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1

NeoDys: Near Earth Objects: Dynamic Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NeoDys, a project developed at the University of Pisa in Italy, supplies data and services for all Near Earth Asteroids. Updated daily, researchers can find links to all NeoDys objects and observatories as well as data on Earth Impact Possibilities. Educators and students will find instructive explanations of Near-Earth Asteroids and three dimensional visualizations of the objects' orbits. Although at first glance some of the data may appear difficult to interpret, each page has a Help icon that thoroughly and clearly describes the information presented.

Milani, Andrea

2

ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [Joint Sciences Department, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: cristina.thomas@nau.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-15

3

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias

Pasquale Tricarico; E. C. Beshore; S. M. Larson; A. Boattini; G. V. Williams

2010-01-01

4

Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

2011-10-01

5

Spacecraft at Small NEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact risk has been sharply curtailed for the largest km-sized Near Earth Objects (NEOs) through a concerted period of observation spanning the last decade. Thus the risk of impact has now migrated to the smaller and more numerous members of the Near Earth Object (NEO) population. Characterization and mitigation missions to these smaller objects become more complex from a

Dan Scheeres

2006-01-01

6

An Urban Neo-Poverty Population-Based Quality of Life and Related Social Characteristics Investigation from Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate quality of life (QOL) and related characteristics among an urban neo-poverty population in northeast China, and to compare this population with a traditional poverty cohort.DesignThe research was a cross-sectional survey executed from June 2005 to October 2007, with a sample of 2940 individuals ages 36 to 55 in three different industrial cities of northeast China. Data were collected

Fengrong Ou; Kai Li; Qian Gao; Dan Liu; Jinghai Li; Liwen Hu; Xian Wu; E. Kale Edmiston; Yang Liu

2012-01-01

7

NEO Survey: An Efficient Search for Near-Earth Objects by an IR Observatory in a Venus-like Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 NASA commissioned a Science Definition Team (SDT) (Stokes, et al., 2003) to study the threats posed by Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), recommend efficient methods for detecting NEOs down to 140 meters in diameter, and suggest conceptual mitigation techniques. In this same time frame, Congress set the goal of cataloguing 90% of all NEOs down to 140 meters diameter by 2020. The SDT concluded that the infrared passband from ~5 to ~11 microns is the best for finding NEOs; that an aperture of 50 centimeters is sufficient; and that locating a NEO-finding observatory in a Venus-like orbit is ideal. Since then, NASA and its industrial partners (such as Ball Aerospace) have flown two very NEO-relevant deep-space missions-the Spitzer Space Telescope and Kepler. Herein, a high-reliability, credibly-costed design is presented based on Spitzer and Kepler that meets the 90%/140-m/2020 requirements for about $600 M. This design will also detect about 85% of all >100 meter NEOs, about 70% of all >65 meter NEOs, and about 50% of all >50 meter NEOs. These smaller NEOs constitute a newly recognized threat regime that cannot be efficiently found from the ground.

Arentz, Robert; Reitsema, Harold; van Cleve, Jeffrey; Linfield, Roger

2010-01-01

8

ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Obs. de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Ave. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-03-15

9

ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer NEO survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an approved 500 hour Warm Spitzer program to derive albedos and diameters for some 700 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the NEO albedo distribution, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our Warm Spitzer program began execution in August, 2009, and will return thermal measurements of, on average, one target per day for the next two years. We have also begun an extensive ground-based observing campaign to measure good optical magnitudes for all 700 NEOs; lightcurves for a substantial fraction of our target list; and spectra for as many as half of our targets. We will present initial results from our Warm Spitzer project, including data from both the space- and ground-based components of our project. When completed, our project will produce the largest catalog of NEO physical properties to date.

Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Fazio, G.; Harris, A. W.; Hora, J.; Mainzer, A.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J.

2009-12-01

10

Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of NEOs: Characterization Of Targets Of The ExploreNEOs (Spitzer) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to complement the ExploreNEOs program, we are characterizing surface compositions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (0.7 to 2.5 microns). The core ExploreNEOs program is an ambitious exploration of the history of near-Earth space using NASA's Spitzer space telescope. Currently in the middle of its two-year timeline, that ongoing project will ultimately observe 700 NEOs using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) in two photometric bands (3.6 and 4.5 microns). The proposed goals of the ExploreNEOs survey are to measure the size distribution of NEO population; to measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comet nuclei, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth; to measure the albedo distribution of NEOs; and to study properties of individual NEOs, including their thermal properties and densities, and detailed properties of a subset of "ground-truth" objects. Whereas the Spitzer photometry will provide accurate estimates of size and albedo for most targets, albedo is only a general indicator of potential composition. NIR spectroscopy complements the Spitzer results by enabling direct determination of surface compositions. The NIR measurements thereby contribute to the overall goals of the ExploreNEOs program by allowing the team to assess the mix of mineralogies among NEOs and to infer the contributions from dead comets to the NEO population. NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is the main observatory used for the NIR spectral measurements. Of the ˜700 Spitzer targets, 127 are viewable and bright enough for spectroscopy with the IRTF. Thus far, we have obtained NIR spectra of 42 of the ExploreNEO targets. We will present these data along with compositional analysis.

Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Dave, R.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.

2010-10-01

11

Observations of solar system objects with GAIA. I. Detection of NEOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the observability by GAIA of solar system objects belonging to the group of near-earth objects, an important issue in the scientific program whose relevance for GAIA has been questioned. A simulation based on the most up-to-date distribution of the orbital parameters has been conducted over five years to determine the probability that an object will be in the field of view of the instrument with an apparent brightness larger than the limiting magnitude. It is found (for an albedo of 0.1) that most objects with a diameter larger than ~ 2 km will be observed at least five times by GAIA and much more often for larger bodies. The detection survey will be 50% complete for objects of diameter ~ 1 km, while smaller objects (D < 0.5 km) will usually escape detection. Very interestingly, it is shown that most observations will take place at small angular distance from the Sun, a zone where the ground-based surveys are the most biased, allowing to extend the existing surveys of ATENS and to probe into the virtually unknown population of objects orbiting inside the Earth's orbit. The distribution of the along-scan velocity averages near 40 mas/s (145 arcsec/h), permitting excellent detection during a transit over the focal plane of GAIA. GAIA scientists therefore will be in a good position to alert a ground-based follow-up program.

Mignard, F.

2002-10-01

12

ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer NEO survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an approved 500 hour Warm Spitzer program to derive albedos and diameters for some 700 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the NEO albedo distribution, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our Warm Spitzer program will begin execution in August, 2009, and will return on average one target per day for the next two years. We will present the first results from our program at the DPS meeting. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

Trilling, David E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S. R.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Harris, A. W.; Hora, J. L.; Mainzer, A. K.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B. E.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

2009-09-01

13

NEO Sample Return mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEOs are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets thought to be the remnants of the ancient planetesimals that accreted to form the planets. The chemical investigation of NEOs having primitive characteristics is thus essential in the understanding the planet formation and evolution. They carry records of the solar system's birth/early phases and the geological evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary regions. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with Earth represent a serious hazard to life. For all these reasons the exploration and characterization of these objects are particularly interesting and urgent. NEOs are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and robotic exploration. Within this framework, the mission LEONARD including an orbiter and a lander to the primitive double object (1996 FG3) has been studied by CNES, in collaboration with a number of European planetologists (France, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom) and related Space Agencies. A new Sample Return mission is under study within a large European community and possible collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA to reply to the ESA Cosmic Vision AO. The principal objectives are to investigate on 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the primitive asteroids which could contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) how they can shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life. This type of mission appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.

Barucci, M. A.; Neo-Sr Team

14

Neo?populism and Marxism: The Chayanovian view of the agrarian question and its fundamental fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neo?populist viewpoint on the agrarian question, developed in Russia from the late 19th century against Marxist theory, enjoys a modified revival in India today. The theoretical core of the neo?populist framework consists in the idea of an economically undifferentiated, virtually homogeneous peasantry, which shows extreme stability and viability vis a vis the competition of capitalist production; and is of

Utsa Patnaik

1979-01-01

15

ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/?M > 60,000 up to m/z =400 u). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cm3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space, allowing to distinguish isomass compounds and to measure isotopomer abundances. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

Cottin, Hervé; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

16

Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed Central

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A1) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A2) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A1 homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ1Z2). One homologue, corresponding to the A2 autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z2 chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome–sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation.

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y

2011-01-01

17

Momentum Coupling to NEO's  

Microsoft Academic Search

We considered the coupling of momentum to near-Earth objects (NEO's) for the purposes of collision avoidance or collision damage mitigation through trajectory modification. The momentum sources considered were pulsed lasers, kinetic energy impactors, and nuclear (or conventional) explosives, detonated above or below the surface of the NEO by the nonnuclear and nuclear momentum sources listed above. We did not address

B. P. Shafer; M. D. Garcia; R. A. Managan; John L. Remo; C. E. Rosenkilde; R. J. Scammon; C. M. Snell; R. F. Stellingwerf

1997-01-01

18

Observations of solar system objects with GAIA. I. Detection of NEOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the observability by GAIA of solar system objects belonging to the group of near-earth objects, an important issue in the scientific program whose relevance for GAIA has been questioned. A simulation based on the most up-to-date distribution of the orbital parameters has been conducted over five years to determine the probability that an object will be in

F. Mignard

2002-01-01

19

A New Population Model of the Orbits and Absolute Magnitudes of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a new near-Earth object (NEO) population model which incorporates debiased information of both orbits (semimajor axis a, eccentricity e, and inclination i) and absolute magnitudes H. The new model is an upgrade to the decade-old model by Bottke et al. (2002, Icarus 156). We use the same approach as Bottke et al.; we fit biased residence-time distributions in (a,e,i) space computed for various source populations and escape routes to the observed NEO population and solve for the relative weights of the different source populations as well as their absolute-magnitude distributions. The observational data for calibrating the model is provided by the Catalina and Mt Lemmon stations of the Catalina Sky Survey. The two stations have discovered or serendipitously detected some 2500 NEOs each from 2005 to 2012. We have computed the observational biases in (a,e,i,H) space for the two telescopes using their pointing history and their nightly detection efficiencies in apparent magnitude. Initial conditions for the orbital integrations used to build the residence-time probability distributions are produced by integrating the orbits of bright main-belt objects. We assume (i) that small km- and sub-km diameter asteroids have the same orbits and (ii) that they drift in semimajor axis via the Yarkovsky effect until they enter the NEO region or reach 100 Myr evolution time. The resulting residence-time distributions have a higher resolution and a more realistic inclination distribution than those used for the Bottke model. We have identified about 30 different source regions (or main-belt escape routes) and combine these into about 12 groups which we use for our model as compared to 5 in the Bottke model. The new model, valid for objects with 13 < H < 25, describes a wavy H distribution, which is consistent with predictions from recent observational work as well as the size distribution of young lunar craters. The debiased NEO orbital distribution (and source region predictions) are broadly consistent with Bottke et al., but some intriguing differences exist (e.g., a possible deficit of low perihelion NEOs).

Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bolin, B.; Beshore, E.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Michel, P.

2013-10-01

20

Momentum Coupling to NEO's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We considered the coupling of momentum to near-Earth objects (NEO's) for the purposes of collision avoidance or collision damage mitigation through trajectory modification. The momentum sources considered were pulsed lasers, kinetic energy impactors, and nuclear (or conventional) explosives, detonated above or below the surface of the NEO by the nonnuclear and nuclear momentum sources listed above. We did not address the system tradeoffs or the environmental implications of momentum source delivery.

Shafer, B. P.; Garcia, M. D.; Managan, R. A.; Remo, John L.; Rosenkilde, C. E.; Scammon, R. J.; Snell, C. M.; Stellingwerf, R. F.

1997-05-01

21

Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/DM > 60,000 up to m/z =400 amu). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (metricconverterProductID2 kg2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cmˆ3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

22

Investigation of suitable targets for space missions to Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are small bodies of the Solar System which periodically approach or intersect the Earth's orbit. The NEO population is supposed to be continuously replenished by asteroids and comets and is believed to be one of the principal sources of meteorites found on the Earth. As a consequence, the study of the physical properties of NEOs is

Elisabetta Dotto; Cesare Barbieri; Maria Antonietta Barucci; Richard P. Binzel; John Robert Brucato; Joshua Emery; Sonia Fornasier; Marcello Fulchignoni; Alessandra Migliorini; Pasquale Panuzzo; Ettore Perozzi

2005-01-01

23

A sensitive search for NEOs with the Dark Energy Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from the DECam NEO Survey. DECam (Dark Energy Camera) is a 520 Megapixel optical imager with a 3 square degree field of view on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The combination of large field of view and 4 meter aperture yield an étendue that far surpasses those of previous NEO searches. Our goals are to obtain a census of NEOs down to a detection limit of V=23, to measure the size distribution of small NEOs, and to characterize the population of earth-crossing objects (ECOs). In this contribution we describe our 30-night survey, scheduled to begin in the 2014A semester and to extend over three "A" (northern hemisphere Spring) semesters. We present preliminary results based on our pilot project conducted in January and April of this year and which resulted in our submitting approximately 100,000 astrometric measurements to the Minor Planet Center (observatory code W84), approximately 1% of which are NEOs. Details of extensive simulations and data processing performed with the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) can be found in a separate contribution (Burt et al.) at this meeting.

Allen, Lori; Trilling, D.; Burt, B.; Valdes, F.; Fuentes, C.; James, D.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Earle, A.; Herrera, D.; Brown, M.; Axelrod, T.

2013-10-01

24

Social Implications of Neo - Imperialism in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The globalisation process, which aimed at integration of economies and global development, is basically a reflection of neo-imperialism ideas. The question addressed in this paper is: what are the social implications of the neo-imperialism (globalisation) process in India, particularly on the social security aspects of the working population? Accordingly, an attempt is made in this paper to examine changes in

Albert Christopher Dhas; Mary Jacqueline Helen

2010-01-01

25

The Evolution of Population III Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RESUMEN. Estudiamos el enfriamiento y colapso de las perturbaciones iso- termicas de masa M % Mj (masa de Jeans en la era de recombinaci6n) y M « Mj tomando en consideraci5n la expansi6n del Universo, presi6n, arrastre de fotones, enfriamiento de fotones (calentamiento), fotoioni- zaci6n, ionizaci5n por colisiones y la formaci6n y enfriamiento de mo- leculas de hidr6geno. Tambien estudiamos el efecto de no-esfericidad, rotaci6n y campos magneticos en el colapso de M % Mj debido a perturbaciones residuales que sobreviven para N « Mj. ABSTRACT. We study the cooling and collapse of isothermal perturbations of mass N % Nj (Jeans mass at recombination era) and N « NJ taking into account the expansion of the Universe, pressure, photon-drag, photon -cooling (heating), photoionization, collisional ionization and the formation and cooling of hydrogen molecules. We also study the effect of the nonsphericity, rotation and magnetic fields in the collapse of N % NJ. The formation of protostars from the fragmentation of clouds of mass M % MJ due to the residual perturbations that survive for N « NJ is also investigated. K ok : HYDRODYNANICS - STARS-POPULATION III

de Araujo, J. C. N.; Opher, R.

1990-11-01

26

High quality optical photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population - such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets - remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study ~700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. The primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. We propose here a tightly focused program to obtain optical photometry of ~100 NEOs with a range of telescopes. These observations have been carefully planned to maximize efficiency and minimize demand on the largest telescopes, and are complemented by observations obtained elsewhere. The resulting photometry will enable our Warm Spitzer NEO science.

Trilling, David E.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Hora, Joseph L.; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Joshua P.; Kistler, John L.; Spahr, Timothy B.

2010-02-01

27

Science opportunities offered by the European SSA-NEO segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ESA programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initially consists of 3 segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near-Earth Objects (NEO). The scope of the SSA-NEO segment includes the assessment of the impact risk with Earth from known NEOs, observations of NEO objects and the support of related international co-operations and mitigation measures. To fulfill its objectives the SSA-NEO system will , inter alia, support the detection and tracking of all NEOs above a given size or risk threshold, and determine the orbit state and physical parameters of NEOs and their associated uncertainties. It is also foreseen that the SSA-NEO system keeps a record of all larger fireballs and provides statistical information and predictions on meteoroid fluxes. The SSA-NEO segment offers numerous opportunities for scientific studies on small bodies in the solar system. Examples are: 1. Observations of asteroids and NEOs 2. Study of non-gravitational perturbing forces 3. New methods for precise determination of orbits and their evolution 4. Physical characterization of NEOs (Albedo, mass, density, composition, light curves, rotation rate, etc) 5. Fluxes of larger meteoroids This paper gives an overview of the SSA-NEO segment and discusses scientific opportunities offered by this programme.

Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Bobrinsky, Nicolas

28

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near Earth space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We propose to use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 750 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

Trilling, David; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Bottke, William; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mainzer, Amy; Mueller, Michael; Penprase, Bryan; Smith, Howard; Spahr, Timothy; Stansberry, John

2008-12-01

29

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We will use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 700 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field will allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

Trilling, David E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Harris, A.; Hora, J.; Mainzer, A.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J.

2009-05-01

30

Two neo-Darwinisms.  

PubMed

There are two extant theories of evolution, each of which deserves the honourific "neo-Darwinism": Modern Synthesis Replicator theory and a theory I shall call Developmental Darwinism. The principal difference concerns the canonical unit of biological organization. Modern Synthesis replicator theory explains the process of evolution by appeal to the activities of genes or replicators. Developmental Darwinism explains the process of evolution by appeal to the capacities of organisms. In particular, it is the plasticity of organisms, manifested most distinctly during development, that causes adaptive evolution. Despite the fact that each, in its own way, traces its origin to the theory outlined by Darwin, they are radically different. The objectives of this essay are twofold: to underscore the differences between these theories, and to argue that Developmental Darwinism, though nascent, is a viable alternative to Modern Synthesis replicator theory. PMID:21162373

Walsh, Denis M

2010-01-01

31

Compositional Distribution of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will highlight our findings to identify source regions for NEOs and PHAs and the size dependence of their compositional distribution as it pertains to the role of the Yarkovsky effect in delivering bodies from the main-belt to near-Earth space.

Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Spivakovsky-Gonzalez, P.; Polishook, D.; Tokunaga, A.; Thomas, C. A.; Rivkin, A. S.; Bus, S. J.; Birlan, M.; Vernazza, P.

2012-05-01

32

Needs for determining material strengths and bulk properties of NEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are now being discovered and followed up at a higher rate than ever before. However, physical characterization of these objects is restricted to their surface properties. For the purpose of mitigation (i.e., to nudge a potentially hazardous object out of its orbit), it is necessary to determine the bulk properties of NEOs, such as material strengths, composition,

W. F. Huebner; J. M. Greenberg

2000-01-01

33

Objective basis of the common law of population.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of production. When nonconformity restricts production growth, social revolution results. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production always tends toward conformity from nonconformity. Conformity is the common law of population economy in all societies, and as the social law of population economy it can be sensed by studying Marxist theory, and through people's practical activities. PMID:12313979

Ma, S

1983-01-01

34

Earthguard-I: a NEO detection space mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since early July 2002 a Phase-A study under contract to ESA is underway to define a space mission to search for NEOs which are difficult or even impossible to detect from groundbased locations. Based on long-term orbital evolution studies of known Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) it is expected that a significant fraction of the NEO population has orbits that are mostly or completely inside the Earth's orbit - the so called Atens and Inner-Earth Objects (IEOs). Objects on such orbits are difficult or even impossible to detect with groundbased telescopes. Due to their short orbital periods of less than one year their encounter frequency is high, and so is their potential impact risk. A preliminary analysis has shown that the payload can be accommodated on a dedicated spacecraft with a heliocentric orbit of around 0.5 AU. Alternatively, the payload could be accommodated on existing/planned platforms such as the BepiColombo Mercury orbiter spacecraft, the Solar Orbiter spacecraft, or as an external payload of the International Space Station ISS.

Leipold, Manfred; von Richter, Andreas; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Kührt, Ekkehard; Michaelis, Harald; Mottola, Stefano

2002-11-01

35

Near-Earth object velocity distributions and consequences for the Chicxulub impactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Öpik-based geometric algorithm is used to compute impact probabilities and velocity distributions for various near-Earth object (NEO) populations. The resulting crater size distributions for the Earth and Moon are calculated by combining these distributions with assumed NEO size distributions and a selection of crater scaling laws. This crater probability distribution indicates that the largest craters on both the Earth

S. V. Jeffers; S. P. Manley; M. E. Bailey; D. J. Asher

2001-01-01

36

Physical Characterization of Near-Earth Objects With the Keck Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on preliminary results from a new program of thermal IR measurements of near-Earth objects (NEOs) and other small bodies carried out with the 10-m Keck 1 telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Our goals are to physically characterize the NEO and small body populations by determining reliable albedos and sizes for a significant sample. We also aim to improve

M. Delbo; A. W. Harris; R. P. Binzel; J. K. Davies

2000-01-01

37

Methods for determining material strengths and bulk properties of NEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 500 to 1,000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs: asteroids and comets) larger than 1 km in diameter that can cause catastrophic global effects in a collision with Earth, and 10,000 to 25,000 NEOs that are larger than 200 m in diameter that can cause catastrophic regional or local effects including tidal waves if such an NEO falls into an ocean.

W. F. Huebner; J. M. Greenberg

2001-01-01

38

Visible photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population -- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets -- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study some 700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. Remarkably, the primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. Fortunately, our targets are generally bright, and obtaining good V band measurements of them requires only a modest amount of time on modest aperture telescopes. We propose here for 36 hours of SMARTS 1.3-m time or 54 hours of SMARTS 0.9-m time to obtain visible photometry of the 72 southern moderately bright ``B'' semester targets in our Warm Spitzer program. These program is ideal for queue/service observing because each observation requires only ~30 minutes and our targets are all over the sky.

Trilling, David E.; Jones, Sarah; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Spahr, Tim; Delbo, Marco

2009-08-01

39

Justification of NEO impact mitigation activities by risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of impacts of near-Earth objects (NEOs) on Earth is a typical high-consequence and low-probability risk. The relevance of this threat is often unrecognised by governments and therefore proposals for activities on NEO impact mitigation are frequently rejected. The Risk Management approach clearly categorises this risk as a \\

C. Gritzner; S. Fasoulas

2002-01-01

40

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring The History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an approved 500 hour Warm Spitzer program to derive albedos and diameters for some 700 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the NEO albedo distribution, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our Warm Spitzer program began execution in July 2009, and will return on average one target per day for the next two years. We will present initial results from our program. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Smith, H. A.; Penprase, B. E.; Mueller, M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Harris, A. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Emery, J. P.; Delbo, M.; Chesley, S. R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bhattacharya, B.

2010-01-01

41

The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

2012-12-01

42

Molecular computational elements encode large populations of small objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the introduction of molecular computation, experimental molecular computational elements have grown to encompass small-scale integration, arithmetic and games, among others. However, the need for a practical application has been pressing. Here we present molecular computational identification (MCID), a demonstration that molecular logic and computation can be applied to a widely relevant issue. Examples of populations that need encoding in the microscopic world are cells in diagnostics or beads in combinatorial chemistry (tags). Taking advantage of the small size (about 1nm) and large `on/off' output ratios of molecular logic gates and using the great variety of logic types, input chemical combinations, switching thresholds and even gate arrays in addition to colours, we produce unique identifiers for members of populations of small polymer beads (about 100?m) used for synthesis of combinatorial libraries. Many millions of distinguishable tags become available. This method should be extensible to far smaller objects, with the only requirement being a `wash and watch' protocol. Our focus on converting molecular science into technology concerning analog sensors, turns to digital logic devices in the present work.

Prasanna de Silva, A.; James, Mark R.; McKinney, Bernadine O. F.; Pears, David A.; Weir, Sheenagh M.

2006-10-01

43

From Magnitudes to Diameters: The Albedo Distribution of Near Earth Objects and the Earth Collision Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently published model of the Near Earth Object (NEO) orbital–magnitude distribution (Bottke et al., 2002, Icarus156, 399–433.) relies on five intermediate sources for the NEO population: the ?6 resonance, the 3:1 resonance, the outer portion of the main belt (i.e., 2.8–3.5 AU), the Mars-crossing population adjacent to the main belt, and the Jupiter family comet population. The model establishes

A. Morbidelli; R. Jedicke; W. F. Bottke; P. Michel; E. F. Tedesco

2002-01-01

44

Optimization on the NEOS Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEOS Server for Optimization was unveiled in 1995 as one result of an effort to develop computational servers and collaborative technologies. Today, the NEOS Server (www-neos. mcs. anl. gov) is a multi-institutional research effort providing access to more than fifty academic and commercial optimization packages through an assortment of Internet interfaces. More than seventy thousand job requests are handled

Elizabeth D. Dolan; Robert Fourer; Jorge J. Moré; Todd S. Munson

2002-01-01

45

Populations of Young Stellar Objects in Nearby Molecular Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new method for identifying young stellar objects (YSOs) from star-forming regions using the photometry data from Spitzer's c2d Legacy Project. The aim is to obtain YSO lists as complete as possible for studying statistical properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages. The largest obstacle in identifying YSOs comes from background galaxies with similar spectral energy distributions to YSOs. Traditionally, selected color-color and color-magnitude criteria are used to separate YSOs and galaxies. However, since there is no obvious boundary between YSOs and galaxies in color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), those criteria may exclude faint YSOs near the boundary. In this paper, we separate the YSOs and galaxies in a multi-dimensional (multi-D) magnitude space, which is equivalent to using all variations of CMDs simultaneously. Comparing sources from molecular clouds to Spitzer's SWIRE data, which have a negligible amount of YSOs, we can naturally identify YSO candidates (YSOc) located outside of the galaxy-populated regions in the multi-D space. In the five c2d surveyed clouds, we select 322 new YSOc and miss/exclude 33 YSOc compared to Evans et al., and this results in 1313 YSOc in total. As a result, SFR increases 28% correspondingly, but the lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages remain unchanged. Compared to theories by Krumholz & McKee, our derived SFR suggests that star formation at a large scale is dominated by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields. Furthermore, we identify seven new very low luminosity objects.

Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping

2013-03-01

46

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an accepted Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program (PI: Trilling) that allocates 500 hours of Spitzer time to observe ~700 NEOs. We will measure (1) the size distribution of this population; (2) the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets; (3) the albedo distribution of NEOs. We propose to gather spectroscopic data from a variety of telescopic facilities in order to physically characterize a significant subset of this Warm Spitzer NEO sample. By combining the size and albedo information from Spitzer with the compositional information from ground- based spectroscopy we hope to shed light on several questions about the evolution and origin of the near-Earth asteroid population.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Emery, Joshua P.; Hora, Joseph L.

2011-02-01

47

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an accepted Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program (PI: Trilling) that allocates 500 hours of Spitzer time to observe ~700 NEOs. We will measure (1) the size distribution of this population; (2) the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets; (3) the albedo distribution of NEOs. We propose to gather spectroscopic data from a variety of telescopic facilities in order to physically characterize a significant subset of this Warm Spitzer NEO sample. By combining the size and albedo information from Spitzer with the compositional information from telescope spectroscopy we hope to shed light on several questions about the evolution and origin of the near-Earth asteroid population.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Emery, Joshua P.; Hora, Joseph L.; Delbo, Marco

2010-08-01

48

Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that active galactic nuclei activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M* >~ 1010Msolar), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting is linked to nature, nurture or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco; Gültekin, Kayhan

2008-03-01

49

Collisional Evolution Of The Populations Of Trans-Neptunian Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Trans-Neptunian region is yet another example of a collisional system of small bodies in the Solar System. In the last decade the number of TNOs with reliable orbital elements is steadily increasing and we can begin to try and compare collisional evolution models to observed populations. We are developing a model that takes into account the known physics of the fragmentation of icy/rocky bodies, and that considers the different orbital characteristics of the Trans-Neptunian regions ("plutinos" or resonant objects, classical belt and scattered disk) and their mutual interactions. In the last few years it has been proposed that the outer planets, and in particular Neptune, have undergone a migration to their present location and that the TNO region may have experienced a similiar process. With this purpose we also mimick this migration and compare the corresponding outcomes with other possible scenarios. What was the primordial distribution in this region? Is the collisional cascade efficient enough to justify the loss of mass occurred in this region? Is the Trans-Neptunian belt collisionally relaxed? How did Neptune's migration affect the distribution of TNOs? These are some of the key questions regarding TNOs and the evolution of the outer Solar System that we try to help answering with this work. With aknowledgements to the spanish Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia for financial support.

Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Benavidez, P. G.

2006-09-01

50

Realistic survey simulations for kilometer class near Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new Near Earth Object (NEO) survey simulator which incorporates the four-dimensional population model of 4668 NEOs [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399–433] and the observing strategies of most asteroid search programs. With the recent expansion of survey capabilities, previous simulators focused on a specific survey

Hong-Kyu Moon; Yong-Ik Byun; Sean N. Raymond; Timothy Spahr

2008-01-01

51

Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.  

PubMed

Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

2012-08-07

52

Identifying meteorite source regions through near-Earth object spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, gives important representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source locations, we seek to gain insight into the original Solar System formation locations for different meteorite classes. To forge possible links between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects. We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) as a mathematical tool, we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-?m and 2-?m Geometric Band Centers and their Band Area Ratios (BARs). Using these identical numerical parameters we quantitatively compare the spectral properties of S-, Sq-, Q- and V-type NEOs with the spectral properties of the meteorites in four classes: H, L, LL and HED. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these four meteorite classes. Our NEO-meteorite correlation probabilities are then convolved with NEO-source region probabilities to yield a final set of meteorite-source region correlations. While the ?6 resonance dominates the delivery for all four meteorite classes, an excess (significant at the 2.1-sigma level) source region signature is found for the H chondrites through the 3:1 mean motion resonance. This results suggest an H chondrite source with a higher than average delivery preference through the 3:1 resonance. A 3:1 resonance H chondrite source region is consistent with the short cosmic ray exposure ages known for H chondrites.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Binzel, Richard P.

2010-02-01

53

Identifying Meteorite Source Regions Through Near-Earth Object Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs most likely gives the best representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source regions, we seek to gain insight into the original solar system sources for different meteorite classes. To forge the first link between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA IRTF. Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) (Sunshine et al. 1993, JGR 98, 9075) as a mathematical tool (with no mineralogy interpretation), we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-micron and 2-micron geometric band centers and their band area ratios (BARs). We fit the continuum as a linear function in wavenumber space. We choose to include the geometric center of the band in this study in order to examine the asymmetry of the bands. Using this numerical data we can examine the differences of the H, L, LL and HED meteorite classes. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these classes, yielding probability distributions for our NEO data set being related to H, L, LL, and HED meteorites. Our meteorite correlation distribution is then convolved with an NEO source region model (Bottke et al. 2002, Icarus 156, 399) to shed light on connections between these meteorite classes and their asteroid belt origins.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Binzel, R. P.

2007-10-01

54

Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within a specified dynamical range having requisite composition and frequency. A minimum size requirement is estimated assuming CONOPs has an NEO harvester on station at L1. When the NEO launch window opens, the vehicle departs, rendezvousing within 30 days. Mining and processing operations ( 60 days) produces dirty water for the return trip ( 30 days) to L1 for final refinement into propellants. A market for propellant at L1 is estimated to be 700 mT /year: 250 mT for Mars missions, 100 mT for GTO services (Blair et al. 2002), 50 mT for L1 to lunar surface services, and 300 mT for bringing NEO-derived propellants to L1. Assuming an appropriate NEO has 5% recoverable water, exploited with 50% efficiency, 23000 mT/year must be processed. At 1500 kg/m3, this corresponds to one object per year with a radius of 15 meters, or two 5 m radius objects per month, of which it is estimated there are 10000 having delta-v < 4.2 km/s and 200/year of these available for short roundtrip missions to meet resource requirements (Jones et al. 2002). The importance of these potential resource objects should drive a requirement that next generation NEO detection systems (e.g., Pan-STARRS/LSST) be capable by 2010 of detecting dark NEOs fainter than V=24, allowing for identification 3 months before closest approach. Blair et al. 2002. Final Report to NASA Exploration Team, December 20, 2002. Jones et al. 2002. ASP Conf. Series Vol. 202 (M. Sykes, Ed.), pp. 141-154.

Head, J. N.; Sykes, M. V.

2005-12-01

55

SIMONE: interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (Smallsat Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other onboard systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

2003-11-01

56

SIMONE: Interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (smallsat intercept missions to objects near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of near Earth objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120 kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other on-board systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

2006-10-01

57

Observed spectral properties of near-Earth objects: results for population distribution, source regions, and space weathering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements for 252 near-Earth (NEO) and Mars-crossing (MC) objects observed from 1994 through 2002 as a complement to the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS, http:\\/\\/smass.mit.edu\\/). Combined with previously published SMASS results, we have an internally consistent data set of more than 400 of these objects for investigating trends related to size, orbits,

Richard P. Binzel; Andrew S. Rivkin; J. Scott Stuart; Alan W. Harris; Schelte J. Bus; Thomas H. Burbine

2004-01-01

58

The NEO-FFI in Multiple Sclerosis: Internal Consistency, Factorial Validity and Correspondence Between Self and Informant Reports  

PubMed Central

Personality assessment is a potentially important component of clinical and empirical work with neurological patients because (1) individual differences in personality may be associated with different neurological outcomes and (2) central nervous system changes may give rise to alteration in personality. In order for personality assessment to be useful to clinicians and researchers, the tests must be reliable and valid, as self-report measures require certain baseline levels of comprehension and insight, both of which can be compromised by cerebral disease. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the widely used NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a group of 419 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to determine if the NEO-FFI is reliable and valid in this population. Results showed adequate estimates of internal consistency, factorial validity and self-informant correlation that support its use with MS patients. Implications, limitations of the current study and directions for future research are discussed.

Schwartz, Eben S.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H. B.

