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1

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

2

The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (<0.3 AU) to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; Volk, Christopher P.; Koontz, Steven L.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Swenson, Charles

2014-01-01

3

The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30 to 420 days in duration and assuming chemical propulsion. Similar studies have been reported assuming high power electric propulsion for manned NEO rendezvous missions (11). The delta V requirement breakdown and mission profile data from references 10 and 11 are used as a basis for sizing the NEO Scout spacecraft and for conducting preliminary feasibility assessments using the Tsiokolvsky rocket equation, a (worst-case) delta V requirement of 10 km/sec, and a maximum spacecraft dry mass of 20 kg. Using chemical propellant for a 10 km/sec delta V drives spacecraft wet mass well above 300 kg so that chemical propulsion is a non-starter for the proposed mission profile and spacecraft wet mass limits. In contrast, a solar electric propulsion system needs only 8 kg of Xe propellant to accelerate the spacecraft to 10 km/sec in 163 days with 0.02 N of thrust and 500 W of power from1.6 sq m of 29% efficient solar panels. In a second example, accelerating a 4 kg payload to 7 km/sec over 180 days requires about 6.7 kg of propellant and 1.2 kg of solar panels (12 kg total spacecraft wet mass).

Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

2014-01-01

4

Inverse problems of NEO photometry: Imaging the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometry is the main source of information on NEOs (and other asteroids) en masse. Surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST will produce colossal photometric databases that can readily be used for mapping the physical characteristics of the whole asteroid population. These datasets are efficiently enriched by any additional dense photometric or other observations. Due to their quickly changing geometries with respect to the Earth, NEOs are the subpopulation that can be mapped the fastest. I review the state of the art in the construction of physical asteroid models from sparse and/or dense photometric data (that can also be combined with other data modes). The models describe the shapes, spin states, scattering properties and surface structure of the targets, and are the solutions of inverse problems necessarily involving comprehensive mathematical analysis. I sum up what we can and cannot get from photometric data, and how all this is done in practice. I also discuss the new freely available software package for solving photometric inverse problems (soon to be released). The analysis of photometric datasets will very soon become an automated industry, resulting in tens of thousands of asteroid models, a large portion of them NEOs. The computational effort in this is considerable in both computer and human time, which means that a large portion of the targets is likely to be analyzed only once. This, again, means that we have to have a good understanding of the reliability of our models, and this is impossible without a thorough understanding of the mathematical nature of the inverse problem(s) involved. Very important concepts are the uniqueness and stability of the solution, the parameter spaces, the so-called inverse crimes in simulations and error prediction, and the domination of systematic errors over random ones.

Kaasalainen1, Mikko; Durech, Josef

2007-05-01

5

Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

Mazanek, Daniel D.

2005-01-01

6

ExploreNEOs: A Search for Near-Earth Objects of Cometary Origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short dynamical lifetime of near-Earth objects (NEOs) compared to the age of the Solar System implies the existence of sources of replenishment in order to maintain the observed population of NEOs. Main belt asteroids and Jupiter family comets (JFCs), which can end up in typical NEO orbits via planetary perturbations and non-gravitational forces, are the most important sources of replenishment of NEOs. JFCs that become NEOs suffer accelerated loss of their near-surface volatiles, evolving into inactive "dormant" or "extinct" comets that are observationally indistinguishable from low albedo asteroids. Dynamically, however, they retain "comet-like" orbital characteristics. Knowledge of the fraction of extinct comets in the NEO population is important for assessing the amount of cometary material that has been transported to Earth. Furthermore, identifying inactive comet candidates facilitates detailed investigations of the final phase of comet evolution. We present an independent analysis of the fraction of former cometary objects in the NEO population. Due to the large number of NEOs we use a statistical approach to identify dormant or extinct comets based on dynamical and physical properties. We utilize (1) the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, (2) the minimum orbit intersection distance with respect to Jupiter and (3) albedo measurements. Our albedos are determined from thermal-IR observations made by the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science project "ExploreNEOs", using thermal modeling. The main goal of this work is to estimate the fraction of dormant or extinct comets in the NEO population. We will further provide a list of former comet candidate objects and assess their accessibility with spacecraft via the delta-V parameter. We enhance our investigation by adding data from the literature to our sample and compare our results to earlier published works based on independent analyses. MM acknowledges support by the DFG SPP 1385.

