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1

Isolation and partial characterization of chromoprotein from the larval hemolymph of the Japanese oak silkworm ( Antheraea yamamai)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of two different hemolymph proteins (designated P-I and P-II) of the Japanese oak silkworm, Antheraea yamamai, were purified from the hemolymph of the fifth instar larvae using four chromatographic steps: (a) hydrophobic interaction chromatography; (b) ion exchange chromatography; (c) gel-filtration; and (d) reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These two proteins were separated by TSKgel Phenyl-5PW RP column

Hitoshi Saito; Hiromi Yamada; Yoshiomi Kato

1998-01-01

2

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: Process Optimization and Composition Determination  

PubMed Central

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO2. Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and ?-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively. PMID:22408458

Pan, Wen-Juan; Liao, Ai-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Zeng; Wei, Zhao-Jun

2012-01-01

3

Molecular cloning and characterization of two 12 kDa FK506-binding protein genes in the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Two 12 kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) genes were isolated and characterized from Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi , an important agricultural and edible insect, designated ApFKBP12 A and B, respectively. Both ApFKBP12 A and B contained 108 amino acids with 82% sequence identity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FKBP12 B sequences of A. pernyi, Bombyx mori , and Danaus plexippus were clearly separated from FKBP12 A sequences of these three species, suggesting that insect FKBP12 A and B may have been evolving independently. RT-PCR analyses revealed that two ApFKBP12 genes were expressed during the four developmental stages and in all tested tissues, and that the mRNA expression level of the ApFKBP12 A gene was significantly higher than that of the ApFKBP12 B gene. After heat shock treatment, expressions of the two FKBP12 genes were up-regulated, but at different time points. The results suggested that each paralogue of the FKBP12 genes may play a distinct functional role in the development of A. pernyi. PMID:23617895

Chen, Mo; Chen, Miao-Miao; Yao, Rui; Li, Yan; Wang, Huan; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yan-Qun

2013-05-15

4

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AN APOLIPOPHORIN-III GENE FROM THE CHINESE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE).  

PubMed

Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3'-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi. PMID:25348706

Liu, Qiu-Ning; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Yang, Lin-Nan; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Dong-Ran; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

2015-03-01

5

Diapause-Associated Protein3 Functions as Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in the Chinese Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi)  

PubMed Central

To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying of diapause in Antheraea pernyi (A.pernyi), we cloned a novel diapause-associated protein 3 (DAP3) gene from A.pernyi by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and studied the biological functions. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene encodes 171 amino acids and has a conserved domain of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD). Western blot and qRT-PCR results showed that DAP3 was mainly expressed in the pupal stage, and gradually decreased as diapause development. DAP3 was also expressed in 1st and 5th instar larvae of A.pernyi. In tissues of 5th instar larvae of A.pernyi, DAP3 was mainly expressed in the epidermis, followed by the head, hemolymph and fat body. To identify the SOD activity of DAP3, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector by inserting the coding region sequence into plasmid pET-28a (+) and obtained the purified rHIS-DAP3 fusion protein by Ni-NTA affinitive column. Importantly, we found the SOD activity of DAP3 fusion protein was approximately 0.6674 U/µg. To further confirm the SOD activity of DAP3 in vivo, we induced the oxidative stress model of pupae by UV irradiation. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein level of DAP3 significantly increased by UV irradiation. Furthermore, the SOD activity of the total lysate of pupae increased significantly at 10 min post UV irradiation and transiently returned to normal level afterwards. These results suggested that DAP3 might be a novel protein with SOD activity getting involved in regulation of diapause in A.pernyi. PMID:24613963

Yu, Wei; Shu, Jianhong; Zhang, Yaozhou

2014-01-01

6

Purification, characterization and immunolocalization of a novel protease inhibitor from hemolymph of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta.  

PubMed

A novel serine protease inhibitor (AmPI) was purified from larval hemolymph of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta by two-step process of trypsin-affinity and gel-filtration (FPLC) chromatography. AmPI was active against larval midgut and commercial bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. The extent of purification was determined by SDS and Native PAGE. The protease inhibitor had an apparent molecular weight of approximately 14.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Its activity was stable over a pH range of 4.5-9 and temperatures range of 4-65 degrees C. Molecular weight as determined by MALDITOF-MS was between 13241.63 and 13261.66 Da. MS profile of AmPI also suggests two isoforms of AmPI because of glycosylation by heptose (C(7)H(14)O(7)). This confirmed the result of Native PAGE showing two bands. N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein did not show similarity to any known protease inhibitor. To study the functional implications of AmPI in insect, it was localized in insect body tissue of different larval instars by immunogold labeling technique using GAR-gold conjugate as secondary antibody. The pattern of localization suggests constitutive nature of AmPI, which may have role in insect's defense mechanism. PMID:19723549

Rai, Shruti; Aggarwal, K K; Mitra, B; Das, T K; Babu, C R

2010-03-01

7

Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury  

PubMed Central

The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2012-01-01

8

Analysis of Transcripts Expressed in One-Day-Old Larvae and Fifth Instar Silk Glands of Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

Antheraea mylitta is one of the wild nonmulberry silkworms, which produces tasar silk. An EST project has been undertaken to understand the gene expression profile of A. mylitta silk gland. Two cDNA libraries, one from the whole bodies of one-day-old larvae and the other from the silkglands of fifth instar larvae, were constructed and sequenced. A total of 2476 good-quality ESTs (1239 clones) were obtained and grouped into 648 clusters containing 390 contigs and 258 singletons to represent 467 potential unigenes. Forty-five sequences contained putative coding region, and represented potentially novel genes. Among the 648 clusters, 241 were categorized according to Gene Ontology hierarchy and showed presence of several silk and immune-related genes. The A. mylitta ESTs have been organized into a freely available online database “AmyBASE”. These data provide an initial insight into the A. mylitta transcriptome and help to understand the molecular mechanism of silk protein production in a Lepidopteran species. PMID:20454581

Maity, Samita; Goel, Sagar I.; Roy, Sobhan; Ghorai, Suvankar; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Venugopalan, Aravind; Ghosh, Ananta K.

2010-01-01

9

Morphology and Histology of Lyonet's Gland of the Tropical Tasar Silkworm, Antheraea mylitta  

PubMed Central

The morphology and histology of Lyonet's gland in the second to fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) are described. Each of the paired silk glands of this silk worm were associated with a Lyonet's gland. The paired Lyonet's glands were located on the ventrolateral sides of the esophagus, close to the subesophageal ganglion. Whole mount and SEM observations revealed that each Lyonet's gland consisted of a rosette of glandular mass, and a short narrow tubular duct opening into the anterior part of the silk gland (ASG), close to the common excretory duct. In each instar, these glands were unequal in size. The glandular mass was innervated by fine nerves from the subesophageal ganglion, suggesting a neural control for the glandular activity. The glandular mass was made up of clustered long cells wrapped by a thin basal lamina, which was continuous over the non-secretory low columnar cells of the Lyonet's gland duct and ASG. The narrow bases of long cells of each glandular mass led into the lumen of the duct of the gland. Histochemical analysis of fully developed Lyonet's gland showed clustered lipid granules in the gland cells. PMID:23451934

Patra, Sudip; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Raziuddin, Mohammad

2012-01-01

10

Silkworms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworm moths lay eggs to reproduce. The eggs hatch into silkworm larvae. The larvae spin silk cocoons and use them as they change from larvae to silkworm moths. Silkworm larvae exclusively eat mulberry leaves and their cocoons are used by human to make silk products such as silk fabric.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

11

Foliage of oaks grown under elevated CO2 reduces performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).  

PubMed

To understand how the increase in atmospheric CO2 from human activity may affect leaf damage by forest insects, we examined host plant preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. Larvae were fed leaves from Quercus alba L. and Quercus velutina Lam. grown under ambient or plus 200 microl/liter CO2 using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE). Lower digestibility of foliage, greater protein precipitation capacity in frass, and lower nitrogen concentration of larvae indicate that growth under elevated CO2 reduced the food quality of oak leaves for caterpillars. Consuming leaves of either oak species grown under elevated CO2 slowed the rate of development of A. polyphemus larvae. When given a choice, A. polyphemus larvae preferred Q. velutina leaves grown under ambient CO2; feeding on foliage of this species grown under elevated CO2 led to reduced consumption, slower growth, and greater mortality. Larvae compensated for the lower digestibility of Q. alba leaves grown under elevated CO2 by increasing the efficiency of conversion of ingested food into larval mass. Despite equivalent consumption rates, larvae grew larger when they consumed Q. alba leaves grown under elevated compared with ambient CO2. Reduced consumption, slower growth rates, and increased mortality of insect larvae may explain lower total leaf damage observed previously in plots in this forest exposed to elevated CO2. By subtly altering aspects of leaf chemistry, the ever-increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will change the trophic dynamics in forest ecosystems. PMID:17540072

Knepp, Rachel G; Hamilton, Jason G; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

2007-06-01

12

Genetic Characterization of a Novel Iflavirus Associated with Vomiting Disease in the Chinese Oak Silkmoth Antheraea pernyi  

PubMed Central

Larvae of the Chinese oak silkmoth (Antheraea pernyi) are often affected by AVD (A. pernyi vomiting disease), whose causative agent has long been suspected to be a virus. In an unrelated project we discovered a novel positive sense single-stranded RNA virus that could reproduce AVD symptoms upon injection into healthy A. pernyi larvae. The genome of this virus is 10,163 nucleotides long, has a natural poly-A tail, and contains a single, large open reading frame flanked at the 5? and 3? ends by untranslated regions containing putative structural elements for replication and translation of the virus genome. The open reading frame is predicted to encode a 3036 amino acid polyprotein with four viral structural proteins (VP1-VP4) located in the N-terminal end and the non-structural proteins, including a helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and 3C-protease, located in the C-terminal end of the polyprotein. Putative 3C-protease and autolytic cleavage sites were identified for processing the polyprotein into functional units. The genome organization, amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the virus is a novel species of the genus Iflavirus, with the proposed name of Antheraea pernyi Iflavirus (ApIV). PMID:24637949

Lin, Lan; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Emrich, Scott; An, Lijia; Terenius, Olle

2014-01-01

13

Studies on the Influence of Host Plants and Effect of Chemical Stimulants on the Feeding Behavior in the Muga Silkworm, Antheraea assamensis  

PubMed Central

The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polhantha Jussieu, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound ?-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. PMID:22243364

Neog, Kartik; Unni, Balagopalan; Ahmed, Giasuddin

2011-01-01

14

Silkworm cocoons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae spin silk cocoons to live in while they go through metamorphosis. They change from silkworm larvae into white silk moths. The silk cocoons are valuable to humans and can be made into silk fabric.

Roman Neumüller (None;)

2006-07-05

15

Silkworm moths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm moths are the adult form of silkworm larvae. They emerge from the silk cocoons to mate. Mating is their only purpose and they do not eat or drink water. The females will lay hundreds of tiny white eggs.

Gerd A.T. Müller (None;)

2002-05-18

16

Silkworm larvae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silkworm larvae hatch from eggs. They have 13 segments, split up into the head, thorax, and abdomen regions. The walking legs are on the thorax region and the prolegs are on the abdomen region. The larvae have a false eye on one of the segments to appear larger, spiracles on each segment to breathe through, and spinnerets to spin silk with near the head.

Ma?gorzata Mi?aszewska (None;)

2007-08-04

17

PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO2 Reduces Performance of  

E-print Network

,weexaminedhostplantpreferenceandlarvalperformanceofageneralist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. LarvaePLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Foliage of Oaks Grown Under Elevated CO2 Reduces Performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) RACHEL G. KNEPP,1 JASON G. HAMILTON,2 ARTHUR R. ZANGERL,3 MAY R

DeLucia, Evan H.

18

Nucleation of hydroxyapatite on Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin film.  

PubMed

Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk fibroin, which is spun from a wild silkworm, has increasingly attracted interest in the field of tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on A. pernyi fibroin film. Von Kossa staining proved that A. pernyi fibroin had Ca binding activity. The A. pernyi fibroin film was mineralized with HAp crystals by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate solutions. Spherical crystals were nucleated on the A. pernyi fibroin film according to scanning electron microscopeimaging results. The FT-IR and X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed that these spherical crystals were HAp. The results of in vitro cell culture using MG-63 cells demonstrated that the mineralized A. pernyi fibroin film showed excellent cytocompatibility and sound improvement of the MG-63 cellviability. PMID:24211958

Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Mandal, Namita; Zhu, Liangjun

2014-01-01

19

Silkworm life cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adult silkworms lay eggs to reproduce. Silkworm larvae hatch from these eggs. The larvae constantly eat only one thing- mulberry leaves. The larvae will spin silk cocoons for metamorphosis. The adults mate after emerging from the cocoon and the female will lay many small eggs.

Hubert Ludwig (None;)

2004-11-27

20

Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo degradations of silk fibroin scaffolds from mulberry and nonmulberry silkworms.  

PubMed

Degradation behavior is very important in the field of silk-based biomaterials. Mulberry and nonmulberry silk fibroins are structurally and functionally distinguishable; however, no studies have examined the differences in the degradation behaviors of silk materials from various silkworm species. In this study, Ca(NO3)2 was used as a uniform solvent to obtain regenerated mulberry and nonmulberry (Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai) silk fibroin (SF) solutions, and the degradation behaviors of various SF scaffolds were examined. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that regenerated mulberry SF scaffolds exhibited significantly higher mass loss and free amino acid content release than did nonmulberry SF scaffolds. The differences in the primary structures and condensed structures between mulberry and nonmulberry SF contributed to the significant difference in degradation rates, in which the characteristic (-Ala-)n repeats, compact crystal structure and high ?-helix and ?-sheet contents make nonmulberry SF more resistant than mulberry SF to enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai SFs possess similar primary structures and condensed structures, although a slight difference in degradation was observed; this difference might depend on the differences in molecular weight following the regeneration process. The results indicate that the original sources of SF significantly influence the degradation rates of SF-based materials; therefore, the original sources of SF should be fully considered for preparing tissue engineering scaffolds with matched degradation rates. PMID:25532470

You, Renchuan; Xu, Yamei; Liu, Yi; Li, Xiufang; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

21

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Indian Golden Silkmoth (Antheraea assama)  

PubMed Central

Background The Indian golden saturniid silkmoth (Antheraea assama), popularly known as muga silkmoth, is a semi-domesticated silk producing insect confined to a narrow habitat range of the northeastern region of India. Owing to the prevailing socio-political problems, the muga silkworm habitats in the northeastern region have not been accessible hampering the phylogeography studies of this rare silkmoth. Recently, we have been successful in our attempt to collect muga cocoon samples, although to a limited extent, from their natural habitats. Out of 87 microsatellite markers developed previously for A. assama, 13 informative markers were employed to genotype 97 individuals from six populations and analyzed their population structure and genetic variation. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed highly significant genetic diversity in one of the populations (WWS-1, a population derived from West Garo Hills region of Meghalaya state). Further analysis with and without WWS-1 population revealed that dramatic genetic differentiation (global FST?=?0.301) was due to high genetic diversity contributed by WWS-1 population. Analysis of the remaining five populations (excluding WWS-1) showed a marked reduction in the number of alleles at all the employed loci. Structure analysis showed the presence of only two clusters: one formed by WWS-1 population and the other included the remaining five populations, inferring that there is no significant genetic diversity within and between these five populations, and suggesting that these five populations are probably derived from a single population. Patterns of recent population bottlenecks were not evident in any of the six populations studied. Conclusions/Significance A. assama inhabiting the WWS-1 region revealed very high genetic diversity, and was genetically divergent from the five populations studied. The efforts should be continued to identify and study such populations from this region as well as other muga silkworm habitats. The information generated will be very useful in conservation of dwindling muga culture in Northeast India. PMID:22952746

Arunkumar, Kallare P.; Sahu, Anup Kumar; Mohanty, Atish Ranjan; Awasthi, Arvind K.; Pradeep, Appukuttannair R.; Urs, S. Raje; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2012-01-01

22

Ligand binding to six recombinant pheromone-binding proteins of Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Binding properties of six heterologously expressed pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) identified in the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi were studied using tritium-labelled pheromone components, ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate ((3)H-Ac1) and ( E, Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal ((3)H-Ald), common to both species. In addition, a known ligand of PBP and inhibitor of pheromone receptor cells, the tritium-labelled esterase inhibitor decyl-thio-1,1,1-trifluoropropanone ((3)H-DTFP), was tested. The binding of ligands was measured after native gel electrophoresis and cutting gel slices. In both species, PBP1 and PBP3 showed binding of (3)H-Ac1. In competition experiments with (3)H-Ac1 and the third unlabelled pheromone component, ( E, Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate (Ac2), the PBP1 showed preferential binding of Ac1, whereas PBP3 preferentially bound Ac2. The PBP2 of both species bound (3)H-Ald only. All of the six PBPs strongly bound (3)H-DTFP. Among unlabelled pheromone derivatives, alcohols were revealed to be the best competitors for (3)H-Ac1 and (3)H-Ald bound to PBPs. No pH influence was found for (3)H-Ac1 binding to, or its release from, the PBP3 of A. polyphemus and A. pernyi between pH 4.0 and pH 7.5. The data indicate binding preference of each of the three PBP-subtypes (1-3) for a specific pheromone component and support the idea that PBPs contribute to odour discrimination, although to a smaller extent than receptor activation. PMID:12879348

Maida, R; Ziegelberger, G; Kaissling, K-E

2003-09-01

23

Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees). Results Our comparative genomics analysis show that the N. bombycis genome has greatly expanded due to the following three molecular mechanisms: 1) the proliferation of host-derived transposable elements, 2) the acquisition of many horizontally transferred genes from bacteria, and 3) the production of abundnant gene duplications. To our knowledge, duplicated genes derived not only from small-scale events (e.g., tandem duplications) but also from large-scale events (e.g., segmental duplications) have never been seen so abundant in any reported microsporidia genomes. Our relative dating analysis further indicated that these duplication events have arisen recently over very short evolutionary time. Furthermore, several duplicated genes involving in the cytotoxic metabolic pathway were found to undergo positive selection, suggestive of the role of duplicated genes on the adaptive evolution of pathogenic ability. Conclusions Genome expansion is rarely considered as the evolutionary outcome acting on those highly reduced and compact parasitic microsporidian genomes. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the parasitic genomes can expand, instead of shrink, through several common molecular mechanisms such as gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and transposable element expansion. We also showed that the duplicated genes can serve as raw materials for evolutionary innovations possibly contributing to the increase of pathologenic ability. Based on our research, we propose that duplicated genes of N. bombycis should be treated as primary targets for treatment designs against pébrine. PMID:23496955

2013-01-01

24

Materials: Surprising strength of silkworm silk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial silkworm silk is presumed to be much weaker and less extensible than spider dragline silk, which has been hailed as a 'super-fibre'. But we show here that the mechanical properties of silkworm silks can approach those of spider dragline silk when reeled under controlled conditions. We suggest that silkworms might be able to produce threads that compare well with spider silk by changing their spinning habits, rather than by having their silk genes altered.

Shao, Zhengzhong; Vollrath, Fritz

2002-08-01

25

Molecular characterization of genome segments 1 and 3 encoding two capsid proteins of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

PubMed Central

Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV), a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects Indian non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains 11 segmented double stranded RNA (S1-S11) in its genome. Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11) have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. Results In this study genome segments 1 (S1) and 3 (S3) of AmCPV were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV), Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV), and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV (DpCPV). The ORFs of S1 and S3 were expressed as 141 kDa and 137 kDa insoluble His-tagged fusion proteins, respectively, in Escherichia coli M15 cells via pQE-30 vector, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of purified polyhedra, virion particles and virus infected mid-gut cells with the raised anti-p137 and anti-p141 antibodies showed specific immunoreactive bands and suggest that S1 and S3 may code for viral structural proteins. Expression of S1 and S3 ORFs in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants showed to produce viral like particles (VLPs) by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogold staining showed that S3 encoded proteins self assembled to form viral outer capsid and VLPs maintained their stability at different pH in presence of S1 encoded protein. Conclusion Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S1 and S3 indicate that S3 encoded viral structural proteins can self assemble to form viral outer capsid and S1 encoded protein remains associated with it as inner capsid to maintain the stability. Further studies will help to understand the molecular mechanism of capsid formation during cypovirus replication. PMID:20684765

2010-01-01

26

ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

27

Homologues of fibroin L-chain and P25 of Bombyx mori are present in Dendrolimus spectabilis and Papilio xuthus but not detectable in Antheraea yamamai.  

PubMed

Low molecular mass protein components of fibroin, whose electrophoretic patterns before and after the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds were similar to those of L-chain and P25 of Bombyx mori, were identified in fibroin samples of Bombyx mandarina, Dendrolimus spectabilis and Papilio xuthus but not of Antheraea yamamai. Fibroin of A. yamamai is suggested to form a dimer of H-chain. Full length cDNA sequences were cloned for the homologues of L-chain and P25 from B. mandarina, D. spectabilis and P. xuthus. The deduced sequences of L-chain and P25 of B. mandarina are almost identical to those of B. mori, each containing a single amino acid change. Homologues of L-chain and P25 of D. spectabilis and P. xuthus show about 50% overall identity, respectively, with those of B. mori, but essential structural features; i.e. the three Cys residues in an L-chain and the eight Cys residues and one of the potential N-glycosylation sites in P25, are conserved in both species. These results, together with the published results for Galleria mellonella, suggest that the three-components (H-chain, L-chain and P25) complex of fibroin is rather common among Lepidopteran silk-producing insects, in contrast to the H-H dimer type found in the saturnid silkworm. PMID:11267905

Tanaka, K; Mizuno, S

2001-04-27

28

Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus with Homology to the CD36 Family of  

E-print Network

Snmp-1, a Novel Membrane Protein of Olfactory Neurons of the Silk Moth Antheraea polyphemus of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. The morphology of the A

Vogt, Richard G.

29

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of a spider silk manufacturing process is of great interest. piggyBac vectors were used to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk prote...

30

Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm.  

PubMed

Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2014-09-01

31

Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infection in silkworm  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects. PMID:25249781

Zha, Xingfu; Zhang, Wenji; Zhou, Chunyan; Zhang, Liying; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

32

Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.  

PubMed

Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling ;clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal multiple times in quick succession, producing trains that last over 1 min and include 50-55 clicks. Individual clicks within a train are on average 24.7 ms in duration, often consisting of multiple components. Clicks are audible in a quiet room, measuring 58.1-78.8 dB peSPL at 10 cm. They exhibit a broadband frequency that extends into the ultrasound spectrum, with most energy between 8 and 18 kHz. Our hypothesis that clicks function as acoustic aposematic signals, was supported by several lines of evidence. Experiments with forceps and domestic chicks correlated sound production with attack, and an increase in attack rate was positively correlated with the number of signals produced. In addition, sound production typically preceded or accompanied defensive regurgitation. Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. The prevalence and adaptive significance of warning sounds in caterpillars is discussed. PMID:17337712

Brown, Sarah G; Boettner, George H; Yack, Jayne E

2007-03-01

33

CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROPHENOLOXIDASE FROM Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Prophenoloxidase (PPO) is an essential enzyme in insect innate immunity because of its role in humoral defense. In this study, we have cloned a full-length cDNA of Antheraea pernyi prophenoloxidase (ApPPO) with an open-reading frame encoding 683 amino acids, and the deduced amino acid sequence of ApPPO exhibited a high similarity with those of lepidoptera. The expression of ApPPO was inducible so that the mRNA level was significantly upregulated in the microbial challenged tissues, including fat body, hemocytes, and midgut. To better investigate the enzymatic and immunological properties of ApPPO, recombinant ApPPO (rApPPO) was produced in Escherichia coli. Several functional verification experiments were performed after studying the enzymatic properties. It was found that rApPPO could be stimulated by the microbial challenged larvae hemolymph and then killed bacteria in the radial diffusion assay. Furthermore, rApPPO also induced the transcription of cecropins after injected into the larvae 24 h later. PMID:25521627

Lu, Wang Xia; Yue, Du; Hai, Zhang Jing; Daihua, Wen; Yi, Zhao Ming; Fu, Wu Chun; Rong, Zhang

2015-01-01

34

Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house  

SciTech Connect

The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

1980-01-01

35

Silkworms transformed with chimeric silkworm/spider silk genes spin composite silk fibers with improved mechanical properties  

PubMed Central

The development of a spider silk-manufacturing process is of great interest. However, there are serious problems with natural manufacturing through spider farming, and standard recombinant protein production platforms have provided limited progress due to their inability to assemble spider silk proteins into fibers. Thus, we used piggyBac vectors to create transgenic silkworms encoding chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins. The silk fibers produced by these animals were composite materials that included chimeric silkworm/spider silk proteins integrated in an extremely stable manner. Furthermore, these composite fibers were, on average, tougher than the parental silkworm silk fibers and as tough as native dragline spider silk fibers. These results demonstrate that silkworms can be engineered to manufacture composite silk fibers containing stably integrated spider silk protein sequences, which significantly improve the overall mechanical properties of the parental silkworm silk fibers. PMID:22215590

Teulé, Florence; Miao, Yun-Gen; Sohn, Bong-Hee; Kim, Young-Soo; Hull, J. Joe; Fraser, Malcolm J.; Lewis, Randolph V.; Jarvis, Donald L.

2012-01-01

36

Biomimetic nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals mediated by Antheraea pernyi silk sericin promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Biomacromolecules have been used as templates to grow hydroxyapatite crystals (HAps) by biomineralization to fabricate mineralized materials for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Silk sericin is a protein with features desirable as a biomaterial, such as increased hydrophilicity and biodegradation. Mineralization of the silk sericin from Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silkworm has rarely been reported. Here, for the first time, nucleation of HAps on A. pernyi silk sericin (AS) was attempted through a wet precipitation method and consequently the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on mineralized AS were investigated. It was found that AS mediated the nucleation of HAps in the form of nanoneedles while self-assembling into ?-sheet conformation, leading to the formation of a biomineralized protein based biomaterial. The cell viability assay of BMSCs showed that the mineralization of AS stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation, showing that the resultant AS biomaterial is biocompatible. The differentiation assay confirmed that the mineralized AS significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs when compared to nonmineralized AS as well as other types of sericin (B. mori sericin), suggesting that the resultant mineralized AS biomaterial has potential in promoting bone formation. This result represented the first work proving the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs directed by silk sericin. Therefore, the biomineralization of A. pernyi silk sericin coupled with seeding BMSCs on the resultant mineralized biomaterials is a useful strategy to develop the potential application of this unexplored silk sericin in the field of bone tissue engineering. This study lays the foundation for the use of A. pernyi silk sericin as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:24666022

Yang, Mingying; Shuai, Yajun; Zhang, Can; Chen, Yuyin; Zhu, Liangjun; Mao, Chuanbin; OuYang, Hongwei

2014-04-14

37

?-Fructofuranosidase Genes of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Mulberry latex contains extremely high concentrations of alkaloidal sugar mimic glycosidase inhibitors, such as 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (d-AB1) and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Although these compounds do not harm the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a mulberry specialist, they are highly toxic to insects that do not normally feed on mulberry leaves. d-AB1 and DNJ are strong inhibitors of ?-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.20); however, they do not affect the activity of?-fructofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.26). Although?-glucosidase genes are found in a wide range of organisms, ?-fructofuranosidase genes have not been identified in any animals so far. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of ?-fructofuranosidase genes (BmSuc1 and BmSuc2) from B. mori. The BmSuc1 gene was highly expressed in the midgut and silk gland, whereas the expression of BmSuc2 gene was not detected. BmSuc1 encodes a functional ?-fructofuranosidase, whose enzymatic activity was not inhibited by DNJ or d-AB1. We also showed that BmSUC1 protein localized within the midgut goblet cell cavities. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrated that BmSuc1 serves as a sugar-digesting enzyme in the silkworm physiology. This anomalous presence of the ?-fructofuranosidase gene in the B. mori genome may partly explain why the silkworm can circumvent the mulberry's defense system. PMID:18397891

Daimon, Takaaki; Taguchi, Tomohiro; Meng, Yan; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

2008-01-01

38

Three pheromone-binding proteins in olfactory sensilla of the two silkmoth species Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi.  

PubMed

Females of the sibling silkmoth species Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi use the same three sex pheromone components in different ratios to attract conspecific males. Accordingly, the sensory hairs on the antennae of males contain three receptor cells sensitive to each of the pheromone components. In agreement with the number of pheromones used, three different pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) could be identified in pheromone-sensitive hairs of both species by combining biochemical and molecular cloning techniques. MALDI-TOF MS of sensillum lymph droplets from pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of male A. polyphemus revealed the presence of three major peaks with m/z of 15702, 15752 and 15780 and two minor peaks of m/z 15963 and 15983. In Western blots with four antisera raised against different silkmoth odorant-binding proteins, immunoreactivity was found only with an anti-(Apol PBP) serum. Free-flow IEF, ion-exchange chromatography and Western blot analyses revealed at least three anti-(Apol PBP) immunoreactive proteins with pI values between 4.4 and 4.7. N-Terminal sequencing of these three proteins revealed two proteins (Apol PBP1a and Apol PBP1b) identical in the first 49 amino acids to the already known PBP (Apol PBP1) [Raming, K. , Krieger, J. & Breer, H. (1989) FEBS Lett. 256, 2215-2218] and a new PBP having only 57% identity with this amino-acid region. Screening of antennal cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the N-terminal end of the new A. polyphemus PBP, led to the discovery of full length clones encoding this protein in A. polyphemus (Apol PBP3) and in A. pernyi (Aper PBP3). By screening the antennal cDNA library of A. polyphemus with a digoxigenin-labelled A. pernyi PBP2 cDNA [Krieger, J., Raming, K. & Breer, H. (1991) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1088, 277-284] a homologous PBP (Apol PBP2) was cloned. Binding studies with the two main pheromone components of A. polyphemus and A. pernyi, the (E,Z)-6, 11-hexadecadienyl acetate (AC1) and the (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal (ALD), revealed that in A. polyphemus both Apol PBP1a and the new Apol PBP3 bound the 3H-labelled acetate, whereas no binding of the 3H-labelled aldehyde was found. In A. pernyi two PBPs from sensory hair homogenates showed binding affinity for the AC1 (Aper PBP1) and the ALD (Aper PBP2), respectively. PMID:10806387

Maida, R; Krieger, J; Gebauer, T; Lange, U; Ziegelberger, G

2000-05-01

39

Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science.  

PubMed

Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3-6 months). The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori shuttle vector, has eliminated the conventional tedious procedures required to identify and isolate recombinant viruses. Several technical improvements, including a cysteine protease or chitinase deletion bacmid and chaperone-assisted expression and coexpression, have led to significantly increased protein yields and reduced costs for large-scale production. Terminal N-acetyl glucosamine and galactose residues were found in the N-glycan structures produced by silkworms, which are different from those generated by insect cells. Genomic elucidation of silkworm has opened a new chapter in utilization of silkworm. Transgenic silkworm technology provides a stable production of recombinant protein. Baculovirus surface display expression is one of the low-cost approaches toward silkworm larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccines. The expression of pharmaceutically relevant proteins, including cell/viral surface proteins, membrane proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors, using silkworm larvae or cocoons has become very attractive. Silkworm biotechnology is an innovative and easy approach to achieve high protein expression levels and is a very promising platform technology in the field of life science. Like the "Silkroad," we expect that the "Bioroad" from Asia to Europe will be established by the silkworm expression system. PMID:19830419

Kato, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Mizuho; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y

2010-01-01

40

Female Attacus atlas respond to pheromones of Antheraea polyphemus: a comparative electrophysiological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

Female Attacus atlas respond electrophysiologically to both of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone components (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate and (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. Moreover, they possess a pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), as well as a pheromone-degrading sensillar esterase and aldehyde oxidase enzymes. They show no electroantennogram responses to their own gland extract. In contrast, female A. polyphemus do not respond to their own or to A. atlas pheromone. Male A. atlas do not detect any of the A. polyphemus compounds but only the conspecific female gland extracts. Both male A. atlas and female A. polyphemus possess PBP and GOBP but lack the pheromone-degrading esterases of male Antheraea. The results indicate that the two species use quite distinct classes of chemicals as pheromones. In spite of this, the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the PBPs show homology of 68%. PMID:11124211

Maida, R; Ziesmann, J

2001-01-01

41

Die Reaktionsweise und das Reaktionsspektrum von Riechzellen bei Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Extrazelluläre Impulse einzelner olfaktorischer Sinnesnervenzellen lassen sich mit Wolfram-Mikroelektroden von der Antenne des männlichen Seidenspinners Antheraea pernyi ableiten.2.Die 2 oder 3 Rezeptorzellen der Sensilla trichodea et basiconica beantworten Duftreize entweder durch Zunahme (+) oder Hemmung (-) der im reizlosen Zustand auftretenden Impulse. Ein Reiz kann auch von einer Zelle unbeantwortet (0) bleiben, obgleich er bei anderen Zellen wirksam ist.3.Eine der

Dietrich Schneider; Veit Lacher; Karl-Ernst Kaissling

1964-01-01

42

Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2011-01-01

43

Synnemata Production Using Silkworm Variety, Female Yangwonjam by Isaria tenuipes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to confirm the possible use of female Yangwonjam as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes in eight local areas in Korea. Silkworm pupation rate, infection rate and synnemata characteristics of I. tenuipes were examined. Normal silkworms had a higher pupation rate than silkworms inoculated with I. tenuipes. The pupae survival percentage of normal silkworm in cocoons was 92.5~97.6%, whereas it ranged from 91.1~95.6% in silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Female Yangwonjam showed the highest survival percentage at 97.6% among the silkworm varieties tested. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of 5th instar newly-exuviated silkworms was 89.2~90.7% in the spring rearing season and 98.2~99.3% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was excellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 98.0% followed by male Yangwonjam (94.1%) and Baegokjam (93.3%) in the spring rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 1.44~0.94 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight (1.44 g) in the spring rearing season. The synnemata of I. tenuipes produced on pupae were white or milky-white in color, and were similar in shape and color to wild synnemata collected in Korea. PMID:22783097

Ji, Sang-Duk; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Kee-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Woo, Soon-Ok; Han, Sang-Mi; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2011-09-01

44

Demographic history and gene flow during silkworm domestication  

PubMed Central

Background Gene flow plays an important role in domestication history of domesticated species. However, little is known about the demographic history of domesticated silkworm involving gene flow with its wild relative. Results In this study, four model-based evolutionary scenarios to describe the demographic history of B. mori were hypothesized. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation method and DNA sequence data from 29 nuclear loci, we found that the gene flow at bottleneck model is the most likely scenario for silkworm domestication. The starting time of silkworm domestication was estimated to be approximate 7,500 years ago; the time of domestication termination was 3,984 years ago. Using coalescent simulation analysis, we also found that bi-directional gene flow occurred during silkworm domestication. Conclusions Estimates of silkworm domestication time are nearly consistent with the archeological evidence and our previous results. Importantly, we found that the bi-directional gene flow might occur during silkworm domestication. Our findings add a dimension to highlight the important role of gene flow in domestication of crops and animals. PMID:25123546

2014-01-01

45

Construction of transgenic silkworm spinning antibacterial silk with fluorescence.  

PubMed

A targeting vector consisting of a fusion gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene gfp and the antimicrobial peptide cecropin gene cec flanked by pieces of the 5' and 3' sequences of the fibroin L chain gene fib-L of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and a negative selection DsRed marker gene driven by the baculovirus immediate early gene 1 (i.e.-1) promoter, was used to target the silkworm genome in order to explore the possibility of improving the performance of silk. A transgenic silkworm with a green fluorescent cocoon was obtained and PCR analysis of its genome confirmed that the target genes had been integrated into the silkworm genome correctly. Furthermore, in the posterior silk glands of the G6 generation transformation silkworm, a band representing the fusion protein Fib-L-GFP-Cec with a molecular mass of 68.7 kDa was detected by western blotting with an antibody against GFP. An investigation of the number of bacteria attached to a cocoon showed the transgenic silkworm cocoon possessed antibacterial properties. These results suggested the performance of silk can be improved by modifying the fibroin gene. PMID:25223857

Li, Zhen; Jiang, Yue; Cao, Guangli; Li, Jingzhi; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

2015-01-01

46

Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm  

SciTech Connect

The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

1980-01-01

47

Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons  

PubMed Central

Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2012-01-01

48

Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons.  

