Helen Tabbener; Daniela Taurchini; Sven G. M. de Vries; Birgit Ziegenhagen; Antoine Kremer

2002-01-01

320

Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

1990-10-01

321

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

from, the work carried out in the days of the Manhattan Project. #12;Oak Ridge Reservation 5-2 Oak (Bethel and Melton) and on Chestnut Ridge. ORNL was established in 1943 as a part of the secret Manhattan Project to pioneer a method for producing and separating plutonium. During the 1950s and 1960s

Pennycook, Steve

322

Phytophthora ramorum Infection in Coast Live Oaks and Shreve's Oaks Treated With  

E-print Network

insecticide permethrin in prolonging the life of infected coast live oaks and the closely related Shreve oaks for spraying with permethrin twice each year, in August and February, prior to beetle flight periods, following and in the total area affected per tree. Permethrin treatment prevented colonization through March and April 2003

Standiford, Richard B.

323

Forest reproductive material of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea  

E-print Network

petraea Matt Liebl) in France: problems and results R Fernandez CEMAGREF, Genetic Improvement and Forest forest seed collection in 2 types of stands: selected stands (phenotypic su- periority) and tested standsNote Forest reproductive material of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L) and sessile oak (Quercus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON TANNIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OAKS AND ON PALATABILITY OF OAK FORESTS  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON TANNIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OAKS AND ON PALATABILITY OF OAK FORESTS Michael A vulgare. Tannins are secondary metabolites which defend plants from herbivory by protein precipitation. velutina responded to increased nitrogen loading by decreasing leaf tannin concentrations. When offered

Vallino, Joseph J.

325

Oak Ridge rf Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs.

Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

1985-01-01

326

75 FR 13268 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-03-19

327

75 FR 82001 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-12-29

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76 FR 78908 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-12-20

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75 FR 65466 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-10-25

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76 FR 9572 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-02-18

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75 FR 3455 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-01-21

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75 FR 24685 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-05-05

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75 FR 7576 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-02-22

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75 FR 57462 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-09-21

335

76 FR 17637 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-03-30

336

76 FR 52944 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-08-24

337

76 FR 36101 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-06-21

338

76 FR 59393 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-09-26

339

75 FR 51027 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-08-18

340

75 FR 71424 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-11-23

341

76 FR 4644 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-01-26

342

76 FR 28759 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-05-18

343

76 FR 29732 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-05-23

344

76 FR 65190 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-10-20

345

77 FR 2714 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2012-01-19

346

Working and Learning Among California Oaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school children and their families, "Working Among the Oaks" has focused on connecting with the agricultural and environmental communities. For example, the Ranching Sustainability Self-Assessment Program is an ambitious, long-range project with tremendous potential to aid private landowners throughout California in implementing sustainable ranching practices. We've made great progress through the efforts of an impressive committee of local private landowners, ranch managers and resource professionals. They believe that this can be a powerful non-regulatory tool to guide private landowners through everyday decision-making processes. Most importantly, this is a tool that could be adapted for use throughout California oak woodland. The Self Assessment Program, along with the supporting Workshops, have stimulated discussion and interest in sustainable ranching among people with diverse experiences and backgrounds. "Learning and Working Among the Oaks" together reach the full spectrum of oak conservation stakeholders, from kids to grandparents, town residents to ranching families, environmental groups to farm and vineyard managers, and more. The diversity of these stakeholders helps us identify collaborative education and research opportunities to support education and management of the 3 million ha of California oak woodlands.

Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

2009-04-01

347

Differentially expressed genes in the ovary of the sixth day of pupal "Ming" lethal egg mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The "Ming" lethal egg mutant (l-em) is a vitelline membrane mutant in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The eggs laid by the l-em mutant lose water, ultimately causing death within an hour. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of BmEP80 is responsible for the l-em mutation in silkworm, B. mori. In the current study, digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the difference of gene expression in ovaries between wild type and l-em mutant on the sixth day of the pupal stage to obtain a global view of gene expression profiles using the ovaries of three l-em mutants and three wild types. The results showed a total of 3,463,495 and 3,607,936 clean tags in the wild type and the l-em mutant libraries, respectively. Compared with those of wild type, 239 differentially expressed genes were detected in the l-em mutant, wherein 181 genes are up-regulated and 58 genes are down-regulated in the mutant strain. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis results showed that no pathway was significantly enriched and three pathways are tightly related to protein synthesis among the five leading pathways. Moreover, the expression profiles of eight important differentially expressed genes related to oogenesis changed. These results provide a comprehensive gene expression analysis of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in B. mori which facilitates understanding of both the specific molecular mechanism of the 1-em mutant and Lepidopteran oogenesis in general. PMID:23769927

Gao, Peng; Chen, An-Li; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Xing-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Ding-Guo; Tang, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

2013-09-15

348

A single female-specific piRNA is the primary determiner of sex in the silkworm.  

PubMed

The silkworm Bombyx mori uses a WZ sex determination system that is analogous to the one found in birds and some reptiles. In this system, males have two Z sex chromosomes, whereas females have Z and W sex chromosomes. The silkworm W chromosome has a dominant role in female determination, suggesting the existence of a dominant feminizing gene in this chromosome. However, the W chromosome is almost fully occupied by transposable element sequences, and no functional protein-coding gene has been identified so far. Female-enriched PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are the only known transcripts that are produced from the sex-determining region of the W chromosome, but the function(s) of these piRNAs are unknown. Here we show that a W-chromosome-derived, female-specific piRNA is the feminizing factor of B. mori. This piRNA is produced from a piRNA precursor which we named Fem. Fem sequences were arranged in tandem in the sex-determining region of the W chromosome. Inhibition of Fem-derived piRNA-mediated signalling in female embryos led to the production of the male-specific splice variants of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a gene which acts at the downstream end of the sex differentiation cascade. A target gene of Fem-derived piRNA was identified on the Z chromosome of B. mori. This gene, which we named Masc, encoded a CCCH-type zinc finger protein. We show that the silencing of Masc messenger RNA by Fem piRNA is required for the production of female-specific isoforms of Bmdsx in female embryos, and that Masc protein controls both dosage compensation and masculinization in male embryos. Our study characterizes a single small RNA that is responsible for primary sex determination in the WZ sex determination system. PMID:24828047

Kiuchi, Takashi; Koga, Hikaru; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Shoji, Keisuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Arai, Yuji; Ishihara, Genki; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masataka G; Katsuma, Susumu

2014-05-29

349

Genome-Wide Identification and Immune Response Analysis of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein. PMID:22348050

Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

350

Free radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activity of oils and sericin extracted from Thai native silkworms (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