Mommert, Michael; Harris, A. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Delbo, M.; Bottke, W. F.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Hagen, A. R.; Morbidelli, A.; Smith, H. A.; Thomas, C. A.

2012-10-01

7

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

Adams, Robert B.

2008-01-01

8

ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [Joint Sciences Department, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: cristina.thomas@nau.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-15

9

Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-08-25

10

Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-08-25

11

Neo-liberal economic practices and population health: a cross-national analysis, 1980–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been substantial debate and research concerning the economic impact of neo-liberal practices, there is a paucity of research about the potential relation between neo-liberal economic practices and population health. We assessed the extent to which neo-liberal policies and practices are associated with population health at the national level. We collected data on 119 countries between 1980 and

Melissa Tracy; Margaret E. Kruk; Christine Harper; Sandro Galea

2010-01-01

12

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at

Nick J. Bailey; Graham G. Swinerd; Andrew D. Morley; Hugh G. Lewis

2007-01-01

13

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

2007-01-01

14

Near-earth object (NEO) characterization at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) has demonstrated follow-up astrometry and photometry for near-earth objects (NEOs), with results published in the Minor Planet Circulars. Although this information is important for the cataloging of all NEOs, it does not provide all of the data needed to assess the potential hazard posed by these objects, i.e. composition, size, shape, and dynamics. AMOS has increased its capability by adding a six position filter wheel (in conjunction with Phillip's Laboratory's Geophysics Directorate and the University of Arizona), for use on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's CCD camera mounted on the AMOS 1.2 meter telescope. The paper provides the rationale for three-color photometry for determination of NEO characteristics, as well as preliminary results of the observations of several NEOs an main-belt asteroids. It also discusses the design of a photo-polarimeter, to be built in the near future, which will add more capability to AMOS, and determination of albedo and size of NEOs of particular interest to both the scientific and government communities.

Kervin, Paul W.; O'Connell, Daniel G.; Sydney, Paul F.; Medrano, Robert S.; Nishimoto, Daron L.; Africano, John L.; Tedesco, Edward; Lambert, John V.

1996-10-01

15

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

2007-05-01

16

NEO Survey: An Efficient Search for Near-Earth Objects by an IR Observatory in a Venus-like Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 NASA commissioned a Science Definition Team (SDT) (Stokes, et al., 2003) to study the threats posed by Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), recommend efficient methods for detecting NEOs down to 140 meters in diameter, and suggest conceptual mitigation techniques. In this same time frame, Congress set the goal of cataloguing 90% of all NEOs down to 140 meters diameter by 2020. The SDT concluded that the infrared passband from ~5 to ~11 microns is the best for finding NEOs; that an aperture of 50 centimeters is sufficient; and that locating a NEO-finding observatory in a Venus-like orbit is ideal. Since then, NASA and its industrial partners (such as Ball Aerospace) have flown two very NEO-relevant deep-space missions-the Spitzer Space Telescope and Kepler. Herein, a high-reliability, credibly-costed design is presented based on Spitzer and Kepler that meets the 90%/140-m/2020 requirements for about $600 M. This design will also detect about 85% of all >100 meter NEOs, about 70% of all >65 meter NEOs, and about 50% of all >50 meter NEOs. These smaller NEOs constitute a newly recognized threat regime that cannot be efficiently found from the ground.

Arentz, Robert; Reitsema, Harold; van Cleve, Jeffrey; Linfield, Roger

2010-01-01

17

Neo-liberal economic practices and population health: a cross-national analysis, 1980-2004.  