PubMed

Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

2012-09-01

49

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. IV. Segmentation and branch formation.  

PubMed

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure; its flagellum consists of about 30 stem segments each giving off two pairs of side branches. The antenna develops during the pupal stage (lasting in total about 21 days) from a leaf-shaped anlage by incisions proceeding from the periphery towards the prospective antennal stem. Primary incisions, starting about 3 days after apolysis, form double branches, which arethen split into single branches by parallel running secondary incisions. The initial pattern of tracheae and peripheral nerves is completely rearranged during these morphogenetic processes which are finished 9-10 days after apolysis. In Antheraea the dorsal and ventral epithelial monolayers of the antennal anlage are successively subdivided during development into a pattern of repetitive epithelial zones. Within the first day after apolysis alternating stripes of sensillogenic and non-sensillogenic epithelium are differentiating. Then the latter are further subdivided, and at last four different stripelike zones (I-IV) can be discriminated. Long basal protrusions of the epidermal cells ('epidermal feet'), and most probably haemocytes, seem to be involved in the reconstruction of the epithelium: both show characteristic arrangements within the antennal anlage during successive developmental stages. PMID:18621244

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1993-06-01

50

Engineering Silkworms for Resistance to Baculovirus Through Multigene RNA Interference  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture. PMID:23105011

Subbaiah, Edupalli V.; Royer, Corinne; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Satyavathi, Valluri V.; Babu, Adari Sobhan; Sivaprasad, Vankadara; Chavancy, Gérard; DaRocha, Martine; Jalabert, Audrey; Mauchamp, Bernard; Basha, Ibrahim; Couble, Pierre; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2013-01-01

51

Accumulation of 1-deoxynojirimycin in silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed Central

1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) contents in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, at different developmental stages and tissues were investigated by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 1-DNJ contents of silkworm larvae change significantly with their developmental stages. The male larvae showed higher accumulation efficiency of 1-DNJ than the females and also a significant variation was observed among the silkworm strains. The present results show that tissue distribution of 1-DNJ was significantly higher in blood, digestive juice, and alimentary canal, but no 1-DNJ was observed in the silkgland. Moreover, 1-DNJ was not found in silkworms fed with artificial diet that does not contain mulberry leaf powder. This proves that silkworms obtain 1-DNJ from mulberry leaves; they could not synthesize 1-DNJ by themselves. The accumulation and excretion of 1-DNJ change periodically during the larval stage. There was no 1-DNJ in the newly-hatched larvae and 1-DNJ was mainly accumulated during the early and middle stages of every instar, while excreted at later stages of larval development. Further, it is possible to extract 1-DNJ from the larval feces and it is optimal to develop the 1-DNJ related products for diabetic auxiliary therapy. PMID:20349525

Yin, Hao; Shi, Xin-qin; Sun, Bo; Ye, Jing-jing; Duan, Zu-an; Zhou, Xiao-ling; Cui, Wei-zheng; Wu, Xiao-feng

2010-01-01

52

Fruit Body Formation on Silkworm by Cordyceps militaris  

PubMed Central

Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori (B. mori). Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body production. Use of Daeseungjam rather than Baegokjam or Keumokjam varieties of B. mori is thought to be suitable for infection by C. militaris. From mounting, nine-day-old to 11-day-old pupae showed the best incidence of infection with a 100 µL injection volume. Silkworm pupae injected with a hyphal suspension concentration of more than 2 × 105 colony-forming unit (cfu) recorded a greater than 96% incidence of infection. Also, fruit bodies of C. militaris were induced and produced at a light intensity between 500 and 1,000 lx. PMID:23956640

Kang, Pil-Don; Kim, Ki-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Lee, Man-Young; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Nam-Suk; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Humber, Richard A.

2010-01-01

53

KAIKObase: An integrated silkworm genome database and data mining tool  

PubMed Central

Background The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the most economically important insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale cultivation for silk production. With the development of genomic and biotechnological tools, B. mori has also become an important bioreactor for production of various recombinant proteins of biomedical interest. In 2004, two genome sequencing projects for B. mori were reported independently by Chinese and Japanese teams; however, the datasets were insufficient for building long genomic scaffolds which are essential for unambiguous annotation of the genome. Now, both the datasets have been merged and assembled through a joint collaboration between the two groups. Description Integration of the two data sets of silkworm whole-genome-shotgun sequencing by the Japanese and Chinese groups together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences produced the best continuity (~3.7 Mb in N50 scaffold size) among the sequenced insect genomes and provided a high degree of nucleotide coverage (88%) of all 28 chromosomes. In addition, a physical map of BAC contigs constructed by fingerprinting BAC clones and a SNP linkage map constructed using BAC-end sequences were available. In parallel, proteomic data from two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in various tissues and developmental stages were compiled into a silkworm proteome database. Finally, a Bombyx trap database was constructed for documenting insertion positions and expression data of transposon insertion lines. Conclusion For efficient usage of genome information for functional studies, genomic sequences, physical and genetic map information and EST data were compiled into KAIKObase, an integrated silkworm genome database which consists of 4 map viewers, a gene viewer, and sequence, keyword and position search systems to display results and data at the level of nucleotide sequence, gene, scaffold and chromosome. Integration of the silkworm proteome database and the Bombyx trap database with KAIKObase led to a high-grade, user-friendly, and comprehensive silkworm genome database which is now available from URL: . PMID:19843344

Shimomura, Michihiko; Minami, Hiroshi; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Satoh, Chikatada; Antonio, Baltazar; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Mita, Kazuei

2009-01-01

54

Esterase activity in the olfactory sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We studied in individual males of Antheraea polyphemus the activity of the sensillar esterase, a pheromone-degrading enzyme present in the sensillum lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor cells. In parallel, receptor potentials from single pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea were recorded. Our screening revealed a large variability of the enzyme activity in individuals with similar electrophysiological responses. In some moths the sensillar esterase was not detectable, i.e. present with 100-fold less activity. However, such variable esterase activity showed no correlation to the time course of the receptor potential. Thus, enzymatic pheromone degradation does not seem to be involved in the rapid pheromone inactivation at the end of the stimulus, but rather serves as the final pheromone sequestration step. PMID:7605955

Maida, R; Ziegelberger, G; Kaissling, K E

1995-03-27

55

Hormonal control of muscle atrophy and degeneration in the moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

The intersegmental muscles of the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer) can undergo two forms of degenerative changes: a wasting atrophy that lasts about 6 days or rapid dissolution that is completed within 30 h. Muscle atrophy is induced by a dramatic decline in the endogenous titres of the steroid moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. 20-Hydroxyecdysone appears to act as a trophic factor for the muscles as infusion or injection of this steroid blocks further atrophy of the muscle. The normal decline of 20-hydroxyecdysone also allows the muscles to become competent to respond to the peptide eclosion hormone. Eclosion hormone is then released and acts directly on these muscles to induce rapid cell death which is morphologically and physiologically distinct from steroid-regulated atrophy. PMID:6491588

Schwartz, L M; Truman, J W

1984-07-01

56

Identification of cytoskeletal proteins in the antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi.  

PubMed

Although the overall cytoskeletal morphology of the olfactory dendrite in the antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and A. pernyi is known, the cytoskeleton proteins that structurally and functionally support these structures remain to be identified in this paper, we describe the identification of tubulin, actin and intermediate filament-like proteins in the olfactory dendrites, and motor proteins such as kinesin and unconventional myosin in the antennal branches by the use of antibodies. We also show that the tubulins within the olfactory dendrites and in the antennal branches are acetylated. This study provides valuable information concerning the possible role of these proteins in transduction, transport and motility, as is evident in other systems. PMID:8905709

Kumar, G L; Maida, R; Keil, T A

1996-08-12

57

Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a molecular model for pheromone reception in which a previously reported pheromone-binding protein acts as a pheromone carrier, and an enzyme acts as a rapid pheromone inactivator, maintaining a low stimulus noise level within the sensory hairs. PMID:3001718

Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

1985-12-01

58

Identification of PLC beta and PKC in pheromone receptor neurons of Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Two proteins of the IP3 transduction pathway were identified by Western blots in homogenates of isolated pheromone-sensitive sensilla of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. A 110 kDa protein was recognized by an antiserum raised against the Drosophila phospholipase C beta (PLC beta p121) and a 80kDa protein was labelled by an antiserum against a synthetic peptide of a conserved region of protein kinase C (PKC). Incubation of homogenized sensory hairs with the main sex pheromone component, (E,Z) 6-11 hexadecadienyl acetate, resulted in a 6-fold increase in the activity of PKC compared to controls without pheromone. In contrast, incubation with pheromone did not affect the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKC by the membrane permeable dioctanoylglycerol led to excitation of the pheromone-sensitive receptor neurons. These data support the current concept that pheromone perception of moths is mediated by the IP3 transduction pathway. PMID:10852242

Maida, R; Redkozubov, A; Ziegelberger, G

2000-06-01

59

Mineralization and biocompatibility of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin film for potential bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the mineralization of Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi) silk sericin. Mineralization of A. pernyi sericin was performed by alternative soaking in calcium and phosphate. The inhibition of precipitation of calcium carbonate and von Kossa staining on A. pernyi sericin were tested, and the corresponding results prove that A. pernyi sericin has Ca binding activity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation shows that spherical crystals could be nucleated on the A. pernyi sericin film. These crystals were confirmed to be hydroxyapatite according to FT-IR and XRD spectra, indicating that A. pernyi sericin is capable of mineralization. In addition, cell adhesion and growth activity assay demonstrate that A. pernyi sericin shows excellent biocompatibility for the growth of MG-63 cells. PMID:24211968

Yang, Mingying; Mandal, Namita; Shuai, Yajun; Zhou, Guanshan; Min, Sijia; Zhu, Liangjun

2014-01-01

60

PHYSIOLOGY OF INSECT ECDYSIS. II. THE ASSAY AND OCCURRENCE OF THE ECLOSION HORMONE IN THE CHINESE OAK, SILKMOTH, ANTHERAEA PERNYI  

Microsoft Academic Search

of adult behavior and is accomplished through a series of distinct be havioral acts (Truman, 1971a ; Truman and Sokolove, 1972) . Early experiments which involved brain extirpation and transplantation suggested that eclosion was triggered by a neurosecretory hormone which was released by the brain (Truman and Riddiford, 1970) . This inference was then confirmed by the demonstration of eclosion

JAMES W. TRUMAN

61

Breeding of a Silkworm Variety for Synnemata Production of Isaria tenuipes.  

PubMed

This study was conducted out to select a silkworm variety suitable for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes. Four kinds of the mulberry silkworm varieties, Bombyx mori, were hybridized using a Japanese parental line and a Chinese parental line, and used to test for synemata formation in I. tenuipes. The larval period of normal silkworms was 22 hr longer than the silkworms inoculated with this fungus. Among the silkworm varieties tested, Hachojam had the shortest larval period with 23.02 days. The non-cocooning silkworm had a shorter larval period than the cocoon producing silkworms. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 9% higher than that of silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Hachojam had the highest infection rate at 99.8%, but no significant difference was observed for the infection rate by silkworm variety. The production of synnemata was the best in JS171 × CS188 with an incidence rate of 99.3%, followed by Hachojam, and Chugangjam. The synnemata produced from Hachojam were the heaviest and showed white or milky-white in color. PMID:23956651

Kang, Pil-Don; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kim, Kee-Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Hong, In-Pyo; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2010-09-01

62

Breeding of a Silkworm Variety for Synnemata Production of Isaria tenuipes  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted out to select a silkworm variety suitable for synnemata production of Isaria tenuipes. Four kinds of the mulberry silkworm varieties, Bombyx mori, were hybridized using a Japanese parental line and a Chinese parental line, and used to test for synemata formation in I. tenuipes. The larval period of normal silkworms was 22 hr longer than the silkworms inoculated with this fungus. Among the silkworm varieties tested, Hachojam had the shortest larval period with 23.02 days. The non-cocooning silkworm had a shorter larval period than the cocoon producing silkworms. The pupation rate of normal silkworms was about 9% higher than that of silkworms sprayed with I. tenuipes. Hachojam had the highest infection rate at 99.8%, but no significant difference was observed for the infection rate by silkworm variety. The production of synnemata was the best in JS171 × CS188 with an incidence rate of 99.3%, followed by Hachojam, and Chugangjam. The synnemata produced from Hachojam were the heaviest and showed white or milky-white in color. PMID:23956651

Kang, Pil-Don; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Kim, Kee-Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Ha, Nam-Gyu

2010-01-01

63

From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

64

KAIKObase: An integrated silkworm genome database and data mining tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the most economically important insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale cultivation for silk production. With the development of genomic and biotechnological tools, B. mori has also become an important bioreactor for production of various recombinant proteins of biomedical interest. In 2004, two genome sequencing projects for B. mori were

Michihiko Shimomura; Hiroshi Minami; Yoshitaka Suetsugu; Hajime Ohyanagi; Chikatada Satoh; Baltazar Antonio; Yoshiaki Nagamura; Keiko Kadono-Okuda; Hideyuki Kajiwara; Hideki Sezutsu; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Marian R Goldsmith; Qingyou Xia; Kimiko Yamamoto; Kazuei Mita

2009-01-01

65

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Wilt: A Threat to Red Oaks & White Oaks Species was created by Dr. David L. Roberts at Michigan State University Extension. Dr. RobertâÂÂs concise site contains brief sections addressing oak wilt distribution, field diagnosis, management, disease cycle, and more. This guide contains extensive links to images and other informational extension sites that will help you make informed decisions regarding the health of your trees. The site compiles a great deal of research on oak wilt and is an excellent resource for students and professionals alike.

Roberts, David L.

2008-02-22

66

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

67

CURRENT UNDERSTANDING OF OAKS AND OAK WILT  

E-print Network

. They are also among the most economically-useful trees, providing high-quality lumber, firewood, tannins the heartwood, white oak wood makes good wine barrels while red oak wood does not. Given the greater

Harrington, Thomas C.

68

Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

2010-09-01

69

Silkworm Coatomers and Their Role in Tube Expansion of Posterior Silkgland  

PubMed Central

Background Coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles, coated by seven coatomer subunits, are mainly responsible for Golgi-to-ER transport. Silkworm posterior silkgland (PSG), a highly differentiated secretory tissue, secretes fibroin for silk production, but many physiological processes in the PSG cells await further investigation. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, to investigate the role of silkworm COPI, we cloned six silkworm COPI subunits (?,?,??, ?, ?, and ?-COP), determined their peak expression in day 2 in fifth-instar PSG, and visualized the localization of COPI, as a coat complex, with cis-Golgi. By dsRNA injection into silkworm larvae, we suppressed the expression of ?-, ??- and ?-COP, and demonstrated that COPI subunits were required for PSG tube expansion. Knockdown of ?-COP disrupted the integrity of Golgi apparatus and led to a narrower glandular lumen of the PSG, suggesting that silkworm COPI is essential for PSG tube expansion. Conclusions/Significance The initial characterization reveals the essential roles of silkworm COPI in PSG. Although silkworm COPI resembles the previously characterized coatomers in other organisms, some surprising findings require further investigation. Therefore, our results suggest the silkworm as a model for studying intracellular transport, and would facilitate the establishment of silkworm PSG as an efficient bioreactor. PMID:20967265

Feng, Hui; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chuanxi; Zhang, Guozheng; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo

2010-01-01

70

Sudden Oak Death Disease Progression in Oaks and Tanoaks1  

E-print Network

of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii379 Sudden Oak Death Disease Progression in Oaks and Tanoaks1 Brice A. McPherson2 , Sylvia R. Mori3 words: California black oak, coast live oak, Phytophthora ramorum, survival analysis, tanoak Abstract

Standiford, Richard B.

71

Genome segment 5 of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus encodes a bona fide guanylyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV), a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects non mulberry Indian silk worm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains eleven segmented double stranded RNA in its genome (S1-S11). Some of its genome segments (S1-S3, and S6-S11) have been previously characterized but genome segment encoding the viral guanylyltransferase which helps in RNA capping has not been characterized. Results In this study genome segment 5 (S5) of AmCPV was converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S5 consisted of 2180 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 1818 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 606 amino acids with molecular mass of ~65 kDa (p65). Bioinformatics analysis showed presence of KLRS and HxnH motifs as observed in some other reoviral guanylyltransferase and suggests that S5 may encodes viral guanylyltransferase. The ORF of S5 was expressed in E. coli as 65 kDa his tagged fusion protein, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibody was raised. Immunoblot analysis of virion particles with the purified antibody showed specific immunoreactive band and suggests p65 as a viral structural protein. Functional analysis showed that recombinant p65 possesses guanylyltransferase activity, and transfers GMP moiety to the 5' diphosphate (A/G) ended viral RNA after the formation of p65-GMP complex for capping. Kinetic analysis showed Km of this enzyme for GTP and RNA was 34.24 uM and 98.35 nM, respectively. Site directed mutagenesis at K21A in KLRS motif, and H93A or H105A in HxnH motif completely abolished the autoguanylylation activity and indicates importance of these residues at these sites. Thermodynamic analysis showed p65-GTP interaction was primarily driven by enthalpy (?H?=?-399.1?±?4.1 kJ/mol) whereas the p65-RNA interaction by favorable entropy (0.043?±?0.0049 kJ/ mol). Conclusion Viral capping enzymes play a critical role in the post transcriptional or post replication modification in case of RNA virus. Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S5 indicates that S5 encoded p65 through its guanylyltransferase activity can transfer guanine residue to the 5' end of viral RNA for capping. Further studies will help to understand complete capping process of cypoviral RNA during viral replication within the viral capsid. PMID:24649879

2014-01-01

72

Nutrient composition and respiration characteristics of silkworms in the Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the appropriate space animal candidate, silkworm(Bombyx Mori L.) can supply animal food for taikonauts and consume inedible parts of plants in Bioregenerative Life Support Sys-tem(BLSS). Due to the features of BLSS, the silkworm breeding method in the system differ-ent from the conventional one is feeding the silkworm in the first three developing stages with mulberry leaves and with lettuce leaves in the latter two developing stages. Therefore, it is nec-essary to investigate the biochemical components and respiration characteristics of silkworms raised with this method to supply data bases for the inclusion of silkworms in the system to conduct system experiments. The nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP) which are the grinded and freeze-dried silkworm on the 3rd day in the fifth developing stage containing protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids were determined with international standard analyzing methods in this study. The results showed that SP was rich in protein and amino acids. There were twelve kinds of essential vitamins, nine kinds of minerals and twelve kinds of fatty acids in SP. In contrast, SP had much better nutrient components than snail, fish, chicken, beef and pork as animal food for crew members. Moreover, 359 kCal can be generated per 100g of SP (dry weight). The respirations of silkworm during its whole growing process under two main physiological statuses which were eating and non-eating leaves were studied. According to the results measured by the animal respiration measuring system, there were much difference among the respirations of silkworms under the two main physiological statuses. The amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms when they were eating leaves were more than those under the non-eating status. Even under the same status, the respiration characteristics of silkworms in five different developing stages were also different from one an-other. The respiratory quotients of silkworms under two statuses are largely different (eating F=3.191, P<0.05; non-eating F=2.935, P <0.05). Moreover, the amounts of O2 inhaled and CO2 exhaled by the silkworms in the first three developing stages were much more than those of the silkworms in the latter two developing stages per unit weight of leaves. These results concerning the nutrient compositions and respiration characteristics of silkworms can provide valuable data for the establishment of complex bioregenerative life support systems including different biological units in the lunar or mars bases in the future.

Tong, Ling; Yu, Xiaohui; Liu, Hong

73

Protein profile of Nomuraea rileyi spore isolated from infected silkworm.  

PubMed

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252 proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and were subjected to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, 121 proteins have good MS signal, and 24 of them were identified due to unavailability of genomic information from N. rileyi. This data will be helpful in understanding the biochemistry of N. rileyi. PMID:19288155

Qin, Lvgao; Liu, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun; Chen, Huiqing; Yao, Qin; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Lin; Chen, Keping

2009-06-01

74

Proteomic Analysis of Larval Midgut from the Silkworm (Bombyx mori)  

PubMed Central

The midgut is the major organ for food digestion, nutrient absorption and also a barrier for foreign substance. The 5th-instar larval stage of silkworm is very important for larval growth, development, and silk production. In the present study, we used 2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to analyze the midgut proteins from the 5th-instar larvae as well as the midgut proteins under starvation condition. A total of 96 proteins were identified in this study; and among them, 69 proteins were observed in midgut for the first time. We also found that the silkworm larval midgut responded to starvation by producing a 10?kDa heat shock protein and a diapause hormone precursor. PMID:21687556

Zhang, Sai; Xu, Yunmin; Fu, Qiang; Jia, Ling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2011-01-01

75

Probing a pheromone binding protein of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by endogenous tryptophan fluorescence.  

PubMed

One subtype of the pheromone binding proteins of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1) has been analysed exploiting the two endogenous tryptophan residues as fluorescent probe. The intrinsic fluorescence exhibited a rather narrow spectrum with a maximum at 336 nm. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that one of the tryptophan residues (Trp37) is located in a hydrophobic environment whereas Trp127 is more solvent exposed, as was predicted modeling the ApolPBP1 sequence on the proposed structure of the Bombyx mori pheromone binding protein. Monitoring the interaction of ApolPBP1 as well as its Trp mutants with the three species-specific pheromone compounds by recording the endogenous fluorescence emission revealed profound differences; whereas (E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal induced a dose-dependent quenching of the fluorescence, both (E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate and (E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate elicited an augmentation of the endogenous fluorescence. These data indicate that although ApolPBP1 can bind all three pheromones, there are substantial differences concerning their interaction with the protein, which may have important functional implications. PMID:11804795

Bette, Stefanie; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2002-03-01

76

Antennal-specific pheromone-degrading aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female moths produce blends of odorant chemicals, called pheromones. These precise chemical mixtures both attract males and elicit appropriate mating behaviors. To locate females, male moths must rapidly detect changes in environmental pheromone concentration. Therefore, the regulation of pheromone concentration within antennae, their chief organ of smell, is important. We describe antennal-specific aldehyde oxidases from the moths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori that are capable of catabolizing long chain, unsaturated aldehydes such as their aldehyde pheromones. These soluble enzymes are associated uniquely with male and female antennae and have molecular masses of 175 and 130 kDa, respectively. The A. polyphemus aldehyde oxidase has been localized to the olfactory sensilla which contain the pheromone receptor cell dendrites. These same sensilla contain a previously described sensilla-specific esterase that degrades the acetate ester component of A. polyphemus pheromone. We propose that sensillar pheromone-degrading enzymes modulate pheromone concentration in the receptor space and hence play a dynamic role in the pheromone-mediated reproductive behaviors of these animals. PMID:2246254

Rybczynski, R; Vogt, R G; Lerner, M R

1990-11-15

77

Functional morphology of the ommatidia in the compound eye of the moth, Antheraea polyphemus (Insecta, Saturniidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the superposition eye of the Saturniid moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer was investigated by electron microscopy. Each of the approximately 10,000 ommatidia consists of the same structural components, but regarding the arrangement of the ommatidia and the rhabdom structure therein, two regions of the eye have to be distinguished. In a small dorsal rim area, the ommatidia are characterized by rectangularly shaped rhabdoms containing parallel microvilli arranged in groups that are oriented perpendicular to each other. In all other ommatidia, the proximal parts of the rhabdoms show radially arranged microvilli, whereas the distal parts may reveal different patterns, frequently with microvilli in two directions or sometimes even in one direction. Moreover, the microvilli of all distal cells are arranged in parallel to meridians of the eyes. By virtue of these structural features the eyes should enable this moth not only discrimination of the plane of polarized light but also skylight-orientation via the polarization pattern, depending on moon position. The receptor cells exhibit only small alterations during daylight within the natural diurnal cycle. However, under illumination with different monochromatic lights of physiological intensity, receptor cells can be unbalanced: Changes in ultrastructure of the rhabdomeres and the cytoplasm of such cells are evident. The effects are different in the daytime and at night. These findings are discussed in relation to the breakdown and regeneration of microvilli and the influence of the diurnal cycle. They are compared with results on photoreceptor membrane turnover in eyes of other arthropod species. PMID:3383218

Anton-Erxleben, F; Langer, H

1988-05-01

78

Redox-shift of the pheromone-binding protein in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

In pheromone-sensitive hairs of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, two electrophoretically distinct pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are present. They indicate no amino acid sequence diversity according to peptide mapping, but differ in their redox state, as shown by free-sulfhydryl-group-specific cleavage at cysteine residues with 2-nitro-5-thiocyanobenzoic acid. In kinetic studies, the pheromone was initially bound mainly by the reduced PBP but later by the oxidized PBP, where all six cysteine residues form disulfide bonds. This redox shift was observed only in the homogenate of isolated olfactory hairs, where proteins of the sensillum lymph and receptive dendrites are present. In control experiments with purified binding proteins, the proportion of pheromone bound to the oxidized PBP did not increase with increasing incubation time, suggesting that disulfide formation does not occur spontaneously but is mediated by the sensory hairs, possibly by interaction with the receptor cell membrane. These data suggest that arriving hydrophobic pheromone molecules are first bound by the reduced PBP and transported through the aqueous sensillum lymph towards the receptor molecules of the dendritic membrane. The oxidized complex might not be able to activate further receptors and, thus, effectively deactivate the pheromone molecules within the sensillum lymph. PMID:7588707

Ziegelberger, G

1995-09-15

79

Characterization of four pupal wing cuticular protein genes of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Three different clones have been isolated from a genomic library of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus by employing a subtractive hybridization technique. The clones with inserts of 13-16 kb of DNA each, code for mRNAs expressed in the wing epidermis during JH induced second pupal cuticle deposition. While two of the clones code for a single mRNA each, the third one codes for two mRNAs. All the four mRNAs code for distinct polypeptides that can be precipitated with antibodies raised against pupal cuticular proteins. These genes are activated at the same period of pupal development and their transcripts follow similar patterns of accumulation. Although these genes are expressed in a tissue and time specific manner attesting to their pupal wing epidermal specificity, three of them are expressed in the adult wing epidermis also, but not at the larval stage. While DNAs from other silkmoths and insects hybridize to these genes, only one of the A. polyphemus genes hybridizes to RNA from second pupal wings of two other silkmoths tested. PMID:7517270

Kumar, M N; Sridhara, S

1994-03-01

80

A calcium-activated nonspecific cation channel from olfactory receptor neurones of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Single-channel patch-clamp techniques were used to identify and characterize a Ca2(+)-activated nonspecific cation channel (CAN channel) on insect olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) from antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus. The CAN channel was found both in acutely isolated ORNs from developing pupae and in membrane vesicles from mature ORNs that presumably originated from inner dendritic segments. Amplitude histograms of the CAN single-channel currents presented well-defined peaks corresponding to at least four channel substates each having a conductance of about 16 pS. Simultaneous gating of the substates was achieved by intracellular Ca2(+) with an EC(50) value of about 80 nmol(-l). Activity of the CAN channel could be blocked by application of amiloride (IC(50)<100 nmoll(-1)). Moreover, in the presence of l ?moll(-1) Ca2+,opening of the CAN channel was totally suppressed by 10 ?moll(-1) cyclic GMP,whereas ATP (1 mmoll(-1)) was without effect. We suggest that the CAN channel plays a specific role in modulation of cell excitability and in shaping the voltage response of ORNs. PMID:22141156

Zufall, F; Hatt, H

1991-11-01

81

Research Article Antheraea pernyi Silk Fiber: A Potential Resource for Artificially Biospinning Spider Dragline Silk  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The outstanding properties of spider dragline silk are likely to be determined by a combination of the primary sequences and the secondary structure of the silk proteins. Antheraea pernyi silk has more similar sequences to spider dragline silk than the silk from its domestic counterpart, Bombyx mori. This makes it much potential as a resource for biospinning spider dragline silk. This paper further verified its possibility as the resource from the mechanical properties and the structures of the A. pernyi silks prepared by forcible reeling. It is surprising that the stress-strain curves of the A. pernyi fibers show similar sigmoidal shape to those of spider dragline silk. Under a controlled reeling speed of 95 mm/s, the breaking energy was 1.04 × 10 5 J/kg, the tensile strength was 639 MPa and the initial modulus was 9.9 GPa. It should be noted that this breaking energy of the A. pernyi silk approaches that of spider dragline silk. The tensile properties, the optical orientation and the ?-sheet structure contents of the silk fibers are remarkably increased by raising the spinning speeds up to 95 mm/s. 1.

Yaopeng Zhang; Hongxia Yang; Huili Shao; Xuechao Hu

2010-01-01

82

Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin for targeted gene delivery of VEGF165-Ang-1 with PEI.  

PubMed

Vascularization is a crucial challenge in tissue engineering. One solution for this problem is to implant scaffolds that contain functional genes that promote vascularization by providing angiogenic growth factors via a gene delivery carrier. Poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) is a gene delivery carrier with high transfection efficiency but with cytotoxicity. To solve this problem, we utilized Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), which has favorable cytocompatibility and biodegradability, RGD sequences and a negative charge, in conjunction with PEI, as the delivery vector for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 165-angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene simultaneous expression plasmid, creating an ASF/PEI/pDNA complex. The results suggested that the zeta potential of the ASF/PEI/pDNA complex was significantly lower than that of the PEI/pDNA complex. Decreased nitrogen and increased oxygen on the surface of the complex demonstrated that the ASF had successfully combined with the surface of the PEI/pDNA. Furthermore, the complexes resisted digestion by nucleic acid enzymes and degradation by serum. L929 cells were cultured and transfected in vitro and improved cytotoxicity was found when the cells were transfected with ASF/PEI/pDNA compared with PEI/pDNA. In addition, the transfection efficiency and VEGF secretion increased. In general, this study provides a novel method for decreasing the cytotoxicity of PEI gene delivery vectors and increasing transfection efficiency of angiogenesis-related genes. PMID:24867887

Ma, Caili; Lv, Linlin; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; You, Renchuan; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-06-01

83

A draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori).  

PubMed

We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content. PMID:15591204

Xia, Qingyou; Zhou, Zeyang; Lu, Cheng; Cheng, Daojun; Dai, Fangyin; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ping; Zha, Xingfu; Cheng, Tingcai; Chai, Chunli; Pan, Guoqing; Xu, Jinshan; Liu, Chun; Lin, Ying; Qian, Jifeng; Hou, Yong; Wu, Zhengli; Li, Guanrong; Pan, Minhui; Li, Chunfeng; Shen, Yihong; Lan, Xiqian; Yuan, Lianwei; Li, Tian; Xu, Hanfu; Yang, Guangwei; Wan, Yongji; Zhu, Yong; Yu, Maode; Shen, Weide; Wu, Dayang; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jun; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Jianping; Li, Heng; Li, Guangyuan; Su, Jianning; Wang, Xiaoling; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Zengjin; Wu, Qingfa; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qingpeng; Wei, Ning; Xu, Jianzhe; Sun, Haibo; Dong, Le; Liu, Dongyuan; Zhao, Shengli; Zhao, Xiaolan; Meng, Qingshun; Lan, Fengdi; Huang, Xiangang; Li, Yuanzhe; Fang, Lin; Li, Changfeng; Li, Dawei; Sun, Yongqiao; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Yanqing; Xi, Yan; Qi, Qiuhui; He, Dandan; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenjie; Cao, Yuzhu; Yu, Yingpu; Yu, Hong; Li, Jinhong; Ye, Jiehua; Chen, Huan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jing; Ye, Jia; Ji, Hai; Li, Shengting; Ni, Peixiang; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong; Zheng, Hongkun; Mao, Bingyu; Wang, Wen; Ye, Chen; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Yang, Huanming

2004-12-10

84

Evaluation of innate immune stimulating activity of polysaccharides using a silkworm (Bombyx mori) muscle contraction assay.  

PubMed

In silkworm larvae, the mature form of paralytic peptide (PP), an insect cytokine, is produced from pro-PP in association with activation of innate immune responses, resulting in slow muscle contraction. We utilized this reaction, muscle contraction in silkworms coupled with innate immunity stimulation, to quantitatively measure the innate immune stimulating activity of various natural polysaccharides. ?-Glucan of Gyrophora esculenta (GE-3), fucoidan from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida, and curldan induced silkworm muscle contraction. We further demonstrated that GE-3 had therapeutic effects on silkworms infected by baculovirus. Based on these findings, we propose that the silkworm muscle contraction assay is useful for screening substances that stimulate innate immunity before evaluating therapeutic effectiveness in mammals. PMID:22622018

Fujiyuki, T; Hamamoto, H; Ishii, K; Urai, M; Kataoka, K; Takeda, T; Shibata, S; Sekimizu, K

2012-04-01

85

A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide a unique model system for detailed analyzes of the interplay between the various elements underlying pheromone reception. Efforts to identify pheromone receptors of Antheraea polyphemus have led to the identification of a candidate pheromone receptor (ApolOR1). This receptor was found predominantly expressed in male antennae, specifically in neurons located beneath pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea. The ApolOR1-expressing cells were found to be surrounded by supporting cells co-expressing all three ApolPBPs. The response spectrum of ApolOR1 was assessed by means of calcium imaging using HEK293-cells stably expressing the receptor. It was found that at nanomolar concentrations ApolOR1-cells responded to all three pheromones when the compounds were solubilized by DMSO and also when DMSO was substituted by one of the three PBPs. However, at picomolar concentrations, cells responded only in the presence of the subtype ApolPBP2 and the pheromone (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. These results are indicative of a specific interplay of a distinct pheromone component with an appropriate binding protein and its related receptor subtype, which may be considered as basis for the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the pheromone detection system. PMID:20011135

Forstner, Maike; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2009-01-01

86

mRNA populations during wing development in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Pupal wing tissue of the American silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus has been used as a model system to study 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone control of cuticle protein synthesis. Juvenile hormone does not affect either the content or rate of synthesis of RNA and protein of the wing tissue. both of which show linear increases during the first few days of hormonal treatment. Based on the fractionation of total RNA on oligo-dT columns the percent of mRNA remains the same throughout development after both hormone treatments. However, both the amount of poly-A+ RNA in the wing tissue, and its content of poly-A show considerable increases as a function of development. The products of translation of the various poly-A+ RNA populations in the cell-free wheatgerm system have been analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Qualitative changes occur during the first 24 h; the production of a mRNA coding for a protein of approx. 40 000 dalton is stimulated and the production of a mRNA coding for a protein of 29 000 dalton is greatly reduced. Only a few differences are observed between samples from the 2 hormone treatments. Over the next 5-15 days of development mainly quantitative changes are observed. Juvenile hormone application results in quantitative changes in specific mRNAs, but no new mRNAs unique to juvenile hormone action are observed. The data are consistent with the concept that in altering the epidermal developmental program, juvenile hormone is apparently modulating the action of 20-hydroxyecdysone. PMID:6173272

Katula, K; Gilbert, L I; Sridhara, S

1981-12-01

87

Genome segment 4 of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus encodes RNA triphosphatase and methyltransferases.  