2010-01-01

59

Fuld Object-Memory Evaluation in an Urban Geriatric Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Object-Memory Evaluation (OME) has been found to predict differences between the cognitively intact and cognitively impaired elderly (Fuld. 1980), to differentiate primary degenerative dementia from depression or other organic disorders (La Rue, 1989; La Rue et al., 1986) and to detect memory impairment in elderly who later became demented (Fuld et al., 1990). This study examined performance on the

Jay D. Summers; Peter A. Lichtenberg; Stephen J. Vangel Jr

1995-01-01

60

Modelling the Populations of Trans-Neptunian Objects.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trans-neptunian region is yet another example of a collisional system of small bodies in the Solar System. In the last decade the number of TNOs with reliable orbital elements is steadily increasing and we can begin to try and compare collisional evolution models to observed populations. With this aim we are developing a model that takes into account the known physics of the fragmentation of icy/rocky bodies, including recently published experimental results, and that considers the different orbital characteristics of the different zones of the trans-neptunian region: plutinos, classical belt and scattered disk. What was the primordial distribution in this region? Is the trans-neptunian belt collisionally relaxed? What fraction of the TNO population is likely constituted by gravitational aggregates? These are just some of the questions we would like to help and give an answer to with this research. Preliminary results are presented. We thank our home institution, the Universidad de Alicante, Alicante (Spain), for supporting this research.

Campo Bagatin, A.; Benavidez, P. G.

2005-08-01

61

Neo-Lamarckian medicine.  

PubMed

Darwinian medicine is the treatment of disease based on evolution. The underlying assumption of Darwinian medicine is that traits are coded by genes, which are often assumed to be sequences of DNA nucleotides. The quantitative genetic ramification of this perspective is that traits, including disease susceptibility, are either caused by genes or by the environment, with genotype-by-environment interactions usually considered statistical artefacts. I emphasize also examining those epigenetic signals that can be altered by environmental perturbations and then transmitted to subsequent generations. Although seldom studied, environmentally-alterable meiotically-heritable epigenetic signals exist and provide a mechanism underlying genotype-by-environment interactions. Environment of a parent can affect its descendants by heritably altering epigenetic signals. Neo-Lamarckian medicine is the application of these evolutionary epigenetic notions to diseases and could have enormous public health and environmental policy implications. If industrial contaminants adversely affect organisms by meiotically-heritably altering their epigenetic signals, then cleaning up these contaminants will not remedy the problem. Once contaminants have adversely altered an individual's epigenetic signals, this harm will be transmitted to future generations even if they are not exposed to the contaminant. Exposure to environmental shocks such as free radicals or other carcinogens can alter cytosine methylation patterns on regulatory genes. This can cause cancer by up-regulating genes for cell division or by down-regulating tumour suppressor genes. Environmentally-alterable meiotically-heritable epigenetic signals could also underlie other diseases, such as diabetes, Prader-Willi syndrome, and many complex diseases. If environmentally-altered meiotically-heritable epigenetic effects are widespread - which is an important open empirical question - they have the potential to alter paradigmatic views of evolutionary medicine and the putative dichotomy of nature versus nurture. Neo-Lamarckian medicine would thereby shift emphasis from cure to prevention of diseases. PMID:14962644

Gorelick, Root

2004-01-01

62

EXPLORENEOs. I. DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We have begun the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe some 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its Warm Spitzer mode. From these measurements and catalog optical photometry we derive albedos and diameters of the observed targets. The overall goal of our ExploreNEOs program is to study the history of near-Earth space by deriving the physical properties of a large number of NEOs. In this paper, we describe both the scientific and technical construction of our ExploreNEOs program. We present our observational, photometric, and thermal modeling techniques. We present results from the first 101 targets observed in this program. We find that the distribution of albedos in this first sample is quite broad, probably indicating a wide range of compositions within the NEO population. Many objects smaller than 1 km have high albedos ({approx}>0.35), but few objects larger than 1 km have high albedos. This result is consistent with the idea that these larger objects are collisionally older, and therefore possess surfaces that are more space weathered and therefore darker, or are not subject to other surface rejuvenating events as frequently as smaller NEOs.

Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Harris, A. W. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 North College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: david.trilling@nau.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-09-15

63

A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.We will present the mission targets, scenarios and techniques that have been proposed.

Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

2007-08-01

64

Earth and space-based NEO survey simulations: prospects for achieving the spaceguard goal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used an improved model of the orbit and absolute magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) to simulate the performance of asteroid surveys. Our results support general conclusions of previous studies using preliminary Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) orbit and magnitude distributions and suggest that meeting the Spaceguard Goal of 90% completion for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) greater than

Robert Jedicke; Alessandro Morbidelli; Timothy Spahr; Jean-Marc Petit; William F. Bottke Jr

2003-01-01

65

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

66

Spacewatch Observations of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have enhanced Spacewatch's (McMillan et al. 2007 IAU Symp. 236) astrometry and photometry of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). We specialize in follow-up of the Congressionally-mandated "large" NEOs (absolute mag H?22) as they recede from Earth after discovery and become fainter, as well as NEOs on impact risk pages, Potentially Hazardous Asteroids, and NEOs observed by WISE (Mainzer et al. 2012 ApJ 752, id 110). Spacewatch was the pre-eminent follower-up of NEOs discovered by WISE within 2 weeks of their discovery. We have observed at elongations as small as 46°. Follow-up on longer orbital arcs improves understanding of the statistics of the orbits and absolute magnitudes of the population as well as the recoverability of individual objects. The new CCD which we began operating on our 1.8-m telescope on 2011 Oct 16 makes 23rd mag asteroids more frequently accessible. Faster readout and smaller pixels yield 67% more observations of NEOs per year and astrometric residuals of ±0.3 arcsec, vs. ±0.6 arcsec on NEOs with the old CCD. To reach more distant objects with H?22, we now also use the Bok 2.3-meter telescope of Steward Observatory and the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4-m Mayall telescope. About 2800 tracklets of NEOs were accepted by the MPC from Spacewatch in the interval 2011 Jul 1 - 2012 Jun 30. The archive of images collected with our mosaic of CCDs on the 0.9-m telescope of Steward Observatory now approaches 15 TB in size and spans almost 10 years of uniformly conducted surveying. It contributes incidental followup astrometry and precoveries of NEOs. This work is funded by NASA/NEOO grants NNX11AB52G and NNX12AG11G, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. Spacewatch uses facilities of KPNO and services of the IAU’s Minor Planet Center.

McMillan, Robert S.; Bressi, T. H.; Scotti, J. V.; Larsen, J. A.; Perry, M. L.

2012-10-01

67

Population monitoring of the endangered New Zealand spider, Latrodectus katipo, with artificial cover objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered New Zealand widow spider, Latrodectus katipo, is believed to have undergone marked population decline over the last 30 years, but as monitoring methods are time- and labour-intensive, and require observers to have a high level of experience, the current status of many populations is unknown. We investigated the use of artificial cover objects (ACOs) as an alternative monitoring

Jessica A. Costall; Russell G. Death

2010-01-01

68

Compact Object Modeling with the StarTrack Population Synthesis Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive description of the population synthesis code StarTrack. The original code has been significantly modified and updated. Special emphasis is placed here on processes leading to the formation and further evolution of compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes). Both single and binary star populations are considered. The code now incorporates detailed calculations of all

Krzysztof Belczynski; Vassiliki Kalogera; Frederic A. Rasio; Ronald E. Taam; Andreas Zezas; Tomasz Bulik; Thomas J. Maccarone; Natalia Ivanova

2008-01-01

69

Between the Moon and Mars: Piloted and surface operations at a NEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2006, NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) sponsored a study to examine the feasibility of sending a piloted Orion spacecraft to a near-Earth object (NEO - in the broadest definition these are small, primitive bodies that cross Earth's orbit; the most likely and suitable targets for the Orion are those NEOs in heliocentric orbits similar to Earth's). One of the

Rob R. Landis; David J. Korsmeyer; Paul A. Abell; Thomas D. Jones; Daniel R. Adamo

2009-01-01

70

Earth and Space-based NEO Survey Simulations: Prospects for Achieving the Spaceguard Goal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using our model of the debiased orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEO) (Bottke et al. 2001, Icarus, accepted), we have simulated the efficiency of various surveying strategies. To check the fidelity of our model and simulation we have calculated the number of NEOs with H<18 that the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) should have detected in a

R. Jedicke; A. Morbidelli; T. Spahr; J.-M. Petit; B. Bottke

2001-01-01

71

Ultra-low Delta-v Neos As Prime Nasa Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to near-Earth asteroids (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new "Flexible Path" approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards the post, and for their resources. We examine the selection criteria for target NEOs for human exploration to define a set of "Potentially Visitable Objects" (PVOs). Ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous is the primary criterion, as this choice doubles the payload to NEO. Choices for NEOs as human destinations are currently very limited. Only 5 of the 6699 known NEOs have delta-v <4km/s, 2/3 of typical LEO-NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of PVOs. Potentially there are at least an order of magnitude more PVOs but, to find them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in that orbit, plus long arc determination of their orbits.

Elvis, Martin; McDowell, J. C.; Binzel, R. P.; Hoffman, J.

2010-10-01

72

Compliance with the 2010 Nutritional Objectives for the Spanish Population in the Balearic Islands’ Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess compliance with the 2010 nutritional objectives for the Spanish population in the Balearic Islands’ adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition survey was carried out in adolescents (n = 1,231). Dietary habits were assessed by means of 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Differences in the percentage of compliers with the 2010 nutritional objectives and

Rosa Llull; Maria del Mar Bibiloni; Elisa Martínez; Antoni Pons; Josep A. Tur

2011-01-01

73

On the consequences of government objectives for economies with mobile populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the efficiency and social welfare properties of equilibria resulting from different governmental objectives in a federal system with a mobile population. The objectives considered are total utility, average utility, representative resident's utility, and profit maximization. The representative resident approach is unique in that it depends only on utility. It yields the best efficient allocation from the perspective of

Arman Mansoorian; Gordon M. Myers

1997-01-01

74

Neo-Keynesian Economics Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the development of post-Keynesian economic theories and examines the arguments which surround current neo-Keynesian thought. Argues for an eclecticism which recognizes that both supply-side and demand-side factors have a role to play in determining levels of output and employment. Useful charts and diagrams are included. (Author/DH)|

Shackleton, J. R.

1987-01-01

75

Multiview Occlusion Analysis for Tracking Densely Populated Objects Based on 2-D Visual Angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel framework of multiview occlusion analysis is presented for tracking densely populated objects moving on two-dimensional plane. This paper explicitly models the spatial structure of the occlusion process between objects and its uncertainty, based on 2D silhouette-based visual angles from fixed viewpoints. The occlusion structure is defined as tangency combination between the objects and the edges of the visual

Kazuhiro Otsuka; Naoki Mukawa

2004-01-01

76

Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s  

SciTech Connect

ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

1996-02-01

77

Multiple Populations for Multiple Objectives: A Coevolutionary Technique for Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems.  

PubMed

Traditional multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) consider multiple objectives as a whole when solving multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). However, this consideration may cause difficulty to assign fitness to individuals because different objectives often conflict with each other. In order to avoid this difficulty, this paper proposes a novel coevolutionary technique named multiple populations for multiple objectives (MPMO) when developing MOEAs. The novelty of MPMO is that it provides a simple and straightforward way to solve MOPs by letting each population correspond with only one objective. This way, the fitness assignment problem can be addressed because the individuals' fitness in each population can be assigned by the corresponding objective. MPMO is a general technique that each population can use existing optimization algorithms. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted for each population, and coevolutionary multiswarm PSO (CMPSO) is developed based on the MPMO technique. Furthermore, CMPSO is novel and effective by using an external shared archive for different populations to exchange search information and by using two novel designs to enhance the performance. One design is to modify the velocity update equation to use the search information found by different populations to approximate the whole Pareto front (PF) fast. The other design is to use an elitist learning strategy for the archive update to bring in diversity to avoid local PFs. CMPSO is comprehensively tested on different sets of benchmark problems with different characteristics and is compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms. The results show that CMPSO has superior performance in solving these different sets of MOPs. PMID:22907971

Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jingjing; Cao, Jiannong; Zhang, Jun; Chung, Henry Shu-Hung; Shi, Yu-Hui

2012-08-14

78

The gravitational wave signal from the Galactic disk population of binaries containing two compact objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the properties of Galactic binaries containing two compact objects,\\u000aas derived by means of population synthesis. Using this information we\\u000acalculate the gravitational wave signal of these binaries. At frequencies below\\u000af ~< 2 mHz the double white dwarf population forms an unresolved background for\\u000athe low-frequency gravitational wave detector LISA. Above this limit some few\\u000athousand double

G. A. Nelemans; L. R. Yungelson; S. F. Portegies Zwart

2001-01-01

79

Sequence differentiation associated with an inversion on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes originate from pairs of autosomes that acquire controlling genes in the sex-determining cascade. Universal mechanisms apparently influence the evolution of sex chromosomes, because this chromosomal pair is characteristically heteromorphic in a broad range of organisms. To examine the pattern of initial differentiation between sex chromosomes, sequence analyses were performed on a pair of newly formed sex chromosomes in Drosophila americana. This species has neo-sex chromosomes as a result of a centromeric fusion between the X chromosome and an autosome. Sequences were analyzed from the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), big brain (bib), and timeless (tim) gene regions, which represent separate positions along this pair of neo-sex chromosomes. In the northwestern range of the species, the bib and Adh regions exhibit significant sequence differentiation for neo-X chromosomes relative to neo-Y chromosomes from the same geographic region and other chromosomal populations of D. americana. Furthermore, a nucleotide site defining a common haplotype in bib is shown to be associated with a paracentric inversion [In(4)ab] on the neo-X chromosome, and this inversion suppresses recombination between neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes. These observations are consistent with the inversion acting as a recombination modifier that suppresses exchange between these neo-sex chromosomes, as predicted by models of sex chromosome evolution.

McAllister, Bryant F

2003-01-01

80

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA’s IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, N.; Trilling, D.; Thomas, C.; Willman, M.; Grundy, W.; Roe, H.; Christensen, E.; Person, M.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Busch, M.

2013-10-01

81

Euclidean Shift-Twist Symmetry in Population Models of Self-Aligning Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the symmetry properties of a general class of nonlocal population models describing the aggregation and alignment of oriented objects in two dimensions. Such objects could be at the level of molecules, cells, or whole organisms. We show that the underlying interaction kernel is invariant under the so-called shift-twist action of the Euclidean group acting on the space R2

Paul C. Bressloff

2004-01-01

82

Neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy.  

PubMed

Neo-adjuvant endocrine therapy has opened new alternatives for locally advanced breast cancer. Such therapy, which has permitted us to expand the treatment role of neo-adjuvant therapies, may be of great benefit to patient groups such as the elderly, those not suited for chemotherapy, and those whose response may not be optimal. This therapy also may be able to help us identify agents that could improve outcomes in the adjuvant setting as well as possible biologic predictors for outcome. The latest generation of endocrine therapy for breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors, has proved superior to tamoxifen in terms of toxicity and efficacy in the adjuvant setting and is currently being studied in other clinical trials. Current findings indicate that these agents are less toxic and better tolerated than neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and that third-generation anti-hormonal therapy offers improved tumor response compared with tamoxifen, which has resulted in increased breast conserving surgery. Biomarker findings of improved response in tumors that are both estrogen receptor positive and HER-2 positive as well as progesterone receptor positivity only will be important for planning future selective treatment and clinical trials. PMID:18373643

Valenzuela, Marcia; Julian, Thomas B

2008-03-27

83

NEO-related scientific and outreach activities at KLENOT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent times, there has been a noticeable increase in the interest for NEOs due to both discoveries of ground based telescopes/teams and satellite missions. In the light of these achievements the need for continuous follow-up astrometry in order to secure an orbit determination of the discovered bodies has risen. The Klet Observatory Near Earth and other Unusual Objects Observation Team and Telescope - project KLENOT - started in 2002. It is dedicated to confirmation, follow-up and recovery of NEOs. For this task 1.06-m KLENOT telescope equipped with high efficiency CCD is used. Since it was set in service in March 2002, a significant number of results have been obtained. For instance 10,000 positions were determined, more than 400 confirmations were made together with 17 recoveries and 104 measured Virtual Impactors. An important part of NEO discoveries is the discovery of comets. Therefore inseparable component of NEO follow-up consists in the detection of possible cometary features of newly discovered bodies and confirmation of Near Earth Comets (NEC). The next decade surveys will be determined by several aspects. At the first place, Pan-STARRS opens the question whether "classical" confirmation and early follow-up of newly discovered NEO candidates will be necessary by others. It is further discussed the need for possible changes in existing system of follow-up process. Consequently, the most important challenge for follow-up will become the NEOs which are in urgent need of astrometric positions determination over longer arc including Virtual Impactors, radar and mission targets. Finally, the observing strategies and obtained results of the KLENOT Project will be presented as well as future plans will be discussed.

Tichá, Jana; Tichý, Miloš; Ko?er, Michal

2007-05-01

84

Accurate Ages and Distances for Population II Objects: A SIM Planetquest Key Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIM Planetquest is expected to produce parallaxes with an accuracy of 5 microarcseconds. Our key project has been awarded 1330 hours of time on SIM Planetquest to determine the distance scale to Population II objects (globular clusters, RR Lyrae stars and main-sequence turn-off and subgiant stars). We describe the observing strategy we will adopt with SIM Planetquest, which will result

B. Chaboyer; B. W. Carney; D. K. Duncan; T. M. Girard; D. W. Latham; A. C. Layden; A. McWilliam; A. Sarajedini; M. Shao

2005-01-01

85

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases,

J. R. Kasprzyk; P. M. Reed; B. R. Kirsch; G. W. Characklis

2009-01-01

86

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and

J. R. Kasprzyk; P. M. Reed; B. R. Kirsch; G. W. Characklis

2009-01-01

87

ExploreNEOs. III. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 65 POTENTIAL SPACECRAFT TARGET ASTEROIDS  

SciTech Connect

Space missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently a manned mission to an NEO was announced as a NASA goal. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor primitive low-albedo objects. For the vast majority of NEOs, the albedo is unknown. Here we report new constraints on the size and albedo of 65 NEOs with rendezvous {Delta}v <7 km s{sup -1}. Our results are based on thermal-IR flux data obtained in the framework of our ongoing (2009-2011) ExploreNEOs survey using NASA's 'Warm-Spitzer' space telescope. As of 2010 July 14, we have results for 293 objects in hand (including the 65 low-{Delta}v NEOs presented here); before the end of 2011, we expect to have measured the size and albedo of {approx}700 NEOs (including probably {approx}160 low-{Delta}v NEOs). While there are reasons to believe that primitive volatile-rich materials are universally low in albedo, the converse need not be true: the orbital evolution of some dark objects likely has caused them to lose their volatiles by coming too close to the Sun. For all our targets, we give the closest perihelion distance they are likely to have reached (using orbital integrations from Marchi et al. 2009) and corresponding upper limits on the past surface temperature. Low-{Delta}v objects for which both albedo and thermal history may suggest a primitive composition include (162998) 2001 SK162, (68372) 2001 PM9, and (100085) 1992 UY4.

Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M. [UNS-CNRS-Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 04 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: michael.mueller@oca.eu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-04-15

88

Bias-corrected population, size distribution, and impact hazard for the near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the largest available data sets for the observed taxonomic (Binzel et al., 2004, Icarus 170, 259–294) and albedo (Delbo et al., 2003, Icarus 166, 116–130) distributions of the near-Earth object population, we model the bias-corrected population. Diameter-limited fractional abundances of the taxonomic complexes are A-0.2%; C-10%, D-17%, O-0.5%, Q-14%, R-0.1%, S-22%, U-0.4%, V-1%, X-34%. In a diameter-limited sample, ?30%

Joseph Scott Stuart; Richard P Binzel

2004-01-01

89

Bias-corrected population, size distribution, and impact hazard for the near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the largest available data sets for the observed taxonomic (Binzel et al., 2004, Icarus 170, 259-294) and albedo (Delbo et al., 2003, Icarus 166, 116-130) distributions of the near-Earth object population, we model the bias-corrected population. Diameter-limited fractional abundances of the taxonomic complexes are A-0.2%; C-10%, D-17%, O-0.5%, Q-14%, R-0.1%, S-22%, U-0.4%, V-1%, X-34%. In a diameter-limited sample, ~30%

Joseph Scott Stuart; Richard P. Binzel

2004-01-01

90

Investigation of binary asteroids and NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory of Observational Astrometry of the Central (Pulkovo) Observatory of RAS makes observations and investigations of binary and multiple asteroids and Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The observations are carried out with MTM-500M telescope, placed on Mount Astronomical Station of Pulkovo observatory (Northern Caucasus), and ZA-320M mirror astrograph of Pulkovo observatory. Also in this research work we used observations obtained with BTA telescope of Special Astrophysical Observatory. In this work results of investigations binary asteroids such as 22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 2006 VV2, 90 Antiope, 87 Sylvia, 762 Pulcova, 1313 Berna, 137170 (1999 HF1) and Near Earth Asteroids such as 2005 YU55 and 2008 TC3 will be presented.

Vereshchagina, I.; Sokov, E.; Gorshanov, D.; Devyatkin, A.; Romas, E.; L'vov, V.; Slesarenko, V.; Rastegaev, D.; Balega, Yu.; Maximov, A.; Diachenko, V.; Malogolovec, E.; Kouprianov, V.; Naiden, Ya.

2012-09-01

91

Threat Assessment of Small Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility are in their third year of a program to derive physical characterization information on some of the smallest (less than 200 meters in diameter) objects in the Near-Earth Object (NEO) population. Tiny comets and asteroids are being discovered by survey programs on a routine basis, so targets available for study

E. Ryan; W. Ryan

2010-01-01

92

Spaced based infrared detection and characterization of near earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infrared space-based survey system would be an invaluable adjunct to the ground based visible searches for the discovery of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). It would significantly increase the discovery rate of NEOs and would have unique capabilities to probe their physical character. An infrared NEO survey compensates for the bias of visible searches to preferentially discover high albedo objects

Stephan D. Price; Michael P. Egan

2001-01-01

93

Creating Difference: Neo-Liberalism, Neo-Conservatism and the Politics of Educational Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article raises questions about current educational reform efforts now underway in a number of nations. Research from a number of countries is used to document some of the hidden differential effects of two connected strategies - neo-liberal inspired market proposals and neo-liberal, neo-conservative, and middle class managerial inspired…

Apple, Michael W.

2004-01-01

94

A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... .) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials. It involves a main spacescraft which will allow the determination of important physical properties of the target (shape, mass, crater distribution . . . ) and which will take samples by a touch-and-go procedure, a Lander for in-situ investigation of the sampling site, and sampling depending on technological development and resource allocations, a re-entry capsule, and scientific payloads. We will present the mission targets, scenarios and techniques that have been proposed.

Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

2007-08-01

95

Historicism and neo-Kantianism.  

PubMed

This article treats the conflict between historicism and neo-Kantianism in the late nineteenth century by a careful examination of the writings of Wilhelm Windelband, the leader of the Southwestern neo-Kantians. Historicism was a profound challenge to the fundamental principles of Kant's philosophy because it seemed to imply that there are no universal and necessary principles of science, ethics or aesthetics. Since all such principles are determined by their social and historical context, they differ with each culture and epoch. Windelband attempted to respond to the challenge of this relativism by either broadening Kantian principles, so that they could accommodate the results of historicism, or by reformulating Kantian principles, so that they were impregnable to historical change. The article examines both aspects of Windelband's strategy in some detail, noting the many changes and different formulations in his views. A final section considers some of the difficulties of Windelband's strategy and concludes that, despite its heroic efforts, it was a failure. PMID:19391374

Beiser, Fred

2008-12-01

96

NEO Impact Consequences and Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short overview of main characteristics of the impactor population from which major terrestrial impacts originated is given. This population includes the objects that may hit the Earth in the future (potentially hazardous asteroids, PHAs). An impact frequency (a way of measuring the probability of a given collision) versus impact energy (an index of the impact consequences) relationship is described on the basis of this analysis. The current state of actions started planetwide by the most developed countries to face the threat represented by an asteroid collision with the Earth is summarized. The ‘Torino scale’, which assesses the risks connected with a discovery of a PHA in a simple and clear way is finally described. To cite this article: M. Fulchignoni, M.A. Barucci, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

Fulchignoni, Marcello; Barucci, M. Antonietta

2005-04-01

97

The orbital distribution of Near-Earth Objects inside Earth's orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada's Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat), set to launch in early 2012, will search for and track Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), tuning its search to best detect objects with a < 1.0 AU. In order to construct an optimal pointing strategy for NEOSSat, we needed more detailed information in the a < 1.0 AU region than the best current model (Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S. [2002]. Icarus 156, 399-433) provides. We present here the NEOSSat-1.0 NEO orbital distribution model with larger statistics that permit finer resolution and less uncertainty, especially in the a < 1.0 AU region. We find that Amors = 30.1 ± 0.8%, Apollos = 63.3 ± 0.4%, Atens = 5.0 ± 0.3%, Atiras (0.718 < Q < 0.983 AU) = 1.38 ± 0.04%, and Vatiras (0.307 < Q < 0.718 AU) = 0.22 ± 0.03% of the steady-state NEO population. Vatiras are a previously undiscussed NEO population clearly defined in our integrations, whose orbits lie completely interior to that of Venus. Our integrations also uncovered the unexpected production of retrograde orbits from main-belt asteroid sources; this retrograde NEA population makes up ?0.1% of the steady-state NEO population. The relative NEO impact rate onto Mercury, Venus, and Earth, as well as the normalized distribution of impact speeds, was calculated from the NEOSSat-1.0 orbital model under the assumption of a steady-state. The new model predicts a slightly higher Mercury impact flux.

Greenstreet, Sarah; Ngo, Henry; Gladman, Brett

2012-01-01

98

NEO Characterization Missions for Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of the hazard to Earth from NEOs has received increased attention recently in the U.S. because of congressional interest in the topic. This resulted in a study by the National Academies' National Research Council. That study was released in January. The SpaceGuard survey was aimed at finding 90% of the NEOs greater than 1 km in diameter. The

Volker Maiwald; Bernd Dachwald

2010-01-01

99

Investigation of suitable targets for space missions to Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are small bodies of the Solar System which periodically approach or intersect the Earth's orbit. The NEO population is supposed to be continuously replenished by asteroids and comets and is believed to be one of the principal sources of meteorites found on the Earth. As a consequence, the study of the physical properties of NEOs is interesting for scientific goals, to investigate the nature of the whole population of small bodies of the Solar System. It also provides essential information for technological purposes, considering the potential hazard that these objects constitute to our planet and the development of suitable mitigation strategies both on Earth and from space. In the last years, scientific and technological goals have pushed space agencies to plan and launch space missions to NEOs. In this respect, observations investigating the physical and thermal structure of NEOs are needed in support of future space missions. Due to the wide variety of the orbital characteristics of NEOs, target selection must be able to guarantee both technical feasibility and high scientific return. We therefore propose to carry out spectroscopic observations, in the infrared wavelength range 5.2-38 micron, of NEOs characterized by a high degree of accessibility for a space mission. We have selected 13 targets accessible from Earth for space missions and we ask for a total of 24.5 hours of IRS observations to obtain spectroscopic data between 5.2 and 38 micron. The aim of these observations will be the investigation of the surface composition and thermal structure and the determination of the albedo and diameter of each selected target.

Dotto, Elisabetta; Barbieri, Cesare; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Binzel, Richard P.; Brucato, John Robert; Emery, Joshua; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Migliorini, Alessandra; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Perozzi, Ettore

2005-06-01

100

Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

1993-09-01

101

The Size Distribution of Very Small Near Earth Objects As Measured by Warm Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a pilot search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with 84 hours of Warm Spitzer time in April, 2013. Results are obtained through a multi-step process: implanting synthetic objects in the Spitzer data stream; processing the Spitzer data; linking non-sidereal sources to form plausible orbits; validating candidates; determining orbits; and determining diameters through thermal modeling. Each of these steps is well-tested on both synthetic populations and real data. Through these steps, we expect to be able to constrain the NEO size distribution down to ~10 meters (at present, through ExploreNEOs and NEOWISE, the size distribution is well-known only to 100 meters). We will present results from this preliminary data and prospects for a large or very large survey that could be carried out in future cycles.

Trilling, David E.; Hora, J.; Burt, B.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Fuentes, C.; Harris, A.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Smith, H.

2013-10-01

102

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

103

New Constraints on the Small Kuiper Belt Object Population from High-Resolution Images of Triton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triton serves as an effective witness plate for Kuiper belt objects due to Triton's proximity to the Kuiper Belt and relatively young surface. Stern and McKinnon (LPSC XXX, abs. #1766, 1999; AJ 119, 945-952, 2000) showed Triton's crater populations to be consistent with a population of sub-km Kuiper belt objects with an approximately b = -3 differential power-law size index, dominance of KBO over Oort cloud impactors, and surface ages under 0.5 Ga. Here we update these findings based on the 10-frame highest resolution image sequence taken by Voyager 2 in 1989, not included in our earlier work. These images suffer degrees of image smear due to uncompensated spacecraft motion, but with careful processing and analysis, meaningful crater counts can be extracted. We focus on regions of abundant and easily discriminated primary craters, such as Cipango Planum (10o N, 35o E), a nearly featureless, rolling volcanic plain. There, craters can be confidently identified down to 1 km diameter, implying Kuiper Belt impactors below 100 m in diameter. The corresponding crater size-frequency index in the 1-to-6 km diameter range is similar to slightly steeper than that for more global counts at larger sizes, but remains consistent with b = -3.

McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P. M.; Stern, S. A.

104

The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a "potentially hazardous asteroid" (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m). These are big enough to cause, in the case of impact with Earth, destructive effects on a regional scale. Smaller objects can still produce major damage on a local scale, while the largest NEOs could endanger the survival of living species. Therefore, several national and international observational efforts have been started (i) to detect undiscovered NEOs and especially PHAs, (ii) to determine and continuously monitor their orbital properties and hence their impact probability, and (iii) to investigate their physical nature. Further ongoing activities concern the analysis of possible techniques to mitigate the risk of a NEO impact, when an object is confirmed to be on an Earth colliding trajectory. Depending on the timeframe available before the collision, as well as on the object's physical properties, various methods to deflect a NEO have been proposed and are currently under study from groups of experts on behalf of international organizations and space agencies. This paper will review our current understanding of the NEO population, the scientific aspects and the ongoing space- and ground-based activities to foresee close encounters and to mitigate the effects of possible impacts.

Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

2013-09-01

105

Creating Difference: NeoLiberalism, Neo-Conservatism and the Politics of Educational Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article raises questions about current educational reform efforts now underway in a number of nations. Research from a number of countries is used to document some of the hidden differential effects of two connected strategies—neo-liberal inspired market proposals and neo-liberal, neo-conservative, and middle class managerial inspired regulatory proposals, including national curricula and national testing. This article describes how different

Michael W. Apple

2004-01-01

106

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

2008-10-29

107

Law and Order on the Border in the Neo-colonial Antipodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of enclosure within borders and the segregation of populations who belong from those who do not are the foundations of the sovereignty of the modern state. Border control measures deployed in the neo-colonial antipodes that arise from such conceptions of territorial sovereignty and statism consequently bear many similarities to the disciplinary technologies of population control used around the

Kerry Carrington

108

Collisional evolution of trans-Neptunian object populations in a Nice model environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost 20 years of observations of the trans-Neptunian region have shed light on the overall dynamical structure of the trans-Neptunian object (TNO) populations and absolute magnitude distributions. The TNO region can be inserted in the global frame of the dynamical evolution of the giant planets, as described by the Nice model. Any reliable collisional evolution model should account for dynamical effects and should produce results that meet the constraints imposed by current observables. With this aim, we have developed a code package [Asteroid-LIke Collisional ANd Dynamical Evolution Package (ALICANDEP)], which is a collisional evolution code that includes statistical elimination of objects by dynamical effects within the frame of a disc migrating and gradually dynamically exciting, as well as the dynamical migration of objects between regions. Moreover, we included the possibility to distinguish between dynamically cold and hot bodies in the main classical belt and to keep track of primordial bodies in the whole region. Finally, we performed a large number of numerical simulations varying physical parameters, boundary and initial conditions, in order to match the current observables and the dynamical conditions of the Nice model. Our results are in agreement with those observables and can explain the flattened size distributions in the 30-100 km size range. This allows us to constrain the original mass of the belt (not less than 50 M?), which is compatible with initial shallow size distributions below 100 km. ALICANDEP also finds an extremely high probability for the existence of at least one more large (>1700 km) object yet to be discovered in the outer belt. This model supports the reliability of the Nice model, and it can be a suitable tool to statistically study many features of the trans-Neptunian region.

Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Benavidez, Paula G.

2012-06-01

109

Applications of MOPS to NEO searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are employing MOPS for two different NEO surveys. The first is a ground-based survey using the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope. We take transient source detections, create intra-night tracklets, and form inter-night tracks. We use find_orb to reject obviously bad orbits, and have successfully submitted over 100,000 measurements to the MPC. We have also adapted MOPS for use with a new Warm Spitzer NEO survey.

Burt, Brian; Trilling, D.; Allen, L.; Earle, A.; Fuentes, C.; Myers, J.

2013-10-01

110

Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

Morrison, David

2007-10-01

111

EROs found behind lensing clusters. I. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: On the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects. Aims: Determining the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected, extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114 (Richard et al. 2006, A&A, 456, 861). Comparison with properties of related

D. Schaerer; A. Hempel; E. Egami; R. Pelló; J. Richard; J.-F. Le Borgne; J.-P. Kneib; M. Wise; F. Boone

2007-01-01

112

Relationship of NEO-PI to personality styles and severity of trauma in chronic PTSD victims.  