PubMed

Although there has been substantial debate and research concerning the economic impact of neo-liberal practices, there is a paucity of research about the potential relation between neo-liberal economic practices and population health. We assessed the extent to which neo-liberal policies and practices are associated with population health at the national level. We collected data on 119 countries between 1980 and 2004. We measured neo-liberalism using the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) Index, which gives an overall score as well as a score for each of five different aspects of neo-liberal economic practices: (1) size of government, (2) legal structure and security of property rights, (3) access to sound money, (4) freedom to exchange with foreigners and (5) regulation of credit, labor and business. Our measure of population health was under-five mortality. We controlled for potential mediators (income distribution, social capital and openness of political institutions) and confounders (female literacy, total population, rural population, fertility, gross domestic product per capita and time period). In longitudinal multivariable analyses, we found that the EFW index did not have an effect on child mortality but that two of its components: improved security of property rights and access to sound money were associated with lower under-five mortality (p = 0.017 and p = 0.024, respectively). When stratifying the countries by level of income, less regulation of credit, labor and business was associated with lower under-five mortality in high-income countries (p = 0.001). None of the EFW components were significantly associated with under-five mortality in low-income countries. This analysis suggests that the concept of 'neo-liberalism' is not a monolithic entity in its relation to health and that some 'neo-liberal' policies are consistent with improved population health. Further work is needed to corroborate or refute these findings. PMID:19723354

Tracy, Melissa; Kruk, Margaret E; Harper, Christine; Galea, Sandro

2010-04-01

18

ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Obs. de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Ave. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-03-15

19

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

2014-01-01

20

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named “Neo,” suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology.

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Propper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

21

Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program seeks to address the fundamental question: What are the relationships between asteroids, comets, and meteorites? To answer this question, we are studying the population of asteroids near the Earth which likely contain both asteroids and extinct comets and which is the immediate source for meteorites. An analysis of new and existing visible wavelength spectral data for more than 100 (Near-Earth Objects) NEOs, and Keck albedo data for more than 20 NEOs is underway. New asteroid-meteorite links are being found, the NEO population and hazard is being characterized, and the extinct comet component is being constrained. These results are contained within the following publication work during the current period: 1 book, 2 book chapters, 1 published paper, 2 papers submitted, 2 papers in preparation, 1 Ph. D. thesis in preparation, and 7 meeting abstracts/presentations.

Binzel, Richard P.

2003-01-01

22

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

2010-01-01

23

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors. We acknowledge support from NASA AISR and NASA NEOO programs.

Tricarico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

2010-10-01

24

Contribution of an NEO Wide Survey for the small impactors population completeness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European Space Agency - Space Situational Awareness (ESA-SSA) program, we studied the performance of a possible network of telescopes for the SSA Near Earth Objects (NEO) segment capable of scanning all the visible sky from a station in one single night (Wide Survey). The purpose of the study was the determination of the efficiency of discovering NEOs in the size range of the Tunguskalike asteroids, from 160 m down to 10 m. We developed an end-to-end simulator capable to simulate, under some assumptions, the activities of such a network from detection, to preliminary orbit determination, orbit improvement and impact risk assessment. This work presents the results of our simulations.

Bernardi, F.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Farnocchia, D.

2011-10-01

25

Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the near-Earth objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far, but also because the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs

William F. Bottke Jr; Alessandro Morbidelli; Robert Jedicke; Jean-Marc Petit; Harold F. Levison; Patrick Michel; Travis S. Metcalfe