PubMed

Cloning and sequencing of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV) genome segment S4 showed that it consists of 3410 nt with a single ORF of 1110 aa which could encode a protein of ~127 kDa (p127). Bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of a 5' RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) domain (LRDR), a S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-binding (GxGxG) motif and the KDKE tetrad of 2'-O-methyltransferase (MTase), which suggested that S4 may encode RTPase and MTase. The ORF of S4 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged fusion protein and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Biochemical analysis of recombinant p127 showed its RTPase as well as SAM-dependent guanine N(7)-and ribose 2'-O-MTase activities. A MTase assay using in vitro transcribed AmCPV S2 RNA having a 5' G*pppG end showed that guanine N(7) methylation occurred prior to the ribose 2'-O methylation to yield a m(7)GpppG/m(7)GpppGm RNA cap. Mutagenesis of the SAM-binding (GxGxG) motif (G831A) completely abolished N(7)- and 2'-O-MTase activities, indicating the importance of these residues for capping. From the kinetic analysis, the Km values of N(7)-MTase for SAM and RNA were calculated as 4.41 and 0.39 µM, respectively. These results suggested that AmCPV S4-encoded p127 catalyses RTPase and two cap methylation reactions for capping the 5' end of viral RNA. PMID:25228490

Biswas, Poulomi; Kundu, Anirban; Ghosh, Ananta Kumar

2015-01-01

88

Analysis of bacteria-challenged wild silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (lepidoptera) transcriptome reveals potential immune genes  

PubMed Central

Background In the recent years a strong resemblance has been observed between the insect immune system and the mammalian innate immune mechanisms suggesting their common origin. Among the insects, only the dipterans (Drosophila and various mosquito species) have been widely investigated for their immune responses towards diverse pathogens. In the present study we constructed and analysed the immune transcriptome of the lepidopteran Antheraea mylitta, an economically important Indian tasar silkmoth with a view to unravel the potential immune-related genes and pathways. Results An expressed sequence tag (EST) library was constructed from mRNA obtained from fat bodies of A. mylitta larvae that had been challenged by infection with Escherichia coli cells. We identified 719 unique ESTs from a total of 1412 sequences so generated. A third of the transcriptome showed similarity with previously characterized immune-related genes that included both the known and putative immune genes. Of the four putative novel defence proteins (DFPs) annotated by PSI-BLAST three showed similarity to extracellular matrix proteins from vertebrates implicated in innate immunity, while the fourth was similar to, yet distinct from, the anti-microbial protein cecropin. Finally, we analysed the expression profiles of 15 potential immune-related genes, and the majority of them were induced more prominently with E. coli compared to Micrococcus luteus. We also identified several unknown proteins, some of which could have probable immune-related functions based on the results of the ProDom analysis. Conclusion The present study has identified many potential immune-related genes in A. mylitta some of which are vertebrate homologues and others are hitherto unreported putative defence proteins. Several genes were present as members of gene families, as has also been observed in other insect species. PMID:16857061

Gandhe, Archana S; Arunkumar, KP; John, Serene H; Nagaraju, J

2006-01-01

89

Species-specific pheromonal compounds induce distinct conformational changes of pheromone binding protein subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

We have investigated the structural features of three pheromone binding protein (PBP) subtypes from Antheraea polyphemus and monitored possible changes induced upon interaction with the Antheraea pheromonal compounds 4E,9Z-14:Ac [(E4,Z9)-tetradecadienyl-1-acetate], 6E,11Z-16:Ac [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienyl-1-acetate], and 6E,11Z-16:Al [(E6,Z11)-hexadecadienal]. Circular dichroism and second derivative UV-difference spectroscopy data demonstrate that the structure of subtype PBP1 significantly changes upon binding of 4E,9Z-14:Ac. The related 6E,11Z-16:Ac was less effective and 6E,11Z-16:Al showed only a small effect. In contrast, in subtype PBP2 pronounced structural changes were only induced by the 6E,11Z-16:Al, and the subtype PBP3 did not show any considerable changes in response to the pheromonal compounds. The UV-spectroscopic data suggest that histidine residues are likely to be involved in the ligand-induced structural changes of the proteins, and this notion was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. These results demonstrate that appropriate ligands induce structural changes in PBPs and provide evidence for ligand specificity of these proteins. PMID:12488967

Mohl, Claudia; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

2002-10-01

90

Biological Effects of Low Energy Ar+ Ion Bombardment on Silkworm Eggs: a Novel Animal Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we found for the first time that silkworm eggs were able to survive in vacuum for a long period of time. Subsequently, low energy Ar+ ions with different energies and fluences were used to bombard silkworm eggs so as to explore the resulting biological effects. Results showed that (i) the exposure of silkworm eggs to vacuum within 10 min did not cause significant impact on the hatching rates, while the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 25 keV or 30 keV with fluences ranging from 2.6×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 to 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 caused a significant impact on the hatching rates, and the hatching rates decreased with the increase in the fluence and energy level; (ii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 8×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 or 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 resulted in a noticeable etching on the egg shell surface which could be observed by a scanning electron microscope; and (iii) the irradiation of silkworm eggs by Ar+ ions of 30 keV with a fluence of 9×2.6 × 1015 ion/cm2 generated several mutant phenotypes which were observed in the 5th instar silkworms and a moth.

Xu, Jiaping; Wu, Yuejin; Liu, Xuelan; Yuan, Hang; Yu, Zengliang

2009-06-01

91

Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites  

SciTech Connect

The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

92

Microarray-based gene expression profiles in multiple tissues of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

We designed and constructed a genome-wide microarray with 22,987 70-mer oligonucleotides covering the presently known and predicted genes in the silkworm genome, and surveyed the gene expression in multiple silkworm tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. Clusters of tissue-prevalent and tissue-specific genes and genes that are differentially expressed in different tissues were identified, and they reflect well major tissue-specific functions on the molecular level. The data presented in this study provide a new resource for annotating the silkworm genome. PMID:17683582

Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Cheng, Tingcai; Zha, Xingfu; Liu, Chun; Zhao, Ping; Dai, Fangyin; Zhang, Ze; He, Ningjia; Zhang, Liang; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2007-01-01

93

Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

2014-01-01

94

Characterization and comparison of serratia marcescens isolated from edible cactus and from silkworm for virulence potential and chitosan susceptibility.  

PubMed

Representative strains of Serratia marcescens from an edible cactus plant and silkworms were characterized and a comparison based on their cellular fatty acid composition, 16S rRNA and groE gene sequence analysis as well as silkworm virulence and chitosan susceptibility was carried out. Results from this study indicate that there are no significant differences between the phenotypic and molecular characterization, virulence and chitosan susceptibility of the S. marcescens strains from the cactus plant and silkworms. Silkworms inoculated with S. marcescens from either plant or silkworm resulted in nearly 100% mortality. Chitosan solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. marcescens. This activity increased with the increase of chitosan concentration and incubation time regardless of the strain source. Also, the results indicate that the plant associated S. marcescens maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while chitosan showed a potential to control the contamination caused by S. marcescens. PMID:24031610

Li, Bin; Yu, Rongrong; Liu, Baoping; Tang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

2011-01-01

95

The adverse effects of phoxim exposure in the midgut of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm is an important economic insect. Poisoning of silkworms by organophosphate pesticides causes tremendous loss to the sericulture. In this study, Solexa sequencing technology was performed to profile the gene expression changes in the midgut of silkworms in response to 24h of phoxim exposure and the impact on detoxification, apoptosis and immune defense were addressed. The results showed that 254 genes displayed at least 2.0-fold changes in expression levels, with 148 genes up-regulated and 106 genes down-regulated. Cytochrome P450 played an important role in detoxification. Histopathology examination and transmission electron microscope revealed swollen mitochondria and disappearance of the cristae of mitochondria, which are the important features in insect apoptotic cells. Cytochrome C release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was confirmed. In addition, the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways were all inhibited using qRT-PCR. Our results could help better understand the impact of phoxim exposure on silkworm. PMID:23899924

Gu, ZhiYa; Zhou, YiJun; Xie, Yi; Li, FanChi; Ma, Lie; Sun, ShanShan; Wu, Yu; Wang, BinBin; Wang, JuMei; Hong, Fashui; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

2014-02-01

96

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Logistical Services Design Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Reservation Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Editors Graphic by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2008 Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC

Pennycook, Steve

97

Analysis of silkworm gut microflora in the Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silkworm (Bombyx mori L) has advantages in the nutritional composition, growth characteristics and other factors, it is regarded as animal protein source for astronauts in the Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS).Due to the features of BLSS, silkworm breeding way is different from the conventional one (mulberry leaves throughout five instars): they were fed with mulberry and lettuce leaves during the 1st-3rd instars and 4th -5th instars, respectively. As the lettuce stem can be eaten by astronauts, the leaves not favored by humans can be insect's foodstuff. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the gut microbial composition, the type of dominant bacteria of silkworm raised with this way and the differences from the conventional breeding method, so as to reduce the mortality rate caused by the foodstuff change and to provide more animal protein for astronauts. In this study, 16srDNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method were used to analyze the silkworm gut microbial flora under two breeding manners. The results show that conventional and BLSS breeding way have six dominant bacteria in common: Clostridium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides, Paenibacillus. We also found Escherichia, Janthinobacterium, Sedimentibacter, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Arcobacter, Rothia, Polaribacter and Acinetobacter, Anaerofilum, Rummeliibacillus, Anaeroplasma, Serratia in the ground conventional and BLSS special breeding way, respectively. Changing the foodstuff of silkworm leads to the dynamic alteration of gut microbial. Dominant bacteria of the two breeding ways have diversities from each other. The ground conventional breeding way has more abundant bacteria than the BLSS one. Due to the lettuce leaves have replaced mulberry leaves at the beginning of the silkworm 4th instar, some silkworms can not survive without the bacteria that digest and absorb lettuce leaves. We suggest those dominant bacteria produced by the BLSS breeding way can be made probiotics then add to lettuce leaves to feed 4th instar silkworm. It is aimed at enhancing the nutrient absorption and resistance to disease regulated by silkworm gut, laying foundation for controlling the silkworm intestinal micro ecology in the BLSS, providing more high-quality animal protein for astronauts. Key word: BLSS, silkworm, dominant bacteria, gut microbial

Liang, Xue; Liu, lh64. Hong

2012-07-01

98

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

99

Insect-oak Interactions with Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Engelmann Oak (Q.  

E-print Network

Insect-oak Interactions with Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) and Engelmann Oak (Q. engelmannii determined the impact of insects on both acorns and seedlings of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee) and Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmannii E. Greene). Our goals were to (1) identify insects feeding on acorns

Standiford, Richard B.

100

An Adaptive Transposable Element Insertion in the Regulatory Region of the EO Gene in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Although there are many studies to show a key role of transposable elements (TEs) in adaptive evolution of higher organisms, little is known about the molecular mechanisms. In this study, we found that a partial TE (Taguchi) inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the silkworm ecdysone oxidase (EO) gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme to reduce the titer of molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E). The TE insertion occurred during domestication of silkworm and the frequency of the TE insertion in the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) is high, 54.24%. The linkage disequilibrium in the TE inserted strains of the domesticated silkworm was elevated. Molecular population genetics analyses suggest that this TE insertion is adaptive for the domesticated silkworm. Luminescent reporter assay shows that the TE inserted in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene functions as a 20E-induced enhancer of the gene expression. Further, phenotypic bioassay indicates that the silkworm with the TE insertion exhibited more stable developmental phenotype than the silkworm without the TE insertion when suffering from food shortage. Thus, the inserted TE in the cis-regulatory region of the EO gene increased developmental uniformity of silkworm individuals through regulating 20E metabolism, partially explaining transformation of a domestication developmental trait in the domesticated silkworm. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of gene expression regulation in developmental transition of domesticated animals. PMID:25213334

Sun, Wei; Shen, Yi-Hong; Han, Min-Jin; Cao, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Ze

2014-12-01

101

Measured behavioural latency in response to sex-pheromone loss in the large silk moth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Males of the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) were video-recorded in a sustained-flight wind tunnel in a constant plume of sex pheromone. The plume was experimentally truncated, and the moths, on losing pheromone stimulus, rapidly changed their behaviour from up-tunnel zig-zag flight to lateral casting flight. The latency of this change was in the range 300-500 ms. Video and computer analysis of flight tracks indicates that these moths effect this switch by increasing their course angle to the wind while decreasing their air speed. Combined with previous physiological and biochemical data concerning pheromone processing within this species, this behavioural study supports the argument that the temporal limit for this behavioural response latency is determined at the level of genetically coded kinetic processes located within the peripheral sensory hairs. PMID:3209970

Baker, T C; Vogt, R G

1988-07-01

102

Cyclic GMP levels and guanylate cyclase activity in pheromone-sensitive antennae of the silkmoths Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female sex pheromones applied to freshly isolated, living antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori led to an increase of cGMP. A 1:1 mixture of 2 pheromone components of Antheraea polyphemus blown for 10 sec in physiological concentrations over their antennal branches raised cGMP levels about 1.34-fold (+/- 0.08 SEM, n = 23) from a basal level of 3.0 +/- 0.6 (SEM, n = 20) pmol/mg protein. Similarly, bombykol elicited a 1.29-fold (+/- 0.13 SEM, n = 23) cGMP increase in antennae of male Bombyx mori from a basal level of 2.7 +/- 0.5 (SEM, n = 24) pmol/mg protein. No cross-sensitivity was found with respect to pheromones from either species. In antennae of female silkmoths, the cGMP response was missing upon stimulation with their own respective pheromones according to the known lack of pheromone receptor cells in the female. cAMP levels in the male antennae of 14.2 +/- 2.9 (SEM, n = 4) pmol/mg protein in A. polyphemus and 15.0 +/- 3.0 (SEM, n = 5) pmol/mg protein in B. mori were not affected by pheromone stimulation. Within 1-60 sec, the extent of cGMP increase in B. mori was independent of the duration of pheromone exposure. The levels of cGMP in pheromone-stimulated antennae of both species remained elevated for at least 10 min, i.e., much longer than the duration of the receptor potential measured in single-cell recordings. Guanylate cyclase activity was identified in homogenates of male and female antennae from both species. The Km of the guanylate cyclase from male B. mori for the preferential substrate MnGTP was 175 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1970356

Ziegelberger, G; van den Berg, M J; Kaissling, K E; Klumpp, S; Schultz, J E

1990-04-01

103

Oak Management Forest Service  

E-print Network

Oak Management Forest Service PacificSouthwest in CaliforniaForest and Range Experiment received an M.S. degree (1959) in forestry. He received a doc- torate (1970) in plant physiology University, 1978). Cover: A stand of old-growth valley oak (Quercus lobata ~ 6 e )in Tehama County

Standiford, Richard B.

104

Defoliation of Oaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN view of the deplorable effect of repeated defoliation of oaks by the larvæ of Tortrix viridana, as noted by Mr. E. W. Swanton in NATURE for August 19, p. 250, it may be useful to remind planters that there are two distinct races of British oak (Quercus robur, Linn.), to which some botanists have assigned specific rank as Q.

Herbert Maxwell

1922-01-01

105

Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

2006-11-01

106

Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

2012-01-01

107

When Oak Ordinances Fail: Unaddressed Issues of Oak Conservation1  

E-print Network

When Oak Ordinances Fail: Unaddressed Issues of Oak Conservation1 Rudolph H. Light2 and Linda E which have significant oak woodlands to develop programs for the ultimate protection of this resource. As of 2001, a few counties have planned for the sustainability of their oak woodlands, but some counties may

Standiford, Richard B.

108

Oak Ridge via State Route  

E-print Network

PLANT EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK (FORMERLY K-25 PLANT) OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (X-10)1 2 SNSKnoxville Nashville Oak Ridge via State Route 162 North OAK RIDGE INN & SUITES THE RIDGE INN. TRANSFER SNS PROJECT OFFICE COMMERCE PARK OAK RIDGE/KNOXVILLE ROUTE MAP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R

Pennycook, Steve

109

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

Creative Media Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental coordinators Wayne McMahon Joan Hughes Mike Coffey Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hames Terry Bonine, Cindy Johnson September 2014 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008

Pennycook, Steve

110

OAK Inter is OFF. Th  

E-print Network

VANDERBI OAK: Onlin ________ OAK ­ Inter Whatdo Microsoft (IE8) with cautioned Turn 9 a oIneedto t's release of OAK, along w d to turn "Com mpatibility tudents will b is advised to his is denoted lick the GRAY he broken pa Y nowledge ___________ nd OAK UsingIn knowabou Internet

Simaan, Nabil

111

Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17?-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. PMID:25242521

Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

2014-10-10

112

Silkworm pupae powder ingestion increases fat metabolism in swim-trained rats  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Many researchers are trying to solve the metabolic syndrome by utilizing a variety of nutritional control and exercise. Of those, silkworm pupae peptides are known to inhibit the synthesis of fat. Therefore, we examine the effect of fat metabolism by supplying silkworm pupae (SP) for 5-week in swim-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into four groups as a group (n = 32) fed a normal diet (CO) with exercise training (CE); a group fed a silkworm pupa diet (SPC) with an exercise training (SPE), respectively. [Results] Abdominal fat pads (abdominal and epididymal) weight were lowest in SPE. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol concentrations were lower in the SP and the SPE. HDL-cholesterol, however, was not different between groups. Liver AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) was increased in the CE and the SPE. Liver PPAR-? (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) was increased in the SPC and SPE. L-FABP (liver fatty acids binding protein) was increased by SP ingestion. Liver CPT-1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) protein expression was increased by exercise training only. [Conclusion] In the present study showed that the silkworm pupae intake and/or swimming exercise training activates fat metabolism to reduce the concentration of serum lipids. Thus, the silkworm pupae intake leads to a reduction in fat storage, this is considered to be effective in the inhibition of the metabolic syndrome.

Ryu, Sung Pil

2014-01-01

113

Early responses of silkworm midgut to microsporidium infection - A Digital Gene Expression analysis.  

PubMed

Host-pathogen interactions are complex processes, which have been studied extensively in recent years. In insects, the midgut is a vital organ of digestion and nutrient absorption, and also serves as the first physiological and immune barrier against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Our focus is on Nosema bombycis, which is a pathogen of silkworm pebrine and causes great economic losses to the silk industry. A complete understanding of the host response to infection by N. bombycis and the interaction between them is necessary to prevent this disease. Silkworm midgut infected with N. bombycis is a good model to investigate the early host responses to microsporidia infection and the interaction between the silkworm and the microsporidium. Using Digital Gene Expression analysis, we investigated the midgut transcriptome profile of P50 silkworm larvae orally inoculated with N. bombycis. At 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, and 96h post-infection (hpi), 247, 95, 168, 450, 89, 80, and 773 DEGs were identified, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis showed the influence of N. bombycis infection on many biological processes including folate biosynthesis, spliceosome, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, biosynthesis of amino acids, ribosome, and RNA degradation. In addition, a number of differentially expressed genes involved in the immune response were identified. Overall, the results of this study provide an understanding of the strategy used by silkworm as a defense against the invasion by N. bombycis. Similar interactions between hosts and pathogens infection may exist in other species. PMID:25315610

Yue, Ya-Jie; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Li; Yan, Wei; Li, Qian-Long; Xiao, Sheng-Yan; Fu, Xu-Liang; Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Shen, Zhong-Yuan

2015-01-01

114

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students examine drawings of oak leaves and figure out how to classify and identify them. The printable six-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about classification and its importance to scientists, drawings of 12 different oak leaves, and a worksheet that includes step-by-step directions and areas for recording answers.

115

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge ___________________________________________________________________________ Getting to Know OAK 1 Revised: 10/16/2013 Getting to Know OAK What is OAK? Vanderbilt's course management system is called OAK (Online Access to Knowledge). OAK, powered by Blackboard, can be access through www.vanderbilt.edu/oak

116

Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the problem about a configuration with complete nutrition for humans in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applied in the spacebases. The possibility of feeding silkworms to provide edible animal protein with high quality for taikonauts during long-term spaceflights and lunar-based missions was investigated from several aspects, including the nutrition structure of silkworms, feeding method, processing methods, feeding equipment, growing conditions and the influences on the space environmental condition changes caused by the silkworms. The originally inedible silk is also regarded as a protein source. A possible process of edible silk protein was brought forward in this paper. After being processed, the silk can be converted to edible protein for humans. The conclusion provides a promising approach to solving the protein supply problem for the taikonauts living in space during an extended exploration period.

Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Hong

2009-04-01

117

The advances and perspectives of recombinant protein production in the silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silk gland of silkworm Bombyx mori, is one of the most important organs that has been fully studied and utilized so far. It contributes finest silk fibers to humankind. The silk gland has excellent ability of synthesizing silk proteins and is a kind tool to produce some useful recombinant proteins, which can be widely used in the biological, biotechnical and pharmaceutical application fields. It's a very active area to express recombinant proteins using the silk gland as a bioreactor, and great progress has been achieved recently. This review recapitulates the progress of producing recombinant proteins and silk-based biomaterials in the silk gland of silkworm in addition to the construction of expression systems. Current challenges and future trends in the production of valuable recombinant proteins using transgenic silkworms are also discussed. PMID:25113390

Xu, Hanfu

2014-10-01

118

Effects of applaud on the growth of silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the insecticide Applaud (buprofezin 25% WP) on the silkworm Bombyx mori (L.). This insecticide belongs to the class of insect growth regulators (IGR). The larvae were fed on leaves treated with 3 different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 g/liter) of Applaud on the 1st d of each instar. Analysis of data with the Tukey-Kramer test at 1% significant level revealed that mortality and larval duration did not differ among the treatments. On the contrary, the larval weight, which was estimated just before mounting (procedure during which the mature larva climbing on a branch or other material to spin the cocoon), differed among the treatments. Also, cocoon weight, shell weight, and cocoon sericin and fibroin content were different among the treatments, except the shell cocoon ratio. Maximum weight was observed in the controls and minimum in the last instar treatments. Our data suggest that supplementation of Applaud through food to larvae does not affect their mortality rate. On the contrary, it affects larval growth and cocoon parameters. PMID:10826174

Vassarmidaki, M E; Harizanis, P C; Katsikis, S

2000-04-01

119

Nature of heterosis and combining ability in the silkworm.  

PubMed

The isogenic, highly heterotic parthenoclone 29, originating from a hybrid silkworm female, was transformed via unisexual reproduction (meiotic and ameiotic parthenogenesis) into four genotypical variants differing in well-known various levels of hetero zygosity and combinations of useful and harmful genes. A comparison of these changes with the heterosis level made it possible to discover that both heterosity for adaptively neutral genes (overdominance hypothesis) and the number of allelic pairs, each of them being heterozygous for a favourable, completely dominant gene (dominance hypothesis) play no decisive role in the intensity of heterosis. The level of heterosis is largely determined by the relationship between the effects of useful and harmful genes, the first falling into the category of semidominant, cumulatively acting genes which control viability. Their favourable, joint well-coordinated effects, unlike those of genes which control quantitative characters, increase in relation to the number of genes in a geometric rather than an arithmetic progression. The interaction between semilethal genes is subjected to the same regularity. The high combining ability of parthenoclone 29 variants is determined by the number and homozygosity of the useful genes. PMID:24248023

Strunnikov, V A

1986-07-01

120

Bone regeneration by polyhedral microcrystals from silkworm virus  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori cypovirus is a major pathogen which causes significant losses in silkworm cocoon harvests because the virus particles are embedded in micrometer-sized protein crystals called polyhedra and can remain infectious in harsh environmental conditions for years. But the remarkable stability of polyhedra can be applied on slow-release carriers of cytokines for tissue engineering. Here we show the complete healing in critical-sized bone defects by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated polyhedra. Although absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) safely and effectively delivers recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) into healing tissue, the current therapeutic regimens release rhBMP-2 at an initially high rate after which the rate declines rapidly. ACS impregnated with BMP-2 polyhedra had enough osteogenic activity to promote complete healing in critical-sized bone defects, but ACS with a high dose of rhBMP-2 showed incomplete bone healing, indicating that polyhedral microcrystals containing BMP-2 promise to advance the state of the art of bone healing. PMID:23226833

Matsumoto, Goichi; Ueda, Takayo; Shimoyama, Junko; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Omi, Yasushi; Yube, Hisato; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Shimabukuro, Junji; Kotani, Eiji; Kawamata, Shin; Mori, Hajime

2012-01-01

121

Thermally induced increase in energy transport capacity of silkworm silks.  

PubMed

This work reports on the first study of thermally induced effect on energy transport in single filaments of silkworm (Bombyx mori) fibroin degummed mild (type 1), moderate (type 2), to strong (type 3). After heat treatment from 140 to 220°C, the thermal diffusivity of silk fibroin type 1, 2, and 3 increases up to 37.9, 20.9, and 21.5%, respectively. Our detailed scanning electron microscopy study confirms that the sample diameter change is almost negligible before and after heat treatment. Raman analysis is performed on the original and heat-treated (at 147°C) samples. After heat treatment at 147°C, the Raman peaks at 1081, 1230, and 1665 cm(-1) become stronger and narrower, indicating structural transformation from amorphous to crystalline. A structure model composed of amorphous, crystalline, and laterally ordered regions is proposed to explain the structural change by heat treatment. Owing to the close packing of more adjacent laterally ordered regions, the number and size of the crystalline regions of Bombyx mori silk fibroin increase by heat treatment. This structure change gives the observed significant thermal diffusivity increase by heat treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 1029-1037, 2014. PMID:24723331

Liu, Guoqing; Xu, Shen; Cao, Ting-Ting; Lin, Huan; Tang, Xiaoduan; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

2014-10-01

122

Structure of Bombyx mori Densovirus 1, a Silkworm Pathogen?‡  

PubMed Central

Bombyx mori densovirus 1 (BmDNV-1), a major pathogen of silkworms, causes significant losses to the silk industry. The structure of the recombinant BmDNV-1 virus-like particle has been determined at 3.1-Å resolution using X-ray crystallography. It is the first near-atomic-resolution structure of a virus-like particle within the genus Iteravirus. The particles consist of 60 copies of the 55-kDa VP3 coat protein. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel “jelly roll” fold similar to that found in many diverse icosahedral viruses, including archaeal, bacterial, plant, and animal viruses, as well as other parvoviruses. Most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to other known parvovirus capsid proteins. In contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses, the N-terminal ?-strand of BmDNV-1 VP3 is positioned relative to the neighboring 2-fold related subunit in a “domain-swapped” conformation, similar to findings for other invertebrate parvoviruses, suggesting domain swapping is an evolutionarily conserved structural feature of the Densovirinae. PMID:21367906

Kaufmann, Bärbel; El-Far, Mohamed; Plevka, Pavel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

2011-01-01

123

Cloning of putative odorant-degrading enzyme and integumental esterase cDNAs from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Odorant-degrading enzymes have been postulated to participate in the fast deactivation of insect pheromones. These proteins are expressed specifically in the sensillar lymph of insect antennae in such low amounts that, hitherto, isolation and protein-based cDNA cloning has not been possible. Using degenerate primers based on conserved amino acid sequences of insect carboxylesterases and juvenile hormone esterases, we were able to amplify partial cDNA fragments, which were then used for the design of gene-specific primers for RACE. This bioinformatics approach led us to the cloning of cDNAs, encoding a putative odorant-degrading enzyme (Apol-ODE) and a putative integumental esterase (Apol-IE) from the wild silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. Apol-ODE had a predicted molecular mass of 59,994 Da, pI of 6.63, three potential N-glycosylation sites, and a putative catalytic site Ser characterized by the sequence Gly(195)-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Ala. Apol-IE gave calculated molecular mass of 61,694 Da, pI of 7.49, two potential N-glycosylation sites, and a putative active site with the sequence Gly(214)-Tyr-Ser-Ala-Gly. The transcript of Apol-ODE was detected by RT-PCR in male antennae and branches (sensillar tissues), but not in female antennae and other control tissues. Apol-IE was detected in male and female antennae as well as legs. PMID:12429129

Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S

2002-12-01

124

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. VI. Experimental disturbance of antennal branch formation.  

PubMed

In the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the formation of the side branches of the quadripectinate antennal flagellum was disturbed by an experimental manipulation. Normally the side branches develop in the pupa via deep incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the centerline of the leaf-shaped antennal anlage. Local removal of the uppermost, pigmented cuticular layers of the pupal antennal pocket ('cuticular window') led to a local standstill of branch formation in the manipulated region of the pocket, most probably caused by increased evaporation of water through the remaining layers of meso- and endocuticle. These parts of the antenna retained an unbranched, plate-like shape. This early morphogenetic stage was conserved by the secretion of antennal cuticle. Besides cuticle formation, development of sensilla is not impeded by the manipulation. In the plate-shaped regions, the initial pattern formed by the sensilla in the antennal epidermis is preserved, because they maturate at their birth places. In the individual segments, the pattern of sensilla shows a mirror-like symmetry with respect to the segmental midline. From the edge to the midline, we found large s. trichodea, followed by small s. trichodea, s. basiconica, and s. coeloconica on the dorsal side whereas on the ventral side, there are only large s. trichodea and s. campaniformia. We conclude that the development of the featherlike antennal shape on the one hand and the development of sensilla and cuticle on the other hand are independent processes. PMID:18621301

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1995-06-01

125

Pheromone-binding proteins contribute to the activation of olfactory receptor neurons in the silkmoths antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus are innervated by three types of receptor neurons each responding specifically to one of three pheromone components. The sensillum lymph of these sensilla surrounding the sensory dendrites contains three different types of pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in high concentrations. The sensilla trichodea of the silkmoth Bombyx mori are supplied by two receptor neurons each tuned specifically to one of the two pheromone components bombykol and bombykal, but only one type of PBP has been found so far in these sensilla. Recombinant PBPs of both silkmoth species in various combinations with pheromone components were applied to the receptor neurons via tip-opened sensilla during electrophysiological recordings. Over a fairly broad range of pheromone concentrations the responses of the receptor neurons depended on both, the pheromone component and the type of the PBP. Therefore, the PBPs appear to contribute to the excitation of the receptor neurons. Furthermore, bombykal in combination with the expressed PBP of B. mori failed to activate the corresponding receptor neuron of B. mori, but did so if combined with one of the PBPs of A. polyphemus. Therefore, a still unknown binding protein involved in bombykal transport might be present in B. mori. PMID:14977808

Pophof, Blanka

2004-02-01

126

Revisiting the specificity of Mamestra brassicae and Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding proteins with a fluorescence binding assay.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), located in the sensillum lymph of pheromone-responsive antennal hairs, are thought to transport the hydrophobic pheromones to the chemosensory membranes of olfactory neurons. It is currently unclear what role PBPs may play in the recognition and discrimination of species-specific pheromones. We have investigated the binding properties and specificity of PBPs from Mamestra brassicae (MbraPBP1), Antheraea polyphemus (ApolPBP1), Bombyx mori (BmorPBP), and a hexa-mutant of MbraPBP1 (Mbra1-M6), mutated at residues of the internal cavity to mimic that of BmorPBP, using the fluorescence probe 1-aminoanthracene (AMA). AMA binds to MbraPBP1 and ApolPBP1, however, no binding was observed with either BmorPBP or Mbra1-M6. The latter result indicates that relatively limited modifications to the PBP cavity actually interfere with AMA binding, suggesting that AMA binds in the internal cavity. Several pheromones are able to displace AMA from the MbraPBP1- and ApolPBP1-binding sites, without, however, any evidence of specificity for their physiologically relevant pheromones. Moreover, some fatty acids are also able to compete with AMA binding. These findings bring into doubt the currently held belief that all PBPs are specifically tuned to distinct pheromonal compounds. PMID:11274212

Campanacci, V; Krieger, J; Bette, S; Sturgis, J N; Lartigue, A; Cambillau, C; Breer, H; Tegoni, M

2001-06-01

127

Molecular characterization of genome segment 2 encoding RNA dependent RNA polymerase of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus  

SciTech Connect

Genome segment 2 (S2) from Antheraea mylitta cypovirus (AmCPV) was converted into cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S2 consisted of 3798 nucleotides with a long ORF encoding a 1116 amino acid long protein (123 kDa). BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed 29% sequence identity and close relatedness of AmCPV S2 with RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of other insect cypoviruses, suggesting a common origin of all insect cypoviruses. The ORF of S2 was expressed as 123 kDa soluble His-tagged fusion protein in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants which exhibited RdRp activity in an in vitro RNA polymerase assay without any intrinsic terminal transferase activity. Maximum activity was observed at 37 deg. C at pH 6.0 in the presence of 3 mM MgCl{sub 2.} Site directed mutagenesis confirmed the importance of the conserved GDD motif. This is the first report of functional characterization of a cypoviral RdRp which may lead to the development of anti-viral agents.

Ghorai, Suvankar; Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Roy, Sobhan; Chavali, Venkata Ramana Murthy; Bagchi, Abhisek [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Ananta Kumar, E-mail: aghosh@hijli.iitkgp.ernet.i [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

2010-08-15

128

A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements isolated from the Indian tasar silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera: saturniidae).  

PubMed

Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the database. Full length elements from A. mylitta were inactive with multiple mutations. Many conserved amino acid blocks were identified after aligning transposase sequences. Mariner signature sequence, DD(34)D was almost inva ri able although a few new class of elements had different signatures. A. mylitta MLEs (Anmmar) get phylogene ti cally classified under cecropia subfamily and cluster closely with the elements from other Bombycoidea superfamily members implying vertical transmission from a common ancestor. ITR analysis showed a conserved sequence of AGGT(2-8N)ATAAGT for forward repeat and AGGT(2-8N)ATGAAAT for reverse repeat. These results and additional work may help us to understand the dynamics of MLE distribution in A. mylitta and construction of appropriate vectors for mariner mediated transgenics. PMID:12799491

Prasad, M Dharma; Nagaraju, J

2003-06-01

129

Oak Leaf Roller and Springtime Defoliation of Live Oak Trees  

E-print Network

This publication explains how to minimize damage to live oak trees by the oak leaf roller and an associated caterpillar species, which occur throughout Texas but are most damaging in the Hill Country and South Texas....

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2004-03-26

130

Co-Sensitization to Silkworm Moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 Inhalant Allergens among Allergic Patients in Guangzhou, Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r?=?0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r?=?0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r?=?0.701), Blattella germanica (r?=?0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r?=?0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549

Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

2014-01-01

131

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK - Assignments 1 Revised: 09/07/2010 Assignments: Using OAK without the Digital Dropbox Why do I need to use Assignments? Vanderbilt's course management system is called OAK, powered by Blackboard

Simaan, Nabil

132

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 Reference Guide 1 Revised: 07/08/2010 OAK: Blackboard Learn 9? ................................................................................................................... 1 Navigating the OAK Website

Simaan, Nabil

133

Contemporary California Indians, Oaks, and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora  

E-print Network

39 Contemporary California Indians, Oaks, and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)1 Beverly R. Ortiz2 Abstract This paper begins with a survey of contemporary California Indian utilization of acorns to manage oaks and other species. Next comes a detailed summary of contemporary uses by California Indians

Standiford, Richard B.

134

“Tall oaks fallen”  

PubMed Central

“As when, upon a tranced summer-night, Those green-robed senators of mighty woods, Tall oaks, branch-charmed by the earnest stars, Dream, and so dream all night without a stir.”                                                      William Butler Yeats       The past 12 months saw the loss of three “tall oaks”—pioneers in the molecular and cell biology of chromosomes:  David Prescott, Paul Doty and Oscar Miller. Here I offer remembrances of each of them, not as definitive memoirs but simply with the goal of informing the next generation about pioneers whose names they may hardly know today. PMID:22555606

Pederson, Thoru

2012-01-01

135

ROBERT BROWN DEPUTY MANAGER, OAK RIDGE OFFICE  

E-print Network

CONTRACTORS Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Office of ScientificROBERT BROWN DEPUTY MANAGER, OAK RIDGE OFFICE AUGUST 24, 2010 OVERVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE OFFICE #12;( 2 ) KEY OAK RIDGE MISSIONS Oak Ridge Office · Science

136

Solid State Oak Ridge National  

E-print Network

The Solid State Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory A Brief History 1952­1995 #12;Cover for over 45 years of outstanding service to the Solid State Division and Oak Ridge National Laboratory of Clinton Laboratories, later designated the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of the Laboratory

137

SUDDEN OAK DEATH Field Meeting  

E-print Network

SUDDEN OAK DEATH Field Meeting Saturday, December 3, 1:00 p.m. Joaquin Miller Park - Craib Picnic Area (if raining, come to the Ranger Station) Learn about Sudden Oak Death management and see Death (SOD). SOD is a fungus-like mold that is killing oak trees in coastal California. Several samples

California at Berkeley, University of

138

Biosynthesis and cocoon-export of a recombinant globular protein in transgenic silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene construct was made by fusing the coding sequence of the red fluorescent protein (DsRed) to the exon 2 of the fibrohexamerin gene (fhx), that encodes a subunit of fibroin, the major silk protein of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The fusion gene was inserted into a piggyBac vector to establish a series of transgenic lines. The expression of the

Corinne Royer; Audrey Jalabert; Martine Da Rocha; Anne-Marie Grenier; Bernard Mauchamp; Pierre Couble; Gérard Chavancy

2005-01-01

139

Amino-Terminal Amino Acid Sequence of the Silkworm Prothoracicotropic Hormone: Homology with Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three molecular forms of prothoracicotropic hormone were isolated from the head of the adult silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the amino acid sequence of 19 amino acid residues in the amino terminus of these prothoracicotropic hormones was determined. These residues exhibit significant homology with insulin and insulin-like growth factors.