PubMed

The relationship of the NEO-PI to personality disorders was evaluated in a clinical population. Eighty subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were given this measure, along with the MCMI-II and PTSD and combat scales. Two questions were addressed: (1) What is the relationship of NEO-PI domains and facets to personality disorders?; and (2) What is this scale's relationship to PTSD problems? Results support previous studies that employed a clinical population, but with lower correlation coefficients. For the most part, then, the NEO-PI domains and facets correlated in expected ways with the MCMI-II. On PTSD measures, N accounted for the majority of the variance, but other domains were entered when independent regression equations were calculated to account for different personality disorders. PMID:7806645

Hyer, L; Braswell, L; Albrecht, B; Boyd, S; Boudewyns, P; Talbert, S

1994-09-01

113

Hunting for Buried Treasure: Prospecting for a Population of Compact Objects in the Galactic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe the observational campaign we have undertaken to determine the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained to date includes a deep Chandra survey; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey; and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. Astrometric cross-correlation of our ISAAC imaging with the revised X-ray source position catalogs from Muno et al. (2003, 2006) results in a statistically significant excess in the number of candidate IR counterparts to the 130 X-ray sources encompassed within our 26 ISAAC fields. Cross-correlation of our ISPI imaging of the central 17' square around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 Chandra sources, with the X-ray catalog reveals 2214 candidate IR counterparts. We explore the likelihood of these astrometric matches being actual physical counterparts and find that, statistically, 443+/-56 are likely to be true counterparts. We categorize these matches by X-ray and IR characteristics (hardness, colour, magnitude). After statistical analysis, we find that by selecting carefully from the subset of X-ray hard, highly reddened candidate matches, we can identify 91 IR sources which have a 45% probability of being true physical counterparts. In both the ISAAC and ISPI data we find an over-abundance of relatively unextinguished, bright, blue candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources as compared to the IR field star population. It is likely that these matches are dominated by local, massive X-ray active stars. We will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to perform a spectroscopic survey of the identified candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 Galactic Center Survey will have a dramatic impact on our knowledge of the Galactic accreting binary population.

Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; DeWitt, C.; Gosling, A. J.; Blundell, K.; Blum, R.; Olsen, K.; Sarajedini, A.

2010-02-01

114

Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: A general population study.  

PubMed

Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. PMID:23623452

Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

2013-04-23

115

The discourse of desperation: the intersections of neo-Orientalism, gender and Islam in the Chechen struggle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-Orientalism is a means of articulating a subordinating discourse regarding populations and societies associated with Islam. This article argues that the labelling of Chechens and Chechen society as ‘desperate’ is another way of upholding the neo-Orientalist frame. About 2876 articles on the Chechen conflict culled from the Lexis-Nexis database were coded for the language of ‘desperation’. A majority of these

Caron E. Gentry; Kathryn Whitworth

2011-01-01

116

Ethnicity, State Violence, and Neo-Liberal Transitions in Post-Communist Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

State socialist nationalization policies in the 1980s severely impacted the ethnic Turkish and Muslim regions of Bulgaria, while neo-liberal economic strategies have subsequently further deepened their economic crisis. This paper focuses on the ways in which policies of regional economic marginalization, cultural assimilation, and population expulsion have deeply marked the people and places of the Kurdajli region of southeastern Bulgaria.

John Pickles; Robert B. Begg

2000-01-01

117

Compact Fluorescent Lamp Electronic NEO BALL with Screw Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

'NEO BALL' developed to replace incandescent lamps and to save energy has been comparable to globe lamps in luminous output, enjoying increasing demand since its advents. Electronic 'NEO BALL' newly developed, incorporating a high-frequency electronic bal...

A. Hashima E. Matsunoshita N. Aoike

1984-01-01

118

NEO PI-R as a Premorbid Baseline Measure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Air Force (USAF) uses measures of personality based on the Big Five model when psychologically assessing pilots. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), a 'Big Five' measure, includes Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Expe...

E. Barto M. J. Ree M. S. Teachout R. E. King W. Chappelle

2011-01-01

119

Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a two spacecraft rendezvous with multiple NEOs. A two spacecraft mission mimics architecture for human explorers to use a mother ship to get from Earth to the NEO and a small body lander for in situ investigation on or close to the NEO.

Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Smith, D. B.; Cook, T. S.

2011-03-01

120

Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

Sola, Peter; And Others

1986-01-01

121

Confronting a Neo-Nazi Hate Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The peaceful quiet that often accompanies the warming of a mid-April morning in a rural/suburban school district outside Philadelphia was broken harshly when several alarmed high school students arrived at school with Neo-Nazi flyers. The flyers were designed to recruit new members into a hate group calling itself the Pottstown SS. In addition,…

Furin, Terrance L.

2007-01-01

122

Are neo-Piagetian and neo-Vygotskian interpretations of potential for learning complementary?  

PubMed

According to Pascual-Leone, potential for learning in the neo-Piagetian framework complements the neo-Vygotskian framework for assessment of learning potential, a manifestation of the child's zone of proximal development. Data obtained in a 1998 study by Niaz and Caraucan with three groups of children (7- to 10-yr.-olds, N=94) are reinterpreted as showing the two interpretations are complementary. PMID:11769897

Niaz, M

2001-10-01

123

A Swarm Of Micro-satellites For In Situ NEO Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crewed missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs), as well as reconnaissance for hazard reduction, for science, and for resource exploitation, require in situ robotic precursor missions. Because potential crewed mission targets have multiple requirements, even quite high probabilities for each single requirement lead to a need for multiple targets to be investigated. To ensure mission robustness, multiple good targets with well-spaced launch windows will be needed. Numerous robotic precursors, or order tens to hundreds, will thus be essential. These will have to be micro-satellites in order to be affordable. We describe a concept to place a few hundred Small Wandering Autonomous Reconnaissance Modules (SWARM) in a Solar orbit slightly interior to the Earth. These SWARM micro-satellites would first survey for NEOs, and then visit numerous NEOs as they come into energetically favorable locations.

Elvis, Martin; Landau, D.; Kasper, J.; Lantoine, G.; Marrese-Reading, C.; Mueller, J.; Russell, R. P.; Strange, N.; Ziemer, J. K.; Nash, A.; Yeomans, D.

2012-10-01

124

Development of Impact Probability Estimation System for Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, estimation method of impact probability for Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is investigated. The impact probability of NEOs has been calculated by linear target plane analysis and Monte-Carlo method. Since the collisions of NEOs to the Earth are quite sensitive problem, the calculations have to be confirmed by several methods. Linear target plane analysis cannot be applied if the

Tomohiro YAMAGUCHI; Makoto YOSHIKAWA

2008-01-01

125

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

126

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

2008-09-01

127

Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

2007-01-01

128

Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

2007-01-01

129

Covariance-based maneuver optimization for NEO threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near Earth Object (NEO) conjunction analysis and mitigation problem is fundamentally the same as Earth-centered space traffic control, albeit on a larger scale and in different temporal and spatial frames. The Aerospace Corporation has been conducting conjunction detection and collision avoidance analysis for a variety of satellite systems in the Earth environment for over 3 years. As part of this process, techniques have been developed that are applicable to analyzing the NEO threat. In space traffic control operations in the Earth orbiting environment, dangerous conjunctions between satellites are determined using collision probability models, realistic covariances, and accurate trajectories in the software suite Collision Vision. Once a potentially dangerous conjunction (or series of conjunctions) is found, a maneuver solution is developed through the program DVOPT (DeltaV OPTimization) that will reduce the risk to a pre -defined acceptable level. DVOPT works by taking the primary's state vector at conjunction, back- propagating it to the time of the proposed burn, then applying the burn to the state vector, and forward-propagating back to the time of the original conjunction. The probability of collision is then re-computed based upon the new state vector and original covariances. This backwards-forwards propagation is coupled with a search algorithm to find the optimal burn solution as a function of time. Since the burns are small (typically cm/sec for Earth-centered space traffic control), Kepler's Equation was assumed for the backwards-forwards propagation with little loss in accuracy. The covariance-based DVOPT process can be easily expanded to cover heliocentric orbits and conjunctions between the Earth and an approaching object. It is shown that minimizing the burn to increase the miss distance between the conjuncting objects does not correspond to a burn solution that minimizes the probability of impact between the same two objects. Since a significant amount of uncertainty exists in the predicted position of a NEO at conjunction with the Earth, maneuver analysis should be based upon the covariances as well as the state vectors, and not solely upon a miss distance assessment.

Peterson, G.

130

Exploring objective and subjective numeracy at a population level: findings from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).  

PubMed

Numeracy is a critical component of decision making in health, and low numeracy may adversely affect risk comprehension, medical treatment, and health outcomes. Health researchers have developed objective and subjective measures of numeracy that potentially could be used for clinical or health research purposes. To examine the association between objective and subjective numeracy at a population level, data were obtained from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, a health communication survey that collects data from a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. Associations between items from 2 published subjective numeracy measures (STAT-Confidence Scale; Subjective Numeracy Scale) and a single published objective numeracy measure were examined with respect to one another and with respect to sociodemographic characteristics using a multivariate logistic regression model. Controlling for demographic covariates, both subjective numeracy measures were significantly associated with each other (p < .0001) and with objective numeracy (p < .0001). Compared with respondents who regarded themselves as low in subjective numeracy, those who regarded themselves as high in subjective numeracy had significantly higher odds of answering the objective numeracy question correctly (STAT-Confidence Scale OR = 1.42, CI [1.07, 1.90]; Subjective Numeracy Scale OR = 1.71, CI [1.28, 2.28]). However, the subjective measures performed poorly as diagnostic indicators of objective numeracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the STAT-Confidence Scale and the Subjective Numeracy Scale were 67%/49% and 50%/71%, respectively. More work is needed to elucidate the relation between objective and subjective numeracy, at the conceptual and empirical levels, and to develop more robust measures of subjective numeracy that can better discriminate between individuals with low and high objective numeracy. PMID:23066837

Nelson, Wendy L; Moser, Richard P; Han, Paul K J

2012-10-15

131

PS1 Keyproject 02: Populations of Objects in the Outer Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that PS1 will discover 7 103 trans-neptunian objects, 4 104 Jupiter Trojans, 103 comets, and 103 Centaurs with magnitude mR < 23, scaling from estimates for PS4 (Jewitt 2003). The PS1 survey, with its unprecedented combination of depth, sky coverage, and unifor- mity, will provide us an opportunity to answer a large number of questions about the

M. J. Holman

132

Neo-Latinists worldwide willing to help microbiologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

As knowledge of Latin is no longer widespread in the community of natural scientists, the International Association for Neo-Latinist Studies (IANLS) has been contacted and asked for assistance in Latin (Neo-Latin) name formation for the formal description of newly isolated prokaryotes. Here, the names and addresses of sixteen Neo-Latin scholars and three microbiologists with knowledge of Latin and relevant experience

Hans G. Truper

2007-01-01

133

[Neo-'hippocratism' in Bernardino Ramazzini].  

PubMed

Neo-hippocratism is a rational and mechanic method to explain pathological phenomena and discover the causes of diseases. Bernardino Ramazzini uses Hippocratic empirical observation to investigate the relations between the alterations of the air - due to mephitic vapours, of organic and inorganic origin - and the development of pathological processes. His notion of corruption of the atmosphere as the origin of epidemics and specific diseases, and that of prevention as the main strategy of modern medicine, is developed in medical literature and in the public medicine projects of the end of the Seventeenth century. PMID:22214099

Marinozzi, Silvia; Conforti, Maria; Gazzaniga, Valentina

2011-01-01

134

Neo-Nazis and moral panic: The emergence of neo-Nazi youth gangs in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of a neo-Nazi gang is an unprecedented manifestation of deviance in Israel. It has undermined the moral order and shaken the delicate nerves of Israeli society, which lives in the shadow of the Holocaust. Drawing principally on Israeli newspaper coverage, the study examines the dynamics of social discourse among policymakers, the press and pressure groups. The analysis shows

Revital Sela-Shayovitz

2011-01-01

135

EROs found behind lensing clusters. I. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: On the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects. Aims: Determining the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected, extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114 (Richard et al. 2006, A&A, 456, 861). Comparison with properties of related galaxies, such as IRAC selected EROs and a z 6.5 post-starburst galaxy candidate from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Methods: Using an updated version of Hyperz (Bolzonella et al. 2000, A&A, 363, 476) and a large number of spectral templates we perform broad-band SED fitting. The photometric observations, taken from Hempel et al. (2007, A&A, submitted), include deep optical, ACS/HST, ISAAC/VLT, IRAC/Spitzer data, and for some objects 24 ?m MIPS/Spitzer and sub-mm data as well. Results: For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between “low-z” (z 1-3) and high-z (z 6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at “low-z”. The majority of these objects are best fitted with relatively young (?0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Three of our objects show indications for strong extinction, with AV 2.4-4. The typical stellar masses of our objects are M_star (0.5-5)×1010 M? after correction for lensing; for the most extreme ERO in our sample, the sub-mm galaxy SMMJ14009+0252 most likely at z_fit 3, we estimate M_star ˜ 6.×1011 M?. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical starburst, ERO, and ULIRG templates.Typically we find SFR (1-18) M? yr-1. Again, SMMJ14009+0252 stands out as a LIRG with SFR 1000 M? yr-1. Finally, we predict the mid-IR to sub-mm SED of the dusty objects for comparison with future observations with APEX, Herschel, and ALMA. Concerning the comparison objects, we argue that the massive post-starburst z 6.5 galaxy candidate HUDF-J2 showing observed properties very similar to our EROs, is more likely a dusty starburst at z 2.3-2.6. This interpretation also naturally explains the observed 24 ?m emission from this object and we predict its IR to sub-mm SED. Both empirically and from our SED fits we find that the IRAC selectec EROs from Yan et al. (2004, ApJ, 616, 63) show very similar properties to our lensed EROs. Reasonable fits are found for most of them with relatively young and dusty stellar populations. Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope (Antu/UT1), European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programs 69.A-0508, 70.A-0355, 73.A-0471), the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555, the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407, and the Chandra satellite.

Schaerer, D.; Hempel, A.; Egami, E.; Pelló, R.; Richard, J.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Kneib, J.-P.; Wise, M.; Boone, F.

2007-07-01

136

Follow-up and Characterization of NEOs with the LCOGT Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects. LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1). An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

Lister, Tim

2013-10-01

137

NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 1999, NASA established its Near-Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with the stated objectives to: - Facilitate communications within the observing community and between the community and the public with respect to any potentially hazardous objects. - Establish and maintain a catalog of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and provide information on their future close Earth approaches and Earth impact probabilities. - Help coordinate ground-based observations in order to complete the Spaceguard Goal of discovering 90% of the Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) larger than one kilometer within a ten year period. - Support NASA Headquarters in coordinating with other government agencies and with foreign governments and international organizations on NEO issues. - Develop and support a strategy and plan for the scientific exploration of NEOs including their discovery, recovery, ephemerides, characterization, in-situ investigations, and resource potential. Significant progress has been made on all of these objectives. An award winning interactive NEO web site has been established (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/) to communicate information to the scientific community and public. An automatic update process (Sentry) has been established for all NEOs. As new astrometric data become available for a particular NEO, its orbit is automatically updated and future close Earth approach circumstances determined - including impact probabilities when appropriate. At timely intervals, metrics are generated and displayed on the web site to track the contributions of each NASA supported search site toward meeting the Spaceguard Goal. Initial efforts to coordinate the nightly search for NEAs within the United States have been undertaken. In an effort to facilitate the coordination of NEO activities on an international scale, fruitful interactions have taken place with personnel of the British Task Force, the Spaceguard Foundation, the Japanese Spaceguard Foundation and the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Yeomans, D. K.; Baalke, R. C.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Chesley, S. R.; Chodas, P. W.; Giorgini, J. D.; Keesey, M. S.

2001-11-01

138

Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the George E. Brown, Jr. NEO Survey Program are to detect, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristics of NEOs equal to or larger than 140 meters in diameter with a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 AU (Astronomica...

2007-01-01

139

Inequalities in Australian Education: A Neo-Weberian Perspective1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important development in the sociology of education has been the increasing prominence of neo-Marxist theory, whereby inequalities in education are ultimately based on economic class differences. The argument in this paper is that the persistent inequalities in (especially Australian) education - can better be explained in the framework of a neo-Weberian model. According to this model such inequalities are

Eva Etzioni-Halevy

1987-01-01

140

A contemplated revision of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous item factor analyses and readability analyses suggested that 14 of the 60 items in the NEO Five-Factor Inventory might usefully be replaced. New analyses in high school (N=1959) and adult (N=1492) samples led to the selection of new items from the remaining pool of Revised NEO Personality Inventory items. The resulting scales showed modest improvements in reliability and factor

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa

2004-01-01

141

Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

Ryan, Ann

2008-01-01

142

Malthus at mid-century: neo-Malthusianism as bio-political governance in the post-WWII United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a discursive history of neo-Malthusianism in the United States, focusing primarily on the mid-20th century. In the process, I critically examine texts invoking Malthusian arguments in relation to the politics of sex and birth control, class and eugenics, and race and geopolitics, focusing on how they rendered human population growth intelligible in particularly reductive and naturalistic ways.

Kolson Schlosser

2009-01-01

143

The psychiatric power of neo-liberal citizenship: the North Korean human rights crisis, North Korean settlers, and incompetent citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses how North Korean settlers in South Korea are engaged in the rubric of neo-liberal citizenship to program the idea of an enterprise of free and autonomous selves. I call into question the psychiatric intervention in the North Korean population deprived of psychological capacities to be autonomous and responsible for their social life. My argument is that the

Minkyu Sung

2010-01-01

144

NEOview: Near Earth Object Data Discovery and Query  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) figure prominently in NASA's Flexible Path approach to human space exploration. NEOs offer insight into both the origins of the Solar System and of life, as well as a source of materials for future missions. With NEOview scientists can locate NEO datasets, explore metadata provided by the archives, and query or combine disparate NEO datasets in the search for NEO candidates for exploration. NEOview is a software system that illustrates how standards-based interfaces facilitate NEO data discovery and research. NEOview software follows a client-server architecture. The server is a configurable implementation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Table Access Protocol (TAP), a general interface for tabular data access, that can be deployed as a front end to existing NEO datasets. The TAP client, seleste, is a graphical interface that provides intuitive means of discovering NEO providers, exploring dataset metadata to identify fields of interest, and constructing queries to retrieve or combine data. It features a powerful, graphical query builder capable of easing the user's introduction to table searches. Through science use cases, NEOview demonstrates how potential targets for NEO rendezvous could be identified by combining data from complementary sources. Through deployment and operations, it has been shown that the software components are data independent and configurable to many different data servers. As such, NEOview's TAP server and seleste TAP client can be used to create a seamless environment for data discovery and exploration for tabular data in any astronomical archive.

Tibbetts, M.; Elvis, M.; Galache, J. L.; Harbo, P.; McDowell, J. C.; Rudenko, M.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

2013-10-01

145

NEO-FFI factor scores as predictors of clinical response to fluoxetine in depressed outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in unipolar depression suggests that neuroticism is associated with poor long-term outcome and greater chronicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline neuroticism scores predict response to treatment with fluoxetine in depressed outpatients. Seventy-six depressed outpatients participating in a clinical trial of fluoxetine (fixed\\/flexible dosing) completed the NEO-FFI (five factor inventory short form) at baseline. Clinical

Timothy Petersen; George I. Papakostas; Kathryn Bottonari; Brian Iacoviello; Jonathan E. Alpert; Maurizio Fava; Andrew A. Nierenberg

2002-01-01

146

Neo-clerodane diterpenes from Salvia herbacea.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Salvia herbacea led to the isolation of eight new neo-clerodane diterpenes (1-8), named tehuanins A-H, and three known compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Three of the new diterpenes possess a 1,8-epoxy group (1-3). This unusual structural feature was confirmed by X-ray diffraction of 1. The structure of the previously isolated 1?,10?-epoxysalviarin was revised. The absolute configuration of 6 was established by X-ray diffraction analysis of its bromo derivative 6a. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of these diterpenes were examined. None of the compounds were considered to be cytotoxic; however, compound 7 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity comparable to that of indomethacin. PMID:22578169

Bautista, Elihú; Maldonado, Emma; Ortega, Alfredo

2012-05-11

147

Endothelial ?1-adrenoceptors regulate neo-angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Intact endothelium plays a pivotal role in post-ischaemic angiogenesis. It is a phenomenon finely tuned by activation and inhibition of several endothelial receptors. The presence of ?1-adrenoceptors on the endothelium suggests that these receptors may participate in regenerative phenomena by regulating the responses of endothelial cells involved in neo-angiogenesis. Experimental approach: We evaluated the expression of the subtypes of the ?1-adrenoceptor in isolated endothelial cells harvested from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We explored the possibility these ?1-adrenoceptors may influence the pro-angiogenic phenotype of endothelial cells in vitro. In vivo, we used a model of hindlimb ischaemia in WKY rats, to assess the effects of ?1 adrenoceptor agonist or antagonist on angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb by laser Doppler blood flow measurements, digital angiographies, hindlimb perfusion with dyed beads and histological evaluation. Key results: In vitro, pharmacological antagonism of ?1-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells from WKY rats by doxazosin enhanced, while stimulation of these adrenoceptors with phenylephrine, inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, ERK and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation, cell migration and tubule formation. In vivo, we found increased ?1-adrenoceptor density in the ischaemic hindlimb, compared to non-ischaemic hindlimb, suggesting an enhanced ?1-adrenoceptor tone in the ischaemic tissue. Treatment with doxazosin (0.06?mg?kg?1?day?1 for 14 days) did not alter systemic blood pressure but enhanced neo-angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb, as measured by all our assays. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that the ?1-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells provide a negative regulation of angiogenesis.

Ciccarelli, M; Santulli, G; Campanile, A; Galasso, G; Cervero, P; Altobelli, G G; Cimini, V; Pastore, L; Piscione, F; Trimarco, B; Iaccarino, G

2007-01-01

148

Keynes on Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topic of population is treated only lightly in the major modern biographies of John Maynard Keynes, yet Keynes himself had strong - if varying - views on the subject. For many years he maintained a neo-Malthusian view of population, based on a postulated link between population growth and deteriorating terms of trade. This led him to take up a

John Toye

149

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference: Protecting Earth from Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We now realize, from the case of 2008 TC3's discovery and subsequent impact in Sudan, that it is much more likely that a Near Earth Object (NEO) large enough to cause damage on the ground will be found (by the current Spaceguard Survey telescopes) on its \\

Clark R. Chapman; Russell L. Schweickart

150

STAR FORMATION IN THE CENTRAL 400 PC OF THE MILKY WAY: EVIDENCE FOR A POPULATION OF MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gasdynamics and the formation of young stellar objects (YSOs). We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer and with Midcourse Space Experiment. We use color-color diagrams and spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 {mu}m excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small-scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation by comparing the mid-IR, radio, submillimeter, and methanol maser data. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5 {mu}m excesses. We use the SEDs of these sources to estimate their physical characteristics; their masses appear to range from {approx}10 to {approx}20 M{sub sun}. Within the central 400 x 50 pc (|l| < 1.{sup 0}3 and |b| < 10') the star formation rate (SFR) based on the identification of Stage I evolutionary phase of YSO candidates is about 0.14 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Given that the majority of the sources in the population of YSOs are classified as Stage I objects, we suggest that a recent burst of star formation took place within the last 10{sup 5} yr. This suggestion is also consistent with estimates of SFRs within the last {approx}10{sup 7} yr showing a peak around 10{sup 5} yr ago. Lastly, we find that the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law applies well in the central 400 pc of the Galaxy. This implies that star formation does not appear to be dramatically affected by the extreme physical conditions in the Galactic center region.

Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Hewitt, J. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Arendt, R. G. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Baltimore County, GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Whitney, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rieke, G.; Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stolovy, S.; Ramirez, S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lang, C. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)], E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu

2009-09-01

151

Star Formation in the Central 400 pc of the Milky Way: Evidence for a Population of Massive Young Stellar Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gasdynamics and the formation of young stellar objects (YSOs). We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer and with Midcourse Space Experiment. We use color-color diagrams and spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 ?m excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small-scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation by comparing the mid-IR, radio, submillimeter, and methanol maser data. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5 ?m excesses. We use the SEDs of these sources to estimate their physical characteristics; their masses appear to range from ~10 to ~20 M sun. Within the central 400 × 50 pc (|l| < 1fdg3 and |b| < 10') the star formation rate (SFR) based on the identification of Stage I evolutionary phase of YSO candidates is about 0.14 M sun yr-1. Given that the majority of the sources in the population of YSOs are classified as Stage I objects, we suggest that a recent burst of star formation took place within the last 105 yr. This suggestion is also consistent with estimates of SFRs within the last ~107 yr showing a peak around 105 yr ago. Lastly, we find that the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law applies well in the central 400 pc of the Galaxy. This implies that star formation does not appear to be dramatically affected by the extreme physical conditions in the Galactic center region.

Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Hewitt, J. W.; Arendt, R. G.; Whitney, B.; Rieke, G.; Wardle, M.; Hinz, J. L.; Stolovy, S.; Lang, C. C.; Burton, M. G.; Ramirez, S.

2009-09-01

152

The political ideology of the neo?traditional family  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent and popular family values literature seeks to justify and enforce a neo?traditional family model of nuclear heterosexual families with gender differentiated roles. Adherents of this neo?traditional family form contend that their primary concern is with children and with family arrangements that enhance child well?being. We demonstrate that the arguments for child well?being in family values ideology are weak

Jyl J. Josephson; Cynthia Burack

1998-01-01

153

The neo-Soviet model of the media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the genesis of a neo-Soviet model of the mass media. Through an examination of the Russian media in the post-Soviet era as well as a review of media performance during elections in the region, the article concludes that the Russian media now operate in a ‘neo-Soviet’ fashion. Factors in this media model include a rejection of balance

Sarah Oates

2007-01-01

154

High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g\\/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring

J. Herchenroeder; D. Miller; N. K. Sheth; M. C. Foo; K. Nagarathnam

2011-01-01

155

The neo-Z-pinch concept in magnetic fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is explained that the closed magnetic configuration is generated in the Z-pinch in a conductive casing provided that the axial current is over a critical value. By the formation of the closed configuration in the Z-pinch, the free-streaming end loss is automatically plugged. This type of Z-pinch is called the 'neo-Z-pinch'. The electrode problem of the neo-Z-pinch with respect

Kazunari Ikuta

1980-01-01

156

Car tracking and vibration test rig using Neo-Freerunner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present our idea of using a cell-phone (the Neo Freerunner) for tracking a Car's location using GPS and measuring the road's quality using the accelerometer in the cell-phone. Neo-Freerunner is an open source Linux phone by Open Moko Inc. The phone can run many flavors of linux like Android, Qt, SHR etc. Here the implementation was done in

Sriranjan Rasakatla; Kashyap Kompella; Krishna Koundinya

2010-01-01

157

neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga bracteosa.  

PubMed

Different neo-clerodane diterpenoids were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of Ajuga bracteosa depending on the isolation procedure used, owing to the labile nature of these tetrahydrofurofuran derivatives. Under "hydroxyl-free" purification conditions, both clerodin- and dihydroclerodin-type diterpenes were obtained [four new compounds, ajubractins A-D (1-4), along with clerodin (5), 3-epi-caryoptin (6), ajugapitin (7), 14,15-dihydroclerodin (8), 3-epi-14,15-dihydrocaryoptin (9), ivain II (10), and 14,15-dihydroajugapitin (11)]. When methanol-water mixtures were used for a C18 reversed-phase prepurification procedure and for semipreparative HPLC, the new ajubractin E (12) was also isolated along with 3 and 8-11, as previously, but 7 was the only tetrahydrofurofuran derivative obtained. Epimeric (15R and 15S) mixtures were obtained instead of 14-hydro-15-hydroxyclerodin derivatives [15-hydroxyajubractin C (13), 14-hydro-15-hydroxyajugachin A (14), and 14-hydro-15-hydroxyajugapitin (15)], along with 15-epi-lupulin B (16). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS data analysis and by comparison with values previously reported. Antifeedant activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae was evaluated for the compounds obtained. PMID:21539300

Castro, Amaya; Coll, Josep; Arfan, Mohammad

2011-05-03

158

Chaotic Neo-Classical Transport and Damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel chaotic form of Neo-Classical Transport has now been characterized experimentally and theoretically, as distinct from the traditional collisional NCT. Experimentally, an electrostatic or magnetic trapping separatrix is applied to pure electron plasma columns, and this separatrix is given controlled (m ?) variations (ruffles). Equilibrium plasma drift rotation across the ruffles then causes dissipative separatrix crossings, giving enhanced particle transport and wave damping. Similar chaotic separatrix effects occur from wave-induced separatrix ?-ruffles and temporal variations. For spatially separated trapping regions (``superbanana'' regime), traditional NCT scales with collisionality ? as &1/2circ;B^- 1/2, whereas the chaotic NCT scales as 0?B-1. Fortunately, the chaotic particle transport has a distinctive 2?( ?) signature, where ? is the angle between the ?-ruffle and the global ?-asymmetry (error field) which drives the transport. Quantitative correspondence with theory has now been obtained for particle transport, diocotron (drift) wave damping, and dissipative wave-wave couplings; also observed is chaotic damping of higher frequency Langmuir waves. This chaotic separatrix dissipation may occur in low-collisionality stellarator and tokamak plasmas also.

Driscoll, C. F.; Kabantsev, A. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Tsidulko, Yu. A.

2010-11-01

159

Sentry: An Automated Close Approach Monitoring System for Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to international concern about potential asteroid impacts on Earth, NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Program Office has implemented a new system called ``Sentry'' to automatically update the orbits of all NEOs on a daily basis and compute Earth close approaches up to 100 years into the future. Results are published on our web site (http:\\/\\/neo.jpl.nasa.gov\\/) and updated orbits and

A. B. Chamberlin; S. R. Chesley; P. W. Chodas; J. D. Giorgini; M. S. Keesey; R. N. Wimberly; D. K. Yeomans

2001-01-01

160

CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Nugent, C. R., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

2012-06-20

161

Pathologic tumor response of invasive lobular carcinoma to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is used for locally advanced breast cancer patients with significant variation in tumor response. Our objective is to determine the clinicopathologic effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy on invasive lobular carcinoma. A review of a single-institution data base of women diagnosed with breast cancer identified 30 patients from 1999 to 2009 with operable invasive lobular carcinoma who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient demographics and clinicopathologic data were reviewed. Cases were reviewed by a single pathologist (NNE). Residual cancer burden class was determined for each case. Median patient age was 50 years (range 25-79). All tumors were hormone receptor positive and clinical stage II or III carcinomas. Most patients (53.3%) had combination anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Therapy-related changes were noted within the tumor bed in 25 (83.3%) patients. Six (30%) of 20 patients with residual axillary disease had therapy-related nodal changes. There were 11 patients with moderate residual disease (class II) and 18 (60%) with extensive (class III); there were no complete pathologic responses (class 0). Only one patient (3.3%) converted from mastectomy to breast-conserving surgery. Four (13.3%) patients developed distant metastases; all had pleomorphic-type, clinical stage III tumors with residual cancer burden III classification and developed distant disease in the 2 years after surgery (range 0-26 months). Median follow-up time was 29.5 months (range 7-132). Patients with locally advanced pleomorphic-type lobular carcinoma appear to develop early post-treatment metastatic disease. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy did not appear to have significant impact on the surgical treatment of patients with invasive lobular carcinoma. PMID:23034096

Joh, Jennifer E; Esposito, Nicole N; Kiluk, John V; Laronga, Christine; Khakpour, Nazanin; Soliman, Hatem; Catherine Lee, M

2012-10-04

162

A modified PSO with a dynamically varying population and its application to the multi-objective optimal design of alloy steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new mechanism for dynamically varying the population size is proposed based on a previously modified PSO algorithm (nPSO). This new algorithm is extended to the multi-objective optimisation case by applying the Random Weighted Aggregation (RWA) technique and by maintaining an archive for preserving the suitable Pareto-optimal solutions. Both the single objective and multi-objective optimisation algorithms were

Qian Zhang; Mahdi Mahfouf

2009-01-01

163

Temporal neuropathologic and behavioral phenotype of 6neo/6neo Pompe disease mice.  

PubMed

Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease II) is caused by mutations in the acid alpha-glucosidase gene. The most common form is rapidly progressive with glycogen storage, particularly in muscle, which leads to profound weakness, cardiac failure, and death by the age of 2 years. Although usually considered a muscle disease, glycogen storage also occurs in the CNS. We evaluated the progression of neuropathologic and behavioral abnormalities in a Pompe disease mouse model (6neo/6neo) that displays many features of the human disease. Homozygous mutant mice store excess glycogen within large neurons of hindbrain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia by the age of 1 month; accumulations then spread progressively within many CNS cell types. "Silver degeneration" and Fluoro-Jade C stains revealed severe degeneration in axon terminals of primary sensory neurons at 3 to 9 months. These abnormalities were accompanied by progressive behavioral impairment on rotorod, wire hanging, and foot fault tests. The extensive neuropathologic alterations in this model suggest that therapy of skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders by systemic enzyme replacement therapy may not be sufficient to reverse functional deficits due to CNS glycogen storage, particularly early-onset, rapidly progressive disease. A better understanding of the basis for clinical manifestations is needed to correlate CNS pathology with Pompe disease manifestations. PMID:18648322

Sidman, Richard L; Taksir, Tatyana; Fidler, Jonathan; Zhao, Michael; Dodge, James C; Passini, Marco A; Raben, Nina; Thurberg, Beth L; Cheng, Seng H; Shihabuddin, Lamya S

2008-08-01

164

Temporal Neuropathological and Behavioral Phenotype of 6Neo/6Neo Pompe Disease Mice  

PubMed Central

Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease II) is caused by mutations in the acid ?-glucosidase gene. The most common form is rapidly progressive with glycogen storage, particularly in muscle, that leads to profound weakness, cardiac failure, and death by the age of two years. Although usually considered a muscle disease, glycogen storage also occurs in the CNS. We evaluated the progression of neuropathological and behavioral abnormalities in a Pompe disease mouse model (6neo/6neo) that displays many features of the human disease. Homozygous mutant mice store excess glycogen within large neurons of hindbrain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia by the age of one month; accumulations then spread progressively within many CNS cell types. “Silver degeneration” and Fluoro-Jade C stains revealed severe degeneration in axon terminals of primary sensory neurons at three to nine months. These abnormalities were accompanied by progressive behavioral impairment on rotorod, wire hanging and foot fault tests. The extensive neuropathological alterations in this model suggest that therapy of skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders by systemic enzyme replacement therapy may not be sufficient to reverse functional deficits due to CNS glycogen storage, particularly early-onset, rapidly progressive disease. A better understanding of the basis for clinical manifestations is needed to correlate CNS pathology with Pompe disease manifestations.