2002-01-01

26

Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many pieces of the puzzle must be brought together in order to have a clear picture of the near-Earth object (NEO) population. Four of the pieces that can be described include: i) the taxonomic distribution of the population as measured by observational sampling, ii) the determination of albedos that can be associated with the taxonomic distribution, iii) discovery statistics for the NE0 population, and iv) the debiasing of the discovery statistics using the taxonomic and albedo information. Support from this grant enables us to address three of these four pieces. Binzel et al. (2004, submitted) presents the first piece, detailing the observations and observed characteristics of the NE0 and Mars-crossing (MC) population. For the second piece, a complementary program of albedo measurements is pursued at the Keck Observatory (Binzel, P. I.) with first results published in Delbo et al. (2003). For the third piece, the most extensive NE0 discovery statistics are provided by the LINEAR survey. Binzel has supervised the MIT Ph. D. thesis work of Stuart (2003) to bring the fourth piece, submitted for publication by Stuart and Binzel (2004). Our results provide new constraints for the NE0 population and progress for the Spaceguard Survey, illuminate asteroid and comet source regions for the NEOs, and provide new evidence for space weathering processes linking asteroids and meteorites. Further, we are identifying top priority near-Earth spacecraft mission candidates based on their spectral properties and inferred compositions.

Binzel, Richard P.

2004-01-01

27

Population Policies and Education: Exploring the Contradictions of Neo-Liberal Globalisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is increasingly characterised by profound income, health and social inequalities (Appadurai, 2000). In recent decades development initiatives aimed at reducing these inequalities have been situated in a context of increasing globalisation with a dominant neo-liberal economic orthodoxy. This paper argues that neo-liberal globalisation…

Bovill, Catherine; Leppard, Margaret

2006-01-01

28

Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A?) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A?) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A? homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ?Z?). One homologue, corresponding to the A? autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z? chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome-sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation. PMID:20668432

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y

2011-04-01

29

New generation of micro-scale sample-processing instruments for future exploration of Mars and Near Earth Objects (NEO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of finding chemical signatures of present or past life on Mars and NEO is one of the important drivers behind NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP) and Comet and Asteroid New Frontiers missions. One of the technical challenges facing MEP and NEO missions is the lack of compact sample-processing technology that enables extensive cataloging of organic and inorganic molecules

X. Amashukeli; G. Chattopadhyay; A. Fisher; J. Frank; R. Lin; A. Peralta; P. Siegel

2010-01-01

30

Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

2011-01-01

31

Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.  

PubMed

Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction. PMID:12286951

Kuumba, M B

1993-01-01

32

New generation of micro-scale sample-processing instruments for future exploration of Mars and Near Earth Objects (NEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospect of finding chemical signatures of present or past life on Mars and NEO is one of the important drivers behind NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (MEP) and Comet and Asteroid New Frontiers missions. One of the technical challenges facing MEP and NEO missions is the lack of compact sample-processing technology that enables extensive cataloging of organic and inorganic molecules and ions in crustal materials. In the past two years, we have been developing a super-compact, lightweight and low power-consumption micro-extractor (?EX) instrument that will address this challenge for in situ Mars exploration missions, Mars Sample Return sample analysis, and cometary and asteroidal material chemical characterization. The core operational principle of ?EX is based on a unique property of water - the ability to change its permittivity (i.e., dielectric constant) as a function of frequency to match the dielectric constants of organic solvents. In our instrument, the dielectric constant of water decreases when RF radiation (180, 90, and 60 GHz) interacts with translational modes in a solution by disrupting orientation of the water molecules’ individual molecular dipoles. Since “like dissolves like”, ?EX can then extract biomarkers from soil samples by simply applying radiation to water, without the use of any other chemicals. Consequently, target biomarkers that are characterized by very different properties (e.g., size, charge, volatility, polarity, etc.), and which are typically only soluble in organic solvents, can now be easily extractable from the solid matrices and soluble in water. Here we present our research results, which include characterization of ?EX operation, sample injection into ?EX as a function of mineral composition, flow rates and sample densities, and data on target compounds extracted from planetary-analog soil samples.

Amashukeli, X.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Fisher, A.; Frank, J.; Lin, R.; Peralta, A.; Siegel, P.