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Hironori Ishizaki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki

1984-01-01

140

Amino Acid Sequence of a Prothoracicotropic Hormone of the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of 4K-PTTH-II, one of three forms of the Mr 4400 prothoracicotropic hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori, active to brainless pupae of Samia cynthia ricini. Like vertebrate insulin, it consists of two nonidentical peptide chains (A and B chains). The A chain consists of 20 amino acid residues. The B chain is

Hiromichi Nagasawa; Hiroshi Kataoka; Akira Isogai; Saburo Tamura; Akinori Suzuki; Akira Mizoguchi; Yuko Fujiwara; Atsushi Suzuki; Susumu Y. Takahashi; Hironori Ishizaki

1986-01-01

141

High-Toughness Silk Produced by a Transgenic Silkworm Expressing Spider (Araneus ventricosus) Dragline Silk Protein  

PubMed Central

Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4–2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

2014-01-01

142

High-toughness silk produced by a transgenic silkworm expressing spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline silk protein.  

PubMed

Spider dragline silk is a natural fiber that has excellent tensile properties; however, it is difficult to produce artificially as a long, strong fiber. Here, the spider (Araneus ventricosus) dragline protein gene was cloned and a transgenic silkworm was generated, that expressed the fusion protein of the fibroin heavy chain and spider dragline protein in cocoon silk. The spider silk protein content ranged from 0.37 to 0.61% w/w (1.4-2.4 mol%) native silkworm fibroin. Using a good silk-producing strain, C515, as the transgenic silkworm can make the raw silk from its cocoons for the first time. The tensile characteristics (toughness) of the raw silk improved by 53% after the introduction of spider dragline silk protein; the improvement depended on the quantity of the expressed spider dragline protein. To demonstrate the commercial feasibility for machine reeling, weaving, and sewing, we used the transgenic spider silk to weave a vest and scarf; this was the first application of spider silk fibers from transgenic silkworms. PMID:25162624

Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Tamada, Yasushi; Kojima, Katsura

2014-01-01

143

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman Microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

Study of Protein Conformation and Orientation in Silkworm and Spider Silk Fibers Using Raman for the first time to determine quantitatively the orientation of the -sheets in silk monofilaments from Bombyx, for systems with uniaxial symmetry such as silk, it is possible to determine the order parameters P2 and P4

Pezolet, Michel

144

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

145

Transcriptional Profiling of Midgut Immunity Response and Degeneration in the Wandering Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background Lepidoptera insects have a novel development process comprising several metamorphic stages during their life cycle compared with vertebrate animals. Unlike most Lepidoptera insects that live on nectar during the adult stage, the Bombyx mori silkworm adults do not eat anything and die after egg-laying. In addition, the midguts of Lepidoptera insects produce antimicrobial proteins during the wandering stage when the larval tissues undergo numerous changes. The exact mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unclear. Principal Findings We used the silkworm as a model and performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the midgut between the feeding stage and the wandering stage. Many genes concerned with metabolism, digestion, and ion and small molecule transportation were down-regulated during the wandering stage, indicating that the wandering stage midgut loses its normal functions. Microarray profiling, qRT-PCR and western blot proved the production of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) in the midgut during the wandering stage. Different genes of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway were up-regulated during the wandering stage. However, some key genes belonging to the Toll pathway showed no change in their transcription levels. Unlike butterfly (Pachliopta aristolochiae), the midgut of silkworm moth has a layer of cells, indicating that the development of midgut since the wandering stage is not usual. Cell division in the midgut was observed only for a short time during the wandering stage. However, there was extensive cell apoptosis before pupation. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis probably drives the continuous degeneration of the midgut in the silkworm since the wandering stage. Conclusions This study provided an insight into the mechanism of the degeneration of the silkworm midgut and the production of innate immunity-related proteins during the wandering stage. The imbalance of cell division and apoptosis induces irreversible degeneration of the midgut. The Imd pathway probably regulates the production of antimicrobial peptides in the midgut during the wandering stage. PMID:22937093

Xiao, Guohua; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xuquan; Guan, Jingmin; Shao, Qimiao; Beerntsen, Brenda T.; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chengshu; Ling, Erjun

2012-01-01

146

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles relieve biochemical dysfunctions of fifth-instar larvae of silkworms following exposure to phoxim insecticide.  

PubMed

Phoxim insecticide is widely used in agriculture, which is toxic to insect pests and nontarget organisms. The phoxim poisoning is hard to prevent for silkworms. TiO(2) NPs have been widely applied in whitening, brightening foods, toothpaste or sunscreens, and orally-administered drugs. However, whether TiO(2) NPs can increase resistance of silkworm to phoxim poisoning has not been reported. The results demonstrated that added TiO(2) NPs significantly decreased reduction of protein, glucose and pyruvate contents, lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, and attenuated increases of free amino acids, urea, uric acid and lactate levels, activities of protease, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the hemolymph of silkworms caused by phoxim exposure. From the present study, it is clearly evident that added TiO(2) NPs may relieve toxic impacts of phoxim insecticide on silkworm metabolism, which in turn may result in an increase in silk yield. PMID:22682359

Li, Bing; Hu, Rengping; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Xie, Yi; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Sang, Xuezi; Gong, Xiaolan; Cui, Yaling; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-10-01

147

Proteomic analysis of silkworm midgut cellular proteins interacting with the 5' end of infectious flacherie virus genomic RNA.  

PubMed

The flacherie disease in the silkworm is caused by the infectious flacherie virus (IFV). IFV relies on its 5' region of genomic RNA to recruit host-related factors to implement viral translation and replication. To identify host proteins bound to the 5'-region of IFV RNA and identify proteins important for its function, mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins from silkworm midgut extracts that were obtained using RNA aptamer-labeled 5' region of IFV RNA. We found 325 protein groups (unique peptide ?2) bound to the 5' region of IFV RNA including translation-related factors (16 ribosomal subunits, 3 eukaryotic initiation factor subunits, 1 elongation factor subunit and 6 potential internal ribosome entry site trans-acting factors), cytoskeleton-related proteins, membrane-related proteins, metabolism enzymes, and other proteins. These results can be used to study the translation and replication related factors of IFV interacting with host silkworm and to control flacherie disease in silkworm. PMID:25534780

Li, Mingqian; He, Xinyi; Liu, Han; Fu, Zhangwuke; He, Xiangkang; Lu, Xingmeng

2015-02-01

148

A novel third chromosomal locus controls susceptibility to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Baculovirus demonstrates specific infection spectrums and thus one certain host exhibits particular response to single baculovirus isolate. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is considered to be not an innate pathogen to Bombyx mori, but some silkworm strains have been identified to be permissive to AcMNPV, indicating the positive or negative involvement of certain host factors in baculovirus replications in vivo. To provide a fundamental knowledge of this process, we performed large-scale screening to investigate the responses of 448 silkworm strains against recombinant AcMNPV inoculation. By genetic analysis between permissive and resistant strains identified, we further confirmed that a potential corresponding locus on chromosome 3 regulates host responses to AcMNPV in silkworm. Additionally, we found that it is available for AcMNPV-silkworm baculovirus expression vector system to produce proteins of interest. PMID:24337396

Xu, Jian; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Mon, Hiroaki; Li, Zhiqing; Zhu, Li; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Banno, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kaito; Lee, Jae Man

2014-04-01

149

Expression of SNMP-1 in olfactory neurons and sensilla of male and female antennae of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

SNMP-1 (sensory neuron membrane protein 1) is an olfactory-specific membrane-bound protein which is homologous with the CD36 receptor family. Previous light level immunocytochemical studies suggested that SNMP-1 was localized in the dendrites and distal cell body of sex-pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons (ORN); these studies further suggested SNMP-1 was expressed in only one of two to three neurons in male-specific pheromone-sensitive trichoid sensilla. To better understand the expression and localization of SNMP-1, an immunocytochemical study was performed using electron microscopy to visualize the distribution of SNMP-1 among the neurons of several classes of olfactory sensilla of both male and female antennae of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. SNMP-1 antigenicity was primarily restricted to the receptive dendritic membranes of ORNs of all sensilla types examined and was observed in cytosolic granules, but not plasma membranes, of the cell soma. Mean labeling densities ranged from 1 to 16 gold particles per micrometer of dendrite circumference; dendrites of trichoid and intermediate sensilla showed significantly higher labeling densities than those of basiconic sensilla. Larger dendrites of trichoid sensilla showed significantly higher mean labeling densities (13-16/micron) than smaller diameter dendrites (3-7/micron). Immunofluorescence studies using baculovirus expressed SNMP-1 and multiphoton photon laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) indicated that rSNMP-1, which was post-translationally processed to the in vivo molecular weight, was inserted into the plasma membrane in a topography presenting extracellular epitopes. These studies suggest SNMP-1 is a common feature of the ORNs, is asymmetrically expressed among functionally distinct neurons, and possesses a topography which permits interaction with components of the extracellular sensillum lymph. PMID:11320659

Rogers, M E; Steinbrecht, R A; Vogt, R G

2001-03-01

150

The solution NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP provides new insight into pheromone recognition by pheromone-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) located in the antennae of male moth species play an important role in olfaction. They are carrier proteins, believed to transport volatile hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to the membrane-bound G protein-coupled olfactory receptor proteins. The roles of PBPs in molecular recognition and the mechanisms of pheromone binding and release are poorly understood. Here, we report the NMR structure of a PBP from the giant silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. This is the first structure of a PBP with specific acetate-binding function in vivo. The protein consists of nine alpha-helices: alpha1a (residues 2-5), alpha1b (8-12), alpha1c (16-23), alpha2 (27-34), alpha3a (46-52), alpha3b (54-59), alpha4 (70-79), alpha5 (84-100) and alpha6 (107-125), held together by three disulfide bridges: 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117. A large hydrophobic cavity is located inside the protein, lined with side-chains from all nine helices. The acetate-binding site is located at the narrow end of the cavity formed by the helices alpha3b and alpha4. The pheromone can enter this cavity through an opening between the helix alpha1a, the C-terminal end of the helix alpha6, and the loop between alpha2 and alpha3a. We suggest that Trp37 may play an important role in the initial interaction with the ligand. Our analysis also shows that Asn53 plays the key role in recognition of acetate pheromones specifically, while Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Phe76, and Phe118 are responsible for non-specific binding, and Leu8 and Ser9 may play a role in ligand chain length recognition. PMID:15003458

Mohanty, Smita; Zubkov, Sergey; Gronenborn, Angela M

2004-03-19

151

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. V. Development of the peripheral nervous system.  

PubMed

The imaginal antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a feather-shaped structure consisting of about 30 flagellomeres, each of which gives off two pairs of side branches. During the pupal stage (lasting for 3 weeks), the antenna develops from a leaf-shaped, flattened epidermal sac ('antennal blade') via two series of incisions which proceed from the periphery towards the prospective antennal stem. The development of the peripheral nervous system was studied by staining the neurons with an antibody against horseradish peroxidase as well as by electron microscopy. The epithelium is subdivided in segmentally arranged sensillogenic regions alternating with non-sensillogenic regions. Immediately after apolysis, clusters consisting of 5 sensory neurons each and belonging to the prospective sensilla chaetica can be localized at the periphery of the antennal blade in the sensillogenic regions. During the first day following apolysis, the primordia of ca. 70,000 olfactory sensilla arise in the sensillogenic regions. Axons from their neurons are collected in segmentally arranged nerves which run towards the CNS along the dorsal as well as the ventral epidermis and are enveloped by a glial sheath. This 'primary innervation pattern' is completed within the second day after apolysis. A first wave of incisions ('primary incisions') subdivide the antennal blade into segmental 'double branches' without disturbing the innervation pattern. Then a second wave of incisions ('secondary incisions') splits the double branches into single antennal branches. During this process, the segmental nerves and their glial sheaths are disintegrated. The axons are then redistributed into single branch nerves while their glial sheath is reconstituted, forming the 'secondary', or adult, innervation pattern. The epidermis is backed by a basal lamina which is degraded after outgrowth of the axons, but is reconstituted after formation of the single antennal branches. PMID:18621300

Steiner, C; Keil, T A

1995-06-01

152

Proteome analysis of silkworm, Bombyx mori, larval gonads: characterization of proteins involved in sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is initialed by the components of the sex determination pathway and is most evident in gonads and germ cells. Although striking dimorphic expressions have been detected at the transcriptional level between the silkworm larval testis and the ovary, the sex-dimorphic expressions at the protein level have not yet been well characterized. The proteome of silkworm larval gonads was investigated using a shotgun-based identification. A total of 286 and 205 nonredundant proteins were identified from the silkworm testis and ovary, respectively, with a false discovery rate (FDR) lower than 1%. Only 40 and 16 proteins were previously identified, and 246 and 189 proteins were newly identified in the silkworm testis and the ovary, respectively. The gametogenesis mechanism of silkworm was demonstrated using the protein expression profile and bioinformatics analysis. Cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) showed to be highly abundant in testis, while tubulins were abundant in ovary. Several homologies of Drosophila essential proteins for gametogenesis were identified in silkworm, such as male meiotic arrest gene product ALY and VISMAY in testis, and maternal mRNA localization protein exuperantia and SQUID in ovary. The gene ontology (GO) annotation and pathway analysis provide system-level insights into the sexual dimorphism and gametogenesis. PMID:23607740

Chen, Jin-e; Li, Jian-ying; You, Zheng-ying; Liu, Li-li; Liang, Jian-she; Ma, Ying-ying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Hua-rong; Jiang, Zhen-dong; Zhong, Bo-xiong

2013-06-01

153

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae)  

E-print Network

Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Notodontoidea Thaumetopoeidae) The oak processionary moth is a major defoliator of oak in Europe. The larvae (caterpillars) feed on the foliage of many growing next to severely defoliated oaks. Oak processionary moth is also a risk to human health

154

Science Education Programs at Oak Ridge  

E-print Network

Science Education Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory This publication spotlights the Science Education Programs at ORNL, which are administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak... A #12;Many Science Education Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are managed by Oak Ridge

Ronquist, Fredrik

155

Small Business Manager Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Keith Joy Small Business Manager Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Past, Present, and Future #12;2 OAK was the world's first continuously operated nuclear reactor Oak Ridge National Laboratory evolved from the Manhattan Project 2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Overview_0604 #12;3 OAK RIDGE

156

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus of a continuing supply of breeding material in the form of weakened oaks suffering from `oak dieback and decline be produced by the female and subsequently her offspring. Adult beetle on oak timber, cut to show tunnels

157

Managing acute oak decline Practice Note  

E-print Network

Managing acute oak decline Practice Note FCPN015 April 2010 1 Pedunculate oak Oak trees in Britain have long suffered from dieback disorders but a new disease called acute oak decline is currently felling diseased oaks. Felled material should not be removed from affected sites unless the bark

158

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge ____________________________________________________________________________ Accessing the FERPA Course on OAK 1 Revised: 01/22/2013 Instructions for Self-Enrolling in the FERPA Tutorial on OAK Log in to OAK 1. Go to www.vanderbilt.edu/oak 2. Select "I have a valid Vanderbilt

Palmeri, Thomas

159

DOE Oak Ridge Office Freda H. Hopper  

E-print Network

DOE Oak Ridge Office Freda H. Hopper Small Business Program Manager August 26, 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Small business university conference 2008 © All Rights Reserved 1Jun08 #12;Key Oak BUILDING EM DISPOSAL CELL ORISE #12;Oak Ridge Reservation Jun08 2008 © All Rights Reserved 4 Oak Ridge

160

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Oak Ridge National in the city of Oak Ridge, and several others locations around the Oak Ridge vicinity. The National. In addition, more than 3,000 visiting scientists spend 2 weeks or longer in Oak Ridge each year at the 12

Pennycook, Steve

161

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Oak Ridge National vicinity. #12;Oak Ridge Reservation 5-2 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fig. 5.1. Location of ORNL within. In addition, more than 3,000 visiting scientists spend 2 weeks or longer in Oak Ridge each year at the 12

Pennycook, Steve

162

Proteomic-Based Insight into Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) and Absolute protein expression (APEX) analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera. PMID:24098719

Liu, Shi-ping; Yi, Qi-ying; Hu, Cui-mei; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qing-you; Zhao, Ping

2013-01-01

163

Production of small antibacterial peptides using silkworm-baculovirus protein expression system.  

PubMed

The recombinant proteins with strong antimicrobial activity are known to be very difficult to express using bacterial expression system. Here, human ?-defensin (DEFB) 1, DEFB2, and DEFB3 were successfully produced using a silkworm-baculovirus protein expression system. We have generated four baculoviruses for each DEFB protein to compare the effect of different peptide tags in secretion into silkworm larval hemolymph. Interestingly, the best performing peptide tags for the secretion were different among DEFBs: C-terminal GST-H8 tag for DEFB1, N-terminal H8 tag for DEFB2, and C-terminal H8 tag for DEFB3, respectively. In addition, the colony count assay demonstrated that the recombinant DEFB2 s showed antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus. PMID:23742088

Fukushima, Mai; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Jun; Furue, Masutaka; Tsuji, Gaku; Imanishi, Shigeo; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2013-01-01

164

Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

165

Proteomic-based insight into Malpighian tubules of silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Malpighian tubules (MTs) are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida) for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) and Absolute protein expression (APEX) analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera. PMID:24098719

Zhong, Xiao-wu; Zou, Yong; Liu, Shi-ping; Yi, Qi-ying; Hu, Cui-mei; Wang, Chen; Xia, Qing-you; Zhao, Ping

2013-01-01

166

Directly obtaining high strength silk fiber from silkworm by feeding carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

By feeding silkworm with the carbon nanotube, CNT, we directly obtained high strength silk fiber, SF, from silkworm. The CNT-based SF, SF/CNT, has a stress at 1.69GPa and a strain at about 24% both higher than those of the SF and are capable to compare with the super SF and even the spider fiber. Morphology comparison showed that the presence of CNT in SF caused the cross-section changed from triangle to ellipse. X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis indicated that the embedded CNT in SF caused an increase in silk-I structure. Specifically the amide-II structure reduced by about 5% and the amide-III structure increased by about 10%. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the presence of CNT in SF enhanced the thermal stability. Additionally, the presence of CNT in SF also enhanced the electrical property. PMID:24268277

Wang, Jun-Ting; Li, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Meng-Yuan; Liu, Si-Lu; Jiang, Lin-Hai; Shen, Qing

2014-01-01

167

Shotgun analysis on the peritrophic membrane of the silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The insect midgut epithelium is generally lined with a unique chitin and protein structure, the peritrophic membrane (PM), which facilitates food digestion and protects the gut epithelium. We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify the extracted proteins from the silkworm PM to obtain an in-depth understanding of the biological function of the silkworm PM components. A total of 305 proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 8.02 kDa to 788.52 kDa and the isoelectric points ranging from 3.39 to 12.91, were successfully identified. We also found several major classes of PM proteins, i.e. PM chitin-binding protein, invertebrate intestinal mucin, and chitin deacetylase. The protein profile provides a basis for further study of the physiological events in the PM of Bombyx mori. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(11): 665-670] PMID:23187007

Zhong, Xiaowu; Zhang, Liping; Zou, Yong; Yi, Qiying; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2012-01-01

168

Chitin in the silk gland ducts of the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

Davies, Gwilym J G; Knight, David P; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-01-01

169

Sexual attraction in the silkworm moth: structure of the pheromone-binding-protein–bombykol complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insects use volatile organic molecules to communicate messages with remarkable sensitivity and specificity. In one of the most studied systems, female silkworm moths (Bombyx mori) attract male mates with the pheromone bombykol, a volatile 16-carbon alcohol. In the male moth’s antennae, a pheromone-binding protein conveys bombykol to a membrane-bound receptor on a nerve cell. The structure of the pheromone-binding

Benjamin H Sandler; Larisa Nikonova; Walter S Leal; Jon Clardy

2000-01-01

170

Expression pattern of immunoglobulin superfamily members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins are involved in cell adhesion, cell communication and immune functions. In this study, 152 IgSF genes containing at least one immunoglobulin (Ig) domain were predicted in the Bombyx mori silkworm genome. Of these, 145 were distributed on 25 chromosomes with no genes on chromosomes 16, 18 and 26. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic evolution analysis indicated that IgSFs evolved rapidly. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that IgSF members functioned as cellular components and in molecular functions and biological processes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis suggested that IgSF proteins were involved in signal transduction, signaling molecules and interaction, and cell communication. Microarray-based expression data showed tissue expression for 136 genes in anterior silkgland, middle silkgland, posterior silkgland, testis, ovary, fat body, midgut, integument, hemocyte, malpighian tubule and head. Expression pattern of IgSF genes in the silkworm ovary and midgut was analyzed by RNA-Seq. Expression of 105 genes was detected in the ovary in strain Dazao. Expression in the midgut was detected for 74 genes in strain Lan5 and 75 genes in strain Ou17. Expression of 34 IgSF genes in the midgut relative to the actin A3 gene was significantly different between strains Lan5 and Ou17. Furthermore, 1 IgSF gene was upregulated and 1 IgSF gene was downregulated in strain Lan5, and 4 IgSF genes were upregulated and 2 IgSF genes were downregulated in strain Ou17 after silkworms were challenged with B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV), indicating potential involvement in the response to BmCPV-infection. These results provide an overview of IgSF family members in silkworms, and lay the foundation for further functional studies. PMID:25020261

He, Lei; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Gong, Chengliang

2014-09-15

171

Analysis of midgut gene expression profiles from different silkworm varieties after exposure to high temperature.  

PubMed

The silkworm is a poikilothermic animal, whose growth and development is significantly influenced by environmental temperature. To identify genes and metabolic pathways involved in the heat-stress response, digital gene expression analysis was performed on the midgut of the thermotolerant silkworm variety '932' and thermosensitive variety 'HY' after exposure to high temperature (932T and HYT). Deep sequencing yielded 6,211,484, 5,898,028, 5,870,395 and 6,088,303 reads for the 932, 932T, HY and HYT samples, respectively. The annotated genes associated with these tags numbered 4357, 4378, 4296 and 4658 for the 932, 932T, HY and HYT samples, respectively. In the HY-vs-932, 932-vs-932T, and HY-vs-HYT comparisons, 561, 316 and 281 differentially expressed genes were identified, which could be assigned to 179, 140 and 123 biological pathways, respectively. It was found that some of the biological pathways, which included oxidative phosphorylation, related to glucose and lipid metabolism, are greatly affected by high temperature and may lead to a decrease in the ingestion of fresh mulberry. When subjected to an early period of continuous heat stress, HSP genes, such as HSP19.9, HSP23.7, HSP40-3, HSP70, HSP90 and HSP70 binding protein, are up-regulated but then reduced after 24h and the thermotolerant '932' strain has higher levels of mRNA of some HSPs, except HSP70, than the thermosensitive variety during continuous high temperature treatment. It is suggested that HSPs and the levels of their expression may play important roles in the resistance to high temperature stress among silkworm varieties. This study has generated important reference tools that can be used to further analyze the mechanisms that underlie thermotolerance differences among silkworm varieties. PMID:25046138

Li, Qing Rong; Xiao, Yang; Wu, Fu Quan; Ye, Ming Qiang; Luo, Guo Qing; Xing, Dong Xu; Li, Li; Yang, Qiong

2014-10-01

172

Heritable Genome Editing with CRISPR\\/Cas9 in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the establishment of an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis method in the silkworm Bombyx mori using modified type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with an associated protein (Cas9) system. Using four loci Bm-ok, BmKMO, BmTH, and Bmtan as candidates, we proved that genome alterations at specific sites could be induced by direct microinjection of specific

Bhaskar Roy

2014-01-01

173

Use of RNAi technology to confer enhanced resistance to BmNPV on transgenic silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. dsRNA is a powerful tool for gene-specific silencing in plants and animals. In this study, we examined the use of gene silencing in generating transgenic silkworms resistant to the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). Using a transposon piggyBac system, we first generated BmN cells (rBmN-lef1), which carried artificial genes designed for expressing dsRNAs with sequences of the essential viral gene

R. Isobe; K. Kojima; T. Matsuyama; G.-X. Quan; T. Kanda; T. Tamura; K. Sahara; S.-I. Asano; H. Bando

2004-01-01

174

Mechanical Properties of Regenerated Bombyx mori Silk Fibers and Recombinant Silk Fibers Produced by Transgenic Silkworms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerated silk fibroin fibers from the cocoons of silkworm, Bombyx mori, were prepared with hexafluoro solvents, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) or hexafluoroacetone-trihydrate (HFA), as dope solvents and methanol as coagulation solvent. The regenerated fiber prepared from the HFIP solution showed slightly larger tensile strength when the draw ratio is 1:3 than that of native silk fiber, but the strength of the regenerated

Zhenghua Zhu; Yuka Kikuchi; Katsura Kojima; Toshiki Tamura; Nobuo Kuwabara; Takashi Nakamura; Tetsuo Asakura

2010-01-01

175

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) to Infection by the Microsporidian Nosema bombycis  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia have attracted much attention because they infect a variety of species ranging from protists to mammals, including immunocompromised patients with AIDS or cancer. Aside from the study on Nosema ceranae, few works have focused on elucidating the mechanism in host response to microsporidia infection. Nosema bombycis is a pathogen of silkworm pébrine that causes great economic losses to the silkworm industry. Detailed understanding of the host (Bombyx mori) response to infection by N. bombycis is helpful for prevention of this disease. A genome-wide survey of the gene expression profile at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection by N. bombycis was performed and results showed that 64, 244, 1,328, 1,887 genes were induced, respectively. Up to 124 genes, which are involved in basal metabolism pathways, were modulated. Notably, B. mori genes that play a role in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathways were induced, suggesting that the host may accumulate JH as a response to infection. Interestingly, N. bombycis can inhibit the silkworm serine protease cascade melanization pathway in hemolymph, which may be due to the secretion of serpins in the microsporidia. N. bombycis also induced up-regulation of several cellular immune factors, in which CTL11 has been suggested to be involved in both spore recognition and immune signal transduction. Microarray and real-time PCR analysis indicated the activation of silkworm Toll and JAK/STAT pathways. The notable up-regulation of antimicrobial peptides, including gloverins, lebocins and moricins, strongly indicated that antimicrobial peptide defense mechanisms were triggered to resist the invasive microsporidia. An analysis of N. bombycis-specific response factors suggested their important roles in anti-microsporidia defense. Overall, this study primarily provides insight into the potential molecular mechanisms for the host-parasite interaction between B. mori and N. bombycis and may provide a foundation for further work on host-parasite interaction between insects and microsporidia. PMID:24386341

Pan, Guoqing; Li, Zhihong; Han, Bing; Xu, Jinshan; Lan, Xiqian; Chen, Jie; Yang, Donglin; Chen, Quanmei; Sang, Qi; Ji, Xiaocun; Li, Tian; Long, Mengxian; Zhou, Zeyang

2013-01-01

176

Chitin in the Silk Gland Ducts of the Spider Nephila edulis and the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Here we report the detection and localisation of chitin in the cuticle of the spinning ducts of both the spider Nephila edulis and the silkworm Bombyx mori. Our observations demonstrate that the duct walls of both animals contain chitin notwithstanding totally independent evolutionary pathways of the systems. We conclude that chitin may well be an essential component for the construction of spinning ducts; we further conclude that in both species chitin may indicate the evolutionary origin of the spinning ducts. PMID:24015298

Davies, Gwilym J. G.; Knight, David P.; Vollrath, Fritz

2013-01-01

177

V-ATPase Is Involved in Silkworm Defense Response against Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus  

PubMed Central

Silkworms are usually susceptible to the infection of Bombyx mori (B. mori) nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which can cause significant economic loss. However, some silkworm strains are identified to be highly resistant to BmNPV. To explore the silkworm genes involved in this resistance in the present study, we performed comparative real-time PCR, ATPase assay, over-expression and sub-cellular localization experiments. We found that when inoculated with BmNPV both the expression and activity of V-ATPase were significantly up-regulated in the midgut column cells (not the goblet cells) of BmNPV-resistant strains (NB and BC8), the main sites for the first step of BmNPV invasion, but not in those of a BmNPV-susceptible strain 306. Furthermore, this up-regulation mainly took place during the first 24 hours post inoculation (hpi), the essential period required for establishment of virus infection, and then was down-regulated to normal levels. Amazingly, transient over-expression of V-ATPase c subunit in BmNPV-infected silkworm cells could significantly inhibit BmNPV proliferation. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating clearly that V-ATPase is indeed involved in the defense response against BmNPV. Our data further suggests that prompt and potent regulation of V-ATPase may be essential for execution of this response, which may enable fast acidification of endosomes and/or lysosomes to render them competent for degradation of invading viruses. PMID:23823190

Gao, Lu; Pan, Ye; Wang, Yong; Cheng, Xin; Lü, Honggang; Lin, Feng; Chen, Liang; Yao, Qin; Liu, Xiaoyong; Tang, Qi; Chen, Keping

2013-01-01

178

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK ­ Enrolling Users as Guests 1 Revised: 09/08/2011 Enrolling"Guests"andAllowingAccess Whywould Permit Guests, that means Guests ARE NOT permitted. #12;VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online

Simaan, Nabil

179

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK Resolved Issues and New Features 9.1.8 1 Revised: 07/30/2012 Resolved at the system level by the Administrator. #12;VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge

Bordenstein, Seth

180

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK ­ Document Unpackager 1 Revised: 09/07/2011 Uploading files, even files in folders and nested folders, from your computer and put them, at one time, in OAK

Simaan, Nabil

181

Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

182

Characterization and identification of the integrin family in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. Integrins are evolutionarily conserved from sponges to humans, and play vital roles in many physiological and pathological processes. To explore their diverse functions of integrins in insect, eleven integrins including six ? and five ? subunits were cloned and characterized from silkworm. Our results showed that integrins from silkworm own more family members compared to other invertebrates. Among those ? subunits, integrins ?1, ?2, and the other four subunits belong to PS1, PS2, and PS3 groups, respectively. The ? subunits mainly gather in the insect ?? group except the ?1 subunit which belongs to the insect ? group. Expression profiles demonstrated that the integrins exhibited distinct patterns, but were mainly expressed in hemocytes. ?1 and ?2 subunits are the predominant ones either in the embryogenesis or larva stages. Interestingly, integrins were significantly up-regulated after stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) in vivo. These results indicate that integrins perform diverse functions in hemocytes of silkworm. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the functional and evolutionary features of integrins. PMID:25064490

Zhang, Kui; Xu, Man; Su, Jingjing; Yu, Shuang; Sun, Zhongfeng; Li, Yutian; Zhang, Weibo; Hou, Jianbing; Shang, Lijun; Cui, Hongjuan

2014-10-01

183

Characterization and recombinant protein expression of ferritin light chain homologue in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The silkworm genome encodes three iron storage proteins or ferritins, Fer1HCH, Fer2LCH, and Fer3HCH. Probing our EST library constructed from 1-day-old silkworm eggs revealed only Fer2LCH mRNA, which encoded for a protein with a predicted putative N-glycosylation site. Developmental and tissue expression analyses during embryogenesis revealed that Fer2LCH mRNA was abundant from 6 h to 6 days after oviposition. Transcriptional expression of Fer2LCH during the postembryonic stage is also high in the larval fat body and mid-gut, and then is upregulated in all pupal tissues tested. We found that Fer2LCH mRNA contains an iron-responsive element, suggesting this ferritin subunit is subject to translational control. Although ferritin expression has been shown to increase following immune challenge in other insects, the levels of Fer2LCH mRNA were not significantly induced following viral or bacterial infection of Bombyx mori. Using a baculovirus expression system we expressed recombinant BmFer2LCH protein, which was detectable in the cytoplasmic fraction, likely in a compartment of the secretory pathway, and was shown to undergo posttranslational modifications including N-glycosylation. In particular, rBmFer2LCH carbohydrate chains were composed of mannose and GlcNAc. We suggest that Fer2LCH is important for iron homeostasis and maintaining normal organ function in silkworms. PMID:23956199

Hong, Sun Mee; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2014-04-01

184

Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac  

MedlinePLUS

... the poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants adhere to the skin. Once the oil has been washed off, there is no risk of spreading poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac to other parts of the body. Be sure to wash any ...

185

Niemann-Pick disease type C2 protein induces triglyceride accumulation in silkworm and mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

Silkworm haemolymph induced both the cessation of growth and an increase in triglyceride (triacylglycerol) storage in BmN4 cells. We purified the growth inhibitory factor from the silkworm haemolymph and identified this protein as the Bombyx mori PP (promoting protein), an orthologue of NPC2 (Niemann-Pick disease type C2) protein. Recombinant silkworm NPC2 inhibited cellular proliferation and increased triglyceride accumulation in BmN4 cells. Injection of either the recombinant protein or antiserum of NPC2 into living silkworms increased or decreased respectively triglyceride levels in the fat body. A mutation that depletes the cholesterol-binding capacity did not abolish the activity of NPC2. We further revealed that NPC2 induced the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and that an AMPK inhibitor suppressed NPC2-dependent triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that NPC2 induces triglyceride accumulation via the activation of AMPK independently of its cholesterol-binding capacity in the silkworm. PMID:24438076

Adachi, Tatsuo; Ishii, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Yohei; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

2014-04-01

186

Country Canada Type Blend (corn in oak + rye in charred oak + barley in medium-charred oak)  

E-print Network

syrup. As the glass decants, I sense a building of the caramel and honeycomb under the cedar and cornCountry Canada Type Blend (corn in oak + rye in charred oak + barley in medium-charred oak by an updraft of caramel corn and honeycomb. The whisky also brings forward strong dry woody notes (oak

Izzard, Rob

187

GC/MS-based metabolomic studies reveal key roles of glycine in regulating silk synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Metabolic profiling of silkworm, especially the factors that affect silk synthesis at the metabolic level, is little known. Herein, metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to identify key metabolic changes in silk synthesis deficient silkworms. Forty-six differential metabolites were identified in Nd group with the defect of silk synthesis. Significant changes in the levels of glycine and uric acid (up-regulation), carbohydrates and free fatty acids (down-regulation) were observed. The further metabolomics of silk synthesis deficient silkworms by decreasing silk proteins synthesis using knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene or extirpating silk glands operation showed that the changes of the metabolites were almost consistent with those of the Nd group. Furthermore, the increased silk yields by supplying more glycine or its related metabolite confirmed that glycine is a key metabolite to regulate silk synthesis. These findings provide important insights into the regulation between metabolic profiling and silk synthesis. PMID:25533535

Chen, Quanmei; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinjie; Xiong, Ying; Xu, Guowang; Xia, Qingyou

2015-02-01

188

Transcriptome Analysis of Integument Differentially Expressed Genes in the Pigment Mutant (quail) during Molting of Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

189

Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office  

E-print Network

Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office PO. Box 2001 Oak Ridge,Tennessee 37831 Contracting Officers, manages and operates the governrnent-owned Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on behalf of DOE reimbursableIA work which DOE accepts under the joint MOA . #12;DOD Contracting Officers -2- The DOE Oak Ridge

190

Practice Note Monitoring the oak processionary  

E-print Network

immediately to the Forestry Commission (see page 8). Oak processionary moth larvae (caterpillars) feed on the foliage of oak trees and when abundant the larvae can defoliate oak trees completely. Trees become this occurs. Oak processionary moth larvae also present a risk to human and animal health. The older larvae

191

Oak Ridge National Laboratory National Security Programs  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory National Security Programs Dr. Michael A. Kuliasha, Chief Scientist National Security Technologies Oak Ridge National Laboratory #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S Security Challenges #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY How Will Our Enemies

192

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 TurningPoint 2008 1 Revised: 08/12/2010 OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 TurningPoint 2008 Setting Up TurningPoint 2008 on Your Computer Set up a connection to OAK To begin

Simaan, Nabil

193

Original article Vulnerability of young oak seedlings  

E-print Network

Original article Vulnerability of young oak seedlings (Quercus robur L) to embolism: responses with Ophiostoma querci and water stress on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) were tested with potted saplings. O in the oak decline symptoms as occurring in Europe may therefore be questioned. water stress I embolism / oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 TurningPoint 2008 1 Revised: 08/12/2010 OAK: Blackboard Learn 9 to OAK To begin using TurningPoint and import your lists. 1. Launch TurningPoint 2008. 2

Bordenstein, Seth

195

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge  

E-print Network

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online Access to Knowledge _____________________________________________________________________________ OAK: Blackboard Learn 9.1 iTunes U Instructor Guide 1 Revised: 08/12/2010 OAK: Blackboard Learn 9 Add iTunes U Link. 4. Enter link properties. 5. Click OK. #12;VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY OAK: Online

Simaan, Nabil

196

Original article Oak decline risk rating  

E-print Network

Original article Oak decline risk rating for the southeastern United States S Oak F Tainter J November 1994; accepted 22 June 1995) Summary — Oak decline risk rating models were developed for upland hardwood forests in the south- eastern United States using data gathered during regional oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through

B. G. Blaylock; M. L. Frank; F. O. Hoffman; L. A. Hook; G. W. Suter; J. A. Watts

1992-01-01

198

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

) operating components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 and national security needs of the United States. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental ReportIntroduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak

Pennycook, Steve

199

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex research and national security needs of the United States. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual SiteIntroduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak

Pennycook, Steve

200

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 ComplexIntroduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak sector business/industrial park; the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) South Campus

Pennycook, Steve

201

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 3 Welcome to the Sudden Oak Death Third to welcome you to the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium. Looking back at the first sudden oak death was first isolated and identified as the causal agent of sudden oak death. It was the summer of 2000

Standiford, Richard B.