Sidman, Richard L.; Taksir, Tatyana; Fidler, Jonathan; Zhao, Michael; Dodge, James C.; Passini, Marco A.; Raben, Nina; Thurberg, Beth L.; Cheng, Seng H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.

2009-01-01

165

Origin of Near Earh Objects, Orbital Dynamics, and Collision Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an innovative procedure, we have constructed a model of the de-biased orbital and magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), up to absolute magnitude H=22. This model accounts for 4 main sources of Near Earth Objects in the asteroid belt and for extinct Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs). It fits well the orbital-magnitude distribution of the NEOs detected by the

A. Morbidelli; R. Jedicke; W. F. Bottke

2002-01-01

166

Mission Concept For In-Situ Characterization Of Multiple Near-earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for scientific investigation of asteroids and comets known as Near Earth Objects has become more compelling as the population of known objects increases, and as concerns about possible collision threats get the attention of policy makers and the public. Space missions, especially those that include rendezvous and even landing, provide opportunities for the most detailed measurements. However, space missions are expensive, and there are many potentially interesting NEOs. We are developing a mission concept that may enable a cost-effective approach to in-situ investigations of many objects. A modest size spacecraft equipped with solar-electric propulsion and a small but capable instrument suite, could approach, orbit and study three or four objects, including the deployment of a small landing pod for surface studies. The capabilities of even a small EELV could allow three or more such spacecraft to be launched at one time. Our study indicates that the population of known NEOs includes plenty of candidates whose orbital elements would allow such an approach, that SEP can provide sufficient “delta V” for multiple visits, and that an instrument suite can be built to provide imaging, spectroscopy and other diagnostic measurements in a mass and volume-efficient package. Such a mission could provide detailed characterization of twelve objects.

Ebbets, Dennis

2007-05-01

167

The Population of Natural Earth Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first debiased size-frequency and orbit distributions for a steady-state population of temporary-captured, natural Earth satellites (NES) excluding the Moon. We use orbital integrations to estimate the capture probability as a function of orbital elements and utilize the steady-state near-Earth-object (NEO) model by Bottke et al. (2002) to estimate the steady-state population of NESs. For much of the 20th century NESs other than the Moon were not discussed in their own right but mentioned in the published literature only as a population producing meteors that travel far in the Earth's atmosphere or as a population explaining shallow meteorite impacts. Only during the last two decades has a couple of these objects been detected in space; 1991 VG and 2006 RH120. The origin and evolution of 1991 VG, e.g., whether it is a man-made or a natural object, can be debated, but 2006 RH120 is certainly natural with an absolute magnitude H of about 29.9. To gain understanding of this little studied and barely detected population's origin and evolution, we try to answer questions such as: At any instant, how many objects are in temporary capture as a function of their size? What are the characteristics of their pre- capture geocentric trajectories and heliocentric orbits? What is the typical duration of the temporary capture? How many orbits do NESs typically complete around the Earth? What are the characteristics of their geocentric orbits? We anticipate that the interest in this small and nearby population will increase in the future as NESs are easily accessible targets for proposed NEO sample-return missions. Their typically small sizes could allow us to bring back an entire asteroid with the benefit that, e.g., microscopic surface or near-surface effects such as space weathering and lightscattering could be studied on a pristine body in ground-based laboratories.

Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, J.; Jedicke, R.

2010-10-01

168

A Near-Earth Object Hazard Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of expanded near-Earth object (NEO) surveys, the number of known close approaches to Earth will increase dramatically. For many of these objects, uncertainties in their preliminary orbits will result in calculations yielding nonzero probabilities of collision over the next century. An index system is proposed which places the hazard posed by any given close approach into an

Richard P. Binzel

1997-01-01

169

Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous as a target selection criterion, as this choice can greatly increase the payload to the NEO. Few such ultra-low delta-v NEOs are currently known; only 65 of the 6699 known NEOs (March 2010) have delta-v <4.5 km/s, 2/3 of typical LEO-NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - short transit times, long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of accessible objects. Potentially there is at least an order of magnitude more ultra-low delta-v NEOs, but finding them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in that orbit, plus long arc determination of their orbits.

Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Binzel, Richard P.

2011-10-01

170

Examining the relationship between total species richness and single island palaeo- and neo-endemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Emerson and Kolm (2005) hypothesized that diversity begets speciation (DBS hypothesis). The relationship between total species richness and single island endemic diversity (as a proportion of the total species richness of the island) has been used as evidence for the DBS hypothesis. This relationship has been documented in oceanic archipelagos, but many criticisms have been raised on whether this relationship truly supports the DBS hypothesis. In this study we tested if this hypothesis holds in the Aegean archipelago (a continental archipelago with continuous human presence over millennia). Endemism in the Aegean includes mainly neo-endemic species but also relictual populations of formerly more widespread species (i.e. palaeo-endemics). Contrary to the DBS hypothesis, we found that total species richness was not significantly correlated to single island endemics (neither neo-endemics nor palaeo-endemics) as a proportion of the island flora. Furthermore, we found that neo-endemic diversity (either as species richness or as a proportion of the islands flora) is mainly correlated to island maximum elevation, while area and isolation were less important. So if this ratio is indeed an index of speciation, then an alternative explanation might be that elevation (interpreted as a proxy for habitat heterogeneity) is the driver of speciation in our case. Palaeo-endemics, on the other hand, were present in only six of the largest islands in the Aegean and their diversity was strongly correlated only with island area, perhaps implying that larger islands support larger population sizes that buffer stochastic extinctions risks.

Kallimanis, A. S.; Panitsa, M.; Bergmeier, E.; Dimopoulos, P.

2011-03-01

171

Polymorphisms in the Serotonin Transporter and Monoamine Oxidase A Genes and Their Relationship to Personality Traits Measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTT-LPR), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)-LPR and the dimensions of temperament evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were studied. One hundred healthy volunteers (without psychiatric disorders) were recruited to represent a cross-section of the population of Szczecin (Poland) in terms of sex, age and education. No associations between

Jerzy Samochowiec; Szymon Syrek; Agnieszka Samochowiec; Jan Horodnicki; Marzena Zakrzewska; Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur

2004-01-01

172

An adaptive multi-population genetic algorithm to solve the multi-objective group scheduling problem in hybrid flexible flowshop with sequence-dependent setup times  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a multi-objective group scheduling problem in hybrid flexible flowshop with sequence-dependent setup\\u000a times by minimizing total weighted tardiness and maximum completion time simultaneously. Whereas these kinds of problems are\\u000a NP-hard, thus we proposed a multi-population genetic algorithm (MPGA) to search Pareto optimal solution for it. This algorithm\\u000a comprises two stages. First stage applies combined objective

M. Zandieh; N. Karimi

173

The Pan-STARRS Synthetic Solar System Model: A Tool for Testing and Efficiency Determination of the Moving Object Processing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) Synthetic Solar System Model (S3M), the first-ever attempt at building a comprehensive flux-limited model of the major small-body populations in the solar system. The goal of the S3M is to provide a valuable tool in the design and testing of the MOPS software, and will be used in the monitoring of the upcoming Pan-STARRS 1 all-sky survey, which started science operations during late spring of 2010. The model is composed of synthetic populations of near-Earth objects (NEOs with a subpopulation of Earth impactors), the main-belt asteroids (MBAs), Jovian Trojans, Centaurs, trans-Neptunian objects (classical, resonant, and scattered trans-Neptunian objects [TNOs]), Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), long-period comets (LPCs), and interstellar comets. The model reasonably reproduces the true populations to a minimum of V = 24.5 , corresponding to approximately the expected limiting magnitude for Pan-STARRS's ability to detect moving objects. The NEO synthetic population has been extended to H < 25 (corresponding to objects of about 50 m in diameter), allowing for close flybys of the Earth to be modeled.

Grav, Tommy; Jedicke, Robert; Denneau, Larry; Chesley, Steve; Holman, Matthew J.; Spahr, Timothy B.

2011-04-01

174

Indigenous knowledge in the science curriculum: avoiding neo-colonialism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial practices, Western science educators ought to consider the notion of cultural mediators. This position, I argue, infers an obligation to take responsibility for their actions and to consider postcolonial discourses as a way of understanding the relationships and dialogue between different ways of knowing.

Ryan, Ann

2008-09-01

175

Improving the Detection of Near Earth Objects for Ground Based Telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congress has mandated the detection of 90 percent of 140 meter diameter and larger Near Earth Objects (NEOs). While a dedicated satellite would be the preferred method of detection, ground-based telescopes are the current detection technology available. With current detection techniques, 140 meter diameter NEOs at 1 astronomical unit or more away from Earth are difficult to detect. In order

Anthony O'Dell

176

Improving the Detection of Near Earth Objects for Ground Based Telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congress has mandated the detection of 90 percent of 140 meter diameter and larger Near Earth Objects (NEOs). While a dedicated satellite would be the preferred method of detection, ground-based telescopes are the current detection technology available. With current detection techniques, 140 meter diameter NEOs at 1 astronomical unit or more away from Earth are difficult to detect. In order

A. O'Dell

2009-01-01

177

Development and initial validation of validity scales for the NEO-Five Factor Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon the methodology established by Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer (Schinka, J. A., Kinder, B. N., & Kremer, T. (1997). Research validity scales for the NEO-PI-R: Development and initial validation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 127–138), a set of validity scales were developed for the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality

Donald J. Scandell

2000-01-01

178

An Item-Level Examination of the Factorial Validity of NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) is often used in field-based research and clinical studies as it is designed to measure the same personality dimensions as the longer NEO Personality Inventory in a shorter time frame. In this study, the authors examined the reliability and structural validity of the NEO-FFI scores at the item level in a large sample of Jamaican

Darrell M. Hull; A. Alexander Beaujean; Frank C. Worrell; Aimee E. Verdisco

2010-01-01

179

“All Cool Women Should be Bisexual”: Female Bisexual Identity in an American NeoPagan Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines female bisexuality in the Texas NeoPagan community. Based on interviews and participant observation, this article documents and analyzes the various ways in which female bisexuality is performed within a NeoPagan context. The connection between NeoPagan thealogy and bisexuality is addressed. The methods by which female NeoPagan practitioners construct a bisexual identity, the power relations that are negotiated

Susan Harper

2010-01-01

180

TAM: Explaining off-object fixations and central fixation tendencies as effects of population averaging during search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how patterns are selected for both recognition and action, in the form of an eye movement, is essential to understanding the mechanisms of visual search. It is argued that selecting a pattern for fixation is time consuming—requiring the pruning of a population of possible saccade vectors to isolate the specific movement to the potential target. To support this position,

Gregory J. Zelinsky

2012-01-01

181

Debate on expanding survey of near Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA officials told a U.S. House of Representatives Science Subcommittee on 3 October that a ground-based survey to detect near-Earth objects (NEOs) is on target for achieving its goals. The NEOs that are the subject of the survey are those 1 km across or larger, and could therefore cause devastating damage if they collided with Earth.Representatives of NASA, the National

Randy Showstack

2002-01-01

182

Incipient Adult Personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle-School-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…

Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

183

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

184

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

185

Searching for Missing Links: neo?Marxist theories of education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the appearance of Bowles & Gintis’ (1976) ‘correspondence thesis’, neo?Marxist theorizing about educational change has gone in several directions. Different approaches have emphasized capitalist reproduction requirements, contradictions between these requirements and the democratic state, hegemony theory and processes of class formation. While studies with affinity to a Marxist problematic of subordination and oppression have become more theoretically open and

David W. Livingstone

1995-01-01

186

Exceptional Intellectual Performance: A Neo-Piagetian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The conceptual level, working memory capacity and domain-specific skills of two girls (aged 7 and 11 years old) and two boys (aged 9 and 10 years old) who displayed exceptional intellectual performance were investigated from Case's neo-Piagetian theoretical perspective. Five measures of conceptual level and two measures of working memory capacity…

Loewen, Susan

2006-01-01

187

What history tells us XXII. The French neo-Lamarckians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1870 and 1940, many of the most infl uential French biologists were neo-Lamarckian. They rejected the theoretical and experimental arguments of August Weismann that showed the impossibility of the inheritance of acquired characters. Adaptation was the result of a direct physico-chemical action of the environment on the organisms and their protoplasma, and the transmission of these modifi cations to

Michel Morange

2010-01-01

188

Dynamics of Ejecta from Kinetic Impactor Experiments upon NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model kinetic impact cratering and conduct high-fidelity simulation of ejecta particles from that, on and about the NEO target of an already planned rendezvous mission. We find the ejecta hazard to later s/c proximity operations is manageable.

Fahnestock, E. G.

2012-05-01

189

A neo-Schumpeterian model of health services innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents and empirically applies a neo-Schumpeterian model of innovation capable of studying interactions between service providers, patients and policy makers, and how these complex interactions determine the timing, direction, and success of innovations in the public sector. The model is tested using a case study that traces the introduction and development of ambulatory surgery in a Spanish hospital.

Paul Windrum; Manuel García-Goñi

2008-01-01

190

Compromising positions: Theorizing American neo-noir film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines a loose-knit genre of mystery thrillers produced every year between 1966 and 1996, defined as neo-noir movies. Whereas much work has been published on classic film noirs, produced between 1940 and 1958, little criticism has been written about the newer films. The first chapter provides a theoretical analysis and critique of the general history of film genre

William Bennett Covey

1996-01-01

191

Synthetic membrane neo-pericardium facilitates total artificial heart explantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn the past, explantation of the Cardio West total artificial heart (TAH) has been technically challenging because of the presence of dense adhesions and extremely thickened pericardium. To prevent this, we constructed a synthetic neo-pericardium in 14 patients.

Jack G Copeland; Francisco A Arabia; Richard G Smith; Diane Covington

2001-01-01

192

High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring magnet is presented and compared with the seat motor performance with both commercial isotropic bonded Neo and anisotropic NdFeB rings of the same geometry. The comparisons are made at both room and elevated temperatures. The airgap flux for the magnet produced by the proposed method is 6% more compared to the commercial isotropic bonded Neo magnet. After exposure to high temperature due to the superior thermal aging stability of isotropic NdFeB powders the motor performance with this material is comparable to the motor performance with an anisotropic NdFeB magnet.

Herchenroeder, J.; Miller, D.; Sheth, N. K.; Foo, M. C.; Nagarathnam, K.

2011-04-01

193

Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)|

Ranson, Stewart

2003-01-01

194

Inside "The Turner Diaries": neo-Nazi Scripture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the content of the fictional "Turner Diaries." Points out the antisemitic, racist, and antidemocratic aspects of the novel. Brings attention to the role of the "Diaries" to white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups in the United States. Also links the "Diaries" to Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing. (DSK)

Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard

1997-01-01

195

Neo-immersion: awareness and engagement in gameplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a conceptual framework that explains how people's engagement with games is changing as a result of new types of interfaces, hardware, and games. Neo-immersive games move gaming out of the box and into the real world by creating engaging new interfaces and controllers, while at the same time creating games well suited to the casual user. It

Jennifer Whitson; Chris Eaket; Brian Greenspan; Minh Quang Tran; Natalie King

2008-01-01

196

Attachment, social cognition, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a traumatized, urban population: evidence for the mediating role of object relations.  

PubMed

Research has linked multiple risk and resiliency factors to developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potentially important construct for understanding connections between trauma and PTSD is attachment. Although relationships between attachment and risk for PTSD have been described theoretically, limited research has addressed these relationships empirically. Furthermore, aspects of object relations overlap with attachment and PTSD, but have not been adequately incorporated in empirical research. One proposed pathway between attachment and PTSD involves the mediating role of object relations, particularly views of self and others. Present data were from a larger study investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for PTSD in an impoverished, primarily African American sample seeking care at a public urban hospital. Correlations indicated that adult attachment (with the exception of dismissing) and object relations relate to childhood traumas, (|r|s = .19-.29), adult traumas (|r|s = .14-.20), and self-reported PTSD symptoms (|r|s = .20-.36). Analyses also found support for mediational roles of object relations in relationships between attachment and PTSD symptoms (Model R(2) range = .136-.160). These data have theoretical, clinical, and research implications for understanding how particular aspects of attachment, specifically its effects on object relations, may protect against or predispose one to develop PTSD. PMID:23696470

Ortigo, Kile M; Westen, Drew; Defife, Jared A; Bradley, Bekh

2013-05-20

197

Potentially Visitable Objects for NASA's Flexible Path  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to near earth asteroids (NEOs) are a key part of NASA's new "Flexible Path" approach. In addition to the intrinsic scientific interest, and the hazards and resources that NEOs present, NASA's need for destinations the motivation to study NEOs closely has reached a critical level. I examine the selection of optimal targest among the known NEOs to define a set of "Potentially Visitable Objects" (PVOs). Delta-v is the primary criterion; only 6 of the 6699 known NEOs have delta-v <4km/s, 2/3 of the lunar rendezvous from LEO delta-v, greatly limiting NASA's choice. Potentially there are at least an order of magnitude more PVOs, but a dedicated survey - preferably in the mid-IR from a Venus-like orbit - is needed to find them all on a short enough timescale. Several other criteria: low spin rate, convenient launch window, lack of satellites, and benign (low volatile) composition, will limit the choice further. Ground based observations - high accuracy astrometry and photometry, plus optical-infrared spectra - will be needed to refine the PVO list.

Elvis, Martin

2010-05-01

198

The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.…

Cox, Daniel J.; And Others

1995-01-01

199

An Examination of Shared Variance in Self-Report and Objective Measures of Attention in the Incarcerated Adult Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study was designed to test some assumptions about screening procedures for ADHD in adults. Method: Twenty-eight incarcerated male adults completed a self report scale of attention deficits as a part of an examination of attention and reading skills. Further assessment of attention included a battery of tests that assessed…

Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Jones, Lise O.; Munkvold, Linda H.; Obrzut, John E.; Manger, Terje

2010-01-01

200

Socioeconomic status moderates the association between John Henryism and NEO PI-R personality domains  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate associations between John Henryism (JH) and NEO PI-R personality domains. JH—a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping with difficult psychosocial and economic stressors—has been associated with poor health, particularly among persons in lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Unfavorable personality profiles have also been frequently linked to poor health; however, no studies have yet examined what global personality traits characterize JH. METHODS Hypotheses were examined using data from a sample of 233 community volunteers (mean age: 33 years; 61% black and 39% white) recruited specifically to represent the full range of the SES gradient. Personality (NEO PI-R) and active coping (12-item John Henryism scale) measures and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis, independent of SES JH was positively associated with Conscientiousness (C; p<.001) and Extraversion (E; p<.001), while the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with Neuroticism (N; p=0.02) When examining associations between JH and combinations of NEO PI-R domains called “styles,” high JH was most strongly associated with a high E/high C “Go-Getters” style of activity while low JH was associated with the low E/high O “Introspectors” style. In facet level data, the most robust associations with JH were found for five C and five E facets. CONCLUSIONS High JH was associated with higher scores on C and E, but the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with higher scores on N.

Stanton, Michael V.; Jonassaint, Charles R.; Williams, Redford B.; James, Sherman A.

2010-01-01

201

Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

202

The DLR AsteroidFinder for NEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential Earth-impacting asteroids that spend most of their time interior to Earth's orbit are extremely difficult to be observed from the ground and remain largely undetected. Firstly, they are mostly located at small solar elongations, where the sky brightness and their faintness due to the large phase angle prevents their discovery. Secondly, these objects tend to have very long synodic

Stefano Mottola; Ekkehard Kuehrt; Harald Michaelis; Harald Hoffmann; Peter Spietz; Frank Jansen; Jan Thimo Grundmann; Gerhard Hahn; Sergio Montenegro; Ross Findlay; Anko Boerner; Gabriele Messina; Thomas Behnke; Matthias Tschentscher; Karsten Scheibe; Volker Mertens; Ansgar Heidecke

2010-01-01

203

Object Oriented Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

Morris, Ed

2005-01-01

204

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of

Walter Huebner; P T Giguere; P Bradley; J A Guzik; C Plesko; K Wohletz; L N Johnson; D C Boice; S Chocron; A Ghosh; R Goldstein; J Mukerherjee; W Patrick; J D Walker

2008-01-01

205

Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Surgery is the primary curative treatment of locoregional gastric cancer. In Western countries, however, at the time of resection, most patients are expected to have regional lymph node involvement with poor prognostic implications. To improve these results, different trials have been carried out in the adjuvant or neo-adjuvant setting. Many phase III trials of adjuvant therapy have been conducted; however, postoperative treatment modalities have not proven to be superior to postsurgical observation alone. Therefore, at present the routine use of adjuvant therapy should be regarded as an investigational approach. Improved clinical trial designs with standardized surgical techniques and the incorporation of newer active drugs are needed. On the contrary, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has shown promising results as suggested by the final results of UK Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy trial. PMID:17591804

De Vita, F; Giuliani, F; Galizia, G; Belli, C; Aurilio, G; Santabarbara, G; Ciardiello, F; Catalano, G; Orditura, M

2007-06-01

206

Is the French Connection Neo-Piagetian? Not Nearly Enough!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some general-causal assumptions of current neo-Piagetian research are discussed and compared with those of French European developmentalists. Developmental theory problems for the millennium are highlighted. The French connection researchers tacitly address this paradox by showing empirically that alternative courses of growth can be found in different types of subjects and vis-à-vis different situations. Yet they maintain Piaget's claim that some

Juan Pascual-Leone

2000-01-01

207

The technical developments in Neo-Disney's feature computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the significant meaning of the master techniques that have been used in the Neo-Disney phase by Disney and its partners. The paper first introduces some of the main highlights of this technical development and its implementation as a key feature of mainstream filmmaking in the 21st century. Hyper-reality, stylize digital imagery and animation is a breakthrough CGI

Simiao Wu

2012-01-01

208

America's Struggle Against the Wahhabi\\/Neo-Salafi Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

One consequence of using labels such as the “global war on terrorism,” “the long war,” “the global struggle against violent extremism” or any name that dissociates the conflict from the Wahhabi\\/neo-Salafi movement is that Americans lack the necessary framework for assessing U.S. policies. Misconceptions concerning the war proliferate on both the Left and the Right because of the absence of

Benjamin E. Schwartz

2007-01-01

209

The feasibility of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement in a natural experimental study of a commuting population  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the effects of environmental interventions on physical activity should include valid measures of physical activity before and after the intervention. Baseline data collection can be difficult when the timetable for introduction of an intervention is outside researchers’ control. This paper reports and reflects on the practical issues, challenges and results of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement using accelerometers distributed by post in a natural experimental study. Methods A sample of working adults enrolling for the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study and expressing willingness to wear an activity monitor was selected to undertake baseline accelerometer assessment. Each selected participant received a study pack by post containing the core study questionnaire and an accelerometer to wear for seven consecutive days, and was asked to return their accelerometer and completed questionnaire in person or by post using the prepaid special delivery envelope provided. If a pack was not returned within two weeks of issue, a reminder was sent to the participant. Each participant received up to five reminders by various methods including letter, email, telephone and letter sent by recorded delivery. Results 95% of participants registering for the study were willing in principle to undertake accelerometer assessment. Using a pool of 221 accelerometers, we achieved a total of 714 issues of accelerometers to participants during a six month period. 116 (16%) participants declined to use the accelerometer after receiving it. Three accelerometers failed, 45 (6% of 714) were lost and many were returned with insufficient data recorded, resulted in 109 (15%) participants re-wearing their accelerometer for a second week of measurement. 550 (77%) participants completed data collection, 478 (87% of 550) to the required standard. A total of 694 reminders were issued to retrieve unreturned accelerometers. More than 90% of accelerometers were retrieved after a maximum of two reminders. Conclusions It is feasible to use accelerometers to collect baseline objective physical activity data by post from a large number of participants in a limited time period. However, a substantial pool of devices is required and researchers need to be prepared to make significant efforts to recover some of the devices.

2012-01-01

210

Nuclear fragmentation/dispersion modeling and simulation of hazardous near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of simulation tools designed to be implemented as part of the mission design procedure for nuclear fragmentation and dispersion of a near-Earth object (NEO). A description of the methods used will be presented, followed by a discussion of the advanced GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computing technology applied to accelerate computation. Preliminary results of a fragmented NEO dispersion scenario emphasize global parameter search methods for use in engineering mission analysis. A model of the NEO fragmentation process is presented for a subsurface nuclear explosion and penetrating contact burst. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to establish a mean response of the target NEO to the fragmentation process. Resulting coherent masses are propagated through a model of solar system dynamics until the predetermined date of impact. On some orbits, the impacting mass can be reduced to lower than 0.1% of the NEO mass.

Kaplinger, Brian; Wie, Bong; Dearborn, David

2013-09-01

211

Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency attenuates neo-intima formation in the femoral cuff model of hyperlipidemic mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have anti-inflammatory effects and are required for normal endothelial function. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes EETs to their less active diols. We hypothesized that knockout and inhibition of sEH prevents neo-intima formation in hyperlipidemic ApoE?/? mice. Methods and Results Inhibition of sEH by 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or knockout of the enzyme significantly increased plasma EET levels. sEH activity was detectable in femoral and carotid arteries. sEH knockout or inhibition resulted in a significant reduction of neo-intima formation in the femoral artery cuff model but not following carotid artery ligation. Although macrophage infiltration occurred abundantly at the site of cuff placement in both sEH+/+ and sEH?/?, the expression of pro-inflammatory genes was significantly reduced in femoral arteries from sEH?/?-mice. Moreover, an in vivo-BrdU-assay revealed that SMC-proliferation at the site of cuff placement was attenuated in sEH knockout and sEH inhibitor treated animals. Conclusions These observations suggest that inhibition of sEH prevents vascular remodelling in an inflammatory model but not in a blood-flow dependent model of neo-intima formation.

Revermann, Marc; Schloss, Manuel; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Mieth, Anja; Liebner, Stefan; Morisseau, Christophe; Geisslinger, Gerd; Schermuly, Ralph T.; Fleming, Ingrid; Hammock, Bruce D.; Brandes, Ralf P.

2010-01-01

212

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations.

Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

2005-01-01

213

The Inexorable Spread of a Newly Arisen Neo-Y Chromosome  

PubMed Central

A newly arisen Y-chromosome can become established in one part of a species range by genetic drift or through the effects of selection on sexually antagonistic alleles. However, it is difficult to explain why it should then spread throughout the species range after this initial episode. As it spreads into new populations, it will actually enter females. It would then be expected to perform poorly since it will have been shaped by the selective regime of the male-only environment from which it came. We address this problem using computer models of hybrid zone dynamics where a neo-XY chromosomal race meets the ancestral karyotype. Our models consider that the neo-Y was established by the fusion of an autosome with the ancestral X-chromosome (thereby creating the Y and the ‘fused X’). Our principal finding is that sexually antagonistic effects of the Y induce indirect selection in favour of the fused X-chromosomes, causing their spread. The Y-chromosome can then spread, protected behind the advancing shield of the fused X distribution. This mode of spread provides a robust explanation of how newly arisen Y-chromosomes can spread. A Y-chromosome would be expected to accumulate mutations that would cause it to be selected against when it is a rare newly arrived migrant. The Y can spread, nevertheless, because of the indirect selection induced by gene flow (which can only be observed in models comprising multiple populations). These results suggest a fundamental re-evaluation of sex-chromosome hybrid zones. The well-understood evolutionary events that initiate the Y-chromosome's degeneration will actually fuel its range expansion.

Veltsos, Paris; Keller, Irene; Nichols, Richard A.

2008-01-01

214

A New Learning Environment: The NeoMuseum\\/Children's Media Museum Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NeoMuseum in Yoshino, Japan is a prototype for a chidrens media museum, an experiment in collaborative research with the goal of creating a multimedia-based learning environment for children. The name NeoMuseurn reflects the goal of exploring new roles for childrens museums made possible by new educatlon- al technologies. The purpose of the NeoMuseum is to design and develop socially

Nobuyuki Ueda; Mark D. Gross

1991-01-01

215

On the Nature of Sodium Excess Objects. I. Data and Observed Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have reported the presence of sodium excess objects having neutral atomic absorption lines at 5895 Å (Na D) and 8190 Å that are deeper than expected based on stellar population models that match the stellar continuum. The origin of these lines is therefore hotly debated. van Dokkum & Conroy proposed that low-mass stars (lsim0.3 M ?) are more prevalent in massive early-type galaxies, which may lead to a strong Na I 8190 line strength. It is necessary to test this prediction, however, against other prominent optical line indices such as Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270, which can be measured with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than Na I 8190. We identified a new sample of roughly 1000 Na D excess objects (NEOs; ~8% of galaxies in the sample) based on Na D line strength in the redshift range 0.00 <= z <= 0.08 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 through detailed analysis of galaxy spectra. We explore the properties of these new objects here. The novelty of this work is that the galaxies were carefully identified through direct visual inspection of SDSS images, and we systematically compared the properties of NEOs and those of a control sample of galaxies with normal Na D line strengths. We note that the majority of galaxies with high velocity dispersions (? e > 250 km s–1) show Na D excesses. Most late-type NEOs have strong H? line strengths and significant emission lines, which are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. This result implies that the presence of the interstellar medium and/or dust contributes to the increase in Na D line strengths observed for these galaxies, which is in good agreement with the earlier study of Chen et al. who used the Na D line index to study outflow activity in star-forming disk galaxies. In contrast, the majority of early-type NEOs are predominantly luminous and massive systems, which is in agreement with the findings of van Dokkum & Conroy. However, we find that models used to reproduce the Na I 8190 line strengths that adopt a bottom-heavy initial mass function are not able to reproduce the observed Na D line strengths. By comparing the observed Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270 line strengths with those of the models, we identify a plausible range of parameters that reproduce the observed values. In these models, the majority of early-type NEOs are "?-enhanced" ([?/Fe] ~ 0.3), "metal-rich" ([Z/H] ~ 0.3), and, especially, "Na-enhanced" ([Na/Fe] ~ 0.3). An enhanced Na abundance is a particularly compelling hypothesis for the increase in the strength of the Na D line index in our early-type NEOs that appear devoid of dust, both in their SDSS images and spectra.

Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sarzi, Marc; Sung, Eon-Chang; Oh, Kyuseok

2013-09-01

216

Distribution of the near-earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the distribution of the orbits of near-Earth minor bodies from the data on more than 7500 objects. The distribution of large near-Earth objects (NEOs) with absolute magnitudes of H < 18 is generally consistent with the earlier predictions (Bottke et al., 2002; Stuart, 2003), although we have revealed a previously undetected maximum in the distribution of perihelion distances q near q = 0.5 AU. The study of the orbital distribution for the entire sample of all detected objects has found new significant features. In particular, the distribution of perihelion longitudes seriously deviates from a homogeneous pattern; its variations are roughly 40% of its mean value. These deviations cannot be stochastic, which is confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a more than 0.9999 probability. These features can be explained by the dynamic behavior of the minor bodies related to secular resonances with Jupiter. For the objects with H < 18, the variations in the perihelion longitude distribution are not so apparent. By extrapolating the orbital characteristics of the NEOs with H < 18, we have obtained longitudinal, latitudinal, and radial distributions of potentially hazardous objects in a heliocentric ecliptic coordinate frame. The differences in the orbital distributions of objects of different size appear not to be a consequence of observational selection, but could indicate different sources of the NEOs.

Emel'Yanenko, V. V.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Shustov, B. M.

2011-12-01

217

A genome-wide linkage study of individuals with high scores on NEO personality traits.  

PubMed

The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory divides human personality traits into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness. In this study, we sought to identify regions harboring genes with large effects on the five NEO personality traits by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals scoring in the extremes of these traits (>90th percentile). Affected-only linkage analysis was performed using an Illumina 6K linkage array in a family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. We subsequently determined whether distinct, segregating haplotypes found with linkage analysis were associated with the trait of interest in the population. Finally, a dense single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array (Illumina 318K) was used to search for copy number variations (CNVs) in the associated regions. In the families with extreme phenotype scores, we found significant evidence of linkage for conscientiousness to 20p13 (rs1434789, log of odds (LOD)=5.86) and suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD >2.8) for neuroticism to 19q, 21q and 22q, extraversion to 1p, 1q, 9p and12q, openness to 12q and 19q, and agreeableness to 2p, 6q, 17q and 21q. Further analysis determined haplotypes in 21q22 for neuroticism (P-values = 0.009, 0.007), in 17q24 for agreeableness (marginal P-value = 0.018) and in 20p13 for conscientiousness (marginal P-values = 0.058, 0.038) segregating in families with large contributions to the LOD scores. No evidence for CNVs in any of the associated regions was found. Our findings imply that there may be genes with relatively large effects involved in personality traits, which may be identified with next-generation sequencing techniques. PMID:21826060

Amin, N; Schuur, M; Gusareva, E S; Isaacs, A; Aulchenko, Y S; Kirichenko, A V; Zorkoltseva, I V; Axenovich, T I; Oostra, B A; Janssens, A C J W; van Duijn, C M

2011-08-09

218

Detection of Carriers in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population: An Objective Comparison of High-Throughput Genotyping Versus Gene-by-Gene Testing.  