Oils and sericin were extracted from pupae and silk cocoons, respectively, of the five Thai native silkworms (Bombyx mori, Linnaeus (Bombycidae)), namely, Keawsakol, Nangnoi, Somrong, Nangleung, and Noneruesee, which are variations of the same species. The oils were extracted by a hot process using Soxhlet apparatus and a cold process using petroleum ether, while sericin was extracted by basic hydrolysis and autoclaving. Sericin from the five Thai native silkworms showed free radical scavenging activity lower than the standard antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and BHT) by about 20-100-fold, but all oils gave higher activity than that of the standard linoleic acid by 11-22-fold. Oil extracted from Noneruesee by the cold process gave the highest DPPH scavenging activity, compared with other oil samples. All sericin samples showed tyrosinase inhibition activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-18.76 mg/mL, but only oils from Noneruesee extracted by the hot process, and Nangleung, Somrong, and Noneruesee extracted by the cold process, showed this activity. Oil extracted by the hot process and sericin by basic hydrolysis from Noneruesee gave the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity, but lower than that of the standards vitamin C and kojic acid by 20-49 and 3-8 times, respectively. This study has suggested that sericin and oil from Noneruesee extracted by basic hydrolysis and the cold process, which gave the highest tyrosinase inhibition and free radical scavenging activity, respectively, can be applied in antiaging and whitening cosmetic products. PMID:20673171

Manosroi, Aranya; Boonpisuttinant, Korawinwich; Winitchai, Supanida; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

2010-08-01

351

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

1992-07-01

352

Review article Dendrochronological insights into past oak growth  

E-print Network

Review article Dendrochronological insights into past oak growth JR Pilcher Palaeoecology Centre ranges. dendrochronology / deciduous oak / Europe / Ireland / France Résumé — Aperçu de la / Irlande / France #12;INTRODUCTION Dendrochronology had its origins in the work of Douglass in the early

Boyer, Edmond

353

Effects of Cattle Management on Oak Regeneration in Northern Californian Mediterranean Oak Woodlands  

PubMed Central

Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n?=?4) and only with wildlife (n?=?4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

2014-01-01

354

Molecular structure of a novel gypsy Ty3-like retrotransposon ( Kabuki ) and nested retrotransposable elements on the W chromosome of the silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously characterized a female-specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), designated W-Kabuki, derived from\\u000a the W chromosome of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. To further analyze the W chromosome of B. mori, we obtained a lambda phage clone which contains the W-Kabuki RAPD sequence and sequenced the 18.1-kb DNA insert. We found\\u000a that this DNA comprises a nested structure of at

H. Abe; F. Ohbayashi; T. Shimada; T. Sugasaki; S. Kawai; K. Mita; T. Oshiki

2000-01-01

355

In Vivo Expression and Immunological Studies of the 42-Kilodalton Carboxyl-Terminal Processing Fragment of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 in the Baculovirus-Silkworm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 42-kDa carboxyl-terminal processing fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-142) is an anti-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine candidate. In this study, MSP-142 was expressed by using the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus-silkworm expression system, and the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of the recombinant protein, Bmp42, were evaluated. The average yield of Bmp42, as deter- mined by a sandwich enzyme-linked

Alan L. Y. Pang; Caryn N. Hashimoto; Leslie Q. Tam; Z. Q. Meng; George S. N. Hui; Walter K. K. Ho

2002-01-01

356

Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a silkworm protein that contains the conserved BH regions of Bcl2 family proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

To search for a Bcl-2 family homologue in the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori, Western blot analysis was performed with the anti-rat Bcl-XL antiserum preabsorbed with a XL1-Blue MRF? lysate. The antiserum was shown to cross-react specifically with a silkworm protein of 80?000 mol. wt (BmP80). The level of BmP80 increased dramatically during the spinning stage and decreased rapidly

Joseph Tambunan; Pei Kan Chang; Hong Li; Masahiko Natori

1998-01-01

357

Development of oak plantations established for wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

2002-01-01

358

Symbolic approach for measuring temporal ``irreversibility'' Engineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8088  

E-print Network

Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8088 C. E. A. Finney College of Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2210 M. B. Kennel Institute for Nonlinear

Tennessee, University of

359

77 FR 68818 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...associated funerary object may contact the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office. Repatriation...associated funerary object should contact the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office at the address below by December 17, 2012....

2012-11-16

360

78 FR 2431 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...associated funerary object may contact the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office. Repatriation...associated funerary object should contact the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office at the address in this notice by February...

2013-01-11

361

The telomere-specific non-LTR retrotransposons SART1 and TRAS1 are suppressed by Piwi subfamily proteins in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The telomere structures in Bombyx mori are thought to be maintained mainly by the transposition of the specialized telomeric retroelements SART and TRAS. The silkworm genome has telomeric TTAGG repeats and telomerase, but this telomerase displays little or no activity. Here, we report that the transcription of the telomeric retroelements SART1 and TRAS1 is suppressed by the silkworm Piwi subfamily proteins BmAgo3 and Siwi. The silkworm Piwi subfamily was found to be expressed predominantly in the gonads and early embryo, as in other model organisms, but in BmN4 cultured cells, these proteins formed granules that were separate from the nuage, which is a different behaviour pattern. The expression of TRAS1 was increased in BmN4 cells when BmAgo3 or Siwi were silenced by RNAi. Our results suggest that B. mori Piwi proteins are involved in regulating the transposition of telomeric retroelements, and that the functional piRNA pathway is conserved in BmN4 cultured cells. PMID:19943120

Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Sakashita, Kosuke; Masaki, Yuki; Lee, Jae Man; Kawaguchi, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2010-01-01

362

Resistance to BmNPV via overexpression of an exogenous gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer in transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP), Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P), hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG). After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 10(5) occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity. PMID:22870254

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Zhao, Ping; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Genhong; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

363

Resistance to BmNPV via Overexpression of an Exogenous Gene Controlled by an Inducible Promoter and Enhancer in Transgenic Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP), Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P), hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG). After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 105 occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity. PMID:22870254

Jiang, Liang; Cheng, Tingcai; Zhao, Ping; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Genhong; Jin, Shengkai; Lin, Ping; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2012-01-01

364

Approaches to modeling natural regeneration in oak-dominated forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oaks are numerous and widespread. Approximately 500 species are distributed across several continents in the north temperate zone and Polynesia. Like the genus itself, the processes within oak-dominated forests are often complex and difficult to comprehend. This complexity arises from processes that produce an almost infinite number of interactions among highly variable biotic and abiotic factors. The challenge for oak

Robert Rogers; Paul S. Johnson

1998-01-01

365

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Voice of the Customer Assessment Results Lynn Aaron Summer Intern Small Business Programs Office August 9, 2006 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL on feedback and suggestions for improvement were given Voice of the Customer #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL

366

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Values in the Conduct of  

E-print Network

#12;Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Values in the Conduct of Research and Development Prepared by the ORNL Corporate Fellows Council Distributed by the ORNL Ethics Office January 2000 i Managed by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285 operated by LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH

367

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life Cycle Reimbursable Funding://www.ornl.gov/wfo/exthome.htm September 27, 2007 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Briefing Outline · Summary #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Secretary of Energy Legal Authority

368

Sudden Oak Death: Endangering California and Oregon Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death is a new disease affecting tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora) and oaks (Quercus spp) in California and Oregon, caused by the recently described pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. It has reached epi-demic proportions in several counties in central California, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. In addition to oaks and tanoak, P ramorum has been found in

David M. Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

2003-01-01

369

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life Cycle Reimbursable Funding: http://www.ornl.gov/wfo/exthome.htm October 11, 2010 #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT Project Closeout Process Summary #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 3 Secretary

370

Author's personal copy Environmentally biased fragmentation of oak savanna  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Environmentally biased fragmentation of oak savanna habitat on southeastern Available online 7 September 2008 Keywords: Climate Conservation baselines Indigenous land use Oak savanna environmental conditions represented across the entire landscape, in oak savanna habitats prior to Euro- pean

Vellend, Mark

371

Desiccation sensitivity of white and black (red) oak embryonic axes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Quercus is the most important aggregation of hardwoods found on the North American and European continents. Quercus is generally divided into two categories black (red) and white oak groups though a third category of live oaks is sometimes recognized as well. Natural populations of oaks a...

372

Country Canada Type Blend (corn in oak + rye in charred oak + barley in medium-charred oak)  

E-print Network

) Distillery Forty Creek Name Double barrel reserve ABV 40% Cask Bourbon and sherry Colour Golden Bottle volume by an updraft of caramel corn and honeycomb. The whisky also brings forward strong dry woody notes (oak The whisky finishes with a dry spicy burst of orange peel and woody tannin. Hints of hazelnut and tea leaves

Izzard, Rob

373

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES OF CYNIPINI  

E-print Network

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES-mail: simorita@ncsu.edu) Abstract.--Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall gall wasp D. castanopsidis, which produces a medium-sized spherical external gall near the base

Hammerton, James

374

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

of the secret Manhattan Project to pioneer a method for producing and separating plutonium. During the 1950s, but very different from, the work carried out in the days of the Manhattan Project. #12;Oak Ridge

Pennycook, Steve

375

Osteochondral Tissue Engineering In Vivo: A Comparative Study Using Layered Silk Fibroin Scaffolds from Mulberry and Nonmulberry Silkworms  

PubMed Central

The ability to treat osteochondral defects is a major clinical need. Existing polymer systems cannot address the simultaneous requirements of regenerating bone and cartilage tissues together. The challenge still lies on how to improve the integration of newly formed tissue with the surrounding tissues and the cartilage-bone interface. This study investigated the potential use of different silk fibroin scaffolds: mulberry (Bombyx mori) and non-mulberry (Antheraea mylitta) for osteochondral regeneration in vitro and in vivo. After 4 to 8 weeks of in vitro culture in chondro- or osteo-inductive media, non-mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells exhibited prominent areas of the neo tissue containing chondrocyte-like cells, whereas mulberry constructs pre-seeded with human bone marrow stromal cells formed bone-like nodules. In vivo investigation demonstrated neo-osteochondral tissue formed on cell-free multi-layer silk scaffolds absorbed with transforming growth factor beta 3 or recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Good bio-integration was observed between native and neo-tissue within the osteochondrol defect in patellar grooves of Wistar rats. The in vivo neo-matrix formed comprised of a mixture of collagen and glycosaminoglycans except in mulberry silk without growth factors, where a predominantly collagenous matrix was observed. Immunohistochemical assay showed stronger staining of type I and type II collagen in the constructs of mulberry and non-mulberry scaffolds with growth factors. The study opens up a new avenue of using inter-species silk fibroin blended or multi-layered scaffolds of a combination of mulberry and non-mulberry origin for the regeneration of osteochondral defects. PMID:24260335

Saha, Sushmita; Kundu, Banani; Kirkham, Jennifer; Wood, David; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yang, Xuebin B.

2013-01-01

376

LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Awh is a key component activating all three fibroin genes, fibH, fibL and fhx, in the silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, three fibroin genes, fibroin-heavy-chain (fibH), fibroin-light-chain (fibL) and fibrohexamerin (fhx), are coexpressed only in the posterior silk gland (PSG) cells, while the sericin genes encoding silk glue proteins are expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) cells. Silk gland factor-2 (SGF-2) is a PSG-specific activator complex of fibH, composed of a LIM-homeodomain protein, Awh, and its cofactors, Ldb and Lcaf. We investigated whether SGF-2 can activate other fibroin genes using transgenic silkworms. The genes for Ldb and Lcaf were expressed ubiquitously in various tissues, while the gene for Awh was expressed strictly specific in PSG of the wild type silkworms. Misexpression of Awh in transgenic silkworms induced ectopic expression of fibL and fhx as well as fibH in MSG. Coincidently with the induction of fibL and fhx by Awh, binding of SGF-2 to the promoter of fibL and fhx was detected in vitro, and SGF-2 binds directly to the fhx core promoter. Ectopic expression of the fibroin genes was observed at high levels in the middle part of MSG. Moreover, fibL and fhx were induced in the anterior silk gland (ASG) of the transgenic silkworms, but fibH was not. These results indicate that Awh is a key activator of all three fibroin genes, and the activity is probably regulated in conjunction with additional factors. PMID:25449130

Kimoto, Mai; Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takiya, Shigeharu

2015-01-01

377

Oils from the degradation of white oak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destructive distillation of softwoods gives charcoal plus a mixture of many organics. Much work has been put into the destruction of hardwoods available in the Middle Tennessee area for the purpose of generating heat in a large heating system and for generating charcoal that can be sold commercially. Using white oak, organics in much less amounts than with softwoods were

E. A. Kline; K. N. Warren; K. R. Purdy; C. D. Kerr; C. E. Martin

1990-01-01

378

Instrument development continues in Oak Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peer review panels composed of 80 external scientists recently visited Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review almost 700 proposals for experiments on 23 instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These were proposed for the time period from January-June 2012. About 40% of the proposals were approved for beam time and 20% were

Ekkebus; Allen E

2012-01-01

379

DOE Oak Ridge Office Freda H. Hopper  

E-print Network

National Laboratory Small business university conference 2008 © All Rights Reserved 1Jun08 #12;Key Oak Cleanup Energy & Nuclear Fuel Supply National Security Reindustrialization Technology Transfer & Economic Development #12;A World Leading Research and Advanced Manufacturing Park Jun08 2008 © All Rights Reserved 3

380

25 MV tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator.

Jones, C.M.