202

Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California1 William F. Elmendorf2  

E-print Network

Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California1 William F. Elmendorf2 Abstract: The City of Thousand Oaks over the last 20 years has taken aggressive steps to preserve and protect the City's name- sake, the oak tree. First adopted in 1972 as an Emergency City Council Proclamation, the City's Oak

Standiford, Richard B.

203

Predicting white oak masting potential  

E-print Network

Acorn crop influences wildlife populations · white-tailed deer · black bear · ruffed grouse · gray squirrels Oaks are economically and ecologically important · 7th largest standing timber volume (3.2% of all

Gray, Matthew

204

Molecular defect of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase in the skunk mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The isovaleric acid-emanating silkworm mutant skunk (sku) was first studied over 30?years ago because of its unusual odour and prepupal lethality. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the sku mutant. Because of its specific features and symptoms similar to human isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) deficiency, also known as isovaleric acidaemia, IVD dysfunction in silkworms was predicted to be responsible for the phenotype of the sku mutant. Linkage analysis revealed that the silkworm IVD gene (BmIVD) was closely linked to the odorous phenotype as expected, and a single amino acid substitution (G376V) was found in BmIVD of the sku mutant. To investigate the effect of the G376V substitution on BmIVD function, wild-type and sku-type recombinants were constructed with a baculovirus expression system and the subsequent enzyme activity of sku-type BmIVD was shown to be significantly reduced compared with that of wild-type BmIVD. Molecular modelling suggested that this reduction in the enzyme activity may be due to negative effects of G376V mutation on FAD-binding or on monomer-monomer interactions. These observations strongly suggest that BmIVD is responsible for the sku locus and that the molecular defect in BmIVD causes the characteristic smell and prepupal lethality of the sku mutant. To our knowledge, this is, aside from humans, the first characterization of IVD deficiency in metazoa. Considering that IVD acts in the third step of leucine degradation and the sku mutant accumulates branched-chain amino acids in haemolymph, this mutant may be useful in the investigation of unique branched-chain amino acid catabolism in insects. PMID:21040472

Urano, Kei; Daimon, Takaaki; Banno, Yutaka; Mita, Kazuei; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu, Kentaro; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

2010-11-01

205

Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

2010-04-01

206

[Control effect and bacteriostasis of mulberry endophytic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 on silkworm septicemia].  

PubMed

A laboratory test was conducted to study the control effect and bacteriostasis of antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 isolated from mulberry on silkworm septicemia, aimed to develop a new microbial pesticide to control silkworm diseases. The supernatant of Lu10-1 zymotic fluid achieved 41.2% control efficiency and 24.0% prophylactic effect on silkworm septicemia. The antibacterial crude extract of Lu10-1 had stronger antagonistic activity against Bacillus bombyseptieus. The diameter of inhibition zone reached 18.20 mm, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the antibacterial crude extract were 1.56 and 3.13 mg x mL(-1), respectively. After treated with the antibacterial crude extract, B. bombyseptieus never appeared logarithmic growth phase, its cell membrane permeability changed, intracellular protein leaked out, intracellular macromolecular protein degraded, and at last, the thalli cracked, inner substances out-flowed, cavity formed, and cell ablated. It was considered that the antagonistic substances of Lu10-1 strain could be used for controlling silkworm septicemia, with preferable development foreground. PMID:23431798

Dong, Fa-Bao; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Yu, Qi; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Yan-Wen; Gao, Hui-Ju

2012-11-01

207

Production of an active feline interferon in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms using the fibroin H-chain expression system  

SciTech Connect

We constructed the fibroin H-chain expression system to produce recombinant proteins in the cocoon of transgenic silkworms. Feline interferon (FeIFN) was used for production and to assess the quality of the product. Two types of FeIFN fusion protein, each with N- and C-terminal sequences of the fibroin H-chain, were designed to be secreted into the lumen of the posterior silk glands. The expression of the FeIFN/H-chain fusion gene was regulated by the fibroin H-chain promoter domain. The transgenic silkworms introduced these constructs with the piggyBac transposon-derived vector, which produced the normal sized cocoons containing each FeIFN/H-chain fusion protein. Although the native-protein produced by transgenic silkworms have almost no antiviral activity, the proteins after the treatment with PreScission protease to eliminate fibroin H-chain derived N- and C-terminal sequences from the products, had very high antiviral activity. This H-chain expression system, using transgenic silkworms, could be an alternative method to produce an active recombinant protein and silk-based biomaterials.

Kurihara, H. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: Hiroyuki_Kurihara@nts.toray.co.jp; Sezutsu, H. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Tamura, T. [Transgenic Silkworm Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634 (Japan); Yamada, K. [Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories, 1111 Tebiro, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan)

2007-04-20

208

Contemporary California Indians, Oaks, and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora  

E-print Network

This paper begins with a survey of contemporary California Indian utilization of acorns for food, including an examination of: (1) familial, community and cultural contexts in which acorn is shared and eaten; (2) new and old acorn processing techniques in use today and the foods that result; (3) the symbolic context of the foods in terms of ecological and social relationships that connect people to place, each other, cultural heritage and sacred time; and (4) ancestral burning and pruning techniques used to manage oaks and other species. Next comes a detailed summary of contemporary uses by California Indians of plant species affected by Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum). An overview follows of the impact that Sudden Oak Death (SOD) has had in disrupting, limiting, and sometimes severing the eons-old relationships that California Indians had with the affected species. The paper concludes with a synopsis of how California Indians are responding to this threat to cultural continuance.

Beverly R. Ortiz

209

Biochemical characterization of maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT-1 from silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism involved in gene expression of vertebrates and invertebrates. In general, DNA methylation profile is established by de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-3A, -3B) and maintainance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT-1). DNMT-1 has a strong substrate preference for hemimethylated DNA over the unmethylated one. Because the silkworm genome lacks an apparent homologue of de novo DNMT, it is still unclear that how silkworm chromosome establishes and maintains its DNA methylation profile. As the first step to unravel this enigma, we purified recombinant BmDNMT-1 using baculovirus expression system and characterized its DNA-binding and DNA methylation activity. We found that the BmDNMT-1 preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA despite binding to both unmethylated and hemimethylated DNA. Interestingly, BmDNMT-1 formed a complex with DNA in the presence or absence of methyl group donor, S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and the AdoMet-dependent complex formation was facilitated by Zn(2+) and Mn(2+). Our results provide clear evidence that BmDNMT-1 retained the function as maintenance DNMT but its sensitivity to metal ions is different from mammalian DNMT-1. PMID:25623240

Mitsudome, Takumi; Mon, Hiroaki; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Lee, Jae Man; Patil, Anandrao Ashok; Masuda, Atsushi; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Morokuma, Daisuke; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2015-03-01

210

A discovery of novel microRNAs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) genome.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal regulators involved in various physiological and pathological processes via their post-transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. We sequenced 14 libraries of small RNAs constructed from samples spanning the life cycle of silkworms, and discovered 50 novel miRNAs previously not known in animals and verified 43 of them using stem-loop RT-PCR. Our genome-wide analyses of 27 species-specific miRNAs suggest they arise from transposable elements, protein-coding genes duplication/transposition and random foldback sequences; which is consistent with the idea that novel animal miRNAs may evolve from incomplete self-complementary transcripts and become fixed in the process of co-adaptation with their targets. Computational prediction suggests that the silkworm-specific miRNAs may have a preference of regulating genes that are related to life-cycle-associated traits, and these genes can serve as potential targets for subsequent studies of the modulating networks in the development of Bombyx mori. PMID:19699294

Yu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Qing; Cai, Yimei; Luo, Qibin; Lin, Hongbin; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

2009-12-01

211

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae.  

PubMed

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

212

Efficient and cost effective production of active-form human PKB using silkworm larvae  

PubMed Central

Protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt is involved in many signal transduction pathways. As alterations of the PKB pathway are found in a number of human malignancies, PKB is considered an important drug target for cancer therapy. However, production of sufficient amounts of active PKB for biochemical and structural studies is very costly because of the necessity of using a higher organism expression system to obtain phosphorylated PKB. Here, we report efficient production of active PKB? using the BmNPV bacmid expression system with silkworm larvae. Following direct injection of bacmid DNA, recombinant PKB? protein was highly expressed in the fat bodies of larvae, and could be purified using a GST-tag and then cleaved. A final yield of approximately 1?mg PKB?/20 larvae was recorded. Kinase assays showed that the recombinant PKB? possessed high phosphorylation activity. We further confirmed phosphorylation on the activation loop by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results indicate that the silkworm expression system is of value for preparation of active-form PKB? with phosphorylation on the activation loop. This efficient production of the active protein will facilitate further biochemical and structural studies and stimulate subsequent drug development. PMID:25125290

Maesaki, Ryoko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Taoka, Masato; Kanaba, Teppei; Asano, Tsunaki; Fujita, Chiharu; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Ito, Yutaka; Isobe, Toshiaki; Hakoshima, Toshio; Maenaka, Katsumi; Mishima, Masaki

2014-01-01

213

Identification of two arginases generated by alternative splicing in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. Here, we have cloned two arginase cDNAs from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The analysis of exon/intron structures showed that the two mRNAs named bmarg-r and bmarg-f were generated from a single gene by alternative usage of exons. The bmarg-r and bmarg-f were predicted to encode almost the same amino acid sequences, except that the latter had additional ten N-terminal residues. Recombinant bmARG-r and bmARG-f in Escherichia coli cell lysates were roughly similar to each other in enzymatic characteristics, which did not show large difference from those of arginases assayed by using tissue extracts. Differential RT-PCR experiments and tissue distribution analyses of arginase activity indicated that the bmarg-r gene is expressed in the male reproductive organs, especially in the glandula lacteola and vesicular seminalis, from which it is secreted to the seminal fluid and transferred to the female during copulation, whereas the bmarg-f gene is expressed in the larval and adult nonreproductive organs including the fat body and muscle, where the produced arginase proteins are considered to stay in the cells. Thus, the two silkworm arginase isoforms may have a difference in whether or not the product is excreted out of the cells in which it is synthesized. PMID:21136528

Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Takata, Yuki; Kato, Kumiko

2011-02-01

214

Advanced silk material spun by a transgenic silkworm promotes cell proliferation for biomedical application.  

PubMed

Natural silk fiber spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori is widely used not only for textile materials, but also for biofunctional materials. In the present study, we genetically engineered an advanced silk material, named hSFSV, using a transgenic silkworm, in which the recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF1) protein was specifically synthesized in the middle silk gland and secreted into the sericin layer to surround the silk fiber using our previously optimized sericin1 expression system. The content of the recombinant hFGF1 in the hSFSV silk was estimated to be approximate 0.07% of the cocoon shell weight. The mechanical properties of hSFSV raw silk fiber were enhanced slightly compared to those of the wild-type raw silk fiber, probably due to the presence of the recombinant of hFGF1 in the sericin layer. Remarkably, the hSFSV raw silk significantly stimulated the cell growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, suggesting that the mitogenic activity of recombinant hFGF1 was well maintained and functioned in the sericin layer of hSFSV raw silk. These results show that the genetically engineered raw silk hSFSV could be used directly as a fine biomedical material for mass application. In addition, the strategy whereby functional recombinant proteins are expressed in the sericin layer of silk might be used to create more genetically engineered silks with various biofunctions and applications. PMID:24980060

Wang, Feng; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Yuancheng; Wang, Riyuan; Yuan, Lin; Ding, Huan; Song, Chunnuan; Ma, Sanyuan; Peng, Zhixin; Peng, Zhangchuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

2014-12-01

215

The silkworm W chromosome is a source of female-enriched piRNAs  

PubMed Central

In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the W chromosome plays a dominant role in female determination. However, neither protein-coding genes nor transcripts have so far been isolated from the W chromosome. Instead, a large amount of functional transposable elements and their remnants are accumulated on the W chromosome. PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 23–30-nt-long small RNAs that potentially act as sequence-specific guides for PIWI proteins to silence transposon activity in animal gonads. In this study, by comparing ovary- and testis-derived piRNAs, we identified numerous female-enriched piRNAs. Our data indicated that female-enriched piRNAs are derived from the W chromosome. Moreover, comparative analyses on piRNA profiles from a series of W chromosome mutant strains revealed a striking enrichment of a specific set of transposon-derived piRNAs in the putative sex-determining region. Collectively, we revealed the nature of the silkworm W chromosome as a source of piRNAs. PMID:22020973

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Kadota, Koji; Arai, Yuji; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fujii, Tsuguru; Abe, Hiroaki; Yasukochi, Yuji; Mita, Kazuei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimizu, Kentaro; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2011-01-01

216

Molecular and biochemical characterization of juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

One major route of insect juvenile hormone (JH) degradation is epoxide hydration by JH epoxide hydrolase (JHEH). A full-length cDNA (1536 bp) encoding a microsomal JHEH was isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Bommo-JHEH cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 461-amino acid protein (52 kDa), which reveals a high degree of similarity to the previously reported insect JHEHs. The residues Tyr298, Tyr373, and the HGWP motif corresponding to the oxyanion hole of JHEHs and the residues Asp227, His430, and Glu403 in the catalytic triad are well conserved in Bommo-JHEH. Bommo-JHEH was highly expressed in the fat body, where its mRNA expression pattern was in contrast to the pattern of hemolymph levels of JH during the larval development, suggesting that Bommo-JHEH plays an important role in JH degradation. Recombinant Bommo-JHEH (52 kDa) expressed in Sf9 insect cells was membrane-bound and had a high level of enzyme activity (300-fold over the control activity). This Bommo-JHEH study provides a better understanding of how JH levels are regulated in the domesticated silkworm. PMID:15681225

Zhang, Qi-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Li, Sheng

2005-02-01

217

Hormonal regulation and developmental role of Krüppel homolog 1, a repressor of metamorphosis, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) has an ability to repress the precocious metamorphosis of insects during their larval development. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is an early JH-inducible gene that mediates this action of JH; however, the fine hormonal regulation of Kr-h1 and the molecular mechanism underlying its antimetamorphic effect are little understood. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the hormonal regulation and developmental role of Kr-h1. We found that the expression of Kr-h1 in the epidermis of penultimate-instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori was induced by JH secreted by the corpora allata (CA), whereas the CA were not involved in the transient induction of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage. Tissue culture experiments suggested that the transient peak of Kr-h1 at the prepupal stage is likely to be induced cooperatively by JH derived from gland(s) other than the CA and the prepupal surge of ecdysteroid, although involvement of unknown factor(s) could not be ruled out. To elucidate the developmental role of Kr-h1, we generated transgenic silkworms overexpressing Kr-h1. The transgenic silkworms grew normally until the spinning stage, but their development was arrested at the prepupal stage. The transgenic silkworms from which the CA were removed in the penultimate instar did not undergo precocious pupation or larval-larval molt but fell into prepupal arrest. This result demonstrated that Kr-h1 is indeed involved in the repression of metamorphosis but that Kr-h1 alone is incapable of implementing normal larval molt. Moreover, the expression profiles and hormonal responses of early ecdysone-inducible genes (E74, E75, and Broad) in transgenic silkworms suggested that Kr-h1 is not involved in the JH-dependent modulation of these genes, which is associated with the control of metamorphosis. PMID:24508345

Kayukawa, Takumi; Murata, Mika; Kobayashi, Isao; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Okada, Chieko; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kiuchi, Makoto; Tamura, Toshiki; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2014-04-01

218

TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields. PMID:25453359

Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

2015-02-01

219

OAK DECLINES NEW DEFINITIONS AND NEW EPISODES IN BRITAIN  

E-print Network

OAK visibility of deteriorating oak health in Britain and media reports on `Sudden Oak Death' have led to growing of ill health and the names that people use to describe it. Over the past century oaks

220

Expression, purification and characterization of yeast protein disulfide isomerase produced by a recombinant baculovirus-mediated silkworm, Bombyx mori , pupae expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a multifunctional polypeptide presents in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. Silkworm\\u000a (Bombyx mori) pupae were used as hosts to produce recombinant PDI (rPDI). The concentration-dependent chaperone activity of rPDI was evidenced\\u000a by the inhibition of the aggregation of rhodanese. Approximately 297 ?g rPDI was purified from a single silkworm pupa. Results\\u000a of rPDI treated with

Liyun Wang; Yuri Shimizu; Takemitsu Mizunaga; Shogo Matsumoto; Yuzuru Otsuka

2008-01-01

221

Oak Ridge National Laboratory University of Wisconsin  

E-print Network

Fred Baker Oak Ridge National Laboratory Jesse Bond University of Wisconsin Joe Bozell University Edgar Virginia Tech Barbara Evans Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chip Frazier Virginia Tech Andrew Held

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

222

Host Plant Selection by Larvae of the Muga Silk Moth, Antheraea assamensis, and the Role of the Antenna and Maxillary Palp  

PubMed Central

The importance of olfactory senses in food preference in fifth instar larvae of Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was examined by subjecting larvae with only antennae or maxillary palpi after microsurgery to food and odor choice tests. Mean percent consumption, total consumption, and choice indices were used as parameters for drawing conclusions. The foods used were two hosts, two non-hosts, and a neutral medium (water). Both antennae and maxillary palpi were fully competent in preference for host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litsea polyantha Juss, over the non-hosts, Litsea grandifolia Teschner and Ziziphus jujuba Miller (Rosales: Rhamnaceae). Both were competent in rejecting the non-hosts, L. grandifolia and Z. jujuba. The odor choice test was carried out using a Y-tube olfactometer and showed similar results to the ingestive tests. The results indicate the necessity of functional integration of a combination of olfactory and gustatory sensilla present in different peripheral organs in food acceptance by A. assamensis larvae. PMID:23909481

Bora, D. S.; Deka, B.

2013-01-01

223

Binding and hydrolysis of radiolabeled pheromone and several analogs by male-specific antennal proteins of the mothAntheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Sensory hair proteins from antennae of males of the wild silk moth,Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) were incubated with radiolabeled 6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl acetate in the presence of unlabeled pheromone analogs as competitive inhibitors. The two extracellular proteins of importance, a highly active sensillar esterase and an abundant 15,000 mol wt binding protein, interact to degrade labeled pheromone less efficiently in the presence of certain unsaturated acetate analogs of the natural pheromone.Enzymatic hydrolysis of the acetate (or diazoacetate) was also examined for three pheromone analogs: [11,12-(3)H2]-6E,11Z-hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, [11,12-(3)H2]-hexadecyl acetate, and [9,10-(3)H2]-9Z-tetradecenyl acetate. The former two are poor substrates at concentrations over four orders of magnitude. The 9Z-14:Ac, however, is the best alternative substrate for this in vitro pheromone metabolism system. Unlabeled 9Z-14: Ac is also the best competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of labeled 6E, 11Z-16: Ac. Whereas the tritiated natural pheromone shows a flat response (ca. 40% conversion) to increasing concentrations from 3 × 10(-9) to 3 × 10(-6) M, tritiated 9Z-14: Ac is degraded more rapidly at higher concentrations. PMID:24306783

Prestwich, G D; Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M

1986-02-01

224

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. I. The leaf-shaped antenna of the pupa from diapause to apolysis.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus is a featherlike structure consisting of a central stem and ca. 120 side branches, which altogether carry about 70,000 olfactory sensilla. We investigate the development during the pupal phase. At the end of diapause, the antennal rudiment consists of a leaf-shaped, one-layered epidermal sac. It is supplied with oxygen via a central main trachea, which gives off numerous thin side branches. These are segmentally arranged into bundles which run to the periphery of the antennal blade. When the epidermis retracts from the pupal cuticle (apolysis; stage 1), it consists of cells which are morphologically uniform. The epidermal cells form a network of long, irregular basal protrusions (epidermal feet), which crisscross the antennal lumen. During the first day post-apolysis (stage 2), the antennal epidermis differentiates into alternating thick 'sensillogenic' and thin 'non-sensillogenic' areas arranged in stripes which run in parallel to the tracheal bundles. Numerous dark, elongated cells, which might be the sensillar stem cells, are scattered in the sensillogenic epithelium. A number of very early sensilla has been found at the distal edges of the sensillogenic stripes in positions which later will be occupied by sensilla chaetica. The whole antennal blade is enveloped by the transparent ecdysial membrane, consisting of the innermost layers of the pupal cuticle which are detached during apolysis. PMID:18620306

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

225

Snmp-1, a novel membrane protein of olfactory neurons of the silk moth Antheraea polyphemus with homology to the CD36 family of membrane proteins.  

PubMed

While olfactory neurons of silk moths are well known for their exquisite sensitivity to sex pheromone odorants, molecular mechanisms underlying this sensitivity are poorly understood. In searching for proteins that might support olfactory mechanisms, we characterized the protein profile of olfactory neuron receptor membranes of the wild silk moth Antheraea polyphemus. We have purified and cloned a prominent 67-kDa protein which we have named Snmp-1 (sensory neuron membrane protein-1). Northern blot analysis suggests that Snmp-1 is uniquely expressed in antennal tissue; in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analyses show that Snmp-1 is expressed in olfactory neurons and that the protein is localized to the cilia, dendrites, and somata but not the axons. Snmp-1 mRNA expression increases significantly 1-2 days before the end of adult development, coincident with the functional maturation of the olfactory system. Sequence analysis suggests Snmp-1 is homologous with the CD36 protein family, a phylogenetically diverse family of receptor-like membrane proteins. CD36 family proteins are characterized as having two transmembrane domains and interacting with proteinaceous ligands; Snmp-1 is the first member of this family identified in nervous tissue. These findings argue that Snmp-1 has an important role in olfaction; possible roles of Snmp-1 in odorant detection are discussed. PMID:9169446

Rogers, M E; Sun, M; Lerner, M R; Vogt, R G

1997-06-01

226

Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation  

E-print Network

components, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex1 Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation 1-1 1. Introduction to the Oak Ridge Reservation The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) is a 13,560 ha (33,508-acre) federally owned site located in the counties

Pennycook, Steve

227

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL is the largest science Environmental Report--2013 Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-2 Fig. 5.1. Location of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and energy national laboratory in the DOE system. ORNL's scientific programs focus on materials, neutron

Pennycook, Steve

228

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Quantification of Sudden Oak Death  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 49 Quantification of Sudden Oak Death ramorum, the plant pathogen causing the forest disease known as sudden oak death. First confirmed in 2000 tree that exhibited spectral characteristics of trees killed by sudden oak death within each host

Standiford, Richard B.

229

Effects of Shade on Blue Oak and Coast Live Oak Regeneration in California Annual Grasslands1  

E-print Network

Effects of Shade on Blue Oak and Coast Live Oak Regeneration in California Annual Grasslands1 oak seedling survival. From the many elements composing canopy, shade was selected for experimental manipulation. A split-plot, multifactorial experi ment was designed to test whether blue oak (Quercus douglasii

Standiford, Richard B.

230

Where Has All the White Oak Gone?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the disappearance of white oaks in the US. Before European settlement, vast areas of deciduous forest in what is now the eastern United States were dominated by oak species. Among these species, white oak (Quercus alba) reigned supreme. White oak tended to grow at lower elevations but was distributed across a broad range of sites, from wet mesic to subxeric, and grew on all but the wettest and most xeric, rocky, or nutrient-poor soils. A comparison of witness tree data from early land surveys and data on modern-day forest composition revealed a drastic decline in white oak throughout the eastern forest. By contrast, other dominant oaks, such as red oak (Quercus rubra) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), often exhibited higher frequency in recent studies than in surveys of the original forest. The frequency of red oak witness trees before European settlement was quite low, generally under 5% in most forests. Red oak's distribution was apparently limited by a lower tolerance to fire and drought and a greater dependence on catastrophic disturbances than that of white oak. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, much of the eastern forest was decimated by land clearing, extensive clear-cutting, catastrophic fires, chestnut blight, and then fire suppression and intensive deer browsing. These activities had the greatest negative impact on the highly valued white oak, while promoting the expansion of red oak and chestnut oak. More recently, however, recruitment of all the dominant upland oaks has been limited on all but the most xeric sites. Thus, the dynamic equilibrium in the ecology of upland oaks that existed for thousands of years has been destroyed in the few centuries following European settlement.

MARC D. ABRAMS (;)

2003-10-01

231

Silkworm Thermal Biology: A Review of Heat Shock Response, Heat Shock Proteins and Heat Acclimation in the Domesticated Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to play ecological and evolutionary roles in this postgenomic era. Recent research suggests that HSPs are implicated in cardiovascular biology and disease development, proliferation and regulation of cancer cells, cell death via apoptosis, and several other key cellular functions. These activities have generated great interest amongst cell and molecular biologists, and these biologists are keen to unravel other hitherto unknown potential functions of this group of proteins. Consequently, the biological significance of HSPs has led to cloning and characterization of genes encoding HSPs in many organisms including the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). However, most of the past investigations in B. mori were confined to expression of HSPs in tissues and cell lines, whereas information on their specific functional roles in biological, physiological, and molecular processes is scarce. Naturally occurring or domesticated polyvoltines (known to be the tropical race) are more resistant to high temperatures and diseases than bi- or univoltines (temperate races). The mechanism of ecological or evolutionary modification of HSPs during the course of domestication of B. mori - particularly in relation to thermotolerance in geographically distinct races/strains - is still unclear. In addition, the heat shock response, thermal acclimation, and hardening have not been studied extensively in B. mori compared to other organisms. Towards this, recent investigations on differential expression of HSPs at various stages of development, considering the concept of the whole organism, open ample scope to evaluate their biological and commercial importance in B. mori which has not been addressed in any of the representative organisms studied so far. Comparatively, heat shock response among different silkworm races/strains of poly-, bi-, and univoltines varies significantly and thermotolerance increases as the larval development proceeds. Hence, this being the first review in this area, an attempt has been made to collate all available information on the heat shock response, HSPs expression, associated genes, amino acid sequences, and acquired/unacquired thermotolerance. The aim is to present this as a valuable resource for addressing the gap in knowledge and understanding evolutionary significance of HSPs between domesticated (B. mori) and non-domesticated insects. It is believed that the information presented here will also help researchers/breeders to design appropriate strategies for developing novel strains for the tropics. PMID:21265618

Manjunatha, H. B.; Rajesh, R. K.; Aparna, H. S.

2010-01-01

232

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Small.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) operations in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and associated areas. · Cleanup commercial uses for many Oak Ridge facilities. #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 CONTACT INFORMATION · Basic BJC

233

Original article Preliminary results of common oak  

E-print Network

Original article Preliminary results of common oak (Quercus robur L) provenance experiments en hauteur / surviel/ Croatie INTRODUCTION Common oak (Quercus robur L) is one of the most valuable- an oak" is well known in Croatia and in world markets. However, difficulties with natural regeneration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Title: Oak Ridges Moraine Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Oak Ridges Moraine Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: NAD83 /UTM Resolution: N/A Coordinates: N/A Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Oak Rides Moraine. Ministry of Natural Resources. "Oak Ridges Moraine" [electronic resource: vector]. Peterborough, Ontario

235

Oak Park Village, Illinois Community Profile  

E-print Network

Oak Park Village, Illinois Community Profile William Gillespie UPP 502 · Drucker · November 28 for the village of Oak Park, Illinois. It is intended to highlight important information about the community a variety of sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau, the Village of Oak Park, and the Chicago

Illinois at Chicago, University of

236

Assessing the Timber Quality of Standing Oak  

E-print Network

Assessing the Timber Quality of Standing Oak A Study to Determine Whether any Easily Measurable Quality of Standing Oak Identification - What Is Shake? · Internal (longitudinal) splitting of the timber? · Study in 1994 indicated that about 21% of all UK oak is affected · Annual national loss in harvesting

237

Oak Processionary Moth -Thaumetopoea processionea  

E-print Network

Oak Processionary Moth - Thaumetopoea processionea Summary of activity 2007 to 2009 #12;23 March and traps - 2008 Total Nests - 506 Total Moths -182 #12;23 March Interested Parties Meeting6 Pheromone Traps of nests and traps - 2009 Map 2 Year Nests 2009 2400 2008 506 2007 708 Moths 2009 166 (*136 traps) 2008 182

238

THE EQUATION AT OAK RIDGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE STEPS TAKEN TO DESEGREGATE THE OAK RIDGE, TENN., SCHOOLS ARE DESCRIBED IN THIS ARTICLE. ONE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, SEGREGATED BECAUSE OF RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS, WAS CLOSED AND ITS STUDENTS REDISTRIBUTED AMONG OTHER SCHOOLS IN THE CITY. UNDER THE INITIATIVE OF THE SCHOOL BOARD, THIS PLAN WENT INTO EFFECT IN THE FALL OF 1967 AND IS SAID TO HAVE…

MORRELL, KEN

239

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid surfactant using silkworm pupae as stock material.  

PubMed

A novel sodium N-fatty acyl amino acid (SFAAA) surfactant was synthesized using pupa oil and pupa protein hydrolysates (PPH) from a waste product of the silk industry. The aliphatic acids from pupa oil were modified into N-fatty acyl chlorides by thionyl chloride (SOCl2). SFAAA was synthesized using acyl chlorides and PPH. GC-MS analysis showed fatty acids from pupa oil consist mainly of unsaturated linolenic and linoleic acids and saturated palmitic and stearic acids. SFAAA had a low critical micelle concentration, great efficiency in lowering surface tension and strong adsorption at an air/water interface. SFAAA had a high emulsifying power, as well as a high foaming power. The emulsifying power of PPH and SFAAA in an oil/water emulsion was better with ethyl acetate as the oil phase compared to n-hexane. The environment-friendly surfactant made entirely from silkworm pupae could promote sustainable development of the silk industry. PMID:24651079

Wu, Min-Hui; Wan, Liang-Ze; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

240

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

241

Targeted gene expression using the GAL4/UAS system in the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed Central

The silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the most well-studied insects in terms of both genetics and physiology and is recognized as the model lepidopteran insect. To develop an efficient system for analyzing gene function in the silkworm, we investigated the feasibility of using the GAL4/UAS system in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ-line transformation for targeted gene expression. To drive the GAL4 gene, we used two endogenous promoters that originated from the B. mori actin A3 (BmA3) and fibroin light-chain (FiL) genes and the artificial promoter 3xP3. GFP was used as the reporter. In initial tests of the function of the GAL4/UAS system, we generated transgenic animals that carried the UAS-GFP construct plus either BmA3-GAL4 or 3xP3-GAL4. GFP fluorescence was observed in the tissues of GFP-positive animals, in which both promoters drove GAL4 gene expression. Animals that possessed only the GAL4 gene or UAS-GFP construct did not show GFP fluorescence. In addition, as a further test of the ability of the GAL4/UAS system to drive tissue-specific expression we constructed FiL-GAL4 lines with 3xP3-CFP as the transformation marker. FiL-GAL4 x UAS-GFP crosses showed GFP expression in the posterior silk gland, in which the endogenous FiL gene is normally expressed. These results show that the GAL4/UAS system is applicable to B. mori and emphasize the potential of this system for controlled analyses of B. mori gene function. PMID:14668386

Imamura, Morikazu; Nakai, Junichi; Inoue, Satoshi; Quan, Guo Xing; Kanda, Toshio; Tamura, Toshiki

2003-01-01

242

Transgenic characterization of two testis-specific promoters in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Sex-specific regulatory elements are key components for developing insect genetic sexing systems. The current insect genetic sexing system mainly uses a female-specific modification system whereas little success was reported on male-specific genetic modification. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance, a transgene-based, female-specific lethality system has been established based on sex-specific alternative splicing factors and a female-specific promoter BmVgp (vitellogenin promoter) has been identified. However, no male-specific regulatory elements have yet been identified. Here we report the transgenic identification of two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in a testis-specific manner in B.?mori. Putative promoter sequences from the B.?mori Radial spoke head 1 gene (BmR1) and beta-tubulin 4 gene (Bm?4) were introduced using piggybac-based germline transformation. In transgenic silkworms, expression of the reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) directed by either BmR1 promoter (BmR1p) or Bm?4p showed precisely testis-specific manners from the larval to adult stage. Furthermore, EGFP expression of these two transgenic lines showed different localization in the testis, indicating that BmR1p or Bm?4p might be used as distinct regulatory elements in directing testis-specific gene expression. Identification of these testis-specific promoters not only contributes to a better understanding of testis-specific gene function in insects, but also has potential applications in sterile insect techniques for pest management. PMID:25387604

Xu, J; Bi, H; Chen, R; Aslam, A F M; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; Huang, Y; Tan, A

2014-11-11

243

Getting a Full Dose? Reconsidering Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Dosage compensation—equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number—is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. Although this is observed in some organisms, recent genome-wide expression studies in other taxa have revealed striking exceptions. In particular, reports that both birds and the silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) lack dosage compensation have spurred speculation that this is the rule for all female-heterogametic taxa. Here, we revisit the issue of dosage compensation in silkworm by replicating and extending the previous analysis. Contrary to previous reports, our efforts reveal a pattern typically associated with dosage compensated taxa: the global male:female expression ratio does not differ between the Z and autosomes. We believe the previous report of unequal male:female ratios on the Z reflects artifacts of microarray normalization in conjunction with not testing a major assumption that the male:female global expression ratio was unbiased for autosomal loci. However, we also find that the global Z chromosome expression is significantly reduced relative to autosomes, a pattern not expected in dosage compensated taxa. This combination of male:female parity with an overall reduction in expression for sex-linked loci is not consistent with the prevailing evolutionary theory of sex chromosome evolution and dosage compensation. PMID:21508430

Walters, James R.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

244

Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane. PMID:24052236

Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

2013-12-01

245

Shotgun Proteomic Analysis on the Diapause and Non-Diapause Eggs of Domesticated Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

To clarify the molecular mechanisms of silkworm diapause, it is necessary to investigate the molecular basis at protein level. Here, the spectra of peptides digested from silkworm diapause and non-diapause eggs were obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. A total of 501 and 562 proteins were identified from the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively, of which 309 proteins were shared commonly. Among these common-expressed proteins, three main storage proteins (vitellogenin precursor, egg-specific protein and low molecular lipoprotein 30 K precursor), nine heat shock proteins (HSP19.9, 20.1, 20.4, 20.8, 21.4, 23.7, 70, 90-kDa heat shock protein and heat shock cognate protein), 37 metabolic enzymes, 22 ribosomal proteins were identified. There were 192 and 253 unique proteins identified in the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively, of which 24 and 48 had functional annotations, these unique proteins indicated that the metabolism, translation of the mRNA and synthesis of proteins were potentially more highly represented in the non-dipause eggs than that in the diapause eggs. The relative mRNA levels of four identified proteins in the two kinds of eggs were also compared using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and showed some inconsistencies with protein expression. GO signatures of 486 out of the 502 and 545 out of the 562 proteins identified in the diapause and non-diapause eggs respectively were available. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed the Metabolism, Translation and Transcription pathway were potentially more active in the non-dipause eggs at this stage. PMID:23580252

Fan, Lanfen; Lin, Jianrong; Zhong, Yangsheng; Liu, Jingyi

2013-01-01

246

Genome-wide analysis of the WW domain-containing protein genes in silkworm and their expansion in eukaryotes.  