PubMed

Background: High-throughput genotyping allows rapid identification of targeted mutations at a fraction of the cost of current gene-by-gene testing methodologies. An objective comparison of the two methodologies allows providers to assess the clinical validity/utility of high-throughput carrier screening and establish a comfort level with new genomic technologies. Aim: To verify that high-throughput genotyping accurately determines patient carrier status, DNA samples from previously identified carriers (n=31) of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic diseases were anonymized and submitted for retesting by high-throughput genotyping. Results: The results were 100% concordant (95% CI: 0.998-1), demonstrating that high-throughput genotyping assays accurately identify carriers of targeted mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. In addition, carrier status for diseases and mutations not previously tested was uncovered using the high-throughput assay. Conclusions: High-throughput genotyping is a cost-effective and clinically valid approach to carrier screening. The use of a broader screen for Ashkenazi Jewish individuals increases the detection of carriers in this population. PMID:23952016

Klugman, Susan; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; Nazareth, Shivani; Evans, Eric A

2013-08-17

219

Does the Solar Wind Create OH on NEO Surfaces?: Observations of 433 Eros and 1036 Ganymed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of water/OH in the lunar regolith (Sunshine et al., Clark, Pieters et al. 2009) overturned years of conventional wisdom. The origin of this lunar water/OH is thought to be via interactions between the solar wind and lunar regolith, a form of space weathering/maturation processes. It was recognized by Sunshine et al. (and earlier proposed by Starukhina 2001) that these processes should also be occurring on asteroidal surfaces. Hydroxylated minerals have been found on many objects though most are associated with the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (Rivkin et al. 2003). Those meteorites can contain water/OH bound into their minerals, and it would be difficult to disentangle solar wind-created water/OH from native asteroidal material. However, there are other asteroids more suitable for comparison with the lunar regolith than these carbonaceous asteroids. In particular, two large S-class NEOs, 1036 Ganymed and 433 Eros, made good apparitions in 2011-2012 and are excellent targets for several reasons: These specific asteroids, based on their mineralogies and meteorite analogs, are not expected to have 3- ?m bands from native material. Their solar distances vary from 1.1-1.8 AU while they are bright enough to observe and their phase angles also cover a wide range, but they do not exactly vary together allowing them to be disentangled. They provide an opportunity for observations over a long span, providing constraints on how solar wind could create water on surfaces in conditions similar to lunar conditions. The varying conditions experienced by the NEOs will allow any band variation to be characterized. Alternately, if there is no band or no variation, that will provide constraints that modeling and theory of the lunar water must explain. We will present our 3-?m spectral observations of 1036 Ganymed and 433 Eros and discuss our results. This work funded by NSF Planetary Astronomy

Rivkin, Andrew S.; Howell, E. S.; Emery, J. P.; Sunshine, J. M.

2012-10-01

220

AMERICAN CATHOLIC RESPONSES TO THE RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY OF WILLIAM JAMES: THE NEO-SCHOLASTIC AND NEO-TRADITIONIST RESPONSES (THOMISM, INTELLECTUAL HISTORY, PLURALISM, ROBERT C. POLLOCK, PRAGMATISM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their responses to the works of the American psychologist and philosopher William James (1842-1910), American Catholic thinkers have developed at least five different approaches: Neo-Scholastic, Neo-Traditionist, Radical, Liberal, and Academic. Investigation of these responses may suggest some answers to the general question, In what ways have Catholic intellectuals related to American culture and society during the twentieth century? This

NOEL BARRETT SHUELL

1985-01-01

221

Enigma of Y chromosome degeneration: Neo-Y and Neo-X chromosomes of Drosophila miranda a model for sex chromosome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y chromosome degeneration is characterized by structural changes in the chromosome architecture and expansion of genetic inertness\\u000a along the Y chromosome. It is generally assumed that the heteromorphic sex chromosome pair has developed from a pair of homologues.\\u000a Several models have been suggested. We use the unique situation of the secondary sex chromosome pair, neo-Y and neo-X (X2),\\u000a in Drosophila

Manfred Steinemann; Sigrid Steinemann

1998-01-01

222

Neo-Confucian Body Techniques: Women's Bodies in Korea's Consumer Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines women's bodies in South Korea and the modes of Neo-Confucian governmentality at work within this consumer society. The concealed woman's body under Neo-Confucianism appears to have been supplanted by a liberated consumer body. This seems to represent a major shift in what the body means today. Nonetheless, the techniques of governmentality that controlled women's bodies under strict

TAEYON KIM

2003-01-01

223

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and

K. Ward; D. Herring

2005-01-01

224

Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.…

Poole, Wendy

2007-01-01

225

Persons, Places, and Personality: Career Assessment Using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The NEO Personality Inventory measures 30 traits in a 5-factor personality model. The instrument can supplement vocational interest measures with information about adjustment and motivation. The NEO Job Profiler identifies personality requirements of different occupations. The two tools help locate an optimal match between person and occupation.…

Costa, Paul T., Jr.; And Others

1995-01-01

226

Control of sawteeth and neo-classical tearing modes in tokamaks using electron cyclotron waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities are expected to limit the performance of nuclear fusion reactors. Prime examples are the sawtooth instability and the neo- classical tearing modes. The sawtooth instability will affect the refueling of the plasma core and the fast particle concentration. In reactor relevant conditions, the sawtooth can also trigger secondary instabilities. These are the neo-classical tearing modes, which can

Marco R. de Baar; Waldo A. Bongers; Matthijs van Berkel; Niek J. Doelman; Bart A. Hennen; Pieter Nuij; Johan W. Oosterbeek; Maarten. Steinbuch; Egbert Westerhof; Gert Witvoet

2011-01-01

227

Ice Issues, Porosity and Snow Experiments for Dynamic NEO and Comet Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Category 0 NEO bodies, such as many comets, appear to be comprised largely of porous ice. Quasi-static and dynamic properties of ice are expected to control the corresponding properties of Category 0 NEO material. These properties depend on temperature, strain rate, and possibly sample history. Corrections must be made of porosity and the presence of impurities such as silicates. These

M. D. Furnish; John L. Remo

1997-01-01

228

Complete assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of standard neo-?-carrabiose oligosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Eucheuma denticulatum ?-carrageenan was degraded with the Alteromonas fortis ?-carrageenase. The most abundant products, the neo-?-carratetraose and neo-?-carrahexaose were purified by permeation gel chromatography, and their corresponding 1H and 13C NMR spectra were fully assigned.

Diane Jouanneau; Patrick Boulenguer; Jacques Mazoyer; William Helbert

2010-01-01

229

The joint NEO Spiral 1 program: Lessons learned operational concepts and technical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of the joint network enabled operations (NEO) program is to promote interagency communication and collaboration through the use of modern network enabled tools, technologies, and operational procedures for the next generation air transportation system (NextGen). The NEO environment features a modern service bus based enterprise architecture. To evaluate the utility of this architecture and the resulting network enabled

P. Comitz; A. Pinto; D. E. Sweet; J. Mazurkiewicz

2008-01-01

230

The Dark Circle: Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation offers critical and theoretical approaches for understanding depictions of Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian fiction. Spiritualism has fascinated and repelled writers since the movement's inception in Hydesville, New York, in 1848, and continues to haunt writers even today. The conclusion of this dissertation follows Spiritualist fiction as it carries over into the Neo-Victorian genre, by discussing how themes

Joseph Good

2012-01-01

231

Private Security Contractors in the Debate about Darfur: Reflecting and Reinforcing Neo-Liberal Governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the loud presence of private security contractors in the evolving and buoyant discussion surrounding Darfur. Relying primarily on statements by security contractors and industry lobby organizations, this article suggests that neo-liberal governmentality has bolstered the expert status of security contractors in the discussions surrounding Darfur. Both in Darfur and more widely, neo-liberal governmentality tends to `depoliticize' security

Anna Leander; Rens van Munster

2007-01-01

232

Gender economies: literacy and the gendered production of neo?liberal subjectivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse the links between subjectivities as they are constructed through the intersecting discourses of gender and literacy, and we situate this analysis in the context of the current neo?liberal social and economic order. We begin with a discussion of the background to the gender and literacy debates. We then describe what neo?liberalism is and its implications

Bronwyn Davies; Sue Saltmarsh

2007-01-01

233

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program. ExploreNEOs or “The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near-Earth space” was allocated 500 hours over two years (2009-2011) to determine diameters and albedos for approximately 600 near-Earth objects using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron IRAC bands. We present the results of the SpeX component of our campaign. In order to increase our sample size we also include all near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets in the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our complete dataset includes 125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey. The combination of the two surveys includes near-infrared spectroscopy of 187 ExploreNEOs targets. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We identified all potential ordinary chondrites within our sample and determined likely ordinary chondrite types using the equations derived by Dunn et al. 2010. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites are different than those previously calculated for ordinary chondrite-like near-Earth objects and meteorite falls.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D. E.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.

2013-10-01

234

Socially desirable responding and the factorial stability of the NEO PI-R.  

PubMed

The goal of the present investigation is to compare the factor structure of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in samples of respondents differentially motivated to respond in a socially desirable manner. In the French sample, the authors compared the NEO PI-R structure of job applicants (N=12,631) subgrouped by relative degree of socially desirable responding with that of a normative sample (N=801). In the Belgian sample, the authors compared the NEO PI-R structure in naturally occurring groups, including job applicants (N=3,028), individuals receiving career counseling (N=221), and a normative sample (N=549). Results indicate that the NEO PI-R factor structure remained stable across all samples. PMID:16262464

Marshall, Margarita B; De Fruyt, Filip; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Bagby, R Michael

2005-09-01

235

Orbit Options for an Orion-Class Spacecraft Mission to a Near-Earth Object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the recommendations of the Augustine Commission, President Obama has proposed a vision for U.S. human spaceflight in the post-Shuttle era which includes a manned mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). A 2006-2007 study commissioned by the Constellation Program Advanced Projects Office investigated the feasibility of sending a crewed Orion spacecraft to a NEO using different combinations of elements

Nathan C. Shupe

2010-01-01

236

Meteorite Associations and Source Regions for Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results from Vernazza et al. (2008; Nature, August 14 issue) showing that 2\\/3 of all large near-Earth objects (NEOs), including the potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) subset, have spectral characteristics consistent with laboratory measurements of LL-chondrite meteorites. Our NEO data (38 S- and Q-types) were obtained through a joint observational program (MIT, Hawaii, IRTF). Comparison meteorite data were obtained

Richard P. Binzel; P. Vernazza; C. A. Thomas; F. E. DeMeo; S. J. Bus; A. S. Rivkin; A. T. Tokunaga

2008-01-01

237

Distinguishing Bounce-Resonant from Bounce-Averaged Neo-Classical Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments, theory, and simulation for single-species plasmas now show quantitative agreement for both Bounce-Resonant (BR) and Bounce-Averaged (BA) Neo-Classical Transport, with distinct magnetic field scalings over 0.5 < B < 12.kG. Here, we consider cylindrical pure electron plasmas, with particle orbit excursions caused by a global ``field error'' such as magnetic tilt (analogous to global toroidal curvature); and with controlled electrostatic separatrices producing populations of trapped and un-trapped particles. With distinct trapped-particle populations, BA theory correctly describes both collisional NCT scaling as &1/2circ;B-1/2, and the novel chaotic NCT scaling as 0?B-1 which occurs when the separatrix is ``ruffled'' in the E xB drift direction.ootnotetextA.A. Kabantsev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 205001 (2010); D.H.E. Dubin and Yu.A. Tsidulko, Phys. Plasmas 18, 062114 (2011). For weak magnetic fields, BR transport dominates, typically scaling as B-2 to B-3, with different scalings observed for z-extended and z-localized field errors. Also, we are able to observe the transition from banana regime to plateau regime, with dependence on applied error field strength ? changing from 2? to &1/2circ;.

Driscoll, C. F.; Kabantsev, A. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.

2011-11-01

238

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

239

To measure the chemical composition of a Near Earth Object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scenarios for a Near Earth Object (NEO) rendezvous mission were discussed recently in Europe. Such a mission would address scientific questions about the initial conditions and evolutionary history of the solar nebula, as well as mitigation considerations to prevent impact with the Earth. In our opinion the measurement of the elemental composition and the distribution of volatiles in the

Gasnault; A. Ball; J. Biele; C. D'Uston; O. Forni; G. Klingelhofer; S. Maurice; S. Ulamec

2006-01-01

240

Neo-sex chromosomes in the black muntjac recapitulate incipient evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background The regular mammalian X and Y chromosomes diverged from each other at least 166 to 148 million years ago, leaving few traces of their early evolution, including degeneration of the Y chromosome and evolution of dosage compensation. Results We studied the intriguing case of black muntjac, in which a recent X-autosome fusion and a subsequent large autosomal inversion within just the past 0.5 million years have led to inheritance patterns identical to the traditional X-Y (neo-sex chromosomes). We compared patterns of genome evolution in 35-kilobase noncoding regions and 23 gene pairs on the homologous neo-sex chromosomes. We found that neo-Y alleles have accumulated more mutations, comprising a wide variety of mutation types, which indicates cessation of recombination and is consistent with an ongoing neo-Y degeneration process. Putative deleterious mutations were observed in coding regions of eight investigated genes as well as cis-regulatory regions of two housekeeping genes. In vivo assays characterized a neo-Y insertion in the promoter of the CLTC gene that causes a significant reduction in allelic expression. A neo-Y-linked deletion in the 3'-untranslated region of gene SNX22 abolished a microRNA target site. Finally, expression analyses revealed complex patterns of expression divergence between neo-Y and neo-X alleles. Conclusion The nascent neo-sex chromosome system of black muntjacs is a valuable model in which to study the evolution of sex chromosomes in mammals. Our results illustrate the degeneration scenarios in various genomic regions. Of particular importance, we report - for the first time - that regulatory mutations were probably able to accelerate the degeneration process of Y and contribute to further evolution of dosage compensation.

Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ling; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Xiangyi; Yang, Fengtang; Wang, Wen

2008-01-01

241

[Neo-Confucianism and TCM culture in Mount Wuyish area in Song Dynasty].  

PubMed

Mount Wuyi area is the representative cultural region of Fujian province in early time. Medical books and recordings of this area were primary constituents of TCM in ancient Fujian. Zhuzi Theory was formed in this area in Song Dynasty. Influenced by Neo-confucianismborned Songci (Great forensic scientist), Caiyuanding (A scholar of Neo-confucianism with achievements in medical science) and Qianwenli (an official who studied medical science). The spread of Neo-confucianism promoted the development of local printing industry, culture industry and TCM in Mount Wuyi area. PMID:22169487

Wu, Tong; Wang, Ying-Ying

2011-07-01

242

NEO-PI profiles in PTSD as a function of trauma level.  

PubMed

One hundred Vietnam veterans with combat-related PTSD were administered the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the Combat Exposure Scale and were sorted into three groups based on trauma exposure level. Results indicate no significant differences among the personality profiles of the three trauma-exposed groups. A normative NEO-PI profile for persons diagnosed with combat-related PTSD is presented, characterized by an extremely high Neuroticism score (T > 75) and an extremely low Agreeableness score (T < 25). PMID:8254073

Talbert, F S; Braswell, L C; Albrecht, J W; Hyer, L A; Boudewyns, P A

1993-09-01

243

neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.f. yielded two new neo-clerodane diterpenes, neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (mkapwanin) and 15-methoxy-neo-clerodan-3,13-dien-16,15:18,19-diolide (15-methoxymkapwanin). In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., which are

Leonidah K. Omosa; Jacob O. Midiwo; Solomon Derese; Abiy Yenesew; Martin G. Peter; Matthias Heydenreich

2010-01-01

244

Mitigation of near-earth object impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As our ability to survey and catalog potentially threatening Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) grows we will inevitably find some that are potentially threatening. Numerous authors have conjectured about potential mitigation schemes. These schemes include destruction or diversion via nuclear or chemical explosives if time is short. In the case of much longer warning times low-thrust diversion schemes, some taking advantage of natural effects such as radiation pressure have been forwarded. Others advocate focusing our efforts on passive schemes analogous to nuclear warfare civil defense. However, any effective mitigation scheme should follow proven military operations precepts. These include equal attention to decision making and command and control organizations and technology. As we consider serious approaches to NEO impact mitigation we must pay equal or greater attention to how decisions will be made and mission control exercises as we do to the more exciting "weapons."

Worden, S.; Brown, P.

245

Is the neo-Kraepelinian paradigm in a phase of crisis?.  

PubMed

The neo-Kraepelinian paradigm has been the dominant paradigm in psychiatry since the introduction of DSM-III in 1980. Though successful in achieving reliability and in some other respects, it also has limitations. Lately, it has been argued that a paradigm shift is needed in psychiatric diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of the limitations of DSM and to determine whether our classification system is in a phase of crisis in the Kuhnian sense. The most important criticisms raised since the early eighties include: the psychodynamic objection, the descriptive approach criticism, the criticism of poor diagnostic validity, and Öztürk's critique. The author concludes that these old objections are not a real threat. In particular, problems stemming from the descriptive approach and low diagnostic validity are not attributable to DSM but are due to under-achievements in psychiatry. On the other hand, the new problems seem more serious and may be considered signs of crisis. These include high rates of false positives, high levels of pseudo-comorbidity, and other deficiencies attributed to the categorical approach. However, because of the advantages of this approach and the lack of a serious candidate available to replace it, a paradigm shift seems highly unlikely. The real source of the problem is not the categorical model but the low validity of some of our categories. If our etiopathological understanding of all the categories were to reach that of medical disorders, no paradigm shift would seem necessary. PMID:22648874

Sorias, Soli

2012-01-01

246

The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects: recent progress and future plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-STARRS1 telescope (PS1), located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, is a 1.8-meter diameter telescope equipped with a 1.4 Gigapixel camera that delivers a 7 square degree field of view. PS1 is conducting a diverse survey that includes searching for Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Most of the PS1 observations are acquired in a manner suitable for detection of moving objects; 11% of the observing time is presently dedicated to a search for NEOs. PS1 is presently discovering approximately 40% of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. The second Pan-STARRS telescope (PS2) on Haleakala achieved first light in July 2013, and is expected to be fully operational by July 2014. We are proposing to use 100% of the observing time on both PS1 and PS2 for a much enhanced survey for NEOs. The new survey will cover much of the accessible sky multiple times each lunation, and is expected to produce a large increase in the NEO discovery rate. It will lead to a much better understanding of the size and orbit distributions of NEOs. The enhanced survey will also improve the discovery rate of asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.

Wainscoat, Richard J.; Veres, P.; Bolin, B.; Denneau, L.; Jedicke, R.; Micheli, M.; Chastel, S.

2013-10-01

247

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences\\u000a in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center\\u000a on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant\\u000a regional destruction of

W. F. Huebner; L. N. Johnson; D. C. Boice; P. Bradley; S. Chocron; A. Ghosh; P. T. Giguere; R. Goldstein; J. A. Guzik; J. J. Keady; J. Mukherjee; W. Patrick; C. Plesko; J. D. Walker; K. Wohletz

2009-01-01

248

neo-Clerodane diterpenes from Ajuga ciliata Bunge and their neuroprotective activities.  

PubMed

Three new (1-3) and three known (4-6) neo-clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the whole plants of Ajuga ciliata Bunge. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (12S)-1?,6?,19-triacetoxy-18-chloro-4?,12-dihydroxy-neo-clerod-13-en-15,16-olide (1), (12S,2'S)-12,19-diacetoxy-18-chloro-4?,6?-dihydroxy-1?-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)-neo-clerod-13-en-15,16-olide (2), and (12S)-6?,18,19-triacetoxy-4?,12-dihydroxy-1?-tigloyloxy-neo-clerod-13-en-15,16-olide (3), on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All the diterpenes were evaluated for the neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell death in dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and compounds 2-5 exhibited moderate neuroprotective effects. PMID:21807075

Guo, Ping; Li, Yushan; Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Jin, Da-Qing; Gao, Jie; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

2011-07-23

249

Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum were studied. Treatment with the water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum caused a marked decrease in the CCl4-induced toxicity in rat liver, made evident by their effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the

Jer-Min Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Ming-Feng Chen; Takashi Ujiie; Atsushi Takada

1995-01-01

250

An Apologetic to the Neo-Pagans as Represented by Dr. Gus DiZerega  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current trend of multi-religious observance can be traced to various root sources. In particular, the advocacy of Christianity and another religious tradition is particularly strong within Neo-Pagan circles. Through historical investigation, as well as response to the writings of Dr. Gus DiZerega, a prominent Neo-Pagan proponent, these connection will be made. It will be posited that the core of

William Tennison Smitherman II

2009-01-01

251

Transduction of cellular neo mRNA by retrovirus-mediated recombination.  

PubMed Central

Transduction of cellular oncogenes by retroviruses is thought to be a multistep process, involving transcriptional activation of a cellular gene by upstream proviral integration and joining of cellular DNA to retroviral transcriptional signals, followed by copackaging and recombination with a helper virus genome during reverse transcription. To examine the molecular mechanism of the reverse transcriptase-mediated recombination, we introduced into mouse fibroblast cells a variety of constructs in which the neo selectable marker was joined to flanking retroviruslike or cell-like sequences. After superinfection and copackaging with a replication-competent Mo-MuLVsupF virus, the formation of recombinant neo transducing viruses was assessed in a second round of virus infection by the ability to confer G418 resistance to infected cells. Our results showed that recombinant neo proviruses were generated from neo RNA containing either a 5' or 3' retroviral end, implying that one recombination event with helper virus RNA was sufficient to incorporate the neo gene into proviral DNA. Recombination occurred with an apparent frequency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) per replication cycle in the absence of homology between the two recombining partners. This frequency, however, increased at least 100-fold if homology was provided at the site of recombination. Our results support the hypothesis that neo-transducing viruses arise via reverse transcriptase-mediated recombination of RNA rather than by recombination proceeding through DNA intermediates. Unexpectedly, removal of the retroviral packaging site psi reduced the number of neo recombinants only slightly. Our data indicated that although RNAs lacking the psi site are poorly packaged into virions, those RNAs that are included in the virions undergo frequent recombination, even if there is no selection for recombination. Many of the neo recombinants formed with the psi- constructs had undergone additional recombinations and often incorporated the psi site from the helper RNA. Images

Stuhlmann, H; Dieckmann, M; Berg, P

1990-01-01

252

Gender justice and education: constructions of boys within discourses of resentment, neo?liberalism and security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of a politics of resentment, neo?liberal policies, and security concerns on issues of gender justice in schools in various western countries. We argue that since the 1990s gender justice in schools has been severely hampered by a politics of resentment, or backlash politics, and the presence of neo?liberal discourses in education. Furthermore, we contend that

Martin Mills; Amanda Keddie

2010-01-01

253

Neo-Slave Narratives: Studies in the Social Logic of Literary Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

NeoSlave Narratives is a study in the political, social, and cultural content of a given literary form--the novel of slavery cast as a first-person slave narrative. After discerning the social and historical factors surrounding the first appearance of that literary form in the 1960s, NeoSlave Narratives explores the complex relationship between nostalgia and critique, while asking how African American intellectuals

Ashraf Rushdy

1999-01-01

254

Comparison of measured poloidal rotation in MAST spherical tokamak plasmas with neo-classical predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-classical tokamak plasma theory predicts poloidal rotation driven by the temperature gradient of a few km s-1. In conventional aspect-ratio tokamak plasmas, e.g. on JET and DIII-D, apparent poloidal velocities considerably in excess of the neo-classical values have been measured, particularly in the presence of internal transport barriers, by means of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) on the fully ionized C6+

A. R. Field; J. McCone; N. J. Conway; M. Dunstan; S. Newton; M. Wisse

2009-01-01

255

Promotional communication and reflexivity: Case studies in the media politics and problematization of neo-liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation offers a critical analysis of the media politics underlying the shift to neo-liberalism. Special attention is paid to the relationships between news media, government and corporate public relations, and social movement activism in the context of changing policy priorities that advance market-based solutions for economic and political challenges. Neo-liberalism is accounted for in terms of both its policy

Joshua L Greenberg

2003-01-01

256

Triggering of neo-classical tearing modes by mode coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of magnetic islands with mode numbers (m>1,n>=1) apparently triggered by sawtooth crashes has for a long time been a concern in JET discharges with auxiliary heating as it affects the peak performance, in terms of stored energy or of neutron yield (in DT experiments). The phenomenological association of the sawtooth crash with the onset of resistive modes is particularly relevant in the context of neo-classical tearing modes (NTM) theory that requires the formation of a `seed' island above a critical value. Relying on observations and on an understanding of the role of the collapse phase of the (m = 1,n = 1) instability, we propose as physical mechanism of destabilization of the metastable NTM a forced reconnection process due to electro-dynamic mode coupling. For a definite mode-number congruence and frequency matching conditions a bifurcation pattern appears in the behaviour of the driven mode. Modelling of a JET discharge shows that for perfect frequency matching conditions the triggering of the (m = 3,n = 2) NTM could be due to either two-mode toroidal coupling or three-mode non-linear coupling. The observed mode frequencies in the cases examined, suggest non-linear coupling, with the (m = 3,n = 2) mode being driven by (m = 1,n = 1) and (m = 4,n = 3) modes, the (m = 1,n = 1) being provided either by the sawtooth precursor or by fishbones.

Nave, M. F. F.; Lazzaro, E.; Coelho, R.; Belo, P.; Borba, D.; Buttery, R. J.; Nowak, S.; Serra, F.; Contributors, EFDA-JET

2003-03-01

257

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential

Karin H Greiser; Alexander Kluttig; Barbara Schumann; Jan A Kors; Cees A Swenne; Oliver Kuss; Karl Werdan; Johannes Haerting

2005-01-01

258

Space Weathering on Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many planetary environments of the solar system, direct plasma precipitation on a surface can result in neutral particle release. Solar wind ion-sputtering (IS) is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth object (NEO), acting together with other release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption (PSD), thermal desorption (TD) and micrometeoroid impact vaporization (MIV). Since all other release processes produce particles of lower energies, the presence of neutral atoms in the energy range above 10 eV and below a few keVs (sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA)) identifies the IS. Investigation of the active release processes, as a function of the external conditions and the NEO surface properties, is crucial for obtaining a clear view of the body’s present loss rate as well as for getting clues on its evolution. In this work, we study the space weathering processes on a NEO-surface, via the recently proposed SPAWN model and we discuss our results.

Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Mura, A.; de Angelis, E.; di Lellis, A. M.; Livi, S.

2010-07-01

259

Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.  

PubMed

Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized. PMID:12115788

Teo, Thomas

2002-01-01

260

Stand and be counted: the neo-Darwinian synthesis and the ascension of bipedalism as an essential hominid synapomorphy.  

PubMed

Since its inception in the early- to middle-nineteenth century, human origins studies have been informed by a variety of disciplines beyond physical anthropology and archaeology, most notably geology and biology. This study examines dramatic changes within human origins research that occurred in the mid-twentieth century largely as a consequence of the dissemination of the neo-Darwinian synthesis from biology (sensu lato) into the new" physical anthropology. This paradigm shift resulted in foregrounding evolution as a process affecting variable populations over exercises in typological classification. It led to the acknowledgement of bipedalism as the earliest hominidi adaptation, preceding other important changes in morphology (e.g., increased encephalization quotient) and behavior (e.g., stone tool manufacture and use). An important corollary of the recognition of a bipedal ape phase in our ancestry was the decoupling of the grade category "human" from the phylogenetic term "hominid". PMID:23272599

Gundling, Tom

2012-01-01

261

The orbit and size distribution of small Solar System objects orbiting the Sun interior to the Earth's orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first observational measurement of the orbit and size distribution of small Solar System objects whose orbits are wholly interior to the Earth's (Inner Earth Objects, IEOs, with aphelion <0.983 AU). We show that we are able to model the detections of near-Earth objects (NEO) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) using a detailed parameterization of the CSS survey cadence and detection efficiencies as implemented within the Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Spahr, T., Petit, J.M., Bottke, W.F., 2003. Icarus 161, 17-33] survey simulator and utilizing the Bottke et al. [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399-433] model of the NEO population's size and orbit distribution. We then show that the CSS detections of 4 IEOs are consistent with the Bottke et al. [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399-433] IEO model. Observational selection effects for the IEOs discovered by the CSS were then determined using the survey simulator in order to calculate the corrected number and H distribution of the IEOs. The actual number of IEOs with H<18 (21) is 36±26 ( 530±240) and the slope of the H magnitude distribution ( ?10) for the IEOs is ?=0.44-0.22+0.23. The slope is consistent with previous measurements for the NEO population of ?=0.35±0.02 [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399-433] and ?=0.39±0.013 [Stuart, J.S., Binzel, R.P., 2004. Icarus 170, 295-311]. Based on the agreement between the predicted and observed IEO orbit and absolute magnitude distributions there is no indication of any non-gravitational effects (e.g. Yarkovsky, tidal disruption) affecting the known IEO population.

Zavodny, Maximilian; Jedicke, Robert; Beshore, Edward C.; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Larson, Stephen

2008-12-01

262

Trans-apical beating-heart implantation of neo-chordae to mitral valve leaflets: results of an acute animal study†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Trans-apical beating-heart implantation of neo-chordae is yet an experimental procedure for mitral valve (MV) repair. We aimed to assess the performance of a new device in an acute animal study. METHODS A total of four domestic adolescent pigs were used as an acute model. The MV was assessed on the beating heart through a conventional trans-apical access. The NeoChord DS1000 device was used to implant polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sutures to the MV leaflets. Procedural performance of the device was assessed and completed with surgical workflow analysis. RESULTS Overall 57 implantations using epicardial echocardiography guidance were performed (mean 14.3 implantations per animal). The MV leaflets were successfully grasped every second attempt (mean 2.3 ± 1.9) with no difference between the anterior and the posterior leaflet. A significant difference between an ‘expert’ surgeon (n > 20 implantations) and beginner surgeon was detected with regard to the duration for successful leaflet grasping (65 ± 73 vs 127 ± 105 s; p = 0.02) and the overall duration for implantation (130 ± 86 vs 230 ± 119 s; p = 0.002). Gross anatomy did not show major tear of leaflets. There were no device-related technical problems. CONCLUSION The NeoChord DS1000 device for trans-apical beating-heart implantation of neo-chordae to the MV valve showed a high procedural success. A significant difference between an expert and beginner surgeon was detected, which emphasizes the importance of training before introduction of this new technique into clinical practice. Surgical workflow analysis proved to be a valuable tool to assess the performance of this new technique.

Seeburger, Joerg; Leontjev, Sergej; Neumuth, Michael; Noack, Thilo; Hobartner, Michael; Misfeld, Martin; Borger, Michael A.; Mohr, Friedrich W.

2012-01-01

263

Swallowed Object  

MedlinePLUS

... toys, coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. Problems may arise ... toys, coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. These objects often ...

264

Assessing the five factors of personality in adolescents: the junior version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R.  

PubMed

This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor structure was replicated with the junior version of the inventory and that the reliabilities of the scales were adequate. The cross-form correlations between the junior and the adult versions of the questionnaires indicated good equivalence indices. Furthermore, a joint factor analysis of the JS NEO and the Big Five Questionnaire-Children (BFQ-C) provided additional evidence for the construct validity of the JS NEO. PMID:21622482

Ortet, Generós; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

2011-05-26

265

Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A neo-piagetian analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most Piagetian formal operational reasoning tasks show horizontal decalage; that is, subjects pass certain tasks and fail others that have the same logical structure. The study reported here analyzes the importance of individual difference variables, as postulated by the neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone, in explaining subject performance in formal reasoning. A sample of 72 freshman students were administered a test of formal reasoning having 20 items of different types of reasoning, and the tests of the individual difference variables. Results obtained from multiple regression analyses show that Pascual-Leone's structural M-capacity (Ms) is the most consistent predictor of success in the different formal reasoning tasks, followed by Witkin's cognitive style, and to a much lesser degree Raven's progressive matrices, and Pascual-Leone's functional M-capacity (Mf). It was found that in the total score on the 20 items of formal reasoning, Ms accounted for 23.3% of the variance (R = 0.483, F = 6.39, p = 0.014) and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test, increased the multiple R significantly (F = 7.77, p = 0.007) and accounted for 7.6% of the variance. Mf and the Raven test did not make a significant contribution to the regression equation. Correlation coefficients among most of the items having the same reasoning pattern but different content are generally low but statistically significant (p < 0.01). Intercorrelations among items having the same formal reasoning pattern and content are fairly high (p < 0.001). These results emphasize the importance of individual difference variables: information-processing capacity (Pascual-Leone) and oversensitivity to potentially misleading information (Witkin). It is suggested that in order to understand student performance in formal reasoning tasks, we should expect horizontal decalages as a rule and not the exception, as Piaget had postulated. Educational implications are drawn.

Niaz, Mansoor

266

Inferential Structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Construct Validity of the Big Four Personality Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies investigated the dimensionality of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992). In Study 1, four inferential dimensions and four clusters represented the NEO-FFI when 114 undergraduates freely sorted items into categories. Construct validity for four item-clusters derived from the inferential space was obtained in Study 2 based on self-report with 304 undergraduates.