1980-01-01

381

Oak Mountain High School, Shelby County, Alabama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents design features of the Oak Mountain High School (Alabama) consisting of an academic side of classrooms, administration, and media center; and an activity side consisting of cafeteria, gymnasium, practice gym, and a theater. The school's floor plan and photos are included. (GR)

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

382

Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

1980-03-01

383

Oak Park Middle School and General Electric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a partnership between Oak Park Middle School in Decatur, Alabama, and the General Electric Company that features the use of the quality circle approach. Not only were teachers, administrators, and parents organized into school quality circles, but students also formed quality circles to solve problems at the school. (CH)

Buckley, Anita

1987-01-01

384

Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

Turner, J.W. [ed.

1995-02-01

385

The University of Birmingham Selly Oak, Birmingham  

E-print Network

Birmingham City Council website and on the University of Birmingham School website here: www.birmingham.ac.uk/university/university-school1 The University of Birmingham School Selly Oak, Birmingham Academic, curriculum and admissions The Old School House Chapel Lane Wythall Birmingham B47 6JX Telephone: 0121 702 2525 Email: david

Birmingham, University of

386

Writing Proposals for Oak Ridge National  

E-print Network

Writing Proposals for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Women-Owned Small Business Day Sonny Rogers ­ Quality ­ Schedule · The order of importance will be specified #12;6 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U options and other cost factors, is considered to be: ­ More important than technical merit, ­ Less

387

Doing Business with Oak Ridge National  

E-print Network

Doing Business with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented at the WM10 Symposia Keith S. Joy Director ORNL Small Business Programs Phoenix, AZ March 3, 2010 #12;· Generates $5.2 billion annually Businesses · We manage the machinery of scientific discovery and innovation through Global Laboratory

388

Oak ecosystem succession of the Northern Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

English oak (Quercus robur L.) along with its well-known good properties has a high sanitary-hygienic and curative potential. Its volatile metabolites (VM) influence bacteriostatically Staphylococcus aureus 209r, oppressing it in vitro by 85% compared with the control, and Escherichia coli by 45%. There is the least amount of epiphytic microorganisms on the leaves of Q. robur L. compared with some tree species [1]. In addition, VM of Q. robur L. have direct milieu (hypotensive) effects on the organism under its canopy, lowering blood pressure by 20-25 mm Hg [2]. A.P. Kazankin (1993) [4] calculated the prehistoric formula of forest species composition of Caucasian Mineral Waters region (Northern Caucasus): 6Qr3Crp1Fr which was based on the theory of calcium-magnesium absorption complex. According to the theory, underground mineral water, soil, forest litter and the leaves of ground vegetation of the area have the same ratio of the cations Ca and Mg - calcium-magnesium index [3]. Hence oldgrowth in the region consisted of oak (Qr) by 60%, hornbeam (Carpinus-Crp) by 30% and ash (Fraxinus-Fr) only by 10%. Currently, the formula of the forests of the region has been changed by man: 5Fr3Crp2Qr. The proportion of oak forests has decreased to 20%, the proportion of ash has increased by 50%, but the proportion of hornbeam hasn't changed. So it is relevant to restore oak forests of the region in the former ratio to other forest-forming species - ash and hornbeam. Taking into consideration the change of economic formation of society in Russia, it is extremely important to restore natural seed oak forests. Therein the luminance of surface areal is a limiting factor. We have calculated that the natural recovery of oak forests is possible providing observation of optimal moisture standards and soil fertility in combination with solar light within 10-24% from the light of open space. Measures for promotion of oak natural regeneration in mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus can be found in elaborate recommendations [5].

Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina

2014-05-01

389

Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in eastern Tennessee, in an area of moderate to high historical seismicity. Results from two separate seismic hazard analyses are presented. The EPRI/SOG analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, under the sponsorship of several electric utilities, for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States. The LLNL analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Both the EPRI/SOG and LLNL studies characterize earth-science uncertainty on the causes and characteristics of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States. This is accomplished by considering multiple hypotheses on the locations and parameters of seismic source zones and by considering multiple attenuation functions for the prediction of ground shaking given earthquake size and location. These hypotheses were generated by multiple expert teams and experts. Furthermore, each team and expert was asked to generate multiple hypotheses in order to characterize his own internal uncertainty. The seismic-hazard calculations are performed for all hypotheses. Combining the results from each hypothesis with the weight associated to that hypothesis, one obtains an overall representation of the seismic hazard at the Oak Ridge site and its uncertainty.

McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.F. [Risk Engineering, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, R.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering

1992-09-30

390

Oral Administration of a Fusion Protein between the Cholera Toxin B Subunit and the 42-Amino Acid Isoform of Amyloid-? Peptide Produced in Silkworm Pupae Protects against Alzheimer's Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-? peptide (A?42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-A?42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-A?42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-A?42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased A? deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-A?42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD. PMID:25469702

Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

2014-01-01

391

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

1992-06-01

392

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

1992-06-01

393

Programmed cell death: cytochemical and X-ray microanalytical characterization of calcium compartments in neuromuscular junctions during the normal breakdown of the intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Calcium stores were cytochemically demonstrated using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate method in the neuromuscular junctions of the degenerating intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. The elemental composition of punctate precipitates of the reaction product was determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of unstained thin sections by energy-dispersive spectrometry and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry. The wavelength-dispersive spectra collected over terminal axons demonstrate a significant calcium signal and a trace of antimony. During the rapid lytic phase of spontaneous muscle degeneration, the calcium punctate deposits were detected in presynaptic terminals in the following sites: the synaptic vesicles and the mitochondria. Calcium precipitates were also found in the dense bodies and the mitochondria encountered in the glial convolutions. No calcium deposit was seen in the synaptic clefts and intercellular spaces of the subsynaptic reticulum of type I and type II. A comparison of calcium to antimony ratios between the terminal axons and the sarcoplasmic lysosomes revealed highly significant differences (P less than 0.001). Such a variability of the calcium to antimony ratio may be related to different conditions of precipitation or antimony diffusion in the different cell compartments. It was concluded that such synaptic terminals do not appear damaged in spite of the muscle degeneration and presumably continue to perform vital functions while the muscles are no longer contractile 20 h after adult ecdysis. PMID:3410737

Beaulaton, J

1988-03-01

394

Ecological Evidence of Intensive Cultivation of Oaks by California Indians: Implications  

E-print Network

. In the oak savannas of California the various species of native oaks occur as individual large trees on steeper slopes and in draws. Young trees are notably few or absent in oak savannas. The predominance of old oaks and a lack of regeneration means that the population of oaks in these savannas

Standiford, Richard B.

395

The increasing scarcity of red oaks in Mississippi River floodplain forests: Influence of the residual overstory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red oaks – cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.), willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), and Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley; aka: Quercus nuttallii Palmer) – are not regrowing in Mississippi Delta river floodplain forests in the southeastern United States in sufficient numbers to sustain the former species composition and timber and wildlife values. Even if vigorous

Chadwick Dearing Oliver; E. C. Burkhardt; Daniel A. Skojac

2005-01-01

396

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium Determining Landscape-Scale Changes in Forest  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium 93 Determining Landscape-Scale Changes sudden oak death (SOD)-related changes have already occurred? (2)What future SOD-related impacts Nee), black oak (Q. kelloggii Newb.), canyon live oak (Q. chrysolepis Liebm.), or Shreve's oak (Q

Standiford, Richard B.