2010-12-01

33

The contribution of comets in Near-Earth Object and Main Belt populations and the role of collisions in the physical properties of members of these populations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The population of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is composed of small bodies of various origins. Groundbased observational programs have been developed to perform their inventory and to determine their physical properties. However, these observations contain many biases and the total population of NEOs with diameters down to a few hundreds of meters has not been identified yet. In recent years, the main sources of NEOs have been characterized [1]. Most of these bodies come from the asteroid main belt and the Jupiter-family comets and their source regions are linked to transport mechanisms (mean motion and secular resonances, slow diffusion mechanisms) to the NEO-space. It has then been possible to construct a complete model of the steady-state orbital, size and albedo distribution of NEOs and to determine the level of contribution of each of their sources, including the contribution of Jupiter-family comets. However, nothing is known regarding the contribution of longperiod comets. Physical observations have been conducted in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among small bodies in the NEO population and to determine the fraction of "comet candidates within the total NEO population. Combining the results of these observations with our model of NEO population to evaluate source region probabilities [1], it was found that 8 +/- 5% of the total asteroid-like NEO population may have originated as comets from the outer Solar System [2]. In the population of Main Belt (MB) asteroids, three members are known to display transient comet-like physical characteristics, including prolonged periods of dust emission leading to the formation of radiation pressure-swept tails [3]. These physical properties are most naturally explained as the result of sub-limation of near-surface ice from what are, dynamically, mainbelt asteroids (hence the name "main-belt comets" (MBCs) or, equivalently "icy asteroids"). No pausible dynamical path to the asteroid belt from the cometary reservoirs in the Oort cloud or Kuiper belt has been established. Thus, we may have an unsuspected icy region closer to the Sun than expected. However, it has also been suggested that numerous comets may have been captured during a violent period of planetary orbital evolution in the early stages of our Solar System [4]. Most of these bodies experience collisions during their lifetime, which can either disrupt them or modify their physical properties. In particular, collisions are suspected to be the triggering mechanism for the activation of MBCs. Thus the collisional process needs a good understanding in order to determine its contribution in the evolution of these small bodies, as a function of their physical properties. We have recently made a major improvement in the simulations of a small body disruption by introducing a model of fragmentation of porous material which will allows us to study the impact process on cometary bodies [5]. Moreover, for bodies dominated by gravity, our simulations includes the explicit computation of the formation of aggregates during the gravitational reaccumulation of small fragments, allowing us to obtain information on their spin, the number of boulders composing them or lying on their surface, and their shape. We will present the first and preliminary results of this process taking as examples some asteroid families that we reproduced successfully with our previous simulations [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], and their possible implications on the properties of small bodies generated by a disruption. Such information can for instance be compared with data provided by the Japanese space mission Hayabusa of the asteroid Itokawa, a body now understood to be a fragment of a larger parent body. For the population of comets, improving our understanding of their collisional response can then allow us to better characterize their collisional evolution, lifetime and other properties [11] which can have some implications on their contribution in "asteroidal" populations. It is also clear that future s

Michel, P.

2008-09-01

34

A sensitive search for NEOs with the Dark Energy Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from the DECam NEO Survey. DECam (Dark Energy Camera) is a 520 Megapixel optical imager with a 3 square degree field of view on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The combination of large field of view and 4 meter aperture yield an étendue that far surpasses those of previous NEO searches. Our goals are to obtain a census of NEOs down to a detection limit of V=23, to measure the size distribution of small NEOs, and to characterize the population of earth-crossing objects (ECOs). In this contribution we describe our 30-night survey, scheduled to begin in the 2014A semester and to extend over three "A" (northern hemisphere Spring) semesters. We present preliminary results based on our pilot project conducted in January and April of this year and which resulted in our submitting approximately 100,000 astrometric measurements to the Minor Planet Center (observatory code W84), approximately 1% of which are NEOs. Details of extensive simulations and data processing performed with the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) can be found in a separate contribution (Burt et al.) at this meeting.

Allen, Lori; Trilling, D.; Burt, B.; Valdes, F.; Fuentes, C.; James, D.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Earle, A.; Herrera, D.; Brown, M.; Axelrod, T.

2013-10-01

35

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We will use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 700 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field will allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

Trilling, David E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Harris, A.; Hora, J.; Mainzer, A.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J.