Ronald R. Holden; Louise Wasylkiw; Katherine B. Starzyk; Melanie J. Edwards

2006-01-01

267

Bandwidth and Fidelity on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory: Replicability and Reliability of Saucier's (1998) Item Cluster Subcomponents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many users of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) are unaware that Saucier (1998) developed item cluster subcomponents for each broad domain of the instrument similar to the facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In this study, I examined the following: the replicability of the subcomponents in young adult university and middle-aged

Benjamin P. Chapman

2007-01-01

268

The Spanish Norms of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: New Data and Analyses for its Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a large sample of 1136 adults (444 men and 692 women). Participants who completed the NEO-FFI were university students (65%), professionals of education and health (27%), and a small group of older people (8%). Item-level analyses provided reliability measures and factor structure of

Dionisio Manga; Francisco Ramos; Consuelo Morán

2004-01-01

269

Neopian economics of play: children's cyberpets and online communities as immersive advertising in NeoPets.com  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines NeoPets, an online community for children where members create or adopt a virtual pet. Alongside an analysis of gameplay, the paper presents the results of interviews with two NeoPets users to assess their uses, gameplay, and opinions towards immersive advertising. The NeoPets Corporation is examined, with attention paid to their practice of immersive advertising amidst concerns over

Sara M. Grimes; Leslie Regan Shade

2005-01-01

270

Hayabusa's follow-on mission for surface and sub-surface sample return from a C-type NEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

n JAXA's Long-term Vision 2005-2025, acquiring the capability of deep space round trip be-yond the Earth-Moon system is one of key elements for the future space exploration and that has been Hayabusa's primary engineering goal. According to the solar system exploration sci-ence roadmap set by ISAS and JSPEC in 2007, a programmatic approach to small body sample returns from S-type, C-type and then P/D-type asteroids as well as dormant comets, i.e., 'the further, the smaller, the more primitive strategy', is recommended for strengthening Japan's unique position in the field of space exploration. In a more recent international context, NEOs and Martian satellites have been identified as critical targets for the future human space explo-ration en route to Mars; thus their robotic precursor missions with the round trip capability have become more important than ever. Thus, Hayabusa's immediate follow-on mission, nicknamed so far as 'Hayabusa-2', is to aim establishing round trip exploration capability with both technical and operational heritage and lessons leaerned from the original Haybusa mission. It will also conduct in-situ observation and surface and sub-surface sample returns of a C-type NEO after Hayabusa's investigation and sampling attempt at Itokawa, a sub-km, S-type NEO. Important to be reminded is that C-type asteroid exploration is not just matching with carbona-ceous chondrites and interplanetary dust but also enhancing chances to discover new extrater-restrial materials unknown to us today that may become clues to decode interactions among organic, inorganic compounds and "water" kept in various forms inside the object. These three groups of asteroidal materials are basic constituents of the planet Earth, its ocean and its life. Also physical probing inside solid planetary bodies has been recognized as an effective tool to open new scientific insights. By excavating sub-surface materials with artificial physical in-teractions such as an impactor operation, this mission may yield for the first time that space weathering effects on carbonaceous asteroids by comparing between superficially exposed sam-ples and freshly excavated sub-surface samples, as well as possible surface material motilities, levitation, re-accumulation, and other local geological activities induced by inputs of external kinetic energy. This paper summarizes both engineering and scientific objectives as well as instruments and enabling technology currently being developed of this mission.

Yano, Hajime; Yoshikawa, M.; Yano, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Nakazawa, S.; Mimamino, H.; Terui, F.; Saiki, T.; Nishiyama, K.; Kubota, T.; Okada, T.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Ogawa, N.; Okamoto, C.; Takagi, Y.; Tachibana, S.; Nakamura, R.; Hirata, N.; Demura, H.

271

Optimal detection of short-warning near-earth object threats  

SciTech Connect

Detection of near-Earth Objects (NEOs) has concentrated on long-warning threats. LPCs (long period comets) and smaller objects do not offer such warning. Their detection on final approach is a more demanding search problem. Improvements in ground- and space-based search sensors and strategies could provide adequate search capability.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-05-01

272

The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.  

PubMed

The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time. PMID:19442927

Delisle, Richard G

2009-04-28

273

Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

2011-11-01

274

Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.  

PubMed

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex. PMID:23950700

Baldassi, Carlo; Alemi-Neissi, Alireza; Pagan, Marino; Dicarlo, James J; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

2013-08-08

275

Affective Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will attempt t o d efine a new area of research: affective c ommunication through the use of affective objects. An affective object may be defined as any physical object which has the ability to sense emotional data from a person, map that information to an abstract form of expression and communicate that information expressively, either back to

Jocelyn Scheirer; Rosalind W. Picard

276

Neoclassical study of temperature anisotropy in NSTX experiments using the GTC-NEO particle code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion thermal transport in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) is often observed to be close to the neoclassical level. This makes self-consistent neoclassical simulations carried out with the GTC-NEO particle code highly relevant for studying transport-related issues in NSTX. GTC-NEO, which now treats multiple species of ion impurities[1], takes as input the experimental profiles from NSTX discharges and calculates fully non-local, self-consistent neoclassical fluxes and radial electric field. Given that the fraction of trapped particles is high in spherical tokamaks, one remarkable question is that of possible temperature anisotropy, which cannot be determined experimentally with the current diagnostics. Some experimental measurements assume the temperature anisotropy for the interpolation of raw data from diagnostics. This work describes new numerical diagnostics and computational improvements that were implemented in GTC-NEO to enable the study of temperature anisotropy.

Perkins, David; Ethier, Stephane; Wang, Weixing

2012-10-01

277

Neoclassical study of temperature anisotropy in NSTX experiments using the GTC-NEO particle code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the level of ion transport in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) is close to the neoclassical level. This makes self-consistent neoclassical simulations carried out with the GTC-NEO particle code highly relevant for studying transport-related issues in NSTX. GTC-NEO, which now treats multiple species of ion impurities [1], takes as input the experimental profiles from NSTX discharges and calculates the fully non-local, self-consistent neoclassical fluxes and radial electric field. One unanswered question related to NSTX plasmas is that of possible ion temperature anisotropy, which cannot be determined experimentally with the current diagnostics. This work describes new numerical diagnostics and computational improvements that were implemented in GTC-NEO to enable the study of temperature anisotropy.[4pt] [1] R.A. Kolesnikov et al., Phy. Plasmas 17, 022506 (2010)

Perkins, David; Ethier, Stephane; Wang, Weixing

2012-10-01

278

Item response theory and validity of the NEO-FFI in adolescents.  

PubMed

The present study applied item response theory (IRT) to the NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) completed by a community based sample of adolescents. The results revealed that many of these personality items may not be discriminating well, with some traits demonstrating greater reliability than others. Furthermore, the threshold values highlighted that the majority of the items had skewed responses, suggesting a limited utility of some response categories. Generally, removing poorly discriminating items does not harm external validity, suggesting IRT reduces measurement error and increases reliability without compromising validity. PMID:23049153

Spence, Ruth; Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian

2012-10-01

279

Evolutions of the competition state in Latin America: power, contestation and neo-liberal populism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution argues that competition state theory unduly marginalises the political dimensions of state reform. Institutional reform is not simply political in the sense that policies are contested, but because reform reshapes the very nature, process and possibilities of politics itself. I argue that the competition state project has sought to enforce new technologies of power and discipline across socio-economic

Marcus Taylor

2010-01-01

280

Eco-SpaCE: an object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations.  

PubMed

Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks. PMID:20005557

Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M J; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan

2009-12-14

281

ART interruptions result in loss of protective humoral immunity to neo-antigens in HIV-infected individuals  

PubMed Central

Objective Sustained ART-mediated viral suppression restores responses to vaccination in HIV-1 infected individuals. As ART interruption occur frequently in resource-constrained settings, we studied their effects on the ability to mount humoral immune responses against a neo-antigen. Design Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were treated with stavudine, lamuvidine and lopinavir/ritonovir. Subjects who maintained viral load <50 copies/ml and CD4+ T cell counts > 450 cells/?l for six months received three doses of rabies vaccine, and were randomized to 72 weeks of continuous ART (Arm 1) or sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions (Arm 2). An additional vaccine dose was administered at study end. Methods Neutralizing antibody (Ab) titers to rabies virus were assessed in plasma with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibiting test. Results The proportion of subjects achieving protective (> 0.5 IU/ml ) Ab titer after vaccination was similar (Arm 1= 92%; Arm 2= 91%), but over time the cumulative proportion of observations with protective titer was greater in Arm 1 than Arm 2 (p= 0.0177). From week 26 after vaccination Ab titers were lower in Arm 2 than Arm 1, and subjects in Arm 2 lost protective Ab titers at a greater rate (p= 0.0029). After boosting, 100% of Arm 1 and 95% Arm 2 subjects in Arm 2 achieved protective Ab titer. Conclusions Our data indicate that individuals undergoing recurring ART interruption retain lower neutralizing Ab titers to a neo-antigen, but maintain the ability to mount secondary responses upon boosting, suggesting that they might benefit from vaccine schedule intensification.

Azzoni, L.; Foulkes, A. S.; Firnhaber, C.; Yin, X.; Xiang, Z. Q.; Li, Y.; Stevens, W.; Gross, R.; Ertl, H.C.J.; Sanne, I.; Montaner, L. J.

2012-01-01

282

Personality, Social Activities, Job-Search Behavior and Interview Success: Distinguishing Between PANAS Trait Positive Affect and NEO Extraversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has found that trait positive affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and extraversion as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) are highly correlated. We examined the relation between these two measures within the context of three social behaviors. Approximately 4 months before graduation, college seniors entering the job market completed the PANAS

Jerry M. Burger; David F. Caldwell

2000-01-01

283

A hierarchical investigation of personality and behavior: Examining Neo-Socioanalytic models of health-related outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on proposed hierarchical relations derived from the Neo-Socioanalytic Theory of personality [Roberts, B. W., & Wood, D. (2006). Personality development in the context of the Neo-Socioanalytic Model of personality. In D. K. Mroczek & T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of personality development (pp. 11–39). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers], the present study examined the relationships between trait and

Tim Bogg; Michelle W. Voss; Dustin Wood; Brent W. Roberts

2008-01-01

284

Complete assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of standard neo-iota-carrabiose oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Standard Eucheuma denticulatum iota-carrageenan was degraded with the Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase. The most abundant products, the neo-iota-carratetraose and neo-iota-carrahexaose were purified by permeation gel chromatography, and their corresponding (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were fully assigned. PMID:20038459

Jouanneau, Diane; Boulenguer, Patrick; Mazoyer, Jacques; Helbert, William

2009-12-26

285

The non-uniform distribution of the perihelia of near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that each sub-group of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects that cause distinctive features in the apparent distribution of their angular elements. We also reveal that the NEOs' perihelia (argument of perihelion ? and longitude of perihelion ?) have intrinsically non-uniform distributions caused by secular planetary perturbations: ? is non-uniform for the Apollo asteroids because of secular dynamics associated with eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors' ? distribution is peaked along the secularly forced eccentricity vector. These secular effects are dominated by Jupiter's perturbations, and it is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

2013-10-01

286

Fluorous protic ionic liquids exhibit discrete segregated nano-scale solvent domains and form new populations of nano-scale objects upon primary alcohol addition.  

PubMed

Fluorous protic ionic liquids (FPILS) containing a perfluorinated anion and hydrocarbon cation have been observed to segregate into nano-scale fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and polar domains. The solubility and interactions of ethanol and butanol in a series of FPILs has been investigated by synchrotron source small and wide angle X-ray scattering. Nano-scale objects were found to be present within the binary solutions from low concentrations of FPILs in alcohols to around 40 to 80 wt% FPIL. The FPILs retain their fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and polar domains in binary mixtures with alcohols in addition to the formation of nano-scale alcohol associated objects. For comparison, the influence of alcohols on the nano-scale segregation of analogous protic ionic liquids (PILs) which contained hydrocarbon anions in place of the perfluorinated anions was also investigated. The ethanol and butanol were miscible with the PILs across the full concentration range, with no evidence for the formation of analogous nano-scale objects. The FPILs are prospective solvents which may enable simultaneous solubility of fluorocarbon, hydrocarbon and polar species. PMID:23588776

Greaves, Tamar L; Kennedy, Danielle F; Shen, Yan; Hawley, Adrian; Song, Gonghua; Drummond, Calum J

2013-04-15

287

The Italian version of the NEO PI-R: Conceptual and empirical support for the use of targeted rotation  

PubMed Central

Earlier cross-cultural research on replicability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) suggested that personality trait structure is universal, but a recent study using an Italian translation has challenged this position. The present article reexamines the psychometric properties of the Italian NEO-PI-R and discusses the importance of orthogonal Procrustes rotation when the replicability of complex factor structures is tested. The arguments are supported by data from a slightly modified translation of the NEO-PI-R, which was administered to 575 Italian subjects. These data show a close replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Further, the validity of the Italian NEO-PI-R is supported by external correlates, such as demographic variables (age, sex, education), depression, and affect scales.

Terracciano, Antonio

2008-01-01

288

Comparing Objects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clifford, the big red dog, hosts an animated game where students click on the object that Clifford describes. The objects are in sets and students click on the smallest, tallest, shortest, etc. Clifford gives a "good job" reinforcement for the correct answer. Students are prompted to try again if they select the incorrect answer. No reading is required.

Pbskids.org

2011-06-28

289

Melting Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technique for producing realistic animations of melting objects. The work presented here introduces a method that accurately models both thermal flow and the latent heat during the phase change. The mechanism for energy transfer to the model is via both boundary conditions and radiation. Emphasis is made on accurately modelling the solid object and the method

Mark W. Jones

2003-01-01

290

With Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OSUIF is an extension to SUIF 2.0 that provides support for the compilation of object-oriented languages. OSUIF extends standard SUIF in three main areas: symbol table, intermediate language, and exception handling. The resulting system should be able to support compilers for many (but not all) object-oriented languages. The two initial OSUIF front ends will support C++ and Java.

Andrew Duncan; Bogdan Cocosel; Costin Iancu; Holger Kienle; Radu Rugina; Urs Hölzle; Martin Rinard

291

A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

2011-01-01

292

Transnational pharmaceutical corporations and neo-liberal business ethics in India.  

PubMed

The author critiques the expedient application of market valuation principles by the transnational corporations and other large firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry on a number of issues like patents, pricing, irrational drugs, clinical trials, etc. He contends that ethics in business is chiseled and etched within the confines of particular social structures of accumulation. An ascendant neo-liberal social structure of accumulation has basically shaped these firms' sharp opposition to the Indian Patents Act, 1970, government administered pricing, etc. The author contents that the practice of neo-liberal economics is strongly associated with a "one-dimensional" ethics that privileges market valuation principles over all others. This seems to inevitably generate a social counter-movement that struggles for social protections. He critiques neo-liberal business practices from a perspective that derives from the work of the economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Before the present phase of liberalization in India, markets were "managed", but without a "welfare state" in place. Moving toward deregulation of the markets without a welfare state in place is unethical. Keeping the debilities of the institutional framework of public policy in mind, the author adopts a Polanyian perspective that places its trust and hope in the growing social legitimacy of the counter-movement in opposition to both neo-liberal business practices and the degenerate behavior of state agencies. PMID:12625343

D'Mello, Bernard

2002-03-01

293

The Library of Congress Jefferson Building, a 19th-Century Neo-Baroque Monument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress was de- signed as the national library of the United States; it is also now recognised as a national monument of art. The Baroque embellishments that prevail in the building's architectural composition characterise the Library's style as Neo-Baroque. This style continues a tradition that identifies a significant and vibrant epoch in the

MATHILDE V. R OVELSTAD

294

"Alternative" Education in Flanders, 1960-2000: Transformation of Knowledge in a Neo-Liberal Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The founding of "alternative" schools, mainly by parents or other individuals, has made New Education in Flanders tangible today for the general public. In this article, the authors set out to study the knowledge of the "emancipatory" starting points of the post-1968 movements and "alternative" schools in the neo-liberal Flemish educational…

De Coster, Tom; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

2009-01-01

295

Chronic stress promotes tumor growth through increased BDNF production and neo-innervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in response to chronic biobehavioral stress results in high levels of catecholamines and persistent activation of adrenergic signaling, which promotes tumor growth and progression. However it is unknown how catecholamine levels within the tumor exceed systemic levels in circulation. I hypothesized that neo-innervation of tumors is required for stress-mediated effects on tumor

Julie K Allen

2012-01-01

296

Why Interculturalisation? A Neo-Marxist Approach to Accommodate Cultural Diversity in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper offers a neo-Marxist framework of interculturalisation to accommodate the increasing cultural diversity in the internationalisation of higher education with specific reference to Chinese students in New Zealand. At present, there are few official strategies in place to provide for the needs of international students in New Zealand…

Jiang, Xiaoping

2011-01-01

297

Organisational competition and the neo?corporatist fallacy in French agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article challenges the neo?corporatist paradigm's explanation of agricultural interest group politics in France. It offers an alternative model that can better comprehend the relevant attributes of this interest group system, a system based on the muffled competition among groups with different policy preferences, all of which participate in a collaborative arrangement with the state. Empirical verification is drawn from

Pepper D. Culpepper

1993-01-01

298

Capital, Fractions of Capital and the State: ‘Neo-Marxist’ Analysis of the South African State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines what has been called the ‘neo-Marxist’ or, more unkindly, the ‘vulgar Poulantzian’, approach to the state. The typical feature of this approach is a formulation of the relation between capital and the state in terms of the struggle between ‘fractions of capital’ to establish the position of ‘hegemonic fraction’ within the ‘power bloc’. The state then represents

Simon Clarke

1978-01-01

299

The liberation of civil society: neo?liberal ideology and political theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state versus civil society debate is an arena where competing class projects confront each other, each seeking to ensure a social basis for its own control over the state. The state plays a central role in the construction of civil society. The neo?liberal project seeks to de?legitimise the state as a locus of nationalist aspirations and resistance, drawing on

Björn Beckman

1993-01-01

300

Eastern Exit: The Noncombatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) From Mogadishu, Somalia, in January 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research memorandum documents the events and discusses lessons learned from the non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO) from the U.S. Embassy in Mogadishu, Somalia, in January 1991. During this operation, named 'Eastern Exit,' U.S. Navy and U.S. Mar...

A. B. Siegel

1991-01-01

301

Chronic limitations of neo-liberal capitalism and oligopolistic markets : An urgent case for socialized capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the serious limitations of neo-liberal capitalism and urge for a shift to socialized capital before further economic deterioration leads to a succession of global conflicts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This conceptual paper adopts a macro perspective in presenting argument on how global, financial markets integration and capital flow liberalization have led to

Philip Reeves Knyght; Nada K. Kakabadse; Alexander Kouzmin; Andrew Kakabadse

2011-01-01

302

Structure of salvioccidentalin, a diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton from Salvia occidentalis.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed. PMID:22041884

Jaime-Vasconcelos, Miguel Ángel; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo Antonio; Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Salmón, Manuel; Cárdenas, Jorge

2011-10-31

303

Second generation synthesis of the neo-clerodane diterpenoid methyl barbascoate.  

PubMed

The second generation total synthesis of the neo-clerodane diterpenoid, methyl barbascoate, was accomplished in seven or nine linear steps via double enol triflation and subsequent palladium catalyzed double carbonylation, followed by regioselective samarium diiodide mediated conjugate reduction. PMID:23980414

Hagiwara, Hisahiro; Honma, Naomi; Kinugawa, Kimihiko; Sato, Shota; Hoshi, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio

2013-07-01

304

Enlightenment and the "Heart of Darkness": (Neo)Imperialism in the Congo, and Elsewhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article approaches the current state of qualitative inquiry by constructing an allegory of neo-imperialism. It is based substantively on a history and contemporary anthro-politics of the Congo and in particular the city of Kisangani; metaphorically on Conrad's unsettling deployment of that same place as "the heart of darkness"; and…

Stronach, Ian

2006-01-01

305

The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the…

Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

2006-01-01

306

Cross-Cultural Assessment of the Five-Factor ModelThe Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five-factor model (FFM) is a representation of the patterns of covariation of personality traits in terms of five broad factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a questionnaire measure of the FFM, has recently been translated into a number of different languages, permitting tests of its cross-cultural replicability. Data from Filipino and French translations are presented, showing clear and detailed

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa; Gregorio H. Del Pilar; Jean-Pierre Rolland; Wayne D. Parker

1998-01-01

307

Welfare bias in the party system: a neo-Downsian explanation for gridlock in economic reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing neo-Downsian theory, the article seeks a party system explanation for the difficulties experienced by political actors in seeking to reform the declining German economy. Taking the UK as a comparator, it investigates the linkages between voter preferences, party positions and government programmes in relation to the market economy and welfare. Whilst the main German parties have recently leapfrogged their

Stephen Padgett

2004-01-01

308

Neo Monachism: A Coming Role for Church-Related Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The coming role of the church-related undergraduate college of the liberal arts and sciences will be essentially monastic, or rather, it will be compelled toward a form of neo-monachism if it is to pursue seriously its historically proclaimed goals of liberal education. The contemporary university is the heart of "the self-sufficient finitude,"…

Hotchkiss, Wesley A.

309

Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of…

Dong, Jie

2010-01-01

310

The Neo-Liberal Revolution and the Regional State in Canada and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of regional governments in implementing radical neo­ liberal reforms during the 1990s. The Harris government in the province of Ontario, Canada, and the Kennett government in the state of Victoria, Australia, are used as case studies. In 1992 the Kennett government was elected to office in a landslide victory, and over the next seven years

Craig McIntosh; David Hayward

2000-01-01

311

Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing…

Morra, Sergio

2005-01-01

312

The Validity of Kolb Learning Styles and Neo-Piagetian Developmental Levels in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed Kolb learning styles and neo-Piagetian development levels of students who then completed a lecture/lab course with either inquiry or expository instructional methods. The predicted interaction between Kolb's thinking/feeling learning dimension and instructional method was not found, while thinking/feeling dimension and developmental…

Lawson, Anton E.; Johnson, Margaret

2002-01-01

313

Neo-liberal poverty governance: race, place and the punitive turn in US welfare policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides empirical evidence on the operation and effects of the neo-liberal system of poverty governance emerging in the United States. Relying on data collected on Florida, a state recognized for innovation in implementing welfare reform, we present findings that demonstrate systematic inequities in the way sanctions are applied to clients who fail to comply with participation requirements in

Sanford F. Schram; Richard C. Fording; Joe Soss

2008-01-01

314

Neo-liberal poverty governance: race, place and the punitive turn in US welfare policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides empirical evidence on the operation and effects of the neo-liberal system of poverty governance emerging in the United States. Relying on data collected on Florida, a state recognized for innovation in implementing welfare reform, we present findings that demonstrate systematic inequities in the way sanctions are applied to clients who fail to comply with participation requirements in

Sanford F. Schram; Richard C. Fording; Joe Soss

2007-01-01

315

Another school is possible: school reform in a neo-liberal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, an expanded version of a keynote presentation at the conference, highlights the links between centrally controlled and restrictive curriculum and teaching methods and neo- liberal politics. It challenges the dominant model of 'School Improvement' in the context of social inequality, and introduces some alternative pedagogies which have the potential foster a more creative, critical and socially engaged learning

Terry Wrigley

2008-01-01

316

Neo-Institutional Approaches to Firms, Governance and Society - Institutional Turns and Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Summary This proposal for a research network centred on the Department of Social Science at Roskilde University proposes a novel approach in the theoretical debate on institutional- isms and neo-institutionalisms in organisational sociology, in political science and in economics. It originates from the highly successful research network based in the same department which was coordinated by Professor Klaus Nielsen,

Steen Scheuer; É Carsten; A. Koch; É Klaus Nielsen; É Poul Bitsch Olsen; É Jacob Torfing

317

Neo-liberal higher education policy and its effects on the development of online courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the managerialist approach to developing and implementing systems for flexible delivery of educational systems in the Australian university sector. Rapid advances in communication technologies have enabled the education sector to provide greater flexibility and diversity in the traditional areas of mixed delivery and distance education. Notes that educational policy is being shaped by neo-liberal ideology, leading to

Daniel Teghe; Bruce Allen Knight

2004-01-01

318

Mapping of alpha-neo-endorphin- and neurokinin B-immunoreactivity in the human brainstem.  

PubMed

We have studied the distribution of alpha-neo-endorphin- or neurokinin B-immunoreactive fibres and cell bodies in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. A low density of alpha-neo-endorphin-immunoreactive cell bodies was only observed in the medullary central gray matter and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (gelatinosa part). Alpha-neo-endorphin-immunoreactive fibres were moderately distributed throughout the human brainstem. A high density of alpha-neo-endorphin-immunoreactive fibres was found only in the solitary nucleus (caudal part), in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (caudal part), and in the gelatinosa part of the latter nucleus. Neurokinin B-immunoreactive cell bodies (low density) were found in the periventricular central gray matter, the reticular formation of the pons and in the superior colliculus. The distribution of the neurokinin-immunoreactive fibres was restricted. In general, for both neuropeptides the density of the immunoreactive fibres was low. In the human brainstem, the proenkephalin system was more widely distributed than the prodynorphin system, and the preprotachykinin A system (neurokinin A) was more widely distributed than the preprotachykinin B system (neurokinin B). PMID:22318412

Duque, Ewing; Mangas, Arturo; Salinas, Pablo; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Angel; Coveñas, Rafael

2012-02-09

319

Confronting Neo-conservatism: Anglo-American Women's Movements under Thatcher, Reagan and Mulroney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative research on women and public policy has thus far neglected the impact of neo-conservative governments on feminist inter ests. Using data on legislative and judicial decisions in the United Kingdom, United States and Canada, this article addresses policy-making in five key issue areas before and after the elections of Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan and Brian Mulroney. Comparative results indicate

Sylvia Bashevkin

1994-01-01

320

Constructing Carbon Market Spacetime: Climate Change and the Onset of Neo-Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change represents a new era in the development of capitalism, whereby humanity has become such a force of nature so as to destabilize its own environment and ultimately threaten its survival—neo-modernity. This article explores the creation of markets to control greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon markets are an important infrastructure to enable humanity to integrate nature into its sociopolitical and

Janelle Knox-Hayes

2010-01-01

321

Reforming the World Bank: from social?liberalism to neo?liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo?liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions of power, governance and liberal government in

John Girdwood

2007-01-01

322

A Neo-Piagetian Investigation of the Serial Position Effect in Children's Motor Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's serial motor skill acquisition was studied within a neo-Piagetian framework. High and low M-processors (a designation of a child's ability to produce problem solutions) performed on a curvilinear repositioning task. A primacy-recency effect was evidenced for both groups on the age-related task, while a recency effect occurred for only…

Gerson, Richard F.; Thomas, Jerry R.

1978-01-01

323

Becoming self harm, theodicy and neo?primitive organizing – necessary evil or evil of necessity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self has emerged as integral to how we comprehend the ethos of contemporary post?bureaucratic – or what will be termed neo?primitive – organizing. In juxtaposition, and immanent, are multiple requirements for the self to be harmed, in various ways, for the purposes of achieving organizational progress. This post?structuralist composition explores how these requirements are inscribed, and desired, in different

Lloyd Gray

2008-01-01

324

When State Centralism Meets Neo-Liberalism: Managing University Governance Change in Singapore and Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, both the Singapore and Malaysia governments have introduced reforms along the lines of ideas and practices embedded in neo-liberalism. In the last decade or so, we have witnessed reforms being introduced to the higher education sectors in these Asian states,…

Mok, Ka Ho

2010-01-01

325

Educating for (whose) success? Schooling in an age of neo?liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western nations, the social and economic changes of the past 30 years have facilitated a reorientation of the focus of educational institutions. Global capitalism has placed education at the forefront of national competitiveness, and governments have responded with education policies primarily designed to serve the needs of the market. Such neo?liberal economic imperatives have been supported by a variety

Glenda McGregor

2009-01-01

326

The Mastodon in the room: how Darwinian is neo-Darwinism?  

PubMed

Failing to acknowledge substantial differences between Darwinism and neo-Darwinism impedes evolutionary biology. Darwin described evolution as the outcome of interactions between the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions, each relatively autonomous but both historically and spatially intertwined. Furthermore, he postulated that the nature of the organism was more important than the nature of the conditions, leading to natural selection as an inevitable emergent product of biological systems. The neo-Darwinian tradition assumed a creative rather than selective view of natural selection, with the nature of the organism determined by the nature of the conditions, rendering the nature of the organism and temporal contingency unnecessary. Contemporary advances in biology, specifically the phylogenetics revolution and evo-devo, underscore the significance of history and the nature of the organism in biology. Darwinism explains more biology better, and better resolves apparent anomalies between living systems and more general natural laws, than does neo-Darwinism. The "extended" or "expanded" synthesis currently called for by neo-Darwinians is Darwinism. PMID:21300319

Brooks, Daniel R

2011-01-22

327

An ‘entry level’ mission to a near Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects’ mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An ‘entry level’ mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10 kg science ‘reference’ payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of €20million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2006-10-01

328

An "entry level" mission to a Near Earth Object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects' mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An 'entry level' mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10kg science 'reference' payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of Euro 20 million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2003-11-01

329

Extended Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation. (ERA citation 02:...

M. Creutz

1976-01-01

330

Comparison of measured poloidal rotation in MAST spherical tokamak plasmas with neo-classical predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neo-classical tokamak plasma theory predicts poloidal rotation driven by the temperature gradient of a few km s-1. In conventional aspect-ratio tokamak plasmas, e.g. on JET and DIII-D, apparent poloidal velocities considerably in excess of the neo-classical values have been measured, particularly in the presence of internal transport barriers, by means of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) on the fully ionized C6+ impurity ions. Comparison between such measurements and theoretical predictions requires careful corrections to be made for apparent 'pseudo' velocities, which can arise from the finite lifetime of the excited atoms in the magnetized plasma and the energy dependence of the charge-exchange excitation process. In present day spherical tokamak plasmas this correction is an order of magnitude smaller than on large conventional tokamaks, which operate at higher temperature and magnetic field, hence reducing any associated systematic uncertainties. On MAST measurements of toroidal and poloidal flows of the C6+ impurities are available from high-resolution Doppler CXRS measurements, including appropriate corrections for the pseudo-velocities. Comparison of the measured C6+ velocities with neo-classical theory requires calculation of the impurity flow, which differs from that of the bulk ions due to the respective diamagnetic contributions for each species and inter-species friction forces. Comparisons are made with the predictions of a recent neo-classical theory (Newton 2007 Collisional transport in a low collisionality plasma with strong rotation PhD Thesis University of Bristol, Newton and Helander 2006 Phys. Plasmas 13 102505), which calculates the full neo-classical transport matrix for bulk ions and a single impurity species for a strongly rotating plasma, as well as those of a simpler neo-classical theory (Kim et al 1991 Phys. Fluids B 3 2050-9) for an impure plasma and the NCLASS code (Houlberg et al 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 3230-42). Initial results for both L- and H-mode plasmas show that, within the measurement uncertainties, the measured poloidal rotation of the core plasma is consistent with the neo-classical predictions.

Field, A. R.; McCone, J.; Conway, N. J.; Dunstan, M.; Newton, S.; Wisse, M.

2009-10-01

331

A prospective nonrandomized comparison of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication in Indian population using detailed objective and subjective criteria  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) worldwide. However, unfavourable postoperative sequel, including gas bloat and dysphagia, has encouraged surgeons to perform alternative procedures such as laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF). This prospective nonrandomized study was designed to compare LNF with LTF in patients with GERD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred and ten patients symptomatic for GERD were included in the study after having received intensive acid suppression therapy for a minimum of 8 weeks. A 24-hour pH metry was done on all patients. Fifty patients having reflux on 24-hour pH metry were taken up for the surgery. Patients were further divided into group-A (LNF) and group-B (LTF). RESULTS: The median percentage time with esophageal pH < 4 decreased from 10.18% and 12.31% preoperatively to 0.85% and 1.94% postoperatively in LNF and LTF-groups, respectively. There was a significant and comparable increase in length of lower esophageal sphincter (LES), length of intraabdominal part of LES and LES pressure at respiratory inversion point in both the groups. In LNF-group, five patients had early dysphagia that improved afterwards. There were no significant postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: LNF and LTF are highly effective in the management of GERD with significant improvement in symptoms and objective parameters. LNF may be associated with significantly higher incidence of short onset transient dysphagia that improves with time. Patients in both the groups showed excellent symptom and objective control on 24-hour pH metry on short term follow-up.

Lal, Pawanindra; Leekha, Nitin; Chander, Jagdish; Dewan, Richa; Ramteke, Vinod K.

2012-01-01

332

On The Distribution Of Angular Orbital Elements Of Near-earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longitude of ascending node ? and the argument of periapsis ? are expected to be randomly distributed for near-Earth objects (NEOs). However, the distribution of these angles for the Apollo, Amor and Aten subclasses, considered separately, shows some striking non-random features. We explain how these features arise due to observational biases. The distribution of ? has maxima near 0 and 180° and is affected by observational difficulty due to the galactic plane at the opposition and other seasonal effects. The ? distributions of Aten and Amor subclasses have minima at 90° and 270° while Apollos have minima at 0 and 180°. This is explained by the greater detectability of NEOs at close approach to Earth. The longitude of perihelion ?+? also has a strongly non-random distribution that may be owed to actual dynamical effects. Understanding the distribution of unobserved NEOs will help to improve planning for the next generation of NEO surveys. A better understanding of the intrinsic distribution of NEOs is important for estimating the impact hazard at Earth; it is also important for understanding the impact history of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

2012-05-01

333

NERO: General concept of a NEO radiometric observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

NERO (Near-Earth Objects Radiometric Observatory) is one of the six studies for possible missions dedicated to near-Earth objects, that were funded by the ESA in 2002-2003. NERO is a further development of previous studies already submitted to ESA (Sysiphos,Spaceguard-1). The general concept is that a small satellite equipped with both a CCD for visible wavelengths and an array for thermal

A. Cellino; R. Somma; L. Tommasi; R. Paolinetti; K. Muinonen; J. Virtanen; E. F. Tedesco

2004-01-01

334

Deciphering neo-sex and B chromosome evolution by the draft genome of Drosophila albomicans  

PubMed Central

Background Drosophila albomicans is a unique model organism for studying both sex chromosome and B chromosome evolution. A pair of its autosomes comprising roughly 40% of the whole genome has fused to the ancient X and Y chromosomes only about 0.12 million years ago, thereby creating the youngest and most gene-rich neo-sex system reported to date. This species also possesses recently derived B chromosomes that show non-Mendelian inheritance and significantly influence fertility. Methods We sequenced male flies with B chromosomes at 124.5-fold genome coverage using next-generation sequencing. To characterize neo-Y specific changes and B chromosome sequences, we also sequenced inbred female flies derived from the same strain but without B's at 28.5-fold. Results We assembled a female genome and placed 53% of the sequence and 85% of the annotated proteins into specific chromosomes, by comparison with the 12 Drosophila genomes. Despite its very recent origin, the non-recombining neo-Y chromosome shows various signs of degeneration, including a significant enrichment of non-functional genes compared to the neo-X, and an excess of tandem duplications relative to other chromosomes. We also characterized a B-chromosome linked scaffold that contains an actively transcribed unit and shows sequence similarity to the subcentromeric regions of both the ancient X and the neo-X chromosome. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the very early stages of sex chromosome evolution and B chromosome origination, and suggest an unprecedented connection between the births of these two systems in D. albomicans.