PubMed

WW domains are protein modules that mediate protein-protein interactions through recognition of proline-rich peptide motifs and phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline sites. WW domains are found in many different structural and signaling proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular processes. WW domain-containing proteins (WWCPs) and complexes have been implicated in major human diseases including cancer as well as in major signaling cascades such as the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, making them targets for new diagnostics and therapeutics. There are a number of reports about the WWCPs in different species, but systematic analysis of the WWCP genes and its ligands is still lacking in silkworm and the other organisms. In this study, WWCP genes and PY motif-containing proteins have been identified and analyzed in 56 species including silkworm. Whole-genome screening of B. mori identified thirty-three proteins with thirty-nine WW domains located on thirteen chromosomes. In the 39 silkworm WW domains, 15 domains belong to the Group I WW domain; 14 domains were in Group II/III, 9 domains derived from 8 silkworm WWCPs could not be classified into any group, and Group IV contains only one WW domain. Based on gene annotation, silkworm WWCP genes have functions in multi-biology processes. A detailed list of WWCPs from the other 55 species was sorted in this work. In 14,623 silkworm predicted proteins, nearly 18 % contained PY motif, nearly 30 % contained various motifs totally that could be recognized by WW domains. Gene Ontology and KEGG analysis revealed that dozens of WW domain-binding proteins are involved in Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, mTOR, EGF and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. Tissue expression patterns of WWCP genes and potential WWCP-binding protein genes on the third day of the fifth instar (L5D3) were examined by microarray analysis. Tissue expression profile analysis found that several WWCP genes and poly-proline or PY motif-containing protein genes took tissue- or gender-dependent expression manner in silkworms. We further analyzed WWCPs and PY motif-containing proteins in representative organisms of invertebrates and vertebrates. The results showed that there are no less than 16 and up to 29 WWCPs in insects, the average is 22. The number of WW domains in insects is no less than 19, and up to 47, the average is 36. In vertebrates, excluding the Hydrobiontes, the number of WWCPs is no less than 34 and up to 49, the average is 43. The number of WW domains in vertebrates is no less than 56 and up to 85, the average is 73. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most homologous genes of the WWCP subfamily in vertebrates were duplicated during evolution and functions diverged. Nearly 1,000 PY motif-containing protein genes were found in insect genomes and nearly 2,000 genes in vertebrates. The different distributions of WWCP genes and PY motif-containing protein genes in different species revealed a possible positive correlation with organism complexity. In conclusion, this comprehensive bio-information analysis of WWCPs and its binding ligands would provide rich fundamental knowledge and useful information for further exploration of the function of the WW domain-containing proteins not only in silkworm, but also in other species. PMID:25424044

Meng, Gang; Dai, Fangyin; Tong, Xiaoling; Li, Niannian; Ding, Xin; Song, Jiangbo; Lu, Cheng

2014-11-26

247

Cloning and Expression Analysis of the Bombyx mori ?-amylase Gene (Amy) from the Indigenous Thai Silkworm Strain, Nanglai  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase is a common enzyme for hydrolyzing starch. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), ?-amylase is found in both digestive fluid and hemolymph. Here, the complete genomic sequence of the Amy gene encoding ?-amylase from a local Thai silkworm, the Nanglai strain, was obtained. This gene was 7981 bp long with 9 exons. The full length Amy cDNA sequence was 1749 bp containing a 1503 bp open reading frame. The ORF encoded 500 amino acid residues. The deduced protein showed 81–54% identity to other insect ?-amylases and more than 50% identity to mammalian enzymes. Southern blot analysis revealed that in the Nanglai strain Amy is a single-copy gene. RT- PCR showed that Amy was transcribed only in the foregut. Transgenic B. mori also showed that the Amy promoter activates expression of the transgene only in the foregut. PMID:21529256

Ngernyuang, Nipaporn; Kobayashi, Isao; Promboon, Amornrat; Ratanapo, Sunanta; Tamura, Toshiki; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

2011-01-01

248

Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin-coated PEI/DNA complexes for targeted gene delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 cells.  

PubMed

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors. PMID:24776757

Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

249

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.). II. Changes after motor nerve section.  

PubMed

In the moth Antheraea polyphemed at the onset of adult development. The subsequent breakdown of the isolated motor stulongated vesicles similar in structure to channels of smooth ER, appear in large numbers in the axoplasm. Their nature as well as the functional aspects of early axonal changes are discussed. From the 7th day onward two types of axonal breakdown become prominent. The first is characterized 0y swelling axon profiles, distorted vesicles and strongly shrunken mitochondria, uhile shrinking axon profiles containing tightly packed mitochondria and unaltered vesicles are typical of the second. Both types presumably take place independently of each other in different axon terminals. Axons and the contents of at least the first type are finally removed by transformation into lamellar bodies. Glial processes obviously behave independently of degenerating terminals; they loose any contact with them and never act as phagocytes for axon remnants. During the whole period of breakdown undifferentiated contacts between nerve fibers and muscle anlagen are present but synaptic structures as in normal developing dlm have never been observed. This fact, in comparison with earlier studies, suggests a lack of trophic nervous activity on the muscle anlagen tissue. A short time after removal of the isolated stumps new nerve tracts appear between dlm-fibers (which are, of course, strongly retarded in development). They are presumably sensory wing nerves which lack a guide structure to the central target, due to axotomy. Neuromuscular contacts or even junctions formed by axons of these nerves have occasionally been detected on the dlm. Their nature is discussed. Wallerian axon degeneration is compared to the normal, metamorphic breakdown of the innervation of the larval dlm-precursor. In contrast to the former, glial processes here remain in contact with the terminals. Glia and axons first swell. Then most glial processes are transformed into lamellar bodies whereas neurites shrink and become electron-dense. Axonal organelles remain intact for a long period. PMID:1201608

Nüesch, H; Stocker, R F

1975-12-10

250

Ultrastructural studies on neuromuscular contacts and the formation of junctions in the flight muscle of Antheraea polyphemus (Lep.) I. Normal adult development.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of neuromuscular connections on developing dorsolongitudinal flight muscles were studied in the moth Antheraea polyphemus. Undifferentiated membrane contacts between axon terminals and muscle-fiber anlagen are present in the diapause pupa. They persist during the period of nerve outgrowth, which probably provides a pathway of contact guidance. By the 4th day of adult development some of these contact areas have differentiated into structures similar to neuromuscular junctions although differentiation of muscle structure does not start earlier than the eighth day. Dense-cored vesicles are abundant in many axon terminals at the beginning of development. They later decrease in number quite rapidly. The significance of the above-mentioned early junctions, their possible mode of action and the role of the dense-cored vesicles are discussed. It is proposed that they exercise a stimulating (trophic) influence on the growth of the undifferentiated muscular tissue. The imaginal neuromuscular junctions are formed during the second half of adult development. Clusters of vesicles and electron-dense depositions along the inner face of the axo- and lemma seem to initiate junction formation. Glial processes then grow between the axo- and sarcolemma and divide the large contact area into several small segments. Mutual invaginations and protrusions of the sarcolemma and the glial cell membrane subsequently form an extensive "rete synapticum." Six days before eclosion the glial and sarcoplasmic parts of the rete synapticum are similar in size. Up to eclosion, all glial processes shrink and increase in electron density. Most of the observations are discussed also in relation to findings in vertebrates. PMID:1149098

Stocker, R F; Nüesch, H

1975-06-01

251

Structural basis of ligand binding and release in insect pheromone-binding proteins: NMR structure of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 at pH 4.5.  

PubMed

The NMR structure of the Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1 at pH 4.5, ApolPBP1A, was determined at 20 degrees C. The structure consists of six alpha-helices, which are arranged in a globular fold that encapsulates a central helix alpha7 formed by the C-terminal polypeptide segment 131-142. The 3D arrangement of these helices is anchored by the three disulfide bonds 19-54, 50-108 and 97-117, which were identified by NMR. Superposition of the ApolPBP1A structure with the structure of the homologous pheromone-binding protein of Bombyx mori at pH 4.5, BmorPBPA, yielded an rmsd of 1.7 A calculated for the backbone heavy-atoms N, Calpha and C' of residues 10-142. In contrast, the present ApolPBP1A structure is different from a recently proposed molecular model for a low-pH form of ApolPBP1 that does not contain the central helix alpha7. ApolPBP1 exhibits a pH-dependent transition between two different globular conformations in slow exchange on the NMR chemical shift timescale similar to BmorPBP, suggesting that the two proteins use the same mechanism of ligand binding and ejection. The extensive sequence homology observed for pheromone-binding proteins from moth species further implies that the previously proposed mechanism of ligand ejection involving the insertion of a C-terminal helix into the pheromone-binding site is a general feature of pheromone signaling in moths. PMID:17884092

Damberger, Fred F; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S; Wüthrich, Kurt

2007-11-01

252

Ligand binding turns moth pheromone-binding protein into a pH sensor: effect on the Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 conformation.  

PubMed

In moths, pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are responsible for the transport of the hydrophobic pheromones to the membrane-bound receptors across the aqueous sensillar lymph. We report here that recombinant Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1) picks up hydrophobic molecule(s) endogenous to the Escherichia coli expression host that keeps the protein in the "open" (bound) conformation at high pH but switches to the "closed" (free) conformation at low pH. This finding has bearing on the solution structures of undelipidated lepidopteran moth PBPs determined thus far. Picking up a hydrophobic molecule from the host expression system could be a common feature for lipid-binding proteins. Thus, delipidation is critical for bacterially expressed lipid-binding proteins. We have shown for the first time that the delipidated ApolPBP1 exists primarily in the closed form at all pH levels. Thus, current views on the pH-induced conformational switch of PBPs hold true only for the ligand-bound open conformation of the protein. Binding of various ligands to delipidated ApolPBP1 studied by solution NMR revealed that the protein in the closed conformation switches to the open conformation only at or above pH 6.0 with a protein to ligand stoichiometry of approximately 1:1. Mutation of His(70) and His(95) to alanine drives the equilibrium toward the open conformation even at low pH for the ligand-bound protein by eliminating the histidine-dependent pH-induced conformational switch. Thus, the delipidated double mutant can bind ligand even at low pH in contrast to the wild type protein as revealed by fluorescence competitive displacement assay using 1-aminoanthracene and solution NMR. PMID:19758993

Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Prusti, Rabi K; Mohanty, Smita

2009-11-13

253

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth, Antheraea polyphemus. II. Differential mitoses of 'dark' precursor cells create the Anlagen of sensilla.  

PubMed

The antenna of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus develops from a one-layered, flattened epidermal sac during the pupal phase. Within the first day post-apolysis (developmental stages 1 and 2), this epithelium differentiates into 'sensillogenic' and 'nonsensillogenic' regions, while numerous slender 'dark cells' interpreted as the precursor cells of sensilla arise in the former. Approximately between the first and second day post-apolysis (developmental stage 3), the dark cells retract to the apical pole of the epidermis, assume a round shape, and undergo a series of differential mitoses with spindles usually oriented parallel to the epidermal surface. These mitoses finally yield the Anlagen of the olfactory sensilla trichodea, each consisting of mostly 6-7 dark cells arranged side by side. In most of the Anlagen, 3-4 of these cells are situated more basally, each giving off a slender apical process which together are arranged in a fascicle. These are the prospective 2-3 sensory neurons plus the thecogen cell, which most probably is a sister cell of the former. Three additional cells are arranged more apically and partly enclose the fascicle of presumed sensory and thecogen cell processes. These are interpreted as the trichogen plus 2 tormogen cells, one of the latter degenerating later during development. In the basal region of the sensillogenic epidermis, massive signs of cell degeneration have been found. At stage 3, the basal epidermal feet in the non-sensillogenic regions have assumed a more uniform orientation as compared with the preceding stages. PMID:18620326

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1990-01-01

254

Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin-Coated PEI/DNA Complexes for Targeted Gene Delivery in HEK 293 and HCT 116 Cells  

PubMed Central

Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to coat PEI/DNA complexes to form ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes. Coating these complexes with ASF caused fewer surface charges and greater size compared with the PEI/DNA complexes alone. In vitro transfection studies revealed that incorporation of ASF led to greater transfection efficiencies in both HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293 and HCT (human colorectal carcinoma) 116 cells, albeit with less electrostatic binding affinity for the cells. Moreover, the transfection efficiency in the HCT 116 cells was higher than that in the HEK 293 cells under the same conditions, which may be due to the target bonding affinity of the RGD peptides in ASF for integrins on the HCT 116 cell surface. This result indicated that the RGD binding affinity in ASF for integrins can enhance the specific targeting affinity to compensate for the reduction in electrostatic binding between ASF-coated PEI carriers and cells. Cell viability measurements showed higher cell viability after transfection of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes than after transfection of PEI/DNA binary complexes alone. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release studies further confirmed the improvement in the targeting effect of ASF/PEI/DNA ternary complexes to cells. These results suggest that ASF-coated PEI is a preferred transfection reagent and useful for improving both the transfection efficiency and cell viability of PEI-based nonviral vectors. PMID:24776757

Liu, Yu; You, Renchuan; Liu, Guiyang; Li, Xiufang; Sheng, Weihua; Yang, Jicheng; Li, Mingzhong

2014-01-01

255

Serotonin Receptor B May Lock the Gate of PTTH Release/Synthesis in the Chinese Silk Moth, Antheraea pernyi; A Diapause Initiation/Maintenance Mechanism?  

PubMed Central

The release of prothoracicotropic hormone, PTTH, or its blockade is the major endocrine switch regulating the developmental channel either to metamorphosis or to pupal diapause in the Chinese silk moth, Antheraea pernyi. We have cloned cDNAs encoding two types of serotonin receptors (5HTRA and B). 5HTRA-, and 5HTRB-like immunohistochemical reactivities (-ir) were colocalized with PTTH-ir in two pairs of neurosecretory cells at the dorsolateral region of the protocerebrum (DL). Therefore, the causal involvement of these receptors was suspected in PTTH release/synthesis. The level of mRNA5HTRB responded to 10 cycles of long-day activation, falling to 40% of the original level before activation, while that of 5HTRA was not affected by long-day activation. Under LD 16:8 and 12:12, the injection of dsRNA5HTRB resulted in early diapause termination, whereas that of dsRNA5HTRA did not affect the rate of diapause termination. The injection of dsRNA5HTRB induced PTTH accumulation, indicating that 5HTRB binding suppresses PTTH synthesis also. This conclusion was supported pharmacologically; the injection of luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, plus 5th inhibited photoperiodic activation under LD 16:8, while that of 5,7-DHT, induced emergence in a dose dependent fashion under LD 12:12. The results suggest that 5HTRB may lock the PTTH release/synthesis, maintaining diapause. This could also work as diapause induction mechanism. PMID:24223937

Takeda, Makio

2013-01-01

256

Identification of a microspordium isolated from Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and characterization of its pathogenicity in silkworms.  

PubMed

A new microsporidium isolated from Megacopta cribraria was characterized by both biological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, its pathogenicity to silkworms was also studied. The spores are oval in shape and measured 3.64 ± 0.2 × 2.20 ± 0.2 ?m in size. Its ultrastructure is characteristic of the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 13-14 polar filament coils and posterior vacuole. Its life cycle includes meronts, sporonts, sporoblasts and mature spores, with a typical diplokaryon in each stage and propagation in a binary fission. A phylogenetic tree based on SSU rRNA and rRNA ITS gene sequence analysis further indicated that the parasite is closely related to Nosema bombycis and should be placed in the genus Nosema and sub-group 'true' Nosema. Furthermore, the microsporidium heavily infects lepidopteran silkworm insect and can be transmitted per os (horizontally) and transovarially (vertically). Our findings showed that the microsporidium belongs to the 'true' Nosema group within the genus Nosema and heavily infects silkworms. Based on the information obtained during this study, we named this new microsporidium isolated from M. cribraria as Nosema sp. MC. PMID:25173855

Xing, Dongxu; Li, Li; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; Li, Qingrong; Xiao, Yang; Dai, Fanwei; Yang, Qiong

2014-11-01

257

Silkworm HP1a transcriptionally enhances highly expressed euchromatic genes via association with their transcription start sites.  

PubMed

Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein across different eukaryotic species and is crucial for heterochromatin establishment and maintenance. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, encodes two HP1 proteins, BmHP1a and BmHP1b. In order to investigate the role of BmHP1a in transcriptional regulation, we performed genome-wide analyses of the transcriptome, transcription start sites (TSSs), chromatin modification states and BmHP1a-binding sites of the silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We identified a number of BmHP1a-binding loci throughout the silkworm genome and found that these loci included TSSs and frequently co-occurred with neighboring euchromatic histone modifications. In addition, we observed that genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs were relatively highly expressed in BmN4 cells. RNA interference-mediated BmHP1a depletion resulted in the transcriptional repression of highly expressed genes with BmHP1a-associated TSSs, whereas genes not coupled with BmHP1a-binding regions were less affected by the treatment. These results demonstrate that BmHP1a binds near TSSs of highly expressed euchromatic genes and positively regulates their expression. Our study revealed a novel mode of transcriptional regulation mediated by HP1 proteins. PMID:25237056

Shoji, Keisuke; Hara, Kahori; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Sugano, Sumio; Shimada, Toru; Suzuki, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu

2015-01-01

258

Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of molecular mechanisms associated with low silk production in silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the low fibroin production of the ZB silkworm strain, we used both SDS-PAGE-based and gel-free-based proteomic techniques and transcriptomic sequencing technique. Combining the data from two different proteomic techniques was preferable in the characterization of the differences between the ZB silkworm strain and the original Lan10 silkworm strain. The correlation analysis showed that the individual protein and transcript were not corresponded well, however, the differentially changed proteins and transcripts showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. In the ZB strain, numerous ribosomal proteins and transcripts were down-regulated, along with the transcripts of translational related elongation factors and genes of important components of fibroin. The proteasome pathway was significantly enhanced in the ZB strain, indicating that protein degradation began on the third day of fifth instar when fibroin would have been produced in the Lan10 strain normally and plentifully. From proteome and transcriptome levels of the ZB strain, the energy-metabolism-related pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and citrate cycle were enhanced, suggesting that the energy metabolism was vigorous in the ZB strain, while the silk production was low. This may due to the inefficient energy employment in fibroin synthesis in the ZB strain. These results suggest that the reason for the decreasing of the silk production might be related to the decreased ability of fibroin synthesis, the degradation of proteins, and the inefficiency of the energy exploiting. PMID:24428189

Wang, Shao-Hua; You, Zheng-Ying; Ye, Lu-Peng; Che, Jiaqian; Qian, Qiujie; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhong, Bo-Xiong

2014-02-01

259

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review  

SciTech Connect

This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

1992-01-01

260

DOE/ORO/2185 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

published: September 2004 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Technical coordinators Wayne McMahon Joan Hughes Mike Coffey Oak Ridge Y-12 Complex Oak Ridge National and by the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8169 Managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. for the U

Pennycook, Steve

261

DOE/ORO/2159 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

: September 2003 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2008 Managed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1.6.3 Oak Ridge National Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical coordinators Wayne McMahon Joan Hughes Mike Coffey Oak Ridge Y-12 Complex Oak Ridge National

Pennycook, Steve

262

DOE/ORO/2119 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

. Mulkey Date published: September 2001 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13 1.6.3 Oak Ridge National Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical coordinators L. W. McMahon J. F. Hughes M. L. Coffey Oak Ridge Y-12 Complex Oak Ridge National

Pennycook, Steve

263

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-2008/131 NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-2008/131 NATIONAL LABORATORY MANAGED BY UT-BATTELLE FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY by R. W. Leggetta K. F. Eckermana R. A. Meckb a Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Meck Date Published: August 2008 Published by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831

Pennycook, Steve

264

DOE/ORO/2218 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

: September 2006 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2008 Managed Technical coordinators Wayne McMahon Joan Hughes Mike Coffey Oak Ridge Y-12 Complex Oak Ridge National National Security Complex Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8169 Managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. for the Department

Pennycook, Steve

265

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-2008/ NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-2008/ NATIONAL LABORATORY MANAGED BY UT-BATTELLE FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. Leggett K. F. Eckerman Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 #12;DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Date Published: August 2008 Published by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

Pennycook, Steve

266

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BPWorkshop-2005 - LRB OAK RIDGE of ITER Burning PlasmasEfficient Fueling of ITER Burning Plasmas #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U

267

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-2006/583 NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-2006/583 NATIONAL LABORATORY MANAGED BY UT-BATTELLE FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Agency Washington, DC 20460 b Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 #12;DOCUMENT Published by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U

268

Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2008-12-01

269

MAMMAL CACHING OF OAK ACORNS IN A RED PINE AND A MIXED-OAK STAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small mammal caching of oak (Quercus spp.) acorns in adjacent red pine (Pinus resinosa) and mixed-oak stands was investigated at The Penn State Experimental Forest, Huntingdon Co., Pennsylvania. Gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and mice (Peromyscus spp.) were the most common acorn-caching species. Acorn production was estimated at 104,200 red oak group acorns\\/ha and 80,250 white oak group acoms\\/ha. Acorn caches

Eugene R. Thorn; Walter M. Tzilkowski

270

Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through

B. G. Blaylock; M. L. Frank; F. O. Hoffman; L. A. Hook; G. W. Suter; J. A. Watts

1992-01-01

271

76 VOL. 104VEGETATION OF THE OAK OPENINGS Description of Vegetation of the Oak Openings of Northwestern Ohio at  

E-print Network

76 VOL. 104VEGETATION OF THE OAK OPENINGS Description of Vegetation of the Oak Openings a map of the Oak Openings of northwestern Ohio showing the vegetation at the time of Euro-American settlement (1817-1832). For that period, the area of the Oak Openings was 43% Oak Savanna, 27% Wet Prairie

Gottgens, Hans

272

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL is the largest science Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report--2012 Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-2 Fig. 5.1. Location and energy national laboratory in the DOE system. ORNL's scientific programs focus on materials, neutron

Pennycook, Steve

273

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990December 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

D. M. Borders; S. M. Gregory; R. B. Clapp; B. J. Frederick; J. A. Watts

1992-01-01

274

Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory A multidisciplinary research fields. The Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory routinely partners and economies? Research at the Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides

275

View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

276

3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

277

Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

278

76 FR 80433 - In the Matter of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, 6173 Bellevue Road, Royal Oak, MD 21662...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 3340] In the Matter of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, 6173 Bellevue Road, Royal Oak, MD 21662; Notice of Intention To Cancel...cancelling the registration of Royal Oak Capital Management, LLC, hereinafter...

2011-12-23

279

78 FR 2431 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service...SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office has corrected an inventory of human...

2013-01-11

280

77 FR 68818 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office, Oak Ridge, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Office has completed an inventory of human...

2012-11-16

281

Morphogenesis of the antenna of the male silkmoth. Antheraea polyphemus, III. Development of olfactory sensilla and the properties of hair-forming cells.  

PubMed

During adult development of the male silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus, the anlagen of olfactory sensilla arise within the first 2 days post-apolysis in the antennal epidermis (stage 1-3). Approximately on the second day, the primary dendrites as well as the axons grow out from the sensory neurons (stage 4). The trichogen cells start to grow apical processes approximately on the third day, and these hair-forming 'sprouts' reach their definite length around the ninth day (stages 5-6). Then the secretion of cuticle begins, the cuticulin layer having formed on day 10 (stage 7a). The primary dendrites are shed, the inner dendritic segments as well as the thecogen cells retract from the prospective hair bases, and the inner tormogen cells degenerate around days 10/11 (stage 7b). The hair shafts of the basiconic sensilla are completed around days 12/13 (stage 7c), and those of the trichoid sensilla around days 14/15 (stage 7d). The trichogen sprouts retract from the hairs after having finished cuticle formation, and the outer dendritic segments grow out into the hairs: in the basiconic sensilla directly through, and in the trichoid sensilla alongside, the sprouts. The trichogen sprouts contain numerous parallel-running microtubules. Besides their cytoskeletal function, these are most probably involved in the transport of membrane vesicles. During the phase of cuticle deposition, large numbers of vesicles are transported anterogradely from the cell bodies into the sprouts, where they fuse with the apical cell membrane and release their electron-dense contents (most probably cuticle precursors) to the outside. As the cuticle grows in thickness, the surface area of the sprouts is reduced by endocytosis of coated vesicles. When finally the sprouts retract from the completed hairs, the number of endocytotic vesicles is further increased and numerous membrane cisterns seem to be transported retrogradely along the microtubules to the cell bodies. Here the membrane material will most probably be used again in the formation of the sensillum lymph cavities. Thus, the trichogen cells are characterized by an intensive membrane recycling. The sensillum lymph cavities develop between days 16-20 (stage 8), mainly via apical invaginations of the trichogen cells. The imago emerges on day 21. PMID:18621189

Keil, T A; Steiner, C

1991-01-01

282

Structural insights into the ligand binding and releasing mechanism of Antheraea polyphemus pheromone-binding protein 1: role of the C-terminal tail.  

PubMed

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in lepidopteran moths selectively transport the hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger the neuronal response. Moth PBPs are known to bind ligand at physiological pH and release it at acidic pH while undergoing a conformational change. Two molecular switches are considered to play a role in this mechanism: (i) protonation of His(70) and His(95) situated at one end of binding pocket and (ii) switch of the unstructured C-terminus at the other end of the binding pocket to a helix that enters the pocket. We have reported previously the role of the histidine-driven switch in ligand release for Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1). Here we show that the C-terminus plays a role in the ligand release and binding mechanism of ApolPBP1. The C-terminus truncated mutants of ApolPBP1 (ApolPBP1?P129-V142 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A?P129-V142) exist only in the bound conformation at all pH levels, and they fail to undergo pH- or ligand-dependent conformational switching. Although these proteins could bind ligands even at acidic pH unlike wild-type ApolPBP1, they had ~4-fold reduced affinity for the ligand at both acidic and physiological pH compared to that of wild-type ApolPBP1 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A. Thus, apart from helping in ligand release at acidic pH, the C-terminus in ApolPBP1 also plays an important role in ligand binding and/or locking the ligand in the binding pocket. Our results are in stark contrast to those reported for BmorPBP and AtraPBP, where C-terminus truncated proteins had similar or increased pheromone binding affinity at any pH. PMID:23327454

Katre, Uma V; Mazumder, Suman; Mohanty, Smita

2013-02-12

283

Structural Insights into the Ligand Binding and Releasing Mechanism of Antheraea polyphemus PBP1: Role of the C-terminal Tail  

PubMed Central

Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in lepidopteran moths selectively transport the hydrophobic pheromone molecules across the sensillar lymph to trigger the neuronal response. Moth PBPs are known to bind ligand at physiological pH and release it at acidic pH while undergoing a conformational change. Two molecular switches are considered to play a role in this mechanism: (i) Protonation of His70 and His95 situated at one end of binding pocket, and (ii) Switch of the unstructured C-terminus at the other end of the binding pocket to a helix that enters the pocket. We have reported previously the role of the histidine-driven switch in ligand release for Antheraea polyphemus PBP1 (ApolPBP1). Here we show that the C-terminus plays a role in ligand release and binding mechanism of ApolPBP1. The C-terminus truncated mutants of ApolPBP1 (ApolPBP1?P129-V142 and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A?P129-V142) exist only in the bound conformation at all pH levels, and they fail to undergo pH- or ligand- dependent conformational switch. Although these proteins could bind ligands even at acidic pH unlike the wild-type ApolPBP1, they had ~4 fold reduced affinity towards the ligand at both acidic and physiological pH than that of ApolPBP1wt and ApolPBP1H70A/H95A. Thus, apart from helping in the ligand-release at acidic pH, the C-terminus in ApolPBP1 also plays an important role in ligand binding and/or locking the ligand in the binding pocket. Our results are in stark contrast to those reported for BmorPBP and AtraPBP, where C-terminus truncated proteins had similar or increased pheromone-binding affinity at any pH. PMID:23327454

Katre, Uma V.; Mazumder, Suman; Mohanty, Smita

2013-01-01

284

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Science & Technology Highlights  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Science & Technology Highlights Published by Oak Ridge National of sustainable energy technologies nationally. ORNL's work with states is based on four major initiatives research and technical as- sistance support to states through project solicitations. The principal partners

Pennycook, Steve

285

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium June 19 to 22, 2012, Petaluma beliefs, marital status, familial or parental status, sexual orientation, or all or part of an individual 94720-3114 (kpalmieri@berkeley.edu). Janice M. Alexander is sudden oak death outreach specialist, Univ

Standiford, Richard B.

286

Sudden Oak Death and Phytophthora ramorum  

E-print Network

A v Sudden Oak Death and Phytophthora ramorum: A Summary of the Literature 2010 Edition John T, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic. #12;Abstract Kliejunas, John T. 2010. Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum: a sum- mary

Standiford, Richard B.

287

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium United States Department of Agriculture, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation. Technical Coordinators Susan J. Frankel is Sudden Oak Death Research Program Manager, USDA Forest Service

Standiford, Richard B.

288

White oaks phylogeography in the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic distribution of maternally inherited chloroplast DNA polymorphisms was studied to determine the phylogeographic structure of white oaks in the Iberian Peninsula. Almost 1000 mature trees from nearly 200 populations were sampled in the distribution areas of the six white oak species that are recognised in Iberia. The analysed trees roughly represent the species distribution and their respective abundance.

Marta Olalde; Ana Herrán; Santiago Espinel; Pablo G. Goicoechea

2002-01-01

289

Functional characterization of the vitellogenin promoter in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Genetic transformation and genome editing technologies have been successfully established in the lepidopteran insect model, the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, providing great potential for functional genomics and practical applications. However, the current lack of cis-regulatory elements in B.?mori gene manipulation research limits further exploitation in functional gene analysis. In the present study, we characterized a B.?mori endogenous promoter, Bmvgp, which is a 798-bp DNA sequence adjacent to the 5'-end of the vitellogenin gene (Bmvg). PiggyBac-based transgenic analysis shows that Bmvgp precisely directs expression of a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), in a sex-, tissue- and stage-specific manner. In transgenic animals, EGFP expression can be detected in the female fat body from larval-pupal ecdysis to the following pupal and adult stage. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that EGFP expression can be activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is consistent with endogenous Bmvg expression. These data indicate that Bmvgp is an effective endogenous cis-regulatory element in B.?mori. PMID:24828437

Xu, J; Wang, Y Q; Li, Z Q; Ling, L; Zeng, B S; You, L; Chen, Y Z; Aslam, A F M; Huang, Y P; Tan, A J

2014-10-01

290

Proteomic analysis of the phenotype of the scaleless wings mutant in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

A scaleless wing mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori, has much fewer scales than wild type (WT). The scaleless phenotype was associated with tracheal system developmental deficiency and excessive apoptosis of scale cells. In this study, the wing discs proteins of WT and scaleless during pupation were studied using 2-DE and mass spectrometry. Of the 99 identified protein spots, four critical differentially expressed proteins between WT and scaleless were further verified using Q-PCR. At the first day of pupation (P0) in WT, imaginal disk growth factor (IDGF) was upregulated, whereas actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1) and profilin (PFN), which associated with cellular motility and cytoplasmic extension, were downregulated. We speculated their coaction counteracts the correct organization of the tracheal system in wing disc. Thiol peroxiredoxin (TPx) was upregulated in scaleless at P0, but its mRNA higher expression occurred in the day before pupation (S4). TPx could inhibit the formation of hydrogen peroxide, preventing the release of cytochrome C and activation of the caspase family protease. Its higher expression in scaleless was responsible for the apoptosis of scale cells delayed. The results provide further evidence that the scaleless phenotype was related to the tracheal system developmental deficiency and excessive apoptosis of scale cells. PMID:23174119

Shi, Xiao-Feng; Bin Han; Li, Yi-Nü; Yi, Yong-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Shen, Xing-Jia; Zhang, Zhi-Fang

2013-01-14

291

[Chromatin in diapause of the silkworm Bombyx mori L.: thermal parthenogenesis and normal development].  

PubMed

Having used hematoxylin as a stain, some features of silkworm embryo chromatin in diapause have been studied in normal and parthenogenetic development. With found direct correlation between the number of interphase chromatin grains and the number of chromosomes in the nucleus, we examined cell polyploidization in the embryo at diapause stage. Polyploidization by parthenogenesis is not reducible to endomitotic doubling of the chromosome set because it comprises 6n-nuclei. Explanation of more diverse range of polyploid cells in parthenogenesis needs to consider the fusion of cleavage nuclei that is carried out by the cytoplasmic karyogamic mechanism in the absence of fertilization. For the first time on squash preparations, in diapausing embryo, we have identified primary germ cells (PGC) that are characterized by less compact chromatin, especially in the zygotic form of development, a larger size of the nucleus and cytoplasm, and irregular number and size of nucleoli. Evaluation of PGC ploidy in parthenogenesis by calculation of "loose" chromatin grains in diapause is possible and testifies polyploidization in embryo germ-line. This explains the inevitable admixture of tetraploid eggs in diploid parthenoclone grain and its absence in normal development. Cytological method used has revealed a spiral arrangement of chromatin grains on the inner surface of the nucleus at different levels of ploidy. PMID:22645986

Klimenko, V V; Khaoiuan', Lian

2012-01-01

292

New insight into the mechanism underlying fibroin secretion in silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the role of different parts of the fibroin heavy chain (H-chain) in the secretion of fibroin in the silk gland of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) in vivo, two enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)/H-chain fusion genes with deduced protein sequences containing an identical N-terminal region and different C-terminal regions of the H-chain were introduced into the B. mori genome using a piggyBac-mediated germline transformation. EGFP fluorescence and molecular analysis showed the products of two different EGFP/H-chain fusion proteins were secreted into the posterior silk gland lumen and aggregated in the middle silk gland and spun into cocoons. The results revealed that only the non-repetitive N terminus of the H-chain is essential for secretion of the H-chain into the posterior silk gland lumen. In addition, our results also indicated that the most likely post-translational modification of the H-chain is at the C-terminal domain. Here, our results not only provide a theoretical basis for the genetic modification of silk fiber as a functional biomaterial but also are of great significance to establishing a new silk gland bioreactor to mass-produce exogenous proteins in an active form. PMID:25302556

Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Qing; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

2015-01-01

293

Wound healing properties of a 3-D scaffold comprising soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate and human collagen.  