397

Monitoring Sudden Oak Death in California Using High-resolution Imagery1  

E-print Network

Monitoring Sudden Oak Death in California Using High-resolution Imagery1 Nina Maggi Kelly2 Abstract The Sudden Oak Death (SOD) epidemic in California is alarming for those living with, and adjacent to but are not limited to two valuable oak species: coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and black oak (Q. kelloggii

Standiford, Richard B.

398

ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89  

SciTech Connect

This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

1989-01-01

399

Genetic analysis of scattered populations of the Indian eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Donovan: Differentiation of subpopulations  

E-print Network

Deforestation and exploitation has led to the fragmentation of habitats and scattering of populations of the economically important eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, in north-east India. Genetic analysis of 15 eri populations, using ISSR markers, showed 98 % inter-population, and 23 % to 58 % intra-population polymorphism. Nei’s genetic distance between populations increased significantly with altitude (R 2 = 0.71) and geographic distance (R 2 = 0.78). On the dendrogram, the lower and upper Assam populations were clustered separately, with intermediate grouping of those from Barpathar and Chuchuyimlang, consistent with geographical distribution. The Nei’s gene diversity index was 0.350 in total populations and 0.121 in subpopulations. The genetic differentiation estimate (Gst) was 0.276 among scattered populations. Neutrality tests showed deviation of 118 loci from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of loci that deviated from neutrality increased with altitude (R 2 = 0.63). Test of linkage disequilibrium showed greater contribution of variance among eri subpopulations to total variance. D ’2 IS exceeded D ’2

Anuradha H. Jingade; Choba K. Singh; Aravind K. Awasthi; Vikas Kumar; Guruprasad C. Rao; N. B. Vijaya Prakash

400

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

401

DNA-binding property of the novel DNA-binding domain STPR in FMBP-1 of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The STPR domain is a novel DNA-binding domain composed of repeats of 23 amino-acid-long peptide found in the fibroin-modulator-binding protein-1 (FMBP-1) of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Theoretical proteins having the STPR domain are highly conserved, particularly in vertebrates, but the functions are mostly unknown. In this study, the DNA-binding property of the STPR domain in FMBP-1 was examined. Use of reagents selecting the DNA groove and an oligonucleotide in which the dA:dT pairs of the probe were replaced with dI:dC pairs in mobility shift assay demonstrated that FMBP-1 approaches DNA from the major groove. Permutation electrophoresis using probes of the same length but containing the FMBP-1-binding site at different positions showed that FMBP-1 bends DNA through its binding. To induce the sharp bend of DNA, the STPR domain alone was insufficient and the long N-terminal extending region was necessary. Moreover, the basic region extending from the N-terminus of the STPR domain stabilized the DNA binding of the STPR domain. These results suggested that DNA-binding properties of the STPR domain are affected strongly by the structure of the flanking regions in the STPR domain-containing proteins. PMID:19304790

Takiya, Shigeharu; Saito, Shin; Yokoyama, Takuya; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Demura, Makoto; Kawano, Keiichi

2009-07-01

402

Cuticle laccase of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: purification, gene identification and presence of its inactive precursor in the cuticle.  

PubMed

Laccase is a multi-copper enzyme found in variety of organisms including plants, fungi and bacteria. In insects, laccase is thought to play an important role in cuticle sclerotization with its ability to catalyze the oxidation of phenolic compounds to their corresponding quinones. From the newly ecdysed pupae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we purified a dimer form of cuticular laccase with 70-kDa polypeptides. Mass spectrometric analysis of the tryptic fragments and cDNA sequence analysis revealed that the gene for the purified laccase (BmLaccase2) is an ortholog of laccase2, one of the multiple laccase genes found in insect genomes. BmLaccase2 is highly expressed in the epidermis prior to ecdysis, suggesting that the BmLaccase2 protein accumulates before ecdysis. However, the cuticle of newly ecdysed pupa does not have laccase activity, and the activity only becomes detectable several hours after ecdysis. These data suggest that cuticle laccase is synthesized as an inactive precursor, which is later activated after ecdysis. We also found that urea-solubilized cuticle protein extract contains an inactive form of laccase that can be activated by trypsin treatment. PMID:19168135

Yatsu, Jun; Asano, Tsunaki

2009-04-01

403

Identification and characterization of two chitin-binding proteins from the peritrophic membrane of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

The peritrophic membrane (PM) is a semi-permeable lining of the insect midgut, broadly analogous to the mucous lining of vertebrate gut. The PM proteins are important achievements for the function of the PM. In this study, two chitin-binding proteins (BmPM-P43 and BmPM-P41) from the PM of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, were identified and cloned. These proteins showed the molecular mass of 43?and 41?kDa, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences codes for a protein of 381 amino acid residues and 364 amino acid residues, containing 12 and 14 cysteine residues followed by similar domain, both of them have 5 cysteine residues in similar position in the C-terminal. The confirmation of these proteins was performed by western blot analysis of recombinant BmPM-P43 and BmPM-P41. The chitin-binding activity analysis showed that the BmPM-P43 and BmPM-P41 could bind to chitin strongly. It is concluded that BmPM-P43 and BmPM-P41 contains a polysaccharide deacetylase domain instead of peritrophin domain, indicated that these two proteins may belong to a new chitin-binding protein family. PMID:20976701

Yang, Hua-Jun; Zhou, Fang; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Bhaskar, Roy; Li, Xing-Hua; Hu, Jia-Biao; Sun, Chun-Guang; Miao, Yun-Gen

2010-12-01

404

Effect of Superoxide Dismutase Gene Inactivation on Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 toward the Silkworm, Bombyx mori?  