2012-01-01

335

Objective fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the long-standing problem of plotting atmospheric fronts objectively. A thermodynamic definition of a front is proposed. Time-independent diagnostic quantities are then devised according to this definition. These can be computed from any gridded dataset. Fronts are then plotted, without human intervention, by utilising standard graphics package facilities, such as contouring, to represent the diagnostics. The methodology includes applying threshold criteria to erase automatically fronts which are thermally weak. By tuning these criteria a good match with subjective fronts is obtained. In addition, the objective surface fronts very often coincide with troughs in surface pressure, implying that a thermodynamic definition is sufficient. The objective front-plotting is further developed to recognise split fronts, and ana- and kata-front characteristics. Many examples are presented; these illustrate how objective fronts are potentially a very powerful tool for both forecasting and research. At the Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology plots and animations showing objective fronts have been produced on a daily basis for many months now.

Hewson, T. D.

1998-03-01

336

Subsurface momentum coupling analysis for near-earth-object orbital management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momentum coupling methods are analyzed for near-Earth object (NEO) orbit modification that can use either conventional explosives (HE) or nuclear explosives (NE) effectively. Enhancing momentum coupling reduces the explosive yield needed to achieve a particular orbital alteration, which, in turn, reduces the number of launch vehicles needed while also eliminating (for the HE case) or minimizing radioactive contamination and associated

P. M. Sforza

1995-01-01

337

Objective functions.  

PubMed

Multiple sequence alignment involves alignment of more than two sequences and is an NP-complete problem. Therefore, heuristic algorithms that use different criteria to find an approximation to the optimal solution are employed. At the heart of these approaches lie the scoring and objective functions that a given algorithm uses to compare competing solutions in constructing a multiple sequence alignment. These objective functions are often motivated by the biological paradigms that govern functional similarities and evolutionary relations. Most existing approaches utilize a progressive process where the final alignment is constructed sequentially by adding new sequences into an existing multiple sequence alignment matrix, which is dynamically updated. In doing this, the core scoring function to assess accuracies of pairwise alignments generally remains the same, while the objective functions used in intermediary steps differ. Nevertheless, the overall assessment of the final multiple sequence alignment is generally calculated by an extension of pairwise scorings. In this chapter, we explore different scoring and objective functions used in calculating the accuracy and optimization of a multiple sequence alignment and provide utilization of these criteria in popularly used multiple sequence alignment algorithms. PMID:24170394

Do?an, Haluk; Otu, Hasan H

2014-01-01

338

Objectively Speaking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resources is a column on how to write learning objectives for a course and why they make everything you do thereafter (e.g. planning syllabi and class sessions, making up assignments and exams, and reviewing departmental curricula) easier and more effective. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Felder, Richard M., 1939-; Brent, Rebecca, 1956-

2009-12-18

339

Near Earth Objects - a threat and an opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade the hazard posed to the Earth by Near Earth Objects (NEOs) has generated considerable scientific and public interest. A number of major films, television programmes and media reports have brought the issue to public attention. From an educational perspective an investigation into NEOs and the effects of impacts on the Earth forms a topical and dynamic basis for study in a huge range of subjects, not just scientific. There are clear routes to chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, but history, psychology, geography, palaeontology and geology are just a selection of other subjects involved. A number of projects have been established, mainly in the USA, to determine the extent of the hazard, and to develop ways of countering it, but the present situation is far from satisfactory. Current detection and follow-up programmes are underfunded and lack international coordination.

Tate, Jonathan R.

2003-05-01

340

Properties and In-situ Space Investigations of Neos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progenitors of the Near Earth Objects are mainly asteroids and cometary nuclei, which were formed in different regions of the solar system, corresponding to different temperatures and compositions. Recent studies of their physical properties actually reveal a wide diversity, as well as some unexpected results. The determination of the density of some asteroids demonstrates that their composition could be

A. Ch. Levasseur-Regourd

2002-01-01

341

Tectonomagmatic Evolution of the Neo - Tethyan Region in the Iranian Continental Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic history of Neo - Tethyan realm in Iran began with the rifting of the Central Iranian Block (CIB) separated from Arabia and Gondwana during Late Permian - Early Triassic time. This realm travelled to the north to creation of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. The subduction of the Neo-Tethys could start to the south of the Central Iranian Block at Late Triassic to Plio-Quaternary time. The subduction of the Neo - Tethyan ocean beneath the active continental margin of the Iranian block was established by arc magmatism and back - arc spreading. These magmatic activities are marked from SW to NE by the presence of: calc-alkaline arc magmatism from Late Triassic to Late Jurassic in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), back - arc spreading with Late Cretaceous in the Esfandagheh Colour Melange Zone (ECMZ), back-arc spreading with Late Cretaceous - Palaeocene Nain-Baft Ophiolitic Belt (NBOB) and calc-alkaline arc magmatism from Eocene to Plio-Quaternary in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Zone (UDMZ). Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic zone has been considered as a place for the main magmatic activities in the Central Iranian continent in the Cenozoic age. This magmatic arc is situated to the North of the Mesozoic arc of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone and the back-arc basin of the Central Iranian Block of Cretaceous age. During Oligocene-Miocene time the magmatic activity favored to alkaline magmatism. Geochemical data confirm the presence of transtensional tectonic setting along the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic zone, opened during Paleogene and early Neogene due to the collision of the Arabia platform and Central Iranian continent. These magmatic activities are linked to the subduction of the Neo-Tethys to the North below the CIB, followed by the Paleogene collision and continental subduction of the Gondwana (Arabia) beneath the CIB along the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT). Keywords: Neo - Tethys; Gondwana; Central Iranian Block (CIB); Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ); Esfandagheh Colour Melange Zone (ECMZ); Nain-Baft Ophiolitic Belt (NBOB); Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Zone (UDMZ)

Monsef, R.; Monsef, I.; Rahgoshay, M.; Emami, M. H.; Shafaii Moghadam, H.

2009-04-01

342

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.  

PubMed

The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

2013-08-27

343

Macroevolution via secondary endosymbiosis: a Neo-Goldschmidtian view of unicellular hopeful monsters and Darwin's primordial intermediate form.  

PubMed

Seventy-five years ago, the geneticist Richard Goldschmidt hypothesized that single mutations affecting development could result in major phenotypic changes in a single generation to produce unique organisms within animal populations that he called "hopeful monsters". Three decades ago, Sarah P. Gibbs proposed that photosynthetic unicellular micro-organisms like euglenoids and dinoflagellates are the products of a process now called "secondary endosymbiosis" (i.e., the evolution of a chloroplast surrounded by three or four membranes resulting from the incorporation of a eukaryotic alga by a eukaryotic heterotrophic host cell). In this article, we explore the evidence for Goldschmidt's "hopeful monster" concept and expand the scope of this theory to include the macroevolutionary emergence of organisms like Euglena and Chlorarachnion from secondary endosymbiotic events. We argue that a Neo-Goldschmidtian perspective leads to the conclusion that cell chimeras such as euglenids and dinoflagellates, which are important groups of phytoplankton in freshwater and marine ecosystems, should be interpreted as "successful monsters". In addition, we argue that Charles Darwin had euglenoids (infusoria) in mind when he speculated on the "primordial intermediate form", although his Proto-Euglena-hypothesis for the origin of the last common ancestor of all forms of life is no longer acceptable. PMID:18581157

Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

2008-06-26

344

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2007-01-01

345

Ice Issues, Porosity and Snow Experiments for Dynamic NEO and Comet Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Category 0 NEO bodies, such as many comets, appear to be comprised largely of porous ice. Quasi-static and dynamic properties of ice are expected to control the corresponding properties of Category 0 NEO material. These properties depend on temperature, strain rate, and possibly sample history. Corrections must be made of porosity and the presence of impurities such as silicates. These corrections reflect the added complexity of energy partitioning in a porous, inhomogeneous material as well as added P x Delta V work during compression. A study of the dynamic (shock) properties of natural snow over the stress range 0-4 GPa is described. Comparison of the results of this study with computational modeling suggests that existing ice models with introduced porosity are applicable in some regimes, while water models with introduced porosity provide better fidelity in other regimes.

Furnish, M. D.; Remo, John L.

1997-05-01

346

Sounds of hate: White power rock and roll and the neo?nazi skinhead subculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the most violent sub?group of a variety of contemporary right?wing extremist organizations ? neo?Nazi skinheads. Specifically, I argue that in order to understand the growth and violent nature of this subculture it is necessary to address the important role played by its main propaganda tool called white power rock and roll. After reviewing the close relationship

John M. Cotter

1999-01-01

347

NEOREALIST AND NEO-GRAMSCIAN HEGEMONY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION DURING THE 1990's  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article aims to explain international relations and conflict resolution in combination with the neorealist and neo-Gramscian notions of the hegemony during the 1990s. In the first part, it focuses on neorealist hegemony theories. The Hegemonic Stability Theory (HST) is tested for viability as an explanatory tool of the Cold-War world politics and conflict resolution. Because of the limitations of

Sezai ÖZÇELK

348

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE IN AN AGE OF NEO-DARWINIAN APOLOGETICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a reflection on the shift in the role of philosophers vis-à-vis scientists from 'philosophers of science' to 'philosophers for science', what I have called the 'underlabourer syndrome'. One consequence of this syndrome in the case of Neo-Darwinism is that the theory has become rife with internal interpretive tensions, which philosophers have tolerated by loosening their own criteria

STEVE FULLER

2009-01-01

349

The TV makeover as site of neo-liberal reinvention toward bourgeois femininity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, through an examination of mostly British make-over television programs we examine how the feminine has become a new site of limitless possibility and endless consumption, the fulcrum of intensifying processes of neo-liberal reinvention of continuously making over the self into successful, post-feminist bourgeois subjects. We argue that the central premise of contemporary make-over programs is the question:

Jessica Ringrose; Valerie Walkerdine

350

Royleanumin, a new phytotoxic neo-clarodane diterpenoid from Teucrium royleanum.  

PubMed

Here we report the isolation and structure elucidation of a new phytotoxic neo-clerodane diterpenoid, royleanumin (1), along with known constituents, ursolic acid and beta-amyrin. Its structure was deduced by spectral studies including NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometric techniques and by the comparison with reported data. The compound was assayed for its phytotoxicity against lettuce seedlings. Royleanumin (1) exhibit strong activity and can be proposed as lead chemical for the development of a new environmentally friendly herbicide. PMID:23074889

Ahmad, Shabir; Arfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Naheed; Ullah, Riaz; Shah, Ziarat; Shah, Azhar Ul-Haq Ali

2012-09-01

351

Human Astrocytes Inhibit Cryptococcus Neos Growth by a Nitric Oxide-mediated Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungus that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in 5-10% of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is characterized by a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, accumulation of encapsulated forms of C. neo- s6rmans, and varying degrees of glial reaction. Little is known about the contribution of endogenous central nervous system cells to the pathogenesis of cryptococcal infections.

Sunhee C. Lee; Dennis W. Dickson; Celia F. Brosnan; Arturo Casadevall

1994-01-01

352

Personality change following head injury: Assessment with the neo five-factor inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 months postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the five personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. Twenty-eight trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than

Engelien Lannoo; Cathy De Deyne; Francis Colardyn; Geert De Soete; Constantin Jannes

1997-01-01

353

Introduction: NeoLiberalism, State Power and Global Governance in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few more vital contemporary questions for political scientists than those that emanate from the relationship between\\u000a neo-liberalism, the exercise of state power, and the institutions and practice of global governance. Since the demise during\\u000a the early 1970s of the first ‘Washington Consensus’ provided by the capital controls and fixed exchange rate system of the\\u000a Bretton Woods international economic

Simon Lee; Stephen Mcbride

354

The Architecture of Dublin's NeoClassical Roman Catholic Temples 1803-62  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the architecture of Dublin’s 19th century neo-classical Catholic churches. The period under examination starts in 1803 with the campaign to build a new church in the Archbishop’s parish for the Catholic inhabitants of the city. This church, which later became known as the Pro-Cathedral, was opened for worship in 1825, and completed 1841 with the building of

Brendan Grimes

2005-01-01

355

Numerical simulation of electron cyclotron current drive in magnetic islands of neo-classical tearing mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been numerically simulated in magnetic islands caused by neo-classical tearing modes. The electron drift orbits are tracked with the Coulomb collisions and the quasi-linear diffusion by EC waves, which are simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The EC resonance region is assumed to be located around the O-point and localized in the toroidal direction. The

K. Hamamatsu; T. Takizuka; N. Hayashi; T. Ozeki

2007-01-01

356

Constructing the religious Self and the Other: neo-traditional Salafi manhaj  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion on how a contemporary Islamic school of thought, here referred to as neo-traditional Salafism (NTS) constructs the religious Self and the religious Other on the basis of their approach to the interpretation (manhaj) of relevant Qur'an–Sunna textual indicants forms the subject matter of this article. In the first section, NTS thought and its main proponents are defined in

Adis Duderija

2010-01-01

357

Social class differences in intellectual development: A Neo-Piagetian investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a recently developed neo-Piagetian theory by J. Pascual-Leone (1969), performance on Piagetian tasks depends on 4 distinct factors: (a) the S's repertoire of task-related schemes, (b) the S's repertoire of general executive schemes, (c) the S's mental space (a maturational variable which determines the maximum number of schemes he can coordinate simultaneously), and (d) the S's degree of

Robbie Case

1975-01-01

358

History of Bhutan's prohibition of cigarettes: Implications for neo-prohibitionists and their critics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecently, cigarette neo-prohibitionists have argued that a cigarette ban can be obtained from a de-facto phase-out of cigarettes based on a combination of effective anti-tobacco regulations and high taxes in conjunction with aggressive application of nicotine replacement therapies. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether these claims were valid in Bhutan, which enacted a national cigarette sales prohibition

Michael S. Givel

2011-01-01

359

Tetraponerines, toxic alkaloids in the venom of the Neo-Guinean pseudomyrmecine ant Tetraponera sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neo-Guinean pseudomyrmecine ant,Tetraponera sp. utilizes its modified sting to smear upon enemies a contact poison with strong deterring and toxic properties. The venom, which originates from the poison gland, contains a mixture of eight closely related, alkaloids (tetraponerine-1 to -8). The structure of tetraponerine-8 was established by an X-ray diffraction analysis and was reported previously. The structure of five

P. Merlin; J. C. Braekman; D. Daloze; J. M. Pasteels

1988-01-01

360

Neo-roman liberalism: “republican” values and British liberalism, ca. 1860–1875  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contribution to the liberalism-republicanism debate from a political historian's point of view, this essay focuses on Britain in the mid-Victorian period—arguably the golden age of modern liberalism. The first part argues that the writings and political ideas of the leading liberal thinkers were imbued with ‘neo-roman’ values, including participatory citizenship, civic virtue and concern for the common good. The

E. F. Biagini

2003-01-01

361

The Neo-Confucian right and family politics in South Korea: The nuclear family as an ideological construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous issues of Economy and Society, Somerville and Durham debated the moralization of neo-liberal family policy. The conservative politics of the family has been moralized not only in Anglo-American societies but also in South Korea. From a neo-Confucian perspective, many conservative politicians and even scholars have found a convenient scapegoat in the nuclear family as the main cause of

Kyung-Sup Chang

1997-01-01

362

Neo-Tethyan Ocean evolution of southwest Tibet inferred from a melange structurally beneath the Kiogar ophiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-collisional tectonic evolution of Neo-Tethyan Ocean is best recorded in the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone (YTSZ) ophiolite complexes and associated melanges, one of which occurs in the Kiogar area of SW Tibet. Structural, sedimentological, palaeontological and geochemical work on a subophiolitic melange has been carried out in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this part of the Neo-Tethyan

G. H. Chan; J. Aitchison; J. S. Chan; M. Searle

2007-01-01

363

Some comments on a factor analysis of the 16PF and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.  

PubMed

This paper comments on unusual results recently published by Byravan and Ramanaiah. Their factor analysis of the 16PF and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised showed the scales of the two tests to be largely unrelated. However, two recent factor analyses of these tests show strong relationships between the two sets of global factors--as strong as between the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised five factors and Goldberg's big-five factors. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. PMID:8643796

Cattell, H E

1995-12-01

364

neoGRID: enabling access to teragrid resources application for sialylmotif analysis in the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neoGRID is under development in Quarry, a virtual hosting environment, for working with Taverna-based workflow utilizing grid computing. Taverna is a graphical workbench often used for biomedical informatics [1, and the references therein]. neoGRID is designed to offer a HPC-supported collaborative environment for the researchers from multidisciplinary scientific fields to gather data, integrate and analyze using teragrid resources. A

Arun K. Datta; Becca Eller; Anthony P. Sinai

2011-01-01

365

Is management accounting theory breaking free from the shackles of neo-classical economics? A South African perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the extent that management accounting is based on neo-classical economics, all decision-making is assumed to be rational, aimed at utility or profit maximisation and all circumstances influencing decisions are accepted as stationary. The approach excludes all social, cultural or historical considerations and is based on perfect information that is freely available. Neo-classical economics further assumes that minimum government intervention,

M Shotter

366

Space weathering on near-Earth objects investigated by neutral-particle detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion-sputtering (IS) process is active in many planetary environments in the solar system where plasma precipitates directly on the surface (for instance, Mercury, Moon and Europa). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth object (NEO), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption (PSD), thermal desorption (TD) and micrometeoroid impact vaporization (MIV). The energy distribution of the IS-released neutrals peaks at a few eVs and extends up to hundreds of eVs. Since all other release processes produce particles of lower energies, the presence of neutral atoms in the energy range above 10 eV and below a few keVs (sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA)) identifies the IS process. SHEA easily escape from the NEO, due to NEO's extremely weak gravity. Detection and analysis of SHEA will give important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. The investigation of the active release processes, as a function of the external conditions and the NEO surface properties, is crucial for obtaining a clear view of the body's present loss rate as well as for getting clues on its evolution, which depends significantly on space weather. In this work, an attempt to analyze processes that take place on the surface of these small airless bodies, as a result of their exposure to the space environment, has been realized. For this reason, a new space weathering model (space weathering on NEO-SPAWN) is presented. Moreover, an instrument concept of a neutral-particle analyzer specifically designed for the measurement of neutral density and the detection of SHEA from a NEO is proposed.

Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Mura, A.; de Angelis, E.; di Lellis, A. M.; Dotto, E.; Livi, S.; Mangano, V.; Palumbo, M. E.

2009-04-01

367

Space weathering on near-Earth objects investigated by neutral-particle detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ion-sputtering (IS) process is active in many planetary environments in the solar system where plasma precipitates directly on the surface (for instance, Mercury, Moon and Europa). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth object (NEO), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption (PSD), thermal desorption (TD) and micrometeoroid impact vaporization (MIV). The energy distribution of the IS-released neutrals peaks at a few eVs and extends up to hundreds of eVs. Since all other release processes produce particles of lower energies, the presence of neutral atoms in the energy range above 10 eV and below a few keVs (sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA)) identifies the IS process. SHEA easily escape from the NEO, due to NEO's extremely weak gravity. Detection and analysis of SHEA will give important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. The investigation of the active release processes, as a function of the external conditions and the NEO surface properties, is crucial for obtaining a clear view of the body's present loss rate as well as for getting clues on its evolution, which depends significantly on space weather. In this work, an attempt to analyze processes that take place on the surface of these small airless bodies, as a result of their exposure to the space environment, has been realized. For this reason, a new space weathering model (space weathering on NEO-SPAWN) is presented. Moreover, an instrument concept of a neutral-particle analyzer specifically designed for the measurement of neutral density and the detection of SHEA from a NEO is proposed.

Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Mura, A.; De Angelis, E.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Dotto, E.; Livi, S.; Mangano, V.; Massetti, S.; Palumbo, M. E.

2009-03-01

368

Progressive Recombination Suppression and Differentiation in Recently Evolved Neo-sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Recombination suppression leads to the structural and functional differentiation of sex chromosomes and is thus a crucial step in the process of sex chromosome evolution. Despite extensive theoretical work, the exact processes and mechanisms of recombination suppression and differentiation are not well understood. In threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a different sex chromosome system has recently evolved by a fusion between the Y chromosome and an autosome in the Japan Sea lineage, which diverged from the ancestor of other lineages approximately 2 Ma. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics and differentiation processes of sex chromosomes based on comparative analyses of these divergent lineages using 63 microsatellite loci. Both chromosome-wide differentiation patterns and phylogenetic inferences with X and Y alleles indicated that the ancestral sex chromosomes were extensively differentiated before the divergence of these lineages. In contrast, genetic differentiation appeared to have proceeded only in a small region of the neo-sex chromosomes. The recombination maps constructed for the Japan Sea lineage indicated that recombination has been suppressed or reduced over a large region spanning the ancestral and neo-sex chromosomes. Chromosomal regions exhibiting genetic differentiation and suppressed or reduced recombination were detected continuously and sequentially in the neo-sex chromosomes, suggesting that differentiation has gradually spread from the fusion point following the extension of recombination suppression. Our study illustrates an ongoing process of sex chromosome differentiation, providing empirical support for the theoretical model postulating that recombination suppression and differentiation proceed in a gradual manner in the very early stage of sex chromosome evolution.

Natri, Heini M.; Shikano, Takahito; Merila, Juha

2013-01-01

369

The Late Eocene climatic transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions in the Neo- Tethys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle Eocene to early Oligocene period represents the most important transition in Earth's climate: from greenhouse conditions to the icehouse conditions of the present day. This global transition was preceded by long-term cooling with superposed short-term variations in various marine proxies, which indicate instability in the paleoceanographic state prior to the key climatic transition. I integrate previous multidisciplinary studies with recent data and summarize interpretations from Massignano section (Eocene/Oligocene boundary Global Stratotype Section and Point , Umbria-Marche basin), the Contessa Highway section (Gubbio, proposed Lutetian/Bartonian boundary), and ODP 738B. Based on the many data sets from this sections, with an emphasis on the rock magnetic data, I propose that the fluctuations and final cessation of a westward sub-tropical Eocene Neo-Tethys (STENT) current was a driver in the climatic transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. I propose the STENT current hypothesis, which aim to explain that global variations in climatic conditions were synchronous with large variations in circulation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Tectonic closure of the gateway between the Arabian and Eurasian plates represents a threshold that caused late Eocene paleoceanographic variations in the Neo-Tethys and in global ocean circulation. The hypothesis is based on new paleomagnetic and environmental studies of Eocene sequences from the Tethys sector and Indian Ocean drill core, which provide important insights about the timing and nature of paleoclimatic events and sedimentary processes that affected the Eocene oceans.

Jovane, L.

2008-12-01

370

Feasibility study for near-earth-object tracking by a piggybacked micro-satellite with penetrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of August 2007, over 5000 near-earth-objects (NEO) have been discovered. Some already represent a potential danger to the Earth while others might become hazards in the future. The Planetary Society organised in 2007 the "Apophis Mission Design Competition" in response to this potential threat with the objective to identify promising concepts to track NEOs; the asteroid 99942 Apophis was taken as the study case. This paper describes the "Houyi" proposal which was evaluated by the competition jury as an innovative approach to this problem. Instead of launching a large satellite for NEO tracking, this novel concept proposes a miniaturized satellite that is piggybacked onto a larger (scientific) mission. Such mission design would drastically reduce the costs for NEO surveillance. The presented scenario uses the ESA's SOLO mission as a design baseline for the piggyback option. This paper summarizes the architecture of this CubeSat towards Apophis and extends the previous study by focusing on the feasibility of a piggybacked mission in terms of propulsion requirements.

Weiss, P.; Leung, W.; Yung, K. L.

2010-05-01

371

Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?  

PubMed Central

Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future.

Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

2006-01-01

372

Factor analytic studies of the neo personality inventory and the five-factor model: The problem of high structural complexity and conceptual indeterminacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was threefold: (1) to analyze the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the five-factor model—using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)—with the aim of establishing a Norwegian version of the instrument; (2) to compare the results of the analyses with the original NEO-PI simple structure five-factor models as well as later revisions

Olav Vassend; Anders Skrondal

1995-01-01

373

The five-factor model (NEO-FFI) and The Personality Deviance Scales-Revised (PDS-R): going around in interpersonal circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two dimensions of the Personality Deviance Scales-Revised [PDS-R; Deary, I.J., Bedford, A., & Fowkes, F.G.R. (1995). The Personality Deviance Scales: their development, associations, factor structure and restructuring. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 175–291], the five NEO-Five Factor Inventory Adult Form S domains [NEO-FFI; Costa Jr., P.T., & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory and five-factor inventory professional manual.

M. C. Whiteman; A. Bedford; E. Grant; F. G. R. Fowkes; I. J. Deary

2001-01-01

374

Neo-liberal reforms in Japan's tuna fisheries? A history of government-business relations in a food-producing sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-liberalism refers to a public policy mix that is market oriented, pro-trade liberalization and advocates minimal state intervention in the economy. Japanese governance has arguably not been based on neo-liberal principles, and some see this as contributing to Japan's long-running recession. In 2001 Prime Minister Koizumi came to power promising neo-liberal reform. This paper presents a history of government involvement

Kate Barclay; Sun-Hui Koh

2008-01-01

375

From collapsing states to neo-trusteeship: the limits to solving the problem of ‘precarious statehood’ in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is neo-trusteeship an appropriate response to the challenge of ‘precarious statehood’? To the extent that contemporary trusteeship-like arrangements have been at all successful, it is questionable how much utility they may have beyond the few cases to which they have been applied. There are alternatives to neo-trusteeship, some of which employ similar principles (notably ‘shared sovereignty’), but, like neo-trusteeship, they

Richard Caplan

2007-01-01

376

The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five factor model of personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sets out examine the relationship between two personality measures—most popularly used measure in the consultancy and training world (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and one of the most heavily used measures in the academic research area on personality (the five factor NEO-PI). One hundred and sixty adults completed the NEO-PI and the MBTI. The NEO-PI Agreeableness score was correlated

Adrian Furnham

1996-01-01

377

Neo-osseous flaps using demineralized allogeneic bone in a rat model.  

PubMed

Surgical reconstruction with revascularized bone grafts can be compromised by donor tissue limitations and may be refined by prefabrication of compound neoflaps using bone substitutes. The principal suitability of demineralized allogeneic bone (DALB) slabs in fabricating neo-osseous flaps based on the inferior epigastric vascular system was studied and compared with neoflaps with autologous bone (AUB). In 45 rats, the histological pattern of bone formation in response to angiogenesis induced by vessel implantation was assessed, and characteristics of vascularization of the neoflap were studied microangiographically at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Histological techniques included decalcified and nondecalcified sections, as well as intravital polyfluorochrome labeling. Blood flow of the neoflap was also assessed quantitatively using 15-microm microspheres labeled with technetium 99-methylene diphosphate (99-MDP) 8 weeks after flap fabrication. Although the DALB neoflaps showed consistent bone formation and neovascularization, the bone regeneration process was delayed distinctly in comparison with AUB. Microangiographically, however, no differences between the two types of grafts became apparent during all time periods tested. Furthermore, the radioactivity of the DALB neoflap, which means bone blood flow per dry weight, was significantly higher than in AUB grafts and even more than that of intact iliac bone (p = 0.001). The exact meaning of elevated blood flow in DALB and similar degrees of vascularization corresponding to native AUB grafts remains to be determined, but may be a sign of ongoing bone formation resulting in a suitable DALB-containing neo-osseous flap in the long term. The authors findings support that allogeneic bone could be a potential substitute for AUB in creating a prefabricated neo-osseous flap. PMID:10696048

Lee, J H; Cornelius, C P; Schwenzer, N

2000-02-01

378

Synergistic effect of a novel cyclic pentadepsipeptide, neoN-methylsansalvamide, and paclitaxel on human multidrug resistance cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

NeoN-methylsansalvamide is a novel low-molecular-weight cyclic pentadepsipeptide that exerts cytotoxic effects on various human cancer cell lines. Its structural analysis using liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry showed the cyclic structure sequence -phenylalanine-leucine-valine-N-methylleucine-leucic acid-. The intrinsic cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal effects of neoN-methylsansalvamide were evaluated on the human cancer cell lines MES-SA and HCT15 as well as on their multidrug resistance sublines (MES-SA/DX5 and HCT15/CL05, respectively) using the sulforhodamine B assay. The EC50 values of paclitaxel for MES-SA, HCT15, and for the multidrug resistance sublines MES-SA/DX5 and HCT15/CL05 were 1.00±0.20, 0.85±0.63, 10.00±0.53, and >1000 nmol/l, respectively. However, the EC50 values for paclitaxel including 3 ?mol/l neoN-methylsansalvamide for MES-SA/DX5, HCT15, and HCT15/CL02 were 1.58±0.12, 0.10±0.02, and 288.40±21.02 nmol/l, respectively. The in-vitro multidrug resistance reversal activity of neoN-methylsansalvamide was similar to that of the control verapamil. These finding suggests that a novel cyclic pentadepsipeptide, neoN-methylsansalvamide, is effective in reversing multidrug resistance in vitro, and this activity may be a major applicable biological function of this compound. PMID:23411682

Lee, Hee-Seok; Phat, Chanvorleak; Choi, Sang-Un; Lee, Chan

2013-06-01

379

Bioactive neo-clerodane diterpenoids from the whole plants of Ajuga ciliata Bunge.  

PubMed

Ten new neo-clerodane diterpenes, ajugaciliatins A-J (1-5, 8-12), along with 17 known analogues (6, 7, 13-27) were isolated from the whole plants of Ajuga ciliata Bunge. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the configuration of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. All of the compounds were assessed for neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell death in dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Compounds 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15-17, 19, and 20 exhibited moderate neuroprotective effects. PMID:21682262

Guo, Ping; Li, Yushan; Xu, Jing; Liu, Cuizhou; Ma, Yonggang; Guo, Yuanqiang

2011-06-17

380

ITANET CCD camera for Near-Earth Objects photometric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) observational research programme undertaken at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Catania University, a CCD camera was developed to be used at the 41/61-cm Schmidt telescope of M.G. Fracastoro station. The camera, equipped with BVRI Johnson filters and mounting a bare, front-illuminated 2048×2048 Kodak KAF-4202 CCD with 9 ?m pixel-size, was realised at the Catania Astrophysical Observatory Laboratory for Detectors (COLD). The optimisation of the operating conditions of both electronics and cryogenics and the CCD characterisation are presented.

Gandolfi, D.; Blanco, C.; Bonanno, G.; Belluso, M.; Bruno, P.; Calí, A.; Scuderi, S.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Claudi, R. U.

381

Development of a handbook and an on-line tool on defending Earth against Potentially Hazardous Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A credible Potentially Hazardous Object (PHO) threat may be identified sometime in the future, requiring actions to be taken to prevent an impact disaster. To negate that threat, mitigation techniques are being proposed where the potential for collision is unacceptably high. The Aerospace Corporation is developing a handbook for Near Earth Object (NEO) deflection and a complementary web-based NEO deflection interactive tool. The purpose of the tool is to aid in the design and understanding of the deflection impulses necessary for defending Earth against threatening objects and in the analysis and comparison of various techniques that might be used to provide those impulses. The handbook and the associated web-based resource center will provide first-order requirements for effective NEO deflection missions using a variety of deflection concepts. The resources will include educational materials on NEO threats and deflection concepts, as well as examples demonstrating the use of the handbook and web-based tool. A project overview and status are presented.

Melamed, Nahum

2013-09-01

382

Determination of neo- and d-chiro-Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soils by Solution 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and d-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and d-chiro-IP6 and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable 31P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP6) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of d-chiro-IP6) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46–54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (d-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and d-chiro-IP6 occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and d-chiro-IP6 in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP6 stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds.

2012-01-01

383

Neo-adjuvant (pre-emptive) cisplatin therapy in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.  

PubMed

Following 2 pilot studies which showed 57 and 61% response rates to intravenous cisplatin for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder prior to definitive treatment, the West Midlands Urological Research Group (WMURG) and the Australian Bladder Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) independently began randomised trials to test the survival benefit of neo-adjuvant intravenous cisplatin prior to radiotherapy in T2-T4 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Both trials failed to recruit their target numbers of 250 patients in the West Midlands and 320 in Australia. Since they had similar treatment protocols and eligibility criteria, they were combined in an overview analysis, achieving a total number of 255 patients. Each treatment group was compared with its own control group and the differences were pooled to give an overall result. There was no difference in survival between treated and control patients. The odds ratio was 1.13 with the control groups faring marginally better than the chemotherapy groups. Even with 255 patients the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio was wide (0.80-1.57). Although there is no clear evidence of a clinically worthwhile benefit from neo-adjuvant cisplatin, this approach must be tested in a larger study using combination treatments with greater activity in metastatic disease. PMID:2070206

Wallace, D M; Raghavan, D; Kelly, K A; Sandeman, T F; Conn, I G; Teriana, N; Dunn, J; Boulas, J; Latief, T

1991-06-01

384

Current Status of Intensified Neo-Adjuvant Systemic Therapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

The addition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its prodrug capecitabine to radiotherapy (RT) is a standard approach in the neo-adjuvant treatment of patients with rectal tumors extending beyond the muscularis propria (stage II) and/or with clinical evidence of regional lymph node metastases (stage III). According to European randomized trials, the combined treatment modality resulted in favorable local control rates as compared with radiotherapy (RT) alone, but no improvement was found regarding the occurrence of distant metastases or overall survival. In an effort to further enhance the response rates and to decrease the high incidence of distant metastases in locally advanced rectal cancer patients, the addition of other chemotherapeutical drugs and biologic agents as radiation sensitizers to neo-adjuvant 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has been recently investigated. The role of those agents is however questionable as first results from phase III data do not show improvement on pathologic complete remission and circumferential resection margin negative resection rates as compared to 5-FU based CRT, nevertheless an increased toxicity.