PubMed

Biomaterials that serve as scaffolds for cell proliferation and differentiation are increasingly being used in wound repair. In this study, the potential regenerative properties of a 3-D scaffold containing soluble silkworm gland hydrolysate (SSGH) and human collagen were evaluated. The scaffold was generated by solid-liquid phase separation and a freeze-drying method using a homogeneous aqueous solution. The porosity, swelling behavior, protein release, cytotoxicity, and antioxidative properties of scaffolds containing various ratios of SSGH and collagen were evaluated. SSGH/collagen scaffolds had a high porosity of 61-81% and swelling behavior studies demonstrated a 50-75% increase in swelling, along with complete protein release in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline. Cytocompatibility of the SSGH/collagen scaffold was demonstrated using mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord. Furthermore, SSGH/collagen efficiently attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell damage. In an in vivo mouse model of wound healing, the SSGH/collagen scaffold accelerated wound re-epithelialization over a 15-day period. Overall, the microporous SSGH/collagen 3-D scaffold maintained optimal hydration of the exposed tissues and decreased wound healing time. These results contribute to the generation of advanced wound healing materials and may have future therapeutic implications. PMID:24503353

Kim, Kyu-Oh; Lee, Youngjun; Hwang, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hojin; Kim, Sun Mi; Chang, Sung Woon; Lee, Heui Sam; Choi, Yong-Soo

2014-04-01

294

STUDIES ON THE POSTERIOR SILK GLAND OF THE SILKWORM BOMBIX MORI  

PubMed Central

Ultracentrifugal analyses of the native silk proteins extracted from the various parts of the middle silk gland of the mature silkworm have revealed that there exist four components with S°20,w values of 10S, 9–10S, 9S, and 4S in the extract. It is suggested that the fastest 10S component is the native fibroin synthesized in the posterior silk gland and transferred to the middle silk gland to be stored there, while the slower three components probably correspond to inner, middle, and outer sericins which were synthesized in the posterior, middle, and anterior portion of the middle silk gland, respectively. Native fibroin solution was prepared from the most posterior part of the middle silk gland. Ultracentrifugal analyses have shown that the solution contains considerable amounts of aggregates in addition to the main 10S component. Treatment with lithium bromide (LiBr), urea, or guanidine hydrochloride solution up to 6 M all have failed to dissociate the 10S component. From the sedimentation equilibrium analyses and partial specific volume of 0.716, the molecular weight of the 10S component of the native fibroin solution was found to be between 3.2 – 4.2 x 105, with a tendency to lie fairly close to 3.7 x 105. PMID:5459009

Tashiro, Yutaka; Otsuki, Eiichi

1970-01-01

295

Transgenic protein production in silkworm silk glands requires cathepsin and chitinase of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

The silkworm Bombyx mori represents an established in vivo system for the production of recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses have been extensively investigated and optimised for the expression of high protein levels inside the haemolymph of larvae and pupae of this lepidopteran insect. Current technology includes deletion of genes responsible for the activity of virus-borne proteases, which in wild-type viruses, cause liquefaction of the host insect and enhance horizontal transmission of newly synthesised virus particles. Besides the haemolymph, the silk gland of B. mori provides an additional expression system for recombinant proteins. In this paper, we investigated how silk gland can be efficiently infected by a Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). We demonstrated that the viral chitinase and the cysteine protease cathepsin are necessary to permit viral entry into the silk gland cells of intrahaemocoelically infected B. mori larvae. Moreover, for the first time, we showed AcMNPV crossing the basal lamina of silk glands in B. mori larvae, and we assessed a new path of infection of silk gland cells that can be exploited for protein production. PMID:24477386

Wöltje, Michael; Böbel, Melanie; Rheinnecker, Michael; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Franzetti, Eleonora; Saviane, Alessio; Cappellozza, Silvia

2014-05-01

296

Antennapedia is involved in the development of thoracic legs and segmentation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Homeotic genes, which are associated closely with body patterning of various species, specify segment identity. The Wedge eye-spot (Wes) is a new homeotic mutant located on the sixth linkage group. Homozygous Wes/Wes embryos are lethal and display a pair of antenna-like appendages under the mouthparts as well as fused thoracic segments. These mutants also exhibit a narrower eye-spot at the larval stage compared with the wild type. By positional cloning, we identified the candidate gene of the Wes locus, Bombyx mori Antennapedia (BmAntp). Two BmAntp transcripts were identified in the homozygote of the Wes mutant, including a normal form and an abnormal form with a 1570-bp insertion. Our data showed that the insertion element was a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-like transposon that destroyed the original open reading frame of BmAntp. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of normal BmAntp transcripts were increased markedly in the Wes heterozygous larvae compared with the wild type. Furthermore, we performed RNAi of BmAntp and observed fused thoracic segments and defective thoracic legs in the developing embryos. Our results indicated that BmAntp is responsible for the Wes mutant and has an important role in determining the proper development of the thoracic segments. Our identification of a homeotic mutation in the silkworm is an important contribution to our understanding of the regulation of Hox genes at different levels of expression. PMID:23652563

Chen, P; Tong, X L; Li, D D; Fu, M Y; He, S Z; Hu, H; Xiang, Z H; Lu, C; Dai, F Y

2013-01-01

297

Expression pattern of enzymes related to juvenile hormone metabolism in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

The physiological balance of juvenile hormone (JH) in insects depends on its biosynthesis and degradation pathway. Three key enzymes namely, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) are required for degradation in insects. Our present results showed that JHE and JHEH exhibited expression in almost all the tissues. This indicated that JHE and JHEH might degrade JH simultaneously. In addition, the highest levels of JHDK were observed in the midgut, with trace level being found in the malpighian tubule and haemocytes. Since the midgut is a digestive organ and not a JH target, it was hypothesized that both JHE and JHEH hydrolyzed JH to JH diol (JHd) which was then transported to midgut and hydrolyzed further by JHDK, to be finally excreted out of the body. Also the expression studies on JH degradation enzymes in different tissues and stages indicated that the activities of the three enzymes are specific and coincident with the JH functions in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. PMID:21107706

Hua-Jun, Yang; Fang, Zhou; Awquib, Sabhat; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Roy, Bhaskar; Xing-Hua, Li; Jia-Biao, Hu; Chun-Guang, Sun; Niu, Yan-Shan; Yun-Gen, Miao

2011-10-01

298

Reexamination of phenoloxidase in larval circulating hemocytes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

We have developed a modified method to detect phenoloxidase activity on hemocytes by using freshly prepared l-DOPA (1 mg/ml in 35% ethanol) to fix and incubate larval hemocytes. This method is more sensitive than the common method, in which hemocytes were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and then incubated with 2 mg/ml l-DOPA in water separately. Phenoloxidase assayed using this modified method can be inhibited by phenyltiourea (phenoloxidase inhibitor). After incubation with l-DOPA solution in ethanol, most prohemocytes, all plasmatocytes and young granulocytes are stained brown due to oxidation of l-DOPA into pigments, indicating that they have phenoloxidase. Oenocytoids are dimly stained because many of their cell inclusions have been released during the treatment. Large propidium-iodide-negative prohemocytes have strong phenoloxidase activity and are easily misunderstood as propidium-iodide-positive oenocytoids if the fluorescent method is not used for identification. Thus, in addition to oenocytoids and plasmatocytes, some prohemocytes and granulocytes in the silkworm also have phenoloxidase. PMID:15748736

Ling, E; Shirai, K; Kanehatsu, R; Kiguchi, K

2005-04-01

299

Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

Skipper, M.N.

1990-03-01

300

AMINO ACID PROFILES IN THE HAEMOLYMPH OF SILKWORM BOMBYX MORI L. INFECTED WITH FUNGAL PATHOGEN BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALS.) VUILL.  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Examined the day to day changes of amino acid profiles in the haemolymph of 5 th instar silkworm Bombyx mori L. during the development of fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. For the qualitative determination of amino acids Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was performed. The qualitative changes were observed in amino acid at different lengths on 1 st and 6 th day after inoculation of Beauveria bassiana. More number of amino acid spots were noticed on 1 st and 6 th day of inoculated larvae compared to control.

K. Rajitha; G. Savithri

301

Review article Oaks in a high-CO2 world  

E-print Network

environmental factor that is certain to influence the physiology and productivity of oak trees everywhere that can influence the physiological and ecological relationships of oaks. The CO2 responses of at least 11Review article Oaks in a high-CO2 world RJ Norby Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

RECENT CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AT OAK RIDGE  

E-print Network

469. RECENT CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AT OAK RIDGE By GEORGE M. BROWN and HENRI A. LEVY, Chemistry Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U. S. A ont été relevées grace au diffractomètre à neutrons d'Oak Ridge position- nant automatiquement les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Description of Facilities and Resources Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

1 Description of Facilities and Resources Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the UT-ORNL Joint Institute for Computational Sciences 1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Computer Facilities. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) hosts three petascale computing facilities: the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing

304

May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, USA #12;May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,000 processors. #12;May 12, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra

Engelmann, Christian

305

at Oak Ridge National Laboratory A Project of  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge at Oak Ridge National Laboratory A Project of One of the Community Reuse Organization Building... ...Partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory have Never Been Easier! The Design Phase I.241.2149 ORNL2010-G01039/aas Supporting the Technology Transfer Mission The Oak Ridge Science and Technology

Pennycook, Steve

306

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Simulation of supersonic combustion and Mathematics Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee SIAM Conference on Computational-structure interaction with reaction · Conclusions #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Caloric

Deiterding, Ralf

307

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Fusion Materials Research Steve Zinkle Materials Science & Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Fusion Power Associates Matsukawa (ORNL); Rick Kurtz (PNNL), Bob Odette (UCSB), Brian Wirth (UCB) #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

308

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AAAS Symposium CO2 Fertilization: Boon. Norby Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Amicus Journal Fall: 8 #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CO2 fertilization

309

15 April 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

15 April 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra Christian Engelmann Oak Ridge National Laboratory #12;15 April 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National. " Computer science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. " Ultra-scale high-end scientific computing. " High

Engelmann, Christian

310

Mechanisms for Partnering with Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

#12;2 Mechanisms for Partnering with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Partnerships--It's our name, but it also represents our driving philosophy and commitment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has. Partnerships Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bldg. 4500N, MS 6196 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6196 Phone: 866

311

Oak Ridge ReseRvatiOn DOE/ORO/2379  

E-print Network

Creative Media Human Resources and Communications Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Oak Ridge Reservation Oak Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Coordinating editors Judy Neeley, Jane Parrott, Andy Sproles September 2011 Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory P

Pennycook, Steve

312

History of the Laboratory Protection Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

i i #12;#12;History of the Laboratory Protection Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1942, Emergency Preparedness Date Published: March 1992 Prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge of plutonium, known as Clinton Laboratories. -The pilot plant was renamed Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1948

313

September 26, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

September 26, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, USA #12;September 26, 2005 Christian Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Engelmann, Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Availability for Ultra-Scale High-End Scientific Computing 3

Engelmann, Christian

314

Small mammal response to oak savanna restoration in northwest Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first objective of this thesis was to determine if differences existed in the composition of the small mammal community in oak savannas relative to the community found in adjacent oak woodland. Specifically, from June to August 2009, I estimated and compared abundance, density, and micro-habitat affiliations of small mammals in two oak savanna and four oak woodland sites at

Valerie J Clarkston

2011-01-01

315

OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes of Tuesday, September 16, 2014  

E-print Network

1 OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes of Tuesday, September 16, 2014 1. Update on OAK performance issues ­ now known colloquially as "the OAK crisis." On Monday evening, Nursing had to stop a test 9/15: OAK is worse, definitely not better. We had significant disruption to service Monday evening

Simaan, Nabil

316

Oak Leaf Blister Theresa Badurek, Urban Horticulture Extension Agent  

E-print Network

Oak Leaf Blister Theresa Badurek, Urban Horticulture Extension Agent It's that time of year again, the leaves are green, the flowers are blooming, the birds are singing, the oak leaves are blistering. Ah spring! Wait a minute oak leaves blistering? Yes, this is a common sight in the spring. Oak leaf

Jawitz, James W.

317

UT OAK RIDGE FACILITY To Y-12 National  

E-print Network

5 UT ­ OAK RIDGE FACILITY To Y-12 National Security Complex To East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP To Knoxville and McGhee Tyson Airport Via 162 / I-140 (Pellissippi Parkway) OAK RIDGE TURNPIKE 10 2 MILES 95 To Oak Ridge National Laboratory 9 3 2 4 1 9 7 6 8 TU LANE TU LANE NEWYORK UT OUTREACH CENTER UT-OAK

318

Original article Genetic inventory of European oak populations  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic inventory of European oak populations: consequences for breeding and gene; The objective of the present study was to characterize the genetic variation in pedunculate oak and sessile oak populations on the basis of isoenzyme markers and to perform a genetic inventory of European oak populations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Effects of added CeCl3 on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.  

PubMed

One of the most important agents causing lethal disease in the silkworm is the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), while low-dose rare earths are demonstrated to increase immune capacity in animals. However, very little is known about the effects of added CeCl(3) on decreasing BmNPV infection of silkworm. The present study investigated the effects of added CeCl(3) to an artificial diet on resistance of fifth-instar larvae of silkworm to BmNPV infection. Our findings indicated that added CeCl(3) significantly decreased inhibition of growth and mortality of fifth-instar larvae caused by BmNPV infection. Furthermore, the added CeCl(3) obviously decreased lipid peroxidation level and accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), (·)OH, and NO and increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione contents in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. In addition, the added CeCl(3) could significantly promote acetylcholine esterase activity and attenuate the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the BmNPV-infected fifth-instar larvae. These findings suggested that added CeCl(3) may relieve oxidative damage and neurotoxicity of silkworm caused by BmNPV infection via increasing antioxidant capacity and acetylcholine esterase activity. PMID:22076733

Li, Bing; Xie, Yi; Cheng, Zhe; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Rengping; Cui, Yaling; Gong, Xiaolan; Shen, Weide; Hong, Fashui

2012-06-01

320

A Shark Liver Gene-Derived Active Peptide Expressed in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori: Preliminary Studies for Oral Administration of the Recombinant Protein  

PubMed Central

Active peptide from shark liver (APSL) is a cytokine from Chiloscyllium plagiosum that can stimulate liver regeneration and protects the pancreas. To study the effect of orally administered recombinant APSL (rAPSL) on an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the APSL gene was cloned, and APSL was expressed in Bombyx mori N cells (BmN cells), silkworm larvae and silkworm pupae using the silkworm baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). It was demonstrated that rAPSL was able to significantly reduce the blood glucose level in mice with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin. The analysis of paraffin sections of mouse pancreatic tissues revealed that rAPSL could effectively protect mouse islets from streptozotocin-induced lesions. Compared with the powder prepared from normal silkworm pupae, the powder prepared from pupae expressing rAPSL exhibited greater protective effects, and these results suggest that rAPSL has potential uses as an oral drug for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the future. PMID:23652883

Liu, Yunlong; Chen, Ying; Chen, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenping; Sheng, Qing; Chen, Jian; Yu, Wei; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Wu, Wutong; Wang, Lisha; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Li, Jun; Qian, Lian; Lv, Zhengbing

2013-01-01

321

Electron transport and bulk-like behavior of Wiedemann-Franz law for sub-7 nm-thin iridium films on silkworm silk.  

PubMed

For ultrathin metallic films, either supported or free-standing, the inside nanocrystalline nature significantly reduces the electron and thermal transport. Quantum mechanical reflection of electrons at the grain boundary reduces the electrical conductivity further than the thermal conductivity, leading to a Lorenz number in the order of 7.0 × 10(-8) W ? K(-2), much higher than that of the bulk counterpart. We report on a finding that for ultrathin (0.6-6.3 nm) iridium films coated on degummed silkworm silk fibroin, the electron transport is around 100-200% higher than that of the same film on glass fiber, even though the grain size of Ir film on silkworm silk is smaller than that on glass fiber. At the same time, the thermal conductivity of the Ir film is smaller or close to that of the film on glass fiber. Its Lorenz number is found close to that of bulk crystalline Ir despite the nanocrystalline structure in the Ir films. This is similar to the behavior of metallic glasses. Our study of gold films on silkworm silk reveals the same trend of change as compared to that on glass fiber. Electron hopping and tunneling in silkworm silk is speculated to be responsible for the observed electron transport. The finding points out that silk could provide a better substrate for flexible electronics with significantly faster electron transport. PMID:24988039

Lin, Huan; Xu, Shen; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xinwei

2014-07-23

322

Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone–Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

323

Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Reproduction of Silkworm.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect and the model insect of Lepidoptera. Because of its high fecundity and short reproduction cycle, it has been widely used in reproduction and development research. The high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) show reproductive toxicity, while low concentrations of TiO2 NPs have been used as feed additive and demonstrated significant biological activities. However, whether the low concentrations of TiO2 NPs affect the reproduction of B. mori has not been reported. In this study, the growth and development of gonad of B. mori fed with a low concentration of TiO2 NPs (5 mg/L) were investigated by assessing egg production and expression of reproduction-related genes. The results showed that the low concentration of TiO2 NPs resulted in faster development of the ovaries and testes and more gamete differentiation and formation, with an average increase of 51 eggs per insect and 0.34?×?10(-4) g per egg after the feeding. The expressions of several reproduction-related genes were upregulated, such as the yolk-development-related genes Ovo-781 and vitellogenin (Vg) were increased by 5.33- and 6.77-folds, respectively. This study shows that TiO2 NPs feeding at low concentration can enhance the reproduction of B. mori, and these results are useful in developing new methods to improve fecundity in B. mori and providing new clues for its broad biological applications. PMID:25471203

Ni, Min; Li, Fanchi; Wang, Binbin; Xu, Kaizun; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Jingsheng; Tian, Jianghai; Shen, Weide; Li, Bing

2014-12-01

324

Gloverins of the silkworm Bombyx mori: Structural and binding properties and activities  

PubMed Central

Gloverins are basic, glycine-rich and heat-stable antibacterial proteins (~14-kDa) in lepidopteran insects with activity against Escherichia coli, Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and a virus. Hyalophora gloveri gloverin adopts a random coil structure in aqueous solution but has ?-helical structure in membrane-like environment, and it may interact with the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Manduca sexta gloverin binds to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of LPS. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, there are four gloverins with slightly acidic to neutral isoelectric points. In this study, we investigate structural and binding properties and activities of B. mori gloverins (BmGlvs), as well as correlations between structure, binding property and activity. Recombinant BmGlv1–4 were expressed in bacteria and purified. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that all four BmGlvs mainly adopted random coli structure (>50%) in aqueous solution in regardless of pH, but contained ?-helical structure in the presence of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), smooth and rough mutants (Ra, Rc and Re) of LPS and lipid A. Plate ELISA assay showed that BmGlvs at pH 5.0 bound to rough mutants of LPS and lipid A but not to smooth LPS. Antibacterial activity assay showed that positively charged BmGlvs (at pH 5.0) were active against E. coli mutant strains containing rough LPS but inactive against E. coli with smooth LPS. Our results suggest that binding to rough LPS is the prerequisite for the activity of BmGlvs against E. coli. PMID:23567591

Yi, Hui-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Yang, Wan-Ying; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Cao, Yang; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

2013-01-01

325

Effect of degumming time on silkworm silk fibre for biodegradable polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, many studies have been conducted on exploitation of natural materials for modern product development and bioengineering applications. Apart from plant-based materials (such as sisal, hemp, jute, bamboo and palm fibre), animal-based fibre is a kind of sustainable natural materials for making novel composites. Silkworm silk fibre extracted from cocoon has been well recognized as a promising material for bio-medical engineering applications because of its superior mechanical and bioresorbable properties. However, when producing silk fibre reinforced biodegradable/bioresorbable polymer composites, hydrophilic sericin has been found to cause poor interfacial bonding with most polymers and thus, it results in affecting the resultant properties of the composites. Besides, sericin layers on fibroin surface may also cause an adverse effect towards biocompatibility and hypersensitivity to silk for implant applications. Therefore, a proper pre-treatment should be done for sericin removal. Degumming is a surface modification process which allows a wide control of the silk fibre's properties, making the silk fibre possible to be used for the development and production of novel bio-composites with unique/specific mechanical and biodegradable properties. In this paper, a cleaner and environmentally friendly surface modification technique for tussah silk in polymer based composites is proposed. The effectiveness of different degumming parameters including degumming time and temperature on tussah silk is discussed through the analyses of their mechanical and morphological properties. Based on results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of tussah silk are affected by the degumming time due to the change of the fibre structure and fibroin alignment.

Ho, Mei-po; Wang, Hao; Lau, Kin-tak

2012-02-01

326

Sudden Oak Death Blitz: Native oaks need our help APRIL 19, 2013 6:57 PM BILL PRAMUK  

E-print Network

Sudden Oak Death Blitz: Native oaks need our help APRIL 19, 2013 6:57 PM · BILL PRAMUK On a recent, warbling vireo, purple finch, and black phoebe. It was a lot to take in in a short time. As we walked, I oak showed possible symptoms of Sudden Oak Death infection. The pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum

California at Berkeley, University of

327

Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to

R. R. Lee; A. H. Curtis; L. M. Houlberg; S. T. Purucker; M. L. Singer; M. F. Tardiff; D. A. Wolf

1994-01-01

328

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 65 The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access to Sudden Oak Death Spatial Data1 K. Tuxen2 and M. Kelly2 Abstract Access to timely and accurate sudden oak death (SOD) location data is critical for SOD monitoring, management and research. Several

Standiford, Richard B.

329

Identification and Expression of Nine Oak Aquaporin Genes in the Primary Root Axis of Two Oak Species,  

E-print Network

Identification and Expression of Nine Oak Aquaporin Genes in the Primary Root Axis of Two Oak. This study aimed to identify and characterize AQP genes in the primary root axis of two oak species, Quercus;1 and TIP2;1 were found to be differentially expressed in the mature zone of the two oak species

Boyer, Edmond

330

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES OF CYNIPINI  

E-print Network

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES-mail: simorita@ncsu.edu) Abstract.--Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.; Fagaceae) as their host plant. Previously

Hammerton, James

331

A short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein from the silkworm: expression, characterization and involvement in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway.  

PubMed

Recognition of invading microbes as non-self is the first step of immune responses. In insects, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) detect peptidoglycans (PGs) of bacterial cell wall, leading to the activation of defense responses. Twelve PGRPs have been identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, through bioinformatics analysis. However, their biochemical functions are mostly uncharacterized. In this study, we found PGRP-S5 transcript levels were up-regulated in fat body and midgut after bacterial infection. Using recombinant protein isolated from Escherichia coli, we showed that PGRP-S5 binds to PGs from certain bacterial strains and induces bacteria agglutination. Enzyme activity assay confirmed PGRP-S5 is an amidase; we also showed it is an antibacterial protein effective against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Additionally, we demonstrated that specific recognition of PGs by PGRP-S5 is involved in the prophenoloxidase activation pathway. Together, these data suggest the silkworm PGRP-S5 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for the prophenoloxidase pathway initiation and as an effecter to inhibit bacterial growth as well. We finally discussed possible roles of PGRP-S5 as a receptor for antimicrobial peptide gene induction and as an immune modulator in the midgut. PMID:24508981

Chen, Kangkang; Liu, Chen; He, Yan; Jiang, Haobo; Lu, Zhiqiang

2014-07-01

332

Translationally controlled tumor protein, a dual functional protein involved in the immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Wang, Fei; Hu, Cuimei; Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

333

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, a Dual Functional Protein Involved in the Immune Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

2013-01-01

334

In vivo analysis of fibroin heavy chain signal peptide of silkworm Bombyx mori using recombinant baculovirus as vector  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the functional signal peptide of silkworm fibroin heavy chain (FibH) and the effect of N- and C-terminal parts of FibH on the secretion of FibH in vivo, N- and C-terminal segments of fibh gene were fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The fused gene was then introduced into silkworm larvae and expressed in silk gland using recombinant AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus) as vector. The fluorescence of EGFP was observed with fluorescence microscope. FibH-EGFP fusion proteins extracted from silk gland were analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the two alpha helices within N-terminal 163 amino acid residues and the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were not necessary for cleavage of signal peptide and secretion of the fusion protein into silk gland. Then the C-terminal 61 amino acid residues were substituted with a His-tag in the fusion protein to facilitate the purification. N-terminal sequencing of the purified protein showed that the signal cleavage site is between position 21 and 22 amino acid residues.

Wang Shengpeng [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Guo Tingqing [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Guo Xiuyang [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Huang Junting [Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhenjiang (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)]. E-mail: cdlu@sibs.ac.cn

2006-03-24

335

Cloning and expression of the Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor II gene in silkworm by using a baculovirus vector.  

PubMed

MCTI-II (Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor II) isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds is one of the serine protease inhibitors of the squash family. We cloned cDNA that encodes MCTI-II and constructed an expression system for MCTI-II by using a baculovirus vector. The recombinant baculovirus was inoculated to early fifth-instar larvae of the silkworm (strain: Shunrei x Shougetsu). Four days after infection, the hemolymph of silkworm larvae was collected and the recombinant protein was purified. Two kinds of expressed MCTI-II protein were obtained. An amino acid sequence analysis of the two proteins indicates that both were similar to the authentic inhibitor, except for the addition of a tripeptide derived from the vector at the N-terminus. One of the two inhibitors (MCTI-II A) resulted in a single PTH-amino acid in each Edman degradation cycle, while the other (MCTI-II B) resulted in two PTH-amino acids, suggesting the occurrence of cleavage of the reactive site. The inhibitory activities of MCTI-II expressed toward trypsin are examined in terms of the Ki value, these being 6.4 x 10(-10)M for MCTI-II A and 5.2 x 10(-10) M for MCTI-II B. PMID:10737198

Sato, S; Kamei, K; Taniguchi, M; Sato, H; Takano, R; Mori, H; Ichida, M; Hara, S

2000-02-01

336

Chloroplast DNA variation in European white oaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consortium of 16 laboratories have studied chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation in European white oaks. A common strategy for molecular screening, based on restriction analysis of four PCR-amplified cpDNA fragments, was used to allow comparison among the different laboratories. A total of 2613 oak populations (12,214 individual trees from eight species) were sampled from 37 countries, and analysed with the

Rémy J. Petit; Ulrike M. Csaikl; Sándor Bordács; Kornel Burg; Els Coart; Joan Cottrell; Barbara van Dam; John D. Deans; Sylvie Dumolin-Lapègue; Silvia Fineschi; Reiner Finkeldey; Amanda Gillies; Izabela Glaz; Pablo G. Goicoechea; Jan S. Jensen; Armin O. König; Andrew J. Lowe; Søren F. Madsen; Gabor Mátyás; Robert C. Munro; Maria Olalde; Marie-Hélène Pemonge; Flaviu Popescu; Danko Slade; Helen Tabbener; Daniela Taurchini; Sven G. M. de Vries; Birgit Ziegenhagen; Antoine Kremer

2002-01-01

337

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 5-1 5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL is the largest science Ridge National Laboratory UT-Battelle also manages several facilities located off the main ORNL campus and energy national laboratory in the DOE system. ORNL's scientific programs focus on materials, neutron

Pennycook, Steve

338

Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site

P. L. Osborne; Kuhaida A. J. Jr

1996-01-01

339

The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

Johnson, R.O.

1996-05-01

340

75 FR 27998 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-05-19

341

75 FR 3455 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-01-21

342

75 FR 35447 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-06-22

343

76 FR 65190 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-10-20

344

76 FR 17637 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-03-30

345

75 FR 13268 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-03-19

346

76 FR 78908 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-12-20

347

76 FR 9572 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-02-18

348

75 FR 71424 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-11-23

349

76 FR 29732 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-05-23

350

75 FR 57462 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-09-21

351

75 FR 51027 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-08-18

352

75 FR 7576 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-02-22

353

76 FR 28759 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-05-18

354

75 FR 24685 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge,...

2010-05-05

355

76 FR 36101 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-06-21

356

76 FR 22388 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-04-21

357

75 FR 82001 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2010-12-29

358

76 FR 59393 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-09-26

359

77 FR 2714 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2012-01-19

360

76 FR 4644 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...ADDRESSES: DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee...

2011-01-26

361

Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of two 30?kDa proteins from silkworm haemolymph  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP) and the low-molecular-mass lipo­protein PBMHP-12 belong to a group of 30?kDa proteins that comprise the major protein component of the haemolymph specific to the fifth-instar larvae stage of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. Proteins from this group are often essential for the development of the insect. In a project aimed at crystallographic characterization of B. mori JHBP (BmJHBP), it was copurified together with PBMHP-12. Eventually, the two proteins were isolated and crystallized separately. The BmJHBP crystals were orthorhombic (space group C2221) and the PBMHP-12 crystals were triclinic. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.9?Å (BmJHBP) and 1.3?Å (PBMHP-12) resolution. PMID:21393846

Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J.; Bujacz, Anna; ?ochy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Jaskólski, Mariusz; Bujacz, Grzegorz

2011-01-01

362

Differentially expressed genes in the ovary of the sixth day of pupal "Ming" lethal egg mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The "Ming" lethal egg mutant (l-em) is a vitelline membrane mutant in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The eggs laid by the l-em mutant lose water, ultimately causing death within an hour. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of BmEP80 is responsible for the l-em mutation in silkworm, B. mori. In the current study, digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the difference of gene expression in ovaries between wild type and l-em mutant on the sixth day of the pupal stage to obtain a global view of gene expression profiles using the ovaries of three l-em mutants and three wild types. The results showed a total of 3,463,495 and 3,607,936 clean tags in the wild type and the l-em mutant libraries, respectively. Compared with those of wild type, 239 differentially expressed genes were detected in the l-em mutant, wherein 181 genes are up-regulated and 58 genes are down-regulated in the mutant strain. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis results showed that no pathway was significantly enriched and three pathways are tightly related to protein synthesis among the five leading pathways. Moreover, the expression profiles of eight important differentially expressed genes related to oogenesis changed. These results provide a comprehensive gene expression analysis of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in B. mori which facilitates understanding of both the specific molecular mechanism of the 1-em mutant and Lepidopteran oogenesis in general. PMID:23769927

Gao, Peng; Chen, An-Li; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Xing-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Ding-Guo; Tang, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

2013-09-15

363

Genetic analysis of the electrophysiological response to salicin, a bitter substance, in a polyphagous strain of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Sawa-J is a polyphagous silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) strain that eats various plant leaves that normal silkworms do not. The feeding preference behavior of Sawa-J is controlled by one major recessive gene(s) on the polyphagous (pph) locus, and several minor genes; moreover, its deterrent cells possess low sensitivity to some bitter substances including salicin. To clarify whether taste sensitivity is controlled by the pph locus, we conducted a genetic analysis of the electrophysiological characteristics of the taste response using the polyphagous strain Sawa-J·lem, in which pph is linked to the visible larval marker lemon (lem) on the third chromosome, and the normal strain Daiankyo, in which the wild-type gene of pph (+(pph)) is marked with Zebra (Ze). Maxillary taste neurons of the two strains had similar dose-response relationships for sucrose, inositol, and strychnine nitrate, but the deterrent cell of Sawa-J·lem showed a remarkably low sensitivity to salicin. The F(1) generation of the two strains had characteristics similar to the Daiankyo strain, consistent with the idea that pph is recessive. In the BF(1) progeny between F(1) females and Sawa-J·lem males where no crossing-over occurs, the lem and Ze phenotypes corresponded to different electrophysiological reactions to 25 mM salicin, indicating that the gene responsible for taste sensitivity to salicin is located on the same chromosome as the lem and Ze genes. The normal and weak reactions to 25 mM salicin were segregated in crossover-type larvae of the BF(1) progeny produced by a reciprocal cross, and the recombination frequency agreed well with the theoretical ratio for the loci of lem, pph, and Ze on the standard linkage map. These results indicate that taste sensitivity to salicin is controlled by the gene(s) on the pph locus. PMID:22649537

Iizuka, Tetsuya; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mase, Keisuke; Okada, Eiji; Asaoka, Kiyoshi

2012-01-01

364

Development of oak plantations established for wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

2002-01-01

365

2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND FAIR OAKS BRIDGE OVERCROSSING. ABANDONED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND FAIR OAKS BRIDGE OVERCROSSING. ABANDONED RAILROAD TRESTLE IN REAR. LOOKING 244°WSW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Fair Oaks Avenue Bridge, Milepost 31.17, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

366

1. ARROYO SECO FREEWAY SOUTHBOUND AT FAIR OAKS ON RAMP. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ARROYO SECO FREEWAY SOUTHBOUND AT FAIR OAKS ON RAMP. ABANDONED RAILROAD TRESTLE AND FREMONT AVENUE BRIDGE AT REAR. LOOKING 268°W. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Fair Oaks Avenue Bridge, Milepost 31.17, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

367

2. ELEVATION OF THE OAK VIADUCT PONY TRUSS, LOOKING NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ELEVATION OF THE OAK VIADUCT PONY TRUSS, LOOKING NORTH ON SAW MILL RUN BOULEVARD - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Oak Viaduct, Overbrook Trolley Line, crossing Saw Mill Run Boulevard & Colerain Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

368

3. ELEVATION OF THE OAK VIADUCT, LOOKING NORTH ON SAW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. ELEVATION OF THE OAK VIADUCT, LOOKING NORTH ON SAW MILL RUN BOULEVARD - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Oak Viaduct, Overbrook Trolley Line, crossing Saw Mill Run Boulevard & Colerain Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

369

4. VIEW OF THE NORTHERN BENTS SUPPORTING OAK VIADUCT, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF THE NORTHERN BENTS SUPPORTING OAK VIADUCT, LOOKING SOUTH ON SAW MILL RUN BOULEVARD - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Oak Viaduct, Overbrook Trolley Line, crossing Saw Mill Run Boulevard & Colerain Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

370

Dr. Xiang-Qiang Chu Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Colloquium Dr. Xiang-Qiang Chu Oak Ridge National Laboratory "Neutron Scattering for Biological at the world's largest neutron source SNS at Oak Ridge National Lab, quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS

Baskaran, Mark

371

DOE/ORO/2261 Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site  

E-print Network

......................... 1-11 1.4.3 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Ridge National Laboratory East Tennessee Technology Park Electronic publisher Coordinating editor, Jane Parrott Project manager, DOE-ORO David Page September 2008 Prepared by Oak Ridge National

Pennycook, Steve

372

OAK RIDGE ORNL/TM-200015 MANAGED BY UT-BATTELLE  

E-print Network

. Hadder Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee - UT-BATTELLE -. ORNL-27 (4.00) #12;II #12;ORNL,Arizona G. R. Hadder OakRidge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee November 2000 Preparedfor Office Preparedby the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee3783l-6472 Managedby UT-BATTELLE, LLC

373

76 FR 64948 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From Oak Ridge National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Class of Employees From Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10), Oak Ridge...class of employees from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10), Oak Ridge...as follows: Facility: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10)...