PubMed Central

To investigate the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in virulence against the silkworm, Bombyx mori, mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lacking manganese-SOD (PAO1sodM), iron-SOD (PAO1sodB), or both (PAO1sodMB) were generated. The mutants were injected into the hemocoel of B. mori. The virulence decreased in the order PAO1 = PAO1sodM > PAO1sodB > PAO1sodMB. In particular, PAO1sodMB was avirulent at a dose of 105 cells or less. The sod double mutant PAO1sodMB was then complemented with either pSodM or pSodB in trans. In both the complemented strains, the virulence was partially restored. Of the two plasmids, pSodB contributed more to the virulence of P. aeruginosa against B. mori. The results of growth in B. mori hemolymph broth and microscopic analysis suggested that a longer lag phase and superoxide sensitivity correlated with decreased virulence in sod mutants. In conclusion, the SODs are required for full virulence of P. aeruginosa against B. mori and Fe-SOD is more important than Mn-SOD in the infection process. PMID:17220257

Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Chieda, Yuuka; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yasunaga-Aoki, Chisa; Shimizu, Susumu

2007-01-01

405

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated female-specific sterility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Engineering sex-specific sterility is critical for developing transgene-based sterile insect technology. Targeted genome engineering achieved by customized zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) or clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems has been exploited extensively in a variety of model organisms; however, screening mutated individuals without a detectable phenotype is still challenging. In addition, genetically recessive mutations only detectable in homozygotes make the experiments time-consuming. In the present study, we model a novel genetic system in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, that results in female-specific sterility by combining transgenesis with TALEN technologies. This system induces sex-specific sterility at a high efficiency by targeting the female-specific exon of the B.?mori doublesex (Bmdsx) gene, which has sex-specific splicing isoforms regulating somatic sexual development. Transgenic animals co-expressing TALEN left and right arms targeting the female-specific Bmdsx exon resulted in somatic mutations and female mutants lost fecundity because of lack of egg storage and abnormal external genitalia. The wild-type sexual dimorphism of abdominal segment was not evident in mutant females. In contrast, there were no deleterious effects in mutant male moths. The current somatic TALEN technologies provide a promising approach for future insect functional genetics, thus providing the basis for the development of attractive genetic alternatives for insect population management. PMID:25125145

Xu, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; James, A A; Tan, A; Huang, Y

2014-12-01

406

Stability analysis of White Oak Dam  

SciTech Connect

White Oak Dam is located in the White Oak Creek watershed which provides the primary surface drainage for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A stability analysis was made on the dam by Syed Ahmed in January 1994 which included an evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the embankment and foundation. This report evaluates the stability of the dam and includes comments on the report prepared by Ahmed. Slope stability analyses were performed on the dam and included cases for sudden drawdown, steady seepage, partial pool and earthquake. Results of the stability analyses indicate that the dam is stable and failure of the structure would not occur for the cases considered. The report prepared by Ahmed leads to the same conclusions as stated above. Review of the report finds that it is complete, well documented and conservative in its selection of soil parameters. The evaluation of the liquefaction potential is also complete and this report is in agreement with the findings that the dam and foundation are not susceptible to liquefaction.

NONE

1995-04-11

407

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

408

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile {times} 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137.

Maurer, R.J.

1989-09-01

409

Relationships between advance oak regeneration and biotic and abiotic factors.  

PubMed

Relationships between advance regeneration of four tree species (red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Q. montana Willd.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.)) and biotic (non-tree vegetation and canopy composition) and abiotic (soil series and topographic variables) factors were investigated in 52, mature mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachians. Aggregate height was used as a composite measure of regeneration abundance. Analyses were carried out separately for two physiographic provinces. Associations with tree regeneration were found for all biotic and abiotic factors both in partial models and full models. Red maple was abundant on most of the sites, but high red maple abundance was commonly associated with wet north-facing slopes with little or no cover of mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) and hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore). Regeneration of the three oak species was greatly favored by the abundance of overstory trees of their own kind. White oak regeneration was most abundant on south-facing, gentle, lower slopes with soils in the Buchanan series. Chestnut oak regeneration was more common on south-facing, steep upper slopes with stony soils. There was a positive association between chestnut oak and huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) Koch) cover classes. Northern red oak was more abundant on north-facing wet sites with Hazleton soil, and was associated with low occurrence of mountain-laurel and hay-scented fern. PMID:18450575

Fei, Songlin; Steiner, Kim C

2008-07-01

410

77 FR 64720 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety zone...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety...

2012-10-23

411

78 FR 44942 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2013-07-25

412

76 FR 1415 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2011-01-10

413

77 FR 45345 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2012-07-31

414

75 FR 43518 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2010-07-26

415

SNAKE SPECIES RICHNESS IN RELATION TO HABITAT IN THE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF EAST CENTRAL TEXAS  

E-print Network

Ranch within the southern post oak savannah ecological region. 6 Post oaks (Quercus stellata) dominate the study area, with the exception being the riparian forests that consist mainly of water oaks (Q. nigra). Four types of habitat were...

Putegnat, John

2006-07-11

416

Photoluminescence and local structure of Ge nanoclusters on Si without a wetting layer Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA  

E-print Network

Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA F. Flack Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA Zhenyu Zhang and H. H. Weitering Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA and Department of Physics and Astronomy

Pennycook, Steve

417

Sudden oak death 'here to stay' Jeanne Wirka, resident biologist at the Bouverie Preserve in Glen Ellen, stands next to a live oak that fell after it developed  

E-print Network

Sudden oak death 'here to stay' Jeanne Wirka, resident biologist at the Bouverie Preserve in Glen Ellen, stands next to a live oak that fell after it developed sudden oak death in the heavily wooded:10 p.m. As sudden oak death continues to ravage Sonoma County woodlands, a secluded creek near Glen

California at Berkeley, University of

418

AN EVALUATION OF ARBOTECT AND LIGNASAN TRUNK INJECTIONS AS POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR OAK WILT IN LIVE OAKS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbotect-20S® (2-(2)thiazolyl) benzimidazole) and Lignasan® (methyl-2-benzimidazol carbamate phosphate) were mixed with low volumes of water and injected into the xylem of live oaks in an effort to stop or prevent oak wilt (caused by Ceratocystis fagacearum) development. Healthy trees near the advancing edge of oak wilt infection centers were not protected by fungicide treatments. Some of the in- fected trees

Robert Lewis; Alan R. Brook

1985-01-01

419

Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

2015-02-01

420

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

from, the work carried out in the days of the Manhattan Project. #12;Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site (Bethel and Melton) and on Chestnut Ridge. ORNL was established in 1943 as part of the secret Manhattan Project to pioneer a method for producing and separating plutonium. During the 1950s and 1960s

Pennycook, Steve

421

Potential Effects of Sudden Oak Death on Birds in Coastal Oak Woodlands1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree pathogens can affect community composition and structure over wide areas. Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death (SOD), occurs in the wild in California from Humboldt County to southernmost Monterey County. P. ramorum has killed many trees at some sites and may spread to affect near and distant forests. The pathogen has not yet been detected in San Luis

Donald E. Winslow; William D. Tietje

422

Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

423

Germination Characteristics of Engelmann Oak, and Coast Live Oak from the Santa Rosa Plateau,  

E-print Network

, Riverside County, California1 Gerald E. Snow2 Abstract: Over 2,000 acorns of Quercus agrifolia (coast live tion of coast live oak around rock outcrops (especially in cracks and the north side) due to ground squirrel transport and the apparently higher moisture requirements for germination (Snow 1973). 1 Presented

Standiford, Richard B.

424

Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment.