Engels, Benedikt; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

2012-01-01

385

Generation and characterization of antibodies specific for caspase-cleaved neo-epitopes: a novel approach  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis research has been significantly aided by the generation of antibodies against caspase-cleaved peptide neo-epitopes. However, most of these antibodies recognize the N-terminal fragment and are specific for the protein in question. The aim of this project was to create antibodies, which could identify caspase-cleaved proteins without a priori knowledge of the cleavage sites or even the proteins themselves. We hypothesized that many caspase-cleavage products might have a common antigenic shape, given that they must all fit into the same active site of caspases. Rabbits were immunized with the eight most prevalent exposed C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences following caspase cleavage. After purification of the antibodies we demonstrated (1) their specificity for exposed C-terminal (but not internal) peptides, (2) their ability to detect known caspase-cleaved proteins from apoptotic cell lysates or supernatants from apoptotic cell culture and (3) their ability to detect a caspase-cleaved protein whose tetrapeptide sequence differs from the eight tetrapeptides used to generate the antibodies. These antibodies have the potential to identify novel neo-epitopes produced by caspase cleavage and so can be used to identify pathway-specific caspase cleavage events in a specific cell type. Additionally this methodology may be applied to generate antibodies against products of other proteases, which have a well-defined and non-promiscuous cleavage activity.

Ai, X; Butts, B; Vora, K; Li, W; Tache-Talmadge, C; Fridman, A; Mehmet, H

2011-01-01

386

Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument.

Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

387

THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes.

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-01-01

388

Incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms.  

PubMed

This paper presents a new genetic algorithm approach to multiobjective optimization problems--incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms (IMOGA). Different from conventional MOGA methods, it takes each objective into consideration incrementally. The whole evolution is divided into as many phases as the number of objectives, and one more objective is considered in each phase. Each phase is composed of two stages. First, an independent population is evolved to optimize one specific objective. Second, the better-performing individuals from the single-objecive population evolved in the above stage and the multiobjective population evolved in the last phase are joined together by the operation of integration. The resulting population then becomes an initial multiobjective population, to which a multiobjective evolution based on the incremented objective set is applied. The experiment results show that, in most problems, the performance of IMOGA is better than that of three other MOGAs, NSGA-II, SPEA, and PAES. IMOGA can find more solutions during the same time span, and the quality of solutions is better. PMID:15484906

Chen, Qian; Guan, Sheng-Uei

2004-06-01

389

[Influence of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

The academic style of study and thoughts of Neo - Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties improved the innovation of contemporary physicians and their recognition on the research of medical theories, and strengthened the development of determination of treatment based on the differentiation of symptoms and signs. Its related contents, such as taiji, circulation and change of vital energy, substance and functions, and congenital and postnatal etc. also were absorbed as the elements of medical theories. However, there were some negative influences from Neo - Confucianism on the development of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12639442

Meng, Qingyun

2002-07-01

390

The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships with Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of "DSM-IV" anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder…

Rosellini, Anthony J.; Brown, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

391

The Five-Factor Personality Inventory as a Measure of the Five-Factor ModelBelgian, American, and Hungarian Comparisons with the NEO-PI-R  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lexically based Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) was correlated with the factors and facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in Belgian (N = 265), American (N = 116), and Hungarian (N = 320) samples. Results were similar across the three cultures. Analysis of orthogonalized FFPI factors showed that three of them— emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness—showed a direct

Filip De Fruyt; Robert R. McCrae; Zsófia Szirmák; János Nagy

2004-01-01

392

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2013-01-01

393

Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

2010-01-01

394

From East Asian “Miracle” to Neo-liberal “Mediocrity”: The Effects of Liberalization and Financial Opening on the Post-crisis Korean Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1997 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) offered Korea loans to help alleviate its financial crisis. These loans were accompanied by what the IMF called “extreme structural conditionality.” Korea was required to replace its traditional East Asian economic system with a neo-liberal model. We review economic performance in the neo-liberal era. Growth has slowed, poverty and inequality have risen,

James Crotty; Kang-Kook Lee

2005-01-01

395

Purification, properties and cDNA cloning of neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), a hemolytic lethal factor from the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa venom.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous toxin with hemolytic and lethal activities, named neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), was purified from the venom fluid of stonefish Synanceia verrucosa and its primary structure was elucidated by a cDNA cloning technique. NeoVTX is a dimeric 166 kDa protein composed of alpha-subunit (702 amino acid residues) and beta-subunit (699 amino acid residues) and lacks carbohydrate moieties. Its hemolytic activity is inhibited by anionic lipids, especially potently by cardiolipin. These properties are comparable to those of stonustoxin (SNTX) previously purified from S. horrida. Alignment of the amino acid sequences also reveals that the neoVTX alpha- and beta-subunits share as high as 87 and 95% sequence identity with the SNTX alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively. The distinct differences between neoVTX and SNTX are recognized only in the numbers of Cys residues (18 for neoVTX and 15 for SNTX) and free thiol groups (10 for neoVTX and 5 for SNTX). In contrast, neoVTX considerably differs from verrucotoxin (VTX), a tetrameric 322 kDa glycoprotein, previously purified from S. verrucosa. In addition, the sequence identity of the neoVTX beta-subunit with the reported VTX beta-subunit is 90%, being lower than that with the SNTX beta-subunit. PMID:17023116

Ueda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Mika; Honma, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

2006-08-26

396

Infants' knowledge of objects: beyond object files and object tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent research communities have produced large bodies of data concerning object representations: the community concerned with the infant's object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention. We marshal evidence in support of the hypothesis that both communities have been studying the same natural kind. The discov- ery that the object representations of young infants are the same

Susan Carey; Fei Xu

397

A Strategy for Finding Near-Earth Objects with the SDSS Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed observational strategy for finding near-Earth objects (NEOs) with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. We investigate strategies in normal, unbinned mode, as well as binning the CCDs 2×2 or 3×3, which affects the sky coverage rate and the limiting apparent magnitude. We present results from 1 month, 3 year, and 10 year simulations of such

Gajus Miknaitis; Oliver J. Fraser; Arti Garg; Suzanne L. Hawley; Robert Jedicke; Thomas Quinn; Constance M. Rockosi; Christopher W. Stubbs; Scott F. Anderson; Craig J. Hogan; Zeljko Ivezic; Robert H. Lupton; Andrew A. West; Howard Brewington; J. Brinkmann; Michael Harvanek; Scot J. Kleinman; Jurek Krzesinski; Dan Long; Eric H. Neilsen; Peter R. Newman; Atsuko Nitta; Stephanie A. Snedden

2004-01-01

398

MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Program for Characterization of Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an ongoing joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted on behalf of the community by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We utilize SpeX, a low-to-medium resolution near-infrared spectrograph and imager, to obtain 0.8- to 2.5-micron spectra. Under good seeing conditions the

Alan Tokunaga; S. J. Bus; R. P. Binzel; C. A. Thomas; F. E. DeMeo; A. S. Rivkin

2006-01-01

399

Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the role of ideas and ideology in the mental policy design maps of regulators in the US and in India. The research approach is to describe the regulatory design process in the history of the US electric industry from a neo-institutional and developmental perspective. And then to use the insights of such a study to suggest policy options to a sample of Indian experts. A regulatory process model explores the interactions among normative values, regulatory instruments and historical phases in policy design. A spectrum of seven regulatory instruments--subsidized rates, average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, time-of-use pricing, ramsey pricing, incentive regulation and spot pricing is examined. A neo-institutional perspective characterizes the process of institutionalizing these regulatory instruments as a design process that infuses them with values beyond mere technical requirements. The process model includes normative values such as efficiency, fairness, free choice and political feasibility. These values arise from an analytical classification of various market metaphors debated in the history of economic thought. The theory of development and co-evolution applied to the history of electricity regulation yields a typology of evolutionary phases in the US. The typology describes hierarchically emergent relationships between supply and demand and among the normative values. The theory hypothesizes technologically contingent relationships between pricing policies and normative values in the historical phases of dependence (or rural), independence (or urban) and interdependence (or informational). The contents of this model are represented as related elements in a policy design map that simplifies the process of designing regulatory instruments in the US. This neo-institutional, developmental policy design map was used to design a survey instrument. The survey was conducted among electricity experts in India to test the hypothesized inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.

Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

400

Weakly nonlinear analysis of viscous instability in flow past a neo-Hookean surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the stability of the plane Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid past an incompressible deformable solid in the creeping flow limit where the viscous stresses in the fluid (of the order ?fV/R ) are comparable with the elastic stresses in the solid (of the order G ). Here, ?f is the fluid viscosity, V is the top-plate velocity, R is the channel width, and G is the shear modulus of the elastic solid. For (?fV/GR)=O(1) , the flexible solid undergoes finite deformations and is, therefore, appropriately modeled as a neo-Hookean solid of finite thickness which is grafted to a rigid plate at the bottom. Both linear as well as weakly nonlinear stability analyses are carried out to investigate the viscous instability and the effect of nonlinear rheology of solid on the instability. Previous linear stability studies have predicted an instability as the dimensionless shear rate ?=(?fV/GR) is increased beyond the critical value ?c . The role of viscous dissipation in the solid medium on the stability behavior is examined. The effect of solid-to-fluid viscosity ratio ?r on the critical shear rate ?c for the neo-Hookean model is very different from that for the linear viscoelastic model. Whereas the linear elastic model predicts that there is no instability for Hneo-Hookean model predicts an instability for all values of ?r and H . The value of ?c increases upon increasing ?r from zero up to ?r/H?1 , at which point the value of ?c attains a peak and any further increase in ?r results in a decrease in ?c . The weakly nonlinear analysis indicated that the bifurcation is subcritical for most values of H when ?r=0 . However, upon increasing ?r , there is a crossover from subcritical to supercritical bifurcation for ?r/H?1 . Another crossover is observed as the bifurcation again becomes subcritical at large values of ?r . A plot in H versus ?r/H space is constructed to mark the regions where the bifurcation is subcritical and supercritical. The equilibrium amplitude and some physical quantities of interest, such as the total strain energy of the disturbance in the solid, have been calculated, and the effect of parameters H , ?r , and interfacial tension on these quantities are analyzed.

Chokshi, Paresh; Kumaran, V.

2008-05-01

401

The Italian {\\\\it disperata\\\\\\/} tradition and the French neo-Petrarchan baroque: A study of poetic intertextualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation investigates the intertextualities between the Italian poets of the disperata, from the Quattrocento and Cinquecento, and the French neo-petrarchan baroque poets. It combines an historical and philological approach, with the theories of intertextuality and reception, according to premises established by Michael Riffaterre, Julia Kristeva, Roman Jakobson, Wolfgang Iser, and Umberto Eco. After an analysis of the Italian models,

Gabriella Scarlatta Eschrich

1998-01-01

402

Interior structure and surface properties of NEOs: What is known and what should be better understood, to mitigate potential impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimation of the density and interior structure of potentially hazardous NEOs is required to predict the physical effect of an actual impact. Some knowledge of the physical properties of the regolith on the surface is also necessary to define appropriate mitigation techniques. Our understanding of densities and tensile strengths (mostly revealed by in-situ missions, satellites discoveries and fragmentation events)

A. C. Levasseur-Regourd

2004-01-01

403

The Monetary Valuation of the Human Mind: the conditions for knowledge transfer and education in a neo-liberal society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marxist category 'alienation' - the author maintains - contains already all the dimensions necessary to identify and interpret the educational problems of a neo-liberal society going through the process of economic globalisation, without reducing these problems to pure economism. It not only aids in understanding the fragmentation of identity itself, but even the fact that the maturation of the

ARMIN BERNHARD

2006-01-01

404

The Monetary Valuation of the Human Mind: The Conditions for Knowledge Transfer and Education in a Neo-Liberal Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Marxist category "alienation"--the author maintains--contains already all the dimensions necessary to identify and interpret the educational problems of a neo-liberal society going through the process of economic globalisation, without reducing these problems to pure economism. It not only aids in understanding the fragmentation of identity…

Bernhard, Armin

2006-01-01

405

Recent results from a nested multi-static HF radar network for the NorthEast Observing System (NEOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Anested HF radar network has been deployed along the New Jersey coast as part of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System (NJSOS) and the larger regional NorthEast Observing System (NEOS). A 25 MHz standard system (range about 50 km) setup for continuous operation since 1999 includes two sites in Brant Beach and Brigantine, New Jersey. A

J. T. Kohut; S. M. Glenn; H. J. Roarty

2003-01-01

406

Are Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Personality Profiles Meaningful? Differential Item and Facet Functioning in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement invariance is a prerequisite for confident cross-cultural comparisons of personality profiles. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in factor loadings and intercepts for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in comparisons of college students in the United States (N = 261), Philippines (N = 268),

A. Timothy Church; Juan M. Alvarez; Nhu T. Q. Mai; Brian F. French; Marcia S. Katigbak; Fernando A. Ortiz

2011-01-01

407

How Is Lower Crust Modified As A Neo-Rift Becomes A Paleo-Rift and Part Of The Craton?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA), at the southern end of Laurentia (present coordinates), if behaving as neo-rifts, such as the Rio Grande Rift, presumably possessed a rift structure in the Cambrian with a continental thickness of about 28km. Seismic data, though sparse, suggest a present thickness of the SOA is about 45km, indistinguishable from adjacent rifted Proterozoic crust. By what

M. C. Gilbert

2004-01-01

408

A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Corporate Political Strategy: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neo-Gramscian theoretical framework for corporate political strategy is developed drawing from Gramsci's analysis of the relations among capital, social forces, and the state, and from more contemporary theories. Gramsci's political theory recognizes the centrality of organizations and strategy, directs attention to the organizational, economic, and ideological pillars of power, while illuminating the processes of coalition building, conflict, and accommodation

David L. Levy; Daniel Egan

2003-01-01

409

Teachers' Collective Actions, Alliances and Resistance within Neo-Liberal Ideas of Education: The Example of the Individual Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The education system in Sweden has taken a strong neo-liberal turn over the past 15 years. This article uses ethnographic research from an Individual Programme (IP) in a Swedish upper secondary school to explore how alliances, collective actions and resistance can be materialised within the changed system. According to the author, the teachers in…

Dovemark, Marianne

2010-01-01

410

A neo-institutional economic critique of the system for allocating urban land and development rights in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments in sub-Saharan Africa have relied on received colonial land use planning institutions to manage and control the form of their cities. The approach adopted has involved the nationalisation of land and development rights and extensive application of rigid bureaucratic approaches to the allocation of land and development rights. This paper applies principles of neo-institutional economics to critique current land

Anthony U. Egbu; Paul Olomolaiye; Rod Gameson

2008-01-01

411

Mass Communication and the Development of a Shared Social Reality: The Neo-Nazi March in Skokie.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the role of the mass media in the development of people's conceptions about a neo-Nazi march planned for Skokie, Illinois, in 1978. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not and in what respects different types of people had developed common conceptions about the event and what role the mass media played in that…

Holz, Josephine R.

412

From Ought to Is: A Neo-Marxist Perspective on the Use and Misuse of the Culture Construct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a neo-Marxist perspective on morality, showing how it pertains to the use and misuse of the culture construct. Explains the standpoint concept, and identifies issues central to morality. Maintains that moral beliefs are grounded in cultural contexts, arguing that the dominant morality in a culture justifies ruling class interests, and…

Baumrind, Diana

1998-01-01

413

From Ought to Is: A Neo-Marxist Perspective on the Use and Misuse of the Culture Construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-Marxist Standpoint Theory is concerned with the application of moral judgment to praxis. A standpoint is a perspective from which particular features of reality are brought into sharp perspective and other features obscured. When application rather than judgment is construed as central to morality the formal criteria of prescriptivity and primacy, but not of universalizability and impartiality, are constitutive. The

Diana Baumrind

1998-01-01

414

A Mission Concept for the In-Situ Characterization of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive strategy for the characterization of near earth objects (NEO's) should include missions that probe the structure and composition with in-situ instrumentation deployed on the surface of the object. In this presentation, we will describe a Discovery-class rendezvous mission concept that includes both remote sensing and surface measurements. The latter is achieved by deploying multiple small, self-righting surface probes from the hovering spacecraft that can be used to assess the composition and geophysical state of NEO surface and interior environments. Each surface probe payload notionally includes a set of cameras for imaging the body surface at mm-scale resolution, an accelerometer package to measure surface mechanical properties upon probe impact, an APX spectrometer for measuring surface elemental composition, and an explosive charge that can be remotely detonated at the end of the surface mission to serve as a seismic source for the accelerometers that are resident in the remaining probes. In addition, this explosive charge would excavate an artificial crater that can be remotely observed from the orbiting spacecraft with an imaging spectrometer. The orbiter augments the mission's information return by accurately determining the NEO mass and shape, providing a platform for multiple phase angle imaging, and carrying a stable beacon for the accurate measurement of the object ephemeris. This presentation will cover the science that can be addressed by such a mission, several payload options, and surface probe design trades, including possible mobility and surface coupling schemes.

Dissly, Richard; Van Cleve, J.

2006-09-01

415

Epidemic spreading by objective traveling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental feature of agent traveling in social networks is that traveling is usually not a random walk but with a specific destination and goes through the shortest path from starting to destination. A serious consequence of the objective traveling is that it may result in a fast epidemic spreading, such as SARS etc. In this letter we present a reaction-traveling model to study how the objective traveling influences the epidemic spreading. We consider a random scale-free meta-population network with sub-population at each node. Through a SIS model we theoretically prove that near the threshold of epidemic outbreak, the objective traveling can significantly enhance the final infected population and the infected fraction at a node is proportional to its betweenness for the traveling agents and approximately proportional to its degree for the non-traveling agents. Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

Tang, Ming; Liu, Zonghua; Li, Baowen

2009-07-01

416

A BASIC STUDY OF EVALUATION STRUCTURE TO VISUAL DESIGN OF NEO-FUNCTIONALISM BRIDGES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research's final goal is to clarify how people focus on the external appearance of neo-functionalism bridges which are characterized by their distinguishing morphological features, and also determine whether people evaluate these bridges and how they do it. As a first step, the research focuses on the Through-type Arch Bridge and attempts to make clear the evaluation structure by means of an experimental psychology approach. Upon this, the dynamic image will be defined by the vitality flow and motion impression that characterize this kind of bridge. The sensibility evaluation experiment is carried out by using CG that reflects the changes of related feature shapes. Thus, the relationship between the assortments of the bridge's morphological characteristic and its impression are analyzed by using Rough Set Theory. As a result, it was possible to find out a variety of evaluation trends related to the intellectual background of the bridge observer and also establish the distinct characteristics of various evaluation trends.

Matsui, Teppei; Sasaki, Yoh

417

Initial Assessment of Recent NEO Response Strategies for the United Nations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008, the Association of Space Explorers (ASE) and its international Panel on Asteroid Threat Mitigation has prepared a program for action for the United Nations in relation the threat to the Earth from asteroids and comets. The program includes descriptions of three specific functions that the U.N. could develop. This includes specific groups dedicated to information gathering and mission planning that would report to an oversight group that would submit recommendations to the Security Council for appropriate action. These recommendations will be presented to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). This paper will examine these most recent recommendations and determine potential issues and improvements to ASE's recommendations. These specific recommendations given by the ASE are a positive first step in discussing specific ways the United Nations can be involved in coordinating a global response to the NEO threat.

Charania, A. C.

2009-03-01

418

Peroxynitrite induced structural changes result in the generation of neo-epitopes on human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein, is quite vulnerable to oxidizing and nitrating agents. In this study, peroxynitrite induced nitration and oxidation of HSA was assessed by various physicochemical techniques. Cross-linking of HSA was evident on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The carbonyl content was markedly elevated in peroxynitrite-modified HSA as compared to the native protein. Dityrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine were present only in peroxynitrite-modified HSA. The peroxynitrite-modified HSA induced high titre antibodies in experimental animals showing high specificity towards the immunogen. Spectroscopic studies showed structural alterations in the HSA molecule upon peroxynitrite treatment which result in the generation of neo-epitopes and enhanced immunogenicity. The possible role of damaged HSA in various diseases has been suggested. PMID:23643627

Ahmad, Parvez; Moinuddin; Ali, Asif

2013-05-01

419

Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional ?? bdabodha prakriy?-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vai?e? ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vai?e? ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vai?e? ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing ?? bdabodha of sentences.

Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

420

A neoHebbian framework for episodic memory; role of dopamine-dependent late LTP  

PubMed Central

According to the Hebb rule, the change in the strength of a synapse depends only on the local interaction of presynaptic and postsynaptic events. Studies at many types of synapses indicate that the early phase of long-term potentiation (LTP) has Hebbian properties. However, it is now clear that the Hebb rule does not account for late LTP; this requires an additional signal that is non-local. For novel information and motivational events such as rewards, this signal at hippocampal CA1 synapses is mediated by the neuromodulator, dopamine. In this Review, we discuss recent experimental findings that support the view that this “neoHebbian” framework can account for memory behavior in a variety of learning situations.

Grace, Anthony A.; Duzel, Emrah

2011-01-01

421

Numerical simulation of electron cyclotron current drive in magnetic islands of neo-classical tearing mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been numerically simulated in magnetic islands caused by neo-classical tearing modes. The electron drift orbits are tracked with the Coulomb collisions and the quasi-linear diffusion by EC waves, which are simulated by the Monte-Carlo method. The EC resonance region is assumed to be located around the O-point and localized in the toroidal direction. The driven current is well confined in the helical flux tube which includes the EC resonance region. The driven current channel looks like a 'snake' in real space. As the results of the ECCD with 10 MW in a plasma with ne = 3 × 1019 m-3 and Te = 10 keV, the current drive efficiency is about 1.6 times higher than that of an axi-symmetric plasma with no magnetic island. The driven current profile tends to peak around the O-point with increasing EC wave power.

Hamamatsu, K.; Takizuka, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ozeki, T.

2007-12-01

422

A neo-Piagetian investigation of the serial position effect in children's motor learning.  

PubMed

Children's serial motor skill acquisition was studied within a neo-Piagetian framework. High and low M-processors performed on a curvilinear repositioning task. A primacy-recency effect was evidenced for both groups on the age-related task, while a recency effect occurred for only the high M-processors on the task one stage beyond the developmental processing capacity of the subjects. High M-processors were more accurate and less variable than low M-processors. Although low M-processors performed better on the more complex task than on the simpler one, their performance never exceeded that of the high M-processors. Implications of these results for future research were discussed. PMID:15180912

Gerson, R F; Thomas, J R

1978-06-01

423

Newtonian-Machian analysis of the neo-Tychonian model of planetary motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system is performed using two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. The first model is the well-known Copernican system, which assumes that the Sun is at rest and that all the planets orbit around it. The second is a less well-known model, developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and the other planets orbit around the Sun. The term ‘neo-Tychonian system’ refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

Popov, Luka

2013-03-01

424

Paclitaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab in a neo-adjuvant regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer.  

PubMed

To evaluate a nonanthracycline-containing regimen consisting of 24 weekly administrations of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and trastuzumab as neo-adjuvant therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Patients with stage II or III breast cancer, including inflammatory disease, with HER2 overexpression (immunohistochemistry and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization) were treated with 24 weekly administrations of paclitaxel 70 mg/m(2) , carboplatin AUC = 3 mg/mL/minute, and trastuzumab 2 mg/kg (loading dose 4 mg/kg). In cycles 7, 8, 15, 16, 23, and 24, only trastuzumab was given. The primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR) in both breast and axilla. Of 61 evaluable patients, 61% had stage II disease and 75% were node-positive. The median NRI (Neoadjuvant Response Index, a measure of the degree of downstaging by chemotherapy) of all patients was 0.86. Twenty-seven (44%) had a NRI of 1.0, which corresponds to pCR in breast and lymph nodes. The most commonly reported grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (72%) and thrombocytopenia (36%). Dose reduction was necessary in 51% of the patients. A weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-trastuzumab neo-adjuvant regimen is highly active in HER2-positive breast cancer with an acceptable toxicity profile. A multicenter phase 2 trial has recently reached its accrual target and will serve as a basis for a subsequent randomized phase 3 study comparing this regimen to a similar regimen preceded by anthracyclines. PMID:23682812

Sonke, Gabe S; Mandjes, Ingrid A; Holtkamp, Marjo J; Schot, Margaret; van Werkhoven, Erik; Wesseling, Jelle; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Linn, Sabine C

2013-05-20

425

Diversity of Poissonian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations---Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring

Iddo I. Eliazar; Igor M. Sokolov

2010-01-01

426

COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION  

PubMed Central

Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology.

Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

2012-01-01

427

Interior structure and surface properties of NEOs: What is known and what should be understood to mitigate potential impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect information about interior structure and surface properties of near-Earth asteroids and cometary nuclei is provided by observations, together with numerical and laboratory simulations. Such studies already indicate a huge diversity amongst the whole population, in bulk density (from 0.2 to 3gcm?3), in macro-porosity (tentatively from 18% to 60%), and thus in structure (small monolithic objects, bigger fractured objects or

A. Chantal Levasseur-Regourd; Edith Hadamcik; Jérémie Lasue

2006-01-01

428

Examination of the relations of the Myers-Briggs type indicator and the NEO-4 Personality Inventory in a Polish sample.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to replicate McCrae and Costa's research findings on the relation of NEO-4 domains with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scales in a Polish sample of 300 psychology student volunteers (175 women, 125 men). Their mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.5). Correlations for scores on the MBTI scales with NEO-4 domains ranged from .72 to .02 for Extraversion, from -.60 to -.16 for Openness to experience, from -.56 to -.04 for Agreeableness, and from .55 to -.07 for Conscientiousness. Two domains assessed with the NEO-4 correspond to preferences measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. PMID:21117485

Klinkosz, Waldemar; Iskra, Justyna

2010-10-01

429

Evidence-based robust design of deflection actions for near Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel approach to the robust design of deflection actions for near Earth objects (NEO). In particular, the case of deflection by means of solar-pumped laser ablation is studied here in detail. The basic idea behind laser ablation is that of inducing a sublimation of the NEO surface, which produces a low thrust thereby slowly deviating the asteroid from its initial Earth threatening trajectory. This work investigates the integrated design of the space-based laser system and the deflection action generated by laser ablation under uncertainty. The integrated design is formulated as a multi-objective optimisation problem in which the deviation is maximised and the total system mass is minimised. Both the model for the estimation of the thrust produced by surface laser ablation and the spacecraft system model are assumed to be affected by epistemic uncertainties (partial or complete lack of knowledge). Evidence Theory is used to quantify these uncertainties and introduce them in the optimisation process. The propagation of the trajectory of the NEO under the laser-ablation action is performed with a novel approach based on an approximated analytical solution of Gauss' variational equations. An example of design of the deflection of asteroid Apophis with a swarm of spacecraft is presented.

Zuiani, Federico; Vasile, Massimiliano; Gibbings, Alison

2012-10-01

430

Sun-grazing orbit of the unusual near-Earth object 2004 LG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) typically end their existence by falling into the Sun. Because the orbit evolution timescale is long, however, it is unlikely that we will witness such events or predict them happening in a foreseeable future. Aims: We studied the orbital dynamics of NEOs to understand whether predictions of Sun impact are possible for individual bodies, and if so, whether special cases can be identified where the Sun impact is expected to happen in ?100 ky. Methods: We identified an unusual NEO on a Sun-grazing orbit, 2004 LG, and numerically integrated its orbit to understand its dynamical history and future evolution. Results: We found that the orbit of 2004 LG is strongly affected by the Kozai resonance. In about 9 ky from now, when the orbital eccentricity will reach the maximum value during its current Kozai cycle, 2004 LG has a greater than 25% probability of falling into the Sun. The probability of Sun impact is >50% over the next 100 ky. 2004 LG was exposed to extreme solar radiation in the past and will be exposed to even more extreme solar radiation in the future. For example, we found that 2004 LG was approaching the Sun to within only ?5.6 solar radii some 3 ky ago, and its surface was baked at temperatures ?2500 K. Spectroscopic observations of 2004 LG would therefore be useful in characterizing the effects of extreme irradiation on NEOs' surfaces. Our forward orbital integrations showed that 2004 LG will reach a very low orbital perihelion distance (<1.6 solar radii) at 9 ky from now, indicating its surface will be scorched at temperatures exceeding 4500 K while the interior will be exposed to strong solar tides and thermal stresses. The object will probably not maintain its physical integrity.

Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D.

2012-05-01

431

The Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer: An Imaging Mid-IR Spectrometer for the Marco Polo NEO Sample Return Cosmic Vision Candidate Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer (ATMS) instrument, a compact imaging mid-IR Fourier transform spectrometer currently being developed at the University of Oxford for NEO remote sensing applications.

Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S.; Reininger, F.; Green, S. F.; Mortimer, H.

2009-03-01

432

Associations between objectively assessed physical activity and indicators of body fatness in 9- to 10-y-old European children: a population-based study from 4 distinct regions in Europe (the European Youth Heart Study)1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The rising prevalence of obesity in children may be due to a reduction in physical activity (PA). Objective: Our aim was to study the associations of objectively measured PA volume and its subcomponents with indicators of body fatness. Design: A cross-sectional study of 1292 children aged 9 -10 y from 4 distinct regions in Europe (Odense, Denmark; the island

Ulf Ekelund; Luis B Sardinha; Sigmund A Anderssen; Marike Harro; Paul W Franks; Sören Brage; Ashley R Cooper; Lars Bo Andersen; Chris Riddoch; Karsten Froberg

433

MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small hoppers (MINERVA type, JAXA) and SIFNOS. The latter, if added, will perform a soft landing, anchor to the target surface, and make various in situ measurements of surface/subsurface materials near the sampling site. Two surface samples will be collected by the MSC using “touch and go” manoeuvres. Two complementary sample collection devices will be used in this phase: one developed by ESA and another provided by JAXA, mounted on a retractable extension arm. After the completion of the sampling and ascent of the MSC, the arm will be retracted to transfer the sample containers into the MSC. The MSC will then make its journey back to Earth and release the re-entry capsule into the Earth’s atmosphere.

Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

2009-03-01

434

Object locating system  

DOEpatents

A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

1998-06-09

435

Analysis of prognostic factors for surgery after neo-adjuvant therapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to explore the possibility to predict the risk factors for postoperative complications and survival time, the clinical\\u000a data of 152 patients (including 116 males and 36 females) who had undergone neo-adjuvant therapy and surgery for stage IIIA\\u000a and B non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, preoperative functional parameters,\\u000a staging, induction regimen (chemotherapy alone or

Xuefeng Zhou; Jianjun Wang; Jiashun Wang; Yongcheng Pan; Jingsong Li; Wendong Wang; Feng Zhao

2008-01-01

436

Factorial structure and internal consistency of the German TEMPS-A scale: validation against the NEO-FFI questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version of the TEMPS-A questionnaire. Besides the reliability of the temperament scales, validity was the focus of interest. Therefore, the relationship between the TEMPS-A and the well-established personality questionnaire NEO-FFI, whose factors show theoretical overlap with temperaments, was investigated. Method: A total of 227 students

Raffaela Blöink; Peter Brieger; Hagop S. Akiskal; Andreas Marneros

2005-01-01

437

A stereoconvergent intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition related to the construction of the decalin core of neo-clerodane diterpenoids.  

PubMed

Several examples of a highly specific, stereoconvergent intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition that led to the trans-decalin core of neo-clerodane diterpenoids are described. The relative configuration adjacent to the dienophile, which led to C4 of the decalin system, as well as the electron-withdrawing effects of various substituents and conformational rigidity of the Diels-Alder precursors were explored. PMID:23510204

Butler, Sean C; Forsyth, Craig J

2013-04-03

438

Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of the NEO-PI–R Scales in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined age trends in the 5 factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline in Neuroticism up to age 80, stability and

Antonio Terracciano; Robert R. McCrae; Larry J. Brant; Paul T. Costa

2005-01-01

439

NeoCASS: An integrated tool for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and MDO at conceptual design level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design framework called NeoCASS (Next generation Conceptual Aero-Structural Sizing Suite), developed at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Politecnico di Milano in the frame of SimSAC (Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design) project, funded by EU in the context of 6th Framework Program. It enables the creation of efficient low-order, medium

Luca Cavagna; Sergio Ricci; Lorenzo Travaglini

440

Some Contributions of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment Approach to Earthquake Risk Assessment for the City of Sofia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the outcome of the advanced seismic hazard and seismic risk estimates recently performed for the city\\u000a of Sofia, based on the state-of-the-art of knowledge for this site. Some major results of the neo-deterministic, scenario-based,\\u000a seismic hazard assessment approach (NDSHA) to the earthquake hazard assessment for the city of Sofia are considered. Further\\u000a validations of the recently constructed

Ivanka Paskaleva; Mihaela Kouteva-Guentcheva; Franco Vaccari; Giuliano F. Panza

2011-01-01

441

Has the Chilean Neo-Liberal Experiment Run Out of Fuel? A View on Specialisation, Technological Gaps and Catching-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to an extraordinary growth performance during the last two decades the Chilean neo-liberal model of development, based on the exploitation of the country’s static comparative advantages, has turned into a benchmark for most developing countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the long term sustainability of the Chilean neo-liberal model of development. We present new empirical results

Mario Cimoli; Michele Di Maio

2004-01-01

442

The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships With Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive—compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder [MDD]) in a large sample of outpatients (N = 1,980). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)

Anthony J. Rosellini; Timothy A. Brown

2011-01-01

443

Non-profit and Community-based Green Space Production in Milwaukee: Maintaining a Counterweight within Neo-liberal Urban Environmental Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the rise of civic participation, a feature of neo-liberal privatisation, in the context of Milwaukee's urban green space management. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews and archival research, it presents the argument that civic organisations are not just ‘neo-liberal artifacts’ that facilitate trends of privatisation and commodification of and state retrenchment fr