2011-10-19

374

Symbolic approach for measuring temporal ``irreversibility'' Engineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8088  

E-print Network

Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8088 C. E. A. Finney College of Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2210 M. B. Kennel Institute for Nonlinear

Tennessee, University of

375

Isozyme variation and the conservation genetics of Garry oak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garry oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook) has a long north-south distribution along the inland Pacific coast. In British Columbia, it is a keystone species in a unique and endangered ''Garry oak meadow'' ecosystem. Here, we apply isozyme markers to address issues in the conservation and phylogeography of Garry oak. Among 42 populations and 23 gene loci, gene diversity (expected

K. Ritland; L. D. Meagher; D. G. W. Edwards; Y. A. El-Kassaby

2005-01-01

376

Evaluation of oak wilt index based on genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a normalized oak wilt index (NWI) to extract oak wilt area from remotely sensed hyperspectral image of forest in our previous work. The NWI, which is designed based on factitious characterization of spectral profiles of oak wilt, realized satisfactory extraction performance. In this paper, we propose a genetic-programming-based search method for physically interpretable index. The search procedure consists

Kuniaki Uto; Yukio Kosugi; Toshinari Ogata

2009-01-01

377

Review article Summer and winter embolism in oak  

E-print Network

and dry sites or may explain the evolution of stomatal physiology. Oaks seem to operate close to the pointReview article Summer and winter embolism in oak: impact on water relations MT Tyree H Cochard 1 and freezing in six species of oak (Quercus). The xylem pressure potential that induces 50% loss hydraulic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Experimental Facilities Division Oak Ridge Nov. 13-15, 2002  

E-print Network

Experimental Facilities Division Oak Ridge Nov. 13-15, 2002 PITTING ISSUE/TARGET DECISION John;Experimental Facilities Division Oak Ridge2 Nov. 13-15, 2002 SNS-XFD Doug Abernathy Michael Agamalian Ian The Pit Crew #12;Experimental Facilities Division Oak Ridge3 Nov. 13-15, 2002 Criteria and Deadlines

McDonald, Kirk

379

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life Cycle Reimbursable Funding: http://www.ornl.gov/wfo/exthome.htm October 11, 2010 #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT Project Closeout Process Summary #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 3 Secretary

380

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life  

E-print Network

Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) Project Life Cycle Reimbursable Funding://www.ornl.gov/wfo/exthome.htm September 27, 2007 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Briefing Outline · Summary #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Secretary of Energy Legal Authority

381

Author's personal copy Environmentally biased fragmentation of oak savanna  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Environmentally biased fragmentation of oak savanna habitat on southeastern Available online 7 September 2008 Keywords: Climate Conservation baselines Indigenous land use Oak savanna environmental conditions represented across the entire landscape, in oak savanna habitats prior to Euro- pean

Vellend, Mark

382

NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Upton, NY #12;2 NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT;3 NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Properties

McDonald, Kirk

383

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 Deciphering the Structure of Gaseous Research; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05- 00OR22725. #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S

Deiterding, Ralf

384

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Voice of the Customer Assessment Results By ORNL Staff PercentageofResponses #12;4 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Voice National Laboratory Small Business Programs Office 1009 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 350 Oak Ridge, Tennessee

385

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Tri Cities Town Hall Forum August 9, 2006 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Doing Business with ORNL and R&D Services 15.3% 92.0% TOTAL DOLLARS TOTAL ACTIONS #12;3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S

386

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Tilt Option Discussion Issues Van Graves Phone Conference Sept 22, 2004 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY orientation (as discussed in K. McDonald's 9Sept paper) Hg Drainage #12;4 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S

McDonald, Kirk

387

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Amroc - A Cartesian SAMR Framework, California February 22, 2007 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Collaboration Computing Research; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Deiterding, Ralf

388

Statement of Thomas E. Mason Director, Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Statement of Thomas E. Mason Director, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Before the Subcommittee Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and energy laboratory. From my position as director of a national laboratory with research encompassing

389

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy October 06 Sequencing the Populus Genome mechanistic ecosystem responses to global climate change. #12;Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department:1596-1603. #12;Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy October 06 #12;

390

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Efficient fluid-structure interaction Laboratory Int. Workshop on Fluid-Structure Interaction, Herrsching Sep 30, 2008 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT

Deiterding, Ralf

391

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1/17/2008 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrologic variability-1) 2004 2005 #12;1/17/2008 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Investigations-order forested stream on DOE's Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. · Rates of GPP and ER varied

392

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Upcoming Opportunities and Doing 9, 2006 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY We Apply Our Strengths,912,343.44 - Total Small Business $215,111,951.98 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY The Business Side of Science #12

393

NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

E-print Network

NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY-27, 2004 CERN Geneva, Switzerland #12;NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY. #12;NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

McDonald, Kirk

394

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY A Framework for Check-Pointed Fault-Tolerant Out-of-Core Linear Algebra Ed D'Azevedo (e6d@ornl.gov) Oak Ridge National Laboratory Piotr Luszczek (luszczek@cs.utk.edu) University of Tennessee #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Luszczek, Piotr

395

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 Improving the parallel scaling Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory SIAM Conference on Parallel Data Processing Seattle, February 24, 2010 #12;OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 In Collaboration with Sean Mauch

Deiterding, Ralf

396

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy September 05 Invasive plant management National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy September 05 Invasive plant management on the Oak Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation Contact: Harry Quarles, quarleshdiii@ornl.gov, 865-241-2412 Sponsor: Reservation

397

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy September 05 Enriched Background Isotope agency and institution cooperation #12;Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy September, BER (KP 12 02 02 0) EBIS takes advantage of a low-level1999 14C-release to the Oak Ridge Reservation

398

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Values in the Conduct of  

E-print Network

#12;Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Values in the Conduct of Research and Development Prepared RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285 operated by LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH in the Conduct of Research and Development Introduction No quality of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL

399

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy September 05 Throughfall Displacement and biogeochemical cycling processes. #12;Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy September 05) manipulation of precipitation inputs to an upland oak forest has been conducted. This Throughfall Displacement

400

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Overhead Bare Conductor Testing at Oak transmission- technology testing facilities ... at DOE 's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.*" Test Line Ridge National Laboratory Contact Information D. Tom Rizy, (865) 574-5203 Voice, (865) 574-9338 Fax

401

Oaks and Environmental Education1 Kay Antunez de Mayolo2  

E-print Network

Oaks and Environmental Education1 Kay Antunez de Mayolo2 Abstract: A number of educational of environmental issues in- volving oaks while also promoting acquisition of stewardship values. A review. These programs could serve as models for groups involving youth in oak education and resource enhancement

Standiford, Richard B.

402

View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

403

9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak Flat Road with retaining walls at lower left and center left with east portal of tunnel #1. - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

404

OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes of Friday, September 26, 2014  

E-print Network

1 OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes of Friday, September 26, 2014 1. Nursing's migration on the existing local Blackboard platform ("OAK") -- including submission of exams, homework and assignments classes remain accessible in the legacy OAK system, but current-semester courses have been turned off so

Simaan, Nabil

405

OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes, October 7, 2014  

E-print Network

OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes, October 7, 2014 1. Welcome to Brett Benson, PoliSci 2. Inactivation of courses in the legacy OAK environment 31,939 courses inactivated (of approximately 82 will be placedth in the OAK Performance box to inform faculty and students what has occurred. We believe from what

Simaan, Nabil

406

Original article New perspectives in German oak silviculture  

E-print Network

Original article New perspectives in German oak silviculture GK Kenk Forstliche Versuchs- und June 1993) Summary — After decades of negligence, oak (Q petraea and Q pedunculata) is now being replant- ed throughout Germany on an increasingly wider scale. For the first time, the amount of oak now

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Exploring New Technology: Results of the Oak Hill Parkway  

E-print Network

JULY 2013 Exploring New Technology: Results of the Oak Hill Parkway Virtual Open House Pilot #12;JULY 2013 #12;Texas A&M Transportation Institute Exploring New Technology: Results of the Oak Hill this opportunity. The authors thankfully acknowledge the members of the Oak Hill Parkway project team

408

Herbaceous Responses to Livestock Grazing in Californian Oak Woodlands  

E-print Network

Herbaceous Responses to Livestock Grazing in Californian Oak Woodlands: A Review for Habitat on a site at the time of autumn germination in annual grassland and oak woodlands. RDM is known to play grassland, biodiversity, conservation, grazing, habitat improvement, livestock, oak woodlands Introduction

Standiford, Richard B.

409

OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes of July 25, 2014  

E-print Network

OAK Faculty Advisory Committee Minutes of July 25, 2014 1. Approval of minutes of 11 July 2014 to manage course ordering could be part of our educational outreach regarding OAK this year since that's not broadly known. 2. Homework summary: OAK features: deferred for discussion until next meeting 3

Bordenstein, Seth

410

Sudden Oak Death: Endangering California and Oregon Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death is a new disease affecting tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora) and oaks (Quercus spp) in California and Oregon, caused by the recently described pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. It has reached epi-demic proportions in several counties in central California, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. In addition to oaks and tanoak, P ramorum has been found in

David M. Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

2003-01-01

411

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae),  

E-print Network

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected at least 2000, GSOB has caused extensive injury and mortality to oaks in woodlands and mixed

Ishida, Yuko

412

Original article Experimental research in ageing holm oak  

E-print Network

Original article Experimental research in ageing holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) coppices: preliminary-term research programme aimed at determining the silvi- cultural choices for management of ageing holm oak and reprints E-mail: IATF@cesit l.unifi.it #12;1. INTRODUCTION In ancient times the holm oak was con- sidered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

Northwest California Oak Woodlands: Environment, Species Composition, and  

E-print Network

Northwest California Oak Woodlands: Environment, Species Composition, and Ecological Status1 Thomas M. Jimerson2 and Sydney K. Carothers2 Abstract This paper describes the oak woodland plant. Geographically, oak woodlands lie between the coastal mixed evergreen forests and the valley grasslands

Standiford, Richard B.

414

Effect of induced oxidative stress and herbal extracts on acid phosphatase activity in lysosomal and microsomal fractions of midgut tissue of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Lysosomal and microsomal acid phosphatase activity was estimated in midgut tissue of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), after induced oxidative stress by D-galactose. The larvae were simultaneously were treated with ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monniera and Lactuca sativa to study their antioxidant properties. Lipid peroxidation and fluorescence was measured to analyze extent of oxidative stress. The ethanolic extract of Lactuca sativa was found to be more effective in protecting membranes against oxidative stress than Bacopa monniera. PMID:20874583

Gaikwad, Y B; Gaikwad, S M; Bhawane, G P

2010-01-01

415

Identification and Analysis of the Pigment Composition and Sources in the Colored Cocoon of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD  

PubMed Central

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

416

Identification and analysis of the pigment composition and sources in the colored cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, by HPLC-DAD.  

PubMed

This study used the larval tissues and colored cocoons of silkworms, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), that were fed leaves of cultivated mulberry, Husang 32, as experimental material. The pigment composition and content in colored cocoons and tissues of the 5th instar larvae and the mulberry leaves were rapidly detected using organic solvent extraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. It was found that the mulberry leaf mainly contained four types of pigment: lutein (30.86%), ?-carotene (26.3%), chlorophyll a (24.62%), and chlorophyll b (18.21%). The silk glands, blood, and cocoon shells of six yellow-red cocoons were used as the experimental materials. The results showed that there were generally two kinds of carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) in the silk gland and cocoon shell, a little violaxanthin was detected in silk gland, and the pigment found in the blood was mainly lutein in all varieties of silkworm tested. Chlorophyll a and b had not been digested and utilized in the yellow-red series of silkworm. The method used to detect visible pigments reported here could be used to breed new colors of cocoons and to develop and utilize the pigments found in mulberry. PMID:25373178

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-01-01

417

Significance of peristaltic squeezing of sperm bundles in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: elimination of irregular eupyrene sperm nuclei of the triploid.  

PubMed

Silkworm (Lepidoptera) males produce dimorphic sperm: nucleate eupyrene sperm and anucleate apyrene sperm. The eupyrene sperm are ordinary sperm to fertilise the eggs, while the function of apyrene sperm remains uncertain. After meiosis, 256 sperm cells are enclosed by a layer of cyst cells, forming a sperm bundle. We have previously documented that the nucleus of eupyrene sperm anchors to the head cyst cell, which locates at the anterior apex of the bundle, by an acrosome tubule-basal body assembly. Neither the basal body attachment to the nucleus nor the acrosome is seen in apyrene sperm, and the nuclei remain in the middle region of the bundle. Peristaltic squeezing starts from the anterior of the bundles in both types of sperm, and cytoplasmic debris of the eupyrene sperm, and both the nuclei and debris of apyrene sperm, are eliminated at the final stage of spermatogenesis. Since the irregularity of meiotic division in apyrene sperm is known, we used triploid silkworm males that show irregular meiotic division even in eupyrene spermatocytes and are highly sterile. The irregular nuclei of the triploid are discarded by the peristaltic squeezing just as those of the apyrene sperm. Transmission electron microscopic observations disclose the abnormality in the acrosome tubule and in the connection to the basal body. The peristaltic squeezing of sperm bundles in the silkworm appears to be the final control mechanism to eliminate irregular nuclei before they enter female reproductive organs. PMID:11358323

Kawamura, N; Yamashiki, N; Saitoh, H; Sahara, K

2001-05-01

418

Deer Oaks EAP Services Fact Sheet  

E-print Network

and fathers through the challenges, stress, and anxiety often experienced with returning to work. Disaster emotional condition. This service is available once per year per participant. Critical Incident Stress to provide Critical Incident Stress Debriefings for any major company incident. The Deer Oaks Employee

Velev, Orlin D.

419

Oak Ridge Industrial Model: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge Industrial Model (ORIM) was initially developed for the Energy Information Administration to forecast demand for five types of fuel and electricity by the manufacturing sector in the ten federal regions. Recently, the model has been used by the office of Coal Utilization to forecast market penetration of new technologies which use coal. ORIM divides the national market

D. B. Reister; R. W. Barnes; J. A. Edmonds

1980-01-01

420

MECHANISMS OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN MESOXEROPHYTIC OAKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 70th celebration of the Institute this paper review the overall progress in the knowledge achievement in the area of tree physiology and fo- rest ecophysiology in our country, significantly exemplified by results regard- ing the mesoxerophytic oaks (Quercus cerris L. si Q. frainetto ten.) and the stand ecophysiology of such ecosystems of great importance for the low alti-

VIOREL BLUJDEA; MIHELA COMANESCU; MONICA IONESCU

421

Doing Business with Oak Ridge National  

E-print Network

registration database, at: www.bnl.gov/ppm/sbreg.asp #12;Idaho National Laboratory One of only 10 DOEDoing Business with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented at the WM10 Symposia Keith S. Joy Sciences Laboratory What We're Doing ­ Where We're Going 4 · We apply science and technology through Global

422

OAK GROVE CEMETERY CREASON GOLF COURSE  

E-print Network

STUDENT RECREATION CENTER ICE ARENA PERRY FIELD HOUSE MOORE MUSICAL ARTS CENTER HEALTH CENTER CONKLIN GREEK PHIL CTR SOCIAL WAREHOUSE REED ST WOLFE CENTER STROH CENTER THE OAKS DINING HEATING PLANT CENTREX GAMMA SIGMA LAMBDA ZETA PHI BETA SCIENCES FAM/CON CTR ED MEM 5 Minutes CTS Response Times 8 Minutes 10

Moore, Paul A.

423

Purple Martins in Oak Woodlands 1  

E-print Network

Purple martins are cavity-nesting swallows that once nested fairly widely in California’s oak woodlands but are now rare in that habitat. The old oaks of the Tehachapi Range (southern Sierra Nevada) may now host the last martins that nest in oak woodlands, with approximately 100-200 pairs or about 15 percent of the California population. In summer of 2000, we found 57 nests in 46 valley and blue oaks and measured over 20 variables at nest sites and random paired sites. Martins selected large-diameter trees [ x = 104.3 cm diameter at breast height (dbh)] that were more prominent than random trees. Among all trees with holes, martins chose nest trees that were prominently positioned in the upper third of the landscape, and had less canopy cover at nest height than random sites. European starlings were uncommon where martins concentrated, and starlings were not observed at one area with 18 martin nests; this was the only area>1 km from any residential development. Martins may persist in portions of the Tehachapi Range because of a unique set of habitat and landscape conditions, including factors that seem to limit starlings to low densities.

Brian D. C. Williams

424

Living the Past at Oak Hill School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oak Hill School served elementary students in the 10th district of Washington County, Tennessee, from 1886 to 1952. After extensive restoration and a move to Historic Jonesborough, the one-room school now functions as a living history museum. Fourth-grade students spend a day following the 1892 curriculum for grade 4. A teacher's resource and…

Clark, Amy D.

2000-01-01

425

MERIT Calculation Sheet Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

MERIT Calculation Sheet Oak Ridge National Laboratory The jet falls 1.24 cm over the distance, so relative to the beam. Note this calculation does not include deflections caused by MHD effects. y 1.237- cm=y tan ( ) x g 2 v0 2 cos ( )2 x 2 -:= Now calculate the vertical drop of the jet after traveling 45cm

McDonald, Kirk

426

Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

1980-03-01

427

Oak Mountain High School, Shelby County, Alabama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents design features of the Oak Mountain High School (Alabama) consisting of an academic side of classrooms, administration, and media center; and an activity side consisting of cafeteria, gymnasium, practice gym, and a theater. The school's floor plan and photos are included. (GR)

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

428

Oak ecosystem succession of the Northern Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

English oak (Quercus robur L.) along with its well-known good properties has a high sanitary-hygienic and curative potential. Its volatile metabolites (VM) influence bacteriostatically Staphylococcus aureus 209r, oppressing it in vitro by 85% compared with the control, and Escherichia coli by 45%. There is the least amount of epiphytic microorganisms on the leaves of Q. robur L. compared with some tree species [1]. In addition, VM of Q. robur L. have direct milieu (hypotensive) effects on the organism under its canopy, lowering blood pressure by 20-25 mm Hg [2]. A.P. Kazankin (1993) [4] calculated the prehistoric formula of forest species composition of Caucasian Mineral Waters region (Northern Caucasus): 6Qr3Crp1Fr which was based on the theory of calcium-magnesium absorption complex. According to the theory, underground mineral water, soil, forest litter and the leaves of ground vegetation of the area have the same ratio of the cations Ca and Mg - calcium-magnesium index [3]. Hence oldgrowth in the region consisted of oak (Qr) by 60%, hornbeam (Carpinus-Crp) by 30% and ash (Fraxinus-Fr) only by 10%. Currently, the formula of the forests of the region has been changed by man: 5Fr3Crp2Qr. The proportion of oak forests has decreased to 20%, the proportion of ash has increased by 50%, but the proportion of hornbeam hasn't changed. So it is relevant to restore oak forests of the region in the former ratio to other forest-forming species - ash and hornbeam. Taking into consideration the change of economic formation of society in Russia, it is extremely important to restore natural seed oak forests. Therein the luminance of surface areal is a limiting factor. We have calculated that the natural recovery of oak forests is possible providing observation of optimal moisture standards and soil fertility in combination with solar light within 10-24% from the light of open space. Measures for promotion of oak natural regeneration in mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus can be found in elaborate recommendations [5].

Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina

2014-05-01

429

Programmed cell death: cytochemical and X-ray microanalytical characterization of calcium compartments in neuromuscular junctions during the normal breakdown of the intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.  

PubMed

Calcium stores were cytochemically demonstrated using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate method in the neuromuscular junctions of the degenerating intersegmental muscles in the giant silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. The elemental composition of punctate precipitates of the reaction product was determined by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of unstained thin sections by energy-dispersive spectrometry and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry. The wavelength-dispersive spectra collected over terminal axons demonstrate a significant calcium signal and a trace of antimony. During the rapid lytic phase of spontaneous muscle degeneration, the calcium punctate deposits were detected in presynaptic terminals in the following sites: the synaptic vesicles and the mitochondria. Calcium precipitates were also found in the dense bodies and the mitochondria encountered in the glial convolutions. No calcium deposit was seen in the synaptic clefts and intercellular spaces of the subsynaptic reticulum of type I and type II. A comparison of calcium to antimony ratios between the terminal axons and the sarcoplasmic lysosomes revealed highly significant differences (P less than 0.001). Such a variability of the calcium to antimony ratio may be related to different conditions of precipitation or antimony diffusion in the different cell compartments. It was concluded that such synaptic terminals do not appear damaged in spite of the muscle degeneration and presumably continue to perform vital functions while the muscles are no longer contractile 20 h after adult ecdysis. PMID:3410737

Beaulaton, J

1988-03-01

430

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

431

LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Awh is a key component activating all three fibroin genes, fibH, fibL and fhx, in the silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, three fibroin genes, fibroin-heavy-chain (fibH), fibroin-light-chain (fibL) and fibrohexamerin (fhx), are coexpressed only in the posterior silk gland (PSG) cells, while the sericin genes encoding silk glue proteins are expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) cells. Silk gland factor-2 (SGF-2) is a PSG-specific activator complex of fibH, composed of a LIM-homeodomain protein, Awh, and its cofactors, Ldb and Lcaf. We investigated whether SGF-2 can activate other fibroin genes using transgenic silkworms. The genes for Ldb and Lcaf were expressed ubiquitously in various tissues, while the gene for Awh was expressed strictly specific in PSG of the wild type silkworms. Misexpression of Awh in transgenic silkworms induced ectopic expression of fibL and fhx as well as fibH in MSG. Coincidently with the induction of fibL and fhx by Awh, binding of SGF-2 to the promoter of fibL and fhx was detected in vitro, and SGF-2 binds directly to the fhx core promoter. Ectopic expression of the fibroin genes was observed at high levels in the middle part of MSG. Moreover, fibL and fhx were induced in the anterior silk gland (ASG) of the transgenic silkworms, but fibH was not. These results indicate that Awh is a key activator of all three fibroin genes, and the activity is probably regulated in conjunction with additional factors. PMID:25449130

Kimoto, Mai; Tsubota, Takuya; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takiya, Shigeharu

2015-01-01

432

White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B  

SciTech Connect

This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

NONE

1996-11-01

433

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

1992-06-01

434

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

1992-06-01

435

Oral Administration of a Fusion Protein between the Cholera Toxin B Subunit and the 42-Amino Acid Isoform of Amyloid-? Peptide Produced in Silkworm Pupae Protects against Alzheimer's Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-? peptide (A?42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-A?42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-A?42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-A?42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased A? deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-A?42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD. PMID:25469702

Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

2014-01-01

436

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

Not Available

1992-12-01

437

ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89  

SciTech Connect

This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

1989-01-01

438

Processing of Oak Ridge Mixed Waste Labpacks  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge Site Treatment Plan (STP) issued under a Tennessee Commissioner's Order includes a compliance milestone related to treatment of mixed waste labpacks on the Oak Ridge sites. The treatment plan was written and approved in Fiscal Year 1997. The plan involved approximately 1,100 labpacks and 7,400 on-the-shelf labpackable items stored at three Department of Energy (DOE) sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The labpacks and labpack items consist of liquids and solids with various chemical constituents and radiological concerns. The waste must be processed for shipment to a commercial hazardous waste treatment facility or treatment utilizing a Broad Spectrum mixed waste treatment contract. This paper will describe the labpack treatment plan that was developed as required by the Site Treatment Plan and the operations implemented to process the labpack waste. The paper will discuss the labpack inventory in the treatment plan, treatment and disposal options, processing strategies, project risk assessment, and current project status.

Estes, C. H.; Franco, P.; Bisaria, A.

2002-02-26

439

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1992. Environmental Restoration Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1992), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental

D. M. Borders; J. A. Watts; R. B. Clapp; B. J. Frederick; S. M. Gregory; T. D. Moore

1993-01-01

440

Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1992), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental

D. M. Borders; J. A. Watts; R. B. Clapp; B. J. Frederick; S. M. Gregory; T. D. Moore

1993-01-01

441

Characterization of a germination-accelerating factor from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  

PubMed

The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of a host insect-derived extract. This extract therefore appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi, although the substance (germination-accelerating factor, GAF) responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Our previous study was extended to the isolation of GAF from pupae of the silkworm, a host insect of N. rileyi. This present work subjects GAF to a structural analysis. The chemical structure of GAF is characterized as 2S-amino-tetradeca-4-ene-1,3R-diol (D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine) based on spectroscopic data. An examination of the structure-activity relationship shows that the activity of D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine was superior to that of sphingosines with shorter and longer carbon chains. It is suggested that the molecular species with a 14-carbon chain of a sphingosine is important for host recognition. PMID:20530914

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro

2010-01-01

442

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Economically Important Traits in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Cocoon related characteristics are economically important traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). In this study a genetic linkage map was developed that identified QTL controlling the cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage using 161 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty PstI/TaqI primer combinations were employed to genotype 78 F2 progenies derived from a cross between P107 Japanese inbred line and Khorasan Lemon Iranian native strain. Among polymorphic markers, 159 AFLP markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups at the LOD threshold of 2.5 that varied in length from 4 to 299 cM. The total length of the linkage map was 2747 cM, giving an average marker resolution of 19.31 cM. A total of 21 AFLP markers were identified that were distributed over the ten linkage groups linked to the three studied traits using the composite interval mapping method. The explained variation rate by QTL controlling cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage ranged from 0.02% to 64.85%, 0.2% to 49.11%, and 0.04% to 84.20%, respectively. These QTL controlled by different actions as well as under dominance, additive, partial dominance, dominance, and over dominance. PMID:21070171

Mirhoseini, Seyed Z; Rabiei, Babak; Potki, Payam; Dalirsefat, Seyed B

2010-01-01

443

Functional Divergence among Silkworm Antimicrobial Peptide Paralogs by the Activities of Recombinant Proteins and the Induced Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection. PMID:21479226

Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

2011-01-01

444

Combined effect of Cameo2 and CBP on the cellular uptake of lutein in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Formation of yellow-red color cocoons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, occurs as the result of the selective delivery of carotenoids from the midgut to the silk gland via the hemolymph. This process of pigment transport is thought to be mediated by specific cellular carotenoids carrier proteins. Previous studies indicated that two proteins, Cameo2 and CBP, are associated with the selective transport of lutein from the midgut into the silk gland in Bombyx mori. However, the exact roles of Cameo2 and CBP during the uptake and transport of carotenoids are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the respective contributions of these two proteins to lutein and ?-carotene transport in Bombyx mori as well as commercial cell-line. We found that tissues, expressed both Cameo2 and CBP, accumulate lutein. Cells, co-expressed Cameo2 and CBP, absorb 2 fold more lutein (P<0.01) than any other transfected cells, and the rate of cellular uptake of lutein was concentration-dependent and reached saturation. From immunofluorescence staining, confocal microscopy observation and western blot analysis, Cameo2 was localized at the membrane and CBP was expressed in the cytosol. What's more, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis showed that these two proteins directly interacted at cellular level. Therefore, Cameo2 and CBP are necessarily expressed in midguts and silk glands for lutein uptake in Bombyx mori. Cameo2 and CBP, as the membrane protein and the cytosol protein, respectively, have the combined effect to facilitate the cellular uptake of lutein. PMID:24475153

Wang, Wei; Huang, Mao-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Long; Chai, Chun-Li; Pan, Cai-Xia; Tang, Hui; Chen, Yan-Hong; Dai, Fang-Yin; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

2014-01-01

445

Identification of a pentanucleotide telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)n, in the silkworm Bombyx mori and in other insects.  

PubMed Central

A pentanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGG)n, has been isolated from a silkworm genomic library, using cross-hybridization with a (TTNGGG)5 sequence, which is conserved among most eukaryotic telomeres. Both fluorescent in situ hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease experiments revealed major clusters of (TTAGG)n at the telomeres of all Bombyx chromosomes. To determine the evolutionary origin of this sequence, two types of telomeric sequence, (TTAGG)5 and a hexanucleotide repetitive sequence, (TTAGGG)4, which is conserved mainly among vertebrate and several invertebrate telomeres so far examined, were hybridized to DNAs from a wide variety of eukaryotic species under highly stringent hybridization conditions. The (TTAGGG)5 oligonucleotide hybridized to genomic DNAs from vertebrates and several nonvertebrate species, as has been reported so far, but not to any DNAs from insects. On the other hand, the Bombyx type of telomere sequence, (TTAGG)n, hybridized to DNAs from 8 of 11 orders of insect species tested but not to vertebrate DNAs, suggesting that this TTAGG repetitive sequence is conserved widely among insects. Images PMID:8441388

Okazaki, S; Tsuchida, K; Maekawa, H; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H

1993-01-01

446

Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated female-specific sterility in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Engineering sex-specific sterility is critical for developing transgene-based sterile insect technology. Targeted genome engineering achieved by customized zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) or clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats/Cas9 systems has been exploited extensively in a variety of model organisms; however, screening mutated individuals without a detectable phenotype is still challenging. In addition, genetically recessive mutations only detectable in homozygotes make the experiments time-consuming. In the present study, we model a novel genetic system in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, that results in female-specific sterility by combining transgenesis with TALEN technologies. This system induces sex-specific sterility at a high efficiency by targeting the female-specific exon of the B.?mori doublesex (Bmdsx) gene, which has sex-specific splicing isoforms regulating somatic sexual development. Transgenic animals co-expressing TALEN left and right arms targeting the female-specific Bmdsx exon resulted in somatic mutations and female mutants lost fecundity because of lack of egg storage and abnormal external genitalia. The wild-type sexual dimorphism of abdominal segment was not evident in mutant females. In contrast, there were no deleterious effects in mutant male moths. The current somatic TALEN technologies provide a promising approach for future insect functional genetics, thus providing the basis for the development of attractive genetic alternatives for insect population management. PMID:25125145

Xu, J; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Ling, L; Zeng, B; James, A A; Tan, A; Huang, Y

2014-12-01

447

Characterization of juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase and related genes in the larval development of the silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolases (JHEHs) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze juvenile hormones (JHs). They are important in terms of organ-specific regulation and irreversible degradation. In contrast to three JHEH genes (jheh) in Drosophila melanogaster and five jheh in Tribolium castaneum, only one jheh gene has been reported to date in lepidopteran insects. By searching a genome database of the silkworm, KAIKOBLAST, five JHEH-related genes (jheh-r), in addition to Bmjheh, were found. Developmental changes in mRNA expression were brought about revealing several unique patterns for each of jheh-r as to developmental stages and organ-specificity. Recombinant proteins of JHEH-r were expressed using a baculovirus system to evaluate their enzymatic activities. Three of the five JHEH-r recombinant proteins had JH hydrolytic activities. This is the first report on lepidopteran jheh-related genes and also provides the comprehensive analysis of multiple jheh-related genes in an insect species with respect to their functions in enzyme activities. PMID:20622465

Seino, Atsushi; Ogura, Takehiko; Tsubota, Takuya; Shimomura, Masaru; Nakakura, Takayo; Tan, Anjiang; Mita, Kazuei; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

2010-01-01

448

Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

Not Available

1991-07-01

449

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium Determining Landscape-Scale Changes in Forest  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium 93 Determining Landscape-Scale Changes sudden oak death (SOD)-related changes have already occurred? (2)What future SOD-related impacts Nee), black oak (Q. kelloggii Newb.), canyon live oak (Q. chrysolepis Liebm.), or Shreve's oak (Q

Standiford, Richard B.

450

Ecological Evidence of Intensive Cultivation of Oaks by California Indians: Implications  

E-print Network

. In the oak savannas of California the various species of native oaks occur as individual large trees on steeper slopes and in draws. Young trees are notably few or absent in oak savannas. The predominance of old oaks and a lack of regeneration means that the population of oaks in these savannas

Standiford, Richard B.

451

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] On for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. b Department Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U

Pennycook, Steve

452

FERPA Tutorial Instructions Instructions for Self-Enrolling in the FERPA Tutorial on OAK  

E-print Network

FERPA Tutorial Instructions Instructions for Self-Enrolling in the FERPA Tutorial on OAK: · Navigate to OAK at www.vanderbilt.edu/oak/ · Under Login to OAK: o Select the radio button next to "I have for successful completion of the FERPA tutorial. · Click on Logout at the top right corner to exit OAK. #12;

Bordenstein, Seth

453

Oak Tree Planting Project1 Sherryl L. Nives William D. Tietje William H. Weitkamp2  

E-print Network

Oak Tree Planting Project1 Sherryl L. Nives William D. Tietje William H. Weitkamp2 Abstract: An Oak to publicize the Planting Project and give information on the status of oaks (Quercus spp.) in California and oak planting techniques. Out- reach efforts resulted in participation in the Oak Tree Planting Project

Standiford, Richard B.

454

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF OAK GALL WASPS (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex,cyclically parthenogenetic,life cycles and the ability to induce a wide,diversity of highly complex,species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become,a model,system,in community,ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schonrogge; Rachel J. Atkinson; David Bellido; Juli Pujade-Villar

2002-01-01

455

US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts.

NONE

1996-03-01

456

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

E-print Network

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Oak in at the Comfort Inn. Dinner hosted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scattering Science Div. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Opening Remarks Dr. Bryan C. Chakoumakos Geoscientist

Pennycook, Steve

457

PRESOLICITATION Category: A. Owner: Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory -UT Battelle LLC (DOE Contractor), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bethel  

E-print Network

PRESOLICITATION Category: A. Owner: Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - UT Battelle LLC (DOE Contractor), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bethel Valley Road P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge-Battelle), the management and operating contractor for the United States Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National

Hively, Lee M.

458

Photoluminescence and local structure of Ge nanoclusters on Si without a wetting layer Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA  

E-print Network

Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA F. Flack Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA Zhenyu Zhang and H. H. Weitering Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA and Department of Physics and Astronomy

Pennycook, Steve

459

Sudden oak death 'here to stay' Jeanne Wirka, resident biologist at the Bouverie Preserve in Glen Ellen, stands next to a live oak that fell after it developed  

E-print Network

Sudden oak death 'here to stay' Jeanne Wirka, resident biologist at the Bouverie Preserve in Glen Ellen, stands next to a live oak that fell after it developed sudden oak death in the heavily wooded:10 p.m. As sudden oak death continues to ravage Sonoma County woodlands, a secluded creek near Glen

California at Berkeley, University of

460

Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland

M. Cunningham; L. Pounds

1991-01-01

461

Robotic system for decommissioning the Gunite tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic systems and equipment to facilitate removal of the contents of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Waste Tanks as well as the tanks themselves are one of several options being considered for this site. The technology described consists of proven remote systems and equipment or remote adaptations of proven industrial concepts. The proposed robotic system would be housed

J. B. Chesser; J. H. Evans; R. E. Norman; F. L. Peishel; F. R. Ruppel

1992-01-01

462

Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

463

Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

464

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Linking Sudden Oak Death With Spatial  

E-print Network

threats to our Nation's forest ecosystems by the Chief of the United States Department of Agriculture With Spatial Economic Value Transfer1 Tom Holmes2 and Bill Smith2 Abstract Sudden oak death (caused pests are too little, too large, or about right. Economic damages are incurred when invasive forest

Standiford, Richard B.

465

75 FR 51450 - Notice of 229 Boundary Revision for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Boundary Revision for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AGENCY: Department of...Boundary Revision for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory...described facilities of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the United States...

2010-08-20

466

78 FR 5720 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety zone...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety...

2013-01-28

467

75 FR 43518 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2010-07-26

468

76 FR 1415 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2011-01-10

469

77 FR 44466 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety zone...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety...

2012-07-30

470

78 FR 62324 - Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. CD13-8-000] Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois; Notice of Preliminary Determination...Motions To Intervene On September 30, 2013, Village of Oak Lawn, Illinois (Oak Lawn) filed a notice of intent to construct a...

2013-10-16

471

78 FR 44942 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2013-07-25

472

77 FR 45345 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation AGENCY: Department of...Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Oak Ridge Reservation. The Federal Advisory...Federal Coordinator, Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box...

2012-07-31

473

77 FR 64720 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone: Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Oak Island, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety zone...Intracoastal Waterway, mile 311.8, at Oak Island, North Carolina. The safety...

2012-10-23

474

Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL] [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL] [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

475

Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.  

PubMed

The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

2015-02-01

476

CHARACTERISTICSAND BEHAVIOR OF A COOL-SEASON PRESCRIBED FIRE IN THE OAK SAVANNAS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN BORDERLANDS  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISTICSAND BEHAVIOR OF A COOL-SEASON PRESCRIBED FIRE IN THE OAK SAVANNAS processes within southwestern oak-savannas by reducing woody species density. SOUTHWESTERNOAK SAVANNA VEGETATION Multiple species of oaks are found in the southwestern oak savannas

477

5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM FAIR OAKS BRIDGE. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM FAIR OAKS BRIDGE. NOTE ABANDONED OFF-RAMP IN HILLSIDE ON LEFT. NOTE CURVE TO LEFT WHICH BRINGS PARKWAY TO END IN PASADENA. LOOKING 54°NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Fair Oaks Avenue Bridge, Milepost 31.17, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

478

Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought  

E-print Network

Note Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought C Collet JM Guehl 1 �quipe-year-old sessile oak seedlings were submitted to drought developed at two different rates (0.050 and 0.013 MPa·day-1).Drought was controlled by combining levels of irrigation and grass competition. At the end

Boyer, Edmond

479

Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks Ten Years after Harvest1  

E-print Network

Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks Ten Years after Harvest1 Douglas McCreary,2 William D. Tietje,3 the sprouting of harvested blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is affected by the date the trees are cut down percent of the stumps had viable sprouts. The greatest effects were from fencing. Four times as many

Standiford, Richard B.

480

Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks 19 Years After Harvest1  

E-print Network

333 Stump Sprouting of Blue Oaks 19 Years After Harvest1 Doug McCreary,2 Bill Tietje,2 and Bill Frost3 Abstract In 1987, a study was initiated to determine how the sprouting of harvested blue oak viable sprouts. The greatest differences among treatments were between stumps protected with fencing

Standiford, Richard B.

481

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Scientists at the ORNL Throughfall #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Water is a fundamental component. These differences were explained by the primary effect of soil water availability on leaf and whole-plant physiology

482

Review article Oak growth, development and carbon metabolism  

E-print Network

Review article Oak growth, development and carbon metabolism in response to water stress RE Dickson to a wide range of sites differing widely in moisture availability. Different oak species have developed both morphological and physiological adaptations to survive and grow on such sites. Morphological adap

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

483

Review article Consequences of environmental stress on oak  

E-print Network

Review article Consequences of environmental stress on oak: predisposition to pathogens PM W