NONE

1998-05-01

425

Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL] [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL] [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

426

Isolation and bioactivities of a non-sericin component from cocoon shell silk sericin of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The cocoon shell of the silkworm Bombyx mori consists of silk fibroin fiber (70%) surrounded by a sericin layer made up of sericin (25%) and non-sericin (5%) components. The non-sericin component which consists of carbohydrate, salt, wax, flavonoids and derivatives is often overlooked in applied research into sericin and its hydrolysate. Here, sericin and non-sericin compounds were obtained from the sericin layer of five types of cocoon shell by means of degumming in water followed by extraction and separation in ethanol. These ethanol extracts were found to mainly contain flavonoids and free amino acids possessing scavenging activities of the 2,2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting activities of tyrosinase, which were much greater than the corresponding activities of the purified sericin proteins. The extracts also strongly inhibited ?-glucosidase while the sericins had no such activity. In particular, the inhibitory activities of the ethanol extract of Daizo cocoons were much greater than those of the other cocoons. The IC(50) values of the Daizo cocoons for DPPH free radicals, tyrosinase, and ?-glucosidase were 170, 27, and 110 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The bioactivities of the non-sericin component were much higher than the activity of sericin alone. In addition, the in vivo test showed preliminarily that the administration of the non-sericin component had effectively resistant activity against streptozocin (STZ) oxidation and that of the purified sericin could also evidently decrease the induction ratio of diabetic mice induced by STZ. Therefore, ethanol extract protocols of the sericin layer of cocoon shells provide a novel stock which, together with sericin protein, has potential uses in functional food, biotechnological and medical applications. PMID:22101964

Wang, Hai-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Jing; Zhou, Li-Xia; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2012-02-01

427

Repression of tyrosine hydroxylase is responsible for the sex-linked chocolate mutation of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Pigmentation patterning has long interested biologists, integrating topics in ecology, development, genetics, and physiology. Wild-type neonatal larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are completely black. By contrast, the epidermis and head of larvae of the homozygous recessive sex-linked chocolate (sch) mutant are reddish brown. When incubated at 30 degrees C, mutants with the sch allele fail to hatch; moreover, homozygous mutants carrying the allele sch lethal (sch(l)) do not hatch even at room temperature (25 degrees C). By positional cloning, we narrowed a region containing sch to 239,622 bp on chromosome 1 using 4,501 backcross (BC1) individuals. Based on expression analyses, the best sch candidate gene was shown to be tyrosine hydroxylase (BmTh). BmTh coding sequences were identical among sch, sch(l), and wild-type. However, in sch the approximately 70-kb sequence was replaced with approximately 4.6 kb of a Tc1-mariner type transposon located approximately 6 kb upstream of BmTh, and in sch(l), a large fragment of an L1Bm retrotransposon was inserted just in front of the transcription start site of BmTh. In both cases, we observed a drastic reduction of BmTh expression. Use of RNAi with BmTh prevented pigmentation and hatching, and feeding of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor also suppressed larval pigmentation in the wild-type strain, pnd(+) and in a pS (black-striped) heterozygote. Feeding L-dopa to sch neonate larvae rescued the mutant phenotype from chocolate to black. Our results indicate the BmTh gene is responsible for the sch mutation, which plays an important role in melanin synthesis producing neonatal larval color. PMID:20615980

Liu, Chun; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Narukawa, Junko; Liu, Shi-Ping; Han, Yu; Futahashi, Ryo; Kidokoro, Kurako; Noda, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Tamura, Toshiki; Ohnuma, Akio; Banno, Yutaka; Dai, Fang-Ying; Xiang, Zhong-Huai; Goldsmith, Marian R; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

2010-07-20

428

Identification of Key Uric Acid Synthesis Pathway in a Unique Mutant Silkworm Bombyx mori Model of Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Plasma uric acid (UA) levels decrease following clinical progression and stage development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying decreases in plasma UA levels remain unclear, and the potential to apply mutagenesis to a PD model has not previously been discovered. We identified a unique mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori (B.mori) op. Initially, we investigated the causality of the phenotypic “op” by microarray analysis using our constructed KAIKO functional annotation pipeline. Consequently, we found a novel UA synthesis-modulating pathway, from DJ-1 to xanthine oxidase, and established methods for large-scale analysis of gene expression in B. mori. We found that the mRNA levels of genes in this pathway were significantly lower in B. mori op mutants, indicating that downstream events in the signal transduction cascade might be prevented. Additionally, levels of B.mori tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DJ-1 mRNA were significantly lower in the brain of B. mori op mutants. UA content was significantly lower in the B. mori op mutant tissues and hemolymph. The possibility that the B. mori op mutant might be due to loss of DJ-1 function was supported by the observed vulnerability to oxidative stress. These results suggest that UA synthesis, transport, elimination and accumulation are decreased by environmental oxidative stress in the B. mori op mutant. In the case of B. mori op mutants, the relatively low availability of UA appears to be due both to the oxidation of DJ-1 and to its expenditure to mitigate the effects of environmental oxidative stress. Our findings are expected to provide information needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of decreased plasma UA levels in the clinical stage progression of PD. PMID:23894418

Tabunoki, Hiroko; Ono, Hiromasa; Ode, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawana, Natsuki; Banno, Yutaka; Shimada, Toru; Nakamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Satoh, Jun-ichi; Bono, Hidemasa

2013-01-01

429

Functional and pharmacological characterization of a beta-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nervous tissues of silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae. Sequence analysis indicated that the gene is an ortholog of CG6989, which encodes a Drosophila beta-adrenergic-like octopamine (OA) receptor (DmOct beta 2R). As very little information is available regarding this class of receptors, we generated a cell line that stably expressed the gene in HEK-293 cells and we then performed functional and pharmacological studies of this receptor. [(3)H]OA-binding assays using membrane preparations of this cell line showed that the receptor possesses a higher affinity for OA than for tyramine (TA) or dopamine (DA). The cell line elicited a bell-shaped, OA concentration-dependent increase in intracellular cAMP levels, with a maximum at 100 nM. (R)-OA was more potent than (S)-OA. TA and DA had weak or marginal effects on cAMP production. The OA receptor agonist demethylchlordimeform elicited a similar biphasic response, although the maximum response was attained at a concentration as low as 1 nM. The rank order of potency of other agonists was as follows: naphazoline > tolazoline, clonidine. Among the antagonists tested, only chlorpromazine significantly attenuated the OA-induced increase in cAMP levels. No increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels was observed with OA at concentrations up to 100 microM. These findings indicate that the cloned receptor is a beta-adrenergic-like OA receptor with unique functional and pharmacological properties. PMID:20417278

Chen, Xi; Ohta, Hiroto; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Miyazawa, Kazuya; Huang, Jia; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

2010-06-01

430

Effects of Restoring Oak Savannas on Bird Communities and Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to restore and maintain oak savannas in North America, with emphasis on the use of pre- scribed fire, have become common. Little is known, however, about how restoration affects animal populations, especially those of birds. I compared the breeding densities, community structure, and reproductive success of birds in oak savannas maintained by prescribed fire (12 sites) with those in

JEFFREY D. BRAWN

2006-01-01

431

Sudden Oak Death: Recent Developments on Trees in Europe1  

E-print Network

obliqua (Southern beech), Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chestnut) and Acer pseudoplatanus (European Webber2 , and Anna Brown2 Key words: beech trees, Cornwall, distribution, Netherlands, oak, Phytophthora. In October 2003, a single Q. falcata (southern red oak) with girdling bleeding stem lesions from ground level

Standiford, Richard B.

432

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

NONE

1995-09-01

433

INFLUENCE OF FIRE ON MAMMALS IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of small mammals, little research has been conducted in eastern oak forests on the influence of fire on mammals. Several studies have documented little or no change in relative abundance or community measures for non-volant small mammals in eastern oak (Quercus spp.) forests following fires despite reductions in leaf litter, small woody debris, and changes in understory

Patrick D. Keyser; W. Mark Ford

434

Geographic structure of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms in European oaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast DNA polymorphisms have been detected by the conventional Southern-blotting hybridization method in four species of European oaks (Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. pyrenaica). Three polymorphisms, shared by at least three of these species, can be scored directly in ethidium bromidestained gels and were used in a broad survey of the level of differentiation of the oak

R. J. Petit; A. Kremer; D. B. Wagner

1993-01-01

435

Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.

McMaster, Robert T.

2004-01-01

436

Revising the South Oaks Gambling Screen in different settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a validated, reliable instrument for detecting gambling problems, and the South Oaks Leisure Activities Screen (SOLAS), a companion screening tool for use with significant others, have been employed in a variety of settings and in several languages. This paper focuses on adapting the SOGS for use in various cultures and localities, discusses the authors'

Henry R. Lesieur; Sheila B. Blume

1993-01-01

437

Original article Litter fall and nutrient turnover in Kermes oak  

E-print Network

Original article Litter fall and nutrient turnover in Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) shrublands; accepted 26 November 1997) Abstract - Litter fall has been measured in three Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera, and showed litter fall peaks in May. Leaf litter was the most important source of nutrient return to the soil

Boyer, Edmond

438

Original article Improvement and silviculture of oaks in Hungary  

E-print Network

Original article Improvement and silviculture of oaks in Hungary R Solymos Forest Research, but also an indigenous structural part of stable forest ecosystems. valuable oak I stand model I mixed sessiliflora, Q robur, Q cerris). They form mixed stands, most frequently with hornbeam (Carpinus betulus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

Explosive growth in sudden oak death Peter Fimrite  

E-print Network

death, discovered in Mill Valley in 1995, exists in forests and wildlands in 14 California counties1 of 6 TweetTweet 31 123 Like 3 Explosive growth in sudden oak death Peter Fimrite Published 11 believed to have been killed by sudden oak death in Golden Gate Park. The disease has spread throughout

California at Berkeley, University of

440

Original article Element analysis of tree rings in pedunculate oak  

E-print Network

Original article Element analysis of tree rings in pedunculate oak heartwood: an indicator chemistry, it could be interesting to determine the mineral content of the successive annual tree rings affected the forest studied between 1938 and 1967. Finally, tree-ring analysis of oak heartwood appeared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Sudden oak death drying up with drought Peter Fimrite  

E-print Network

that causes sudden oak death. Photo: Michael Macor, The Chronicle | Buy this photo The California drought1 of 4 Tweet 19 72 Like 0 Sudden oak death drying up with drought Peter Fimrite Updated 10:45 pm show an infection rate of between 2 and 10 percent of California bay laurel trees tested in 17 western

California at Berkeley, University of

442

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Policy on Research Integrity  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Policy on Research Integrity All researchers performing research for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) must conform to the highest standards scientific integrity This policy applies to the following individuals, who are referred to as ORNL Staff: Investigators employed

443

SNS Experimental Facilities Oak Ridge1 SNS Project Overview  

E-print Network

Facilities Oak Ridge10 Potential Pitting Problem Addressed in Recent Tests · Pitting of stainless steel TTF · Wettability · Design data for target window · Corrosion/erosion test MTHL #12;SNS Experimental Site #12;SNS Experimental Facilities Oak Ridge5 The Accelerator Configuration will include a Super

McDonald, Kirk

444

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

- Characterize/quantify microstructural changes and relation to the performance loss in PEMFCs upon use in a fuel.g. Nafion content, catalyst particle type, catalyst ink application, etc. #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LANL PEMFC without sulfuric acid boiling step #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S

445

Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought  

E-print Network

Note Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought C Collet JM Guehl 1 �quipe-year-old sessile oak seedlings were submitted to drought developed at two different rates (0.050 and 0.013 MPa·day-1).Drought was controlled by combining levels of irrigation and grass competition. At the end

Boyer, Edmond

446

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

#12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Water is a fundamental component of the natural ecosystems upon which society depends for the delivery of vital goods and services. Water1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Scientists at the ORNL Throughfall

447

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia an interim report  

E-print Network

Dendrochronology of oak (Quercus spp.) in Slovenia ­ an interim report K. Cufar1 , M. Zupancic1 , L dendrochronology in Slovenia, a region that was until recently considered sub-optimal for the assembly of an oak and dendrochronology. Currently, several multi- millennial chronologies of different tree species are in existence

Cufar, Katarina

448

Appendix B. Climate Overview of the Oak Ridge Area  

E-print Network

somewhat during the 2000s. Additionally, some evidence exists that human-induced climate change may to dominate the weather and may continue until April or May. Decadal-scale climate change has recentlyAppendix B. Climate Overview of the Oak Ridge Area #12;#12;Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site

Pennycook, Steve

449

The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron Refurbishment Project  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) has been in operation for nearly fifty years at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Presently, it serves as the driver accelerator for the ORNL Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), where radioactive ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separation Online (ISOL) technique for post-acceleration by the 25URC tandem electrostatic accelerator. Operability and reliability of ORIC are critical issues for the success of HRIBF and have presented increasingly difficult operational challenges for the facility in recent years. In February 2010, a trim coil failure rendered ORIC inoperable for several months. This presented HRIBF with the opportunity to undertake various repairs and maintenance upgrades aimed at restoring the full functionality of ORIC and improving the reliability to a level better than what had been typical over the previous decade. In this paper, we present details of these efforts, including the replacement of the entire trim coil set and measurements of their radial field profile. Comparison of measurements and operating tune parameters with setup code predictions will also be presented.

Mendez, II, Anthony J [ORNL; Ball, James B [ORNL; Dowling, Darryl T [ORNL; Mosko, Sigmund W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL

2011-01-01

450

White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

Ahmed, S.B.

1994-01-01