2009-05-01

36

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near Earth space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We propose to use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 750 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

Trilling, David; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Bottke, William; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mainzer, Amy; Mueller, Michael; Penprase, Bryan; Smith, Howard; Spahr, Timothy; Stansberry, John

2008-12-01

37

Evolution of NEO rotation rates due to close encounters with Earth and Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the statistical effect of planetary flybys on the rotation rates and states of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Our approach combines numerical and analytical methods within a Monte Carlo model that simulates the evolution of the NEO spin rates. We take as input for the simulation a source distribution of spin states and evolve it to find their steady state distribution. In performing this evolution we track the changes in the spin rate and state distribution for the different components of the NEO population. We show that the cumulative effect of planetary encounters is to spin up the overall population of NEOs. This spin up effect holds on average only, and particular members of the population may experience an overall decrease in rotation rate. This effect is clearly seen across all components of the NEO population and is significant both statistically and physically. For initially slow rotators the spin up effect is strong, lowering the mean rotation period by 32%. For faster rotating populations the effect is less, lowering the spin period by 15% for the intermediate case, 6% for fast rotating rubble piles, and 8% for fast rotating monoliths. Physically, the spin up effect pushes 1% of the fast rotating rubble-pile NEOs over the disruption limit, while 6% of these bodies experience a sub-disruption event that could modify their physical structure. For monolithic NEOs, the spin up effect is self-limiting, reaching a minimum spin period of 1.1 hr, with a strong cut-off between 2-3 hr. This has two implications. First, it may not be necessary to invoke the rubble-pile hypothesis to recover a cut-off in spin period. Second, it shows that planetary flybys cannot account for the extremely rapid rotation rates of some small NEOs. We also tested a different balance between the effects of Earth and Venus by treating the Aten sub-class of asteroids separately. Due to increased interactions with the planets, the spin up effect is more pronounced (10%) and disruptions increase by a factor of three. The slow rotation tails of the spin distributions are increased to longer periods, in general, with rotation periods of over 100 hr occurring for a few tenths of a percent for some component populations. Thus, this mechanism may account for some of the noted excess in slow rotators among the NEOs. Planetary flybys also cause NEOs to enter a tumbling state, with approximately 0.5% of the population being placed into a long-axis rotation mode. Finally, based on the evolution of spin states of different components of the NEO population, we compared the evolved states with the measured distribution of NEOs to estimate the relative populations of these components that comprise the NEOs.

Scheeres, D. J.; Marzari, F.; Rossi, A.

2004-08-01

38

ExploreNEOs III: Size, Albedo, And Thermal History Of 58+ Low-deltaV NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space missions to NEOs are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently President Obama announced the goal of a manned mission to an NEO. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge on the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor primitive low-albedo objects. For the vast majority of NEOs the albedo is unknown. We report new constraints on the size and albedo of NEOs with rendezvous deltaV < 7 km/s. Our results are based on thermal flux data obtained in the framework of our ongoing ExploreNEOs survey (Trilling et al., 2010) using NASA's "Warm Spitzer" space telescope. As of this writing, we have results for 253 objects in hand (including the 58 low-deltaV NEOs presented here); before the end of 2011 we expect to have measured the size and albedo of 700 NEOs (including probably 160 low-deltaV NEOs). Due to the nature of our observations, our results are generally more accurate for low-albedo objects than for their high-albedo counterparts. While there are reasons to believe that primitive volatile-rich materials are universally low in albedo, the converse need not be true: The orbital evolution of some objects caused them to lose their volatiles by coming too close to the Sun. For all our targets, we give the closest perihelion distance they are likely to have reached (using orbital integrations from Marchi et al., 2009) and corresponding upper limits on the past surface temperature. Low-deltaV objects for which both albedo and thermal history suggest a primitive composision include (162998) 2001 SK162, (68372) 2001 PM9, and (100085) 1992 UY4. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL, Caltech under a contract with NASA.

Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Harris, A. W.; Hora, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Mommert, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

2010-10-01

39

Neuronal populations and single cells representing learned auditory objects  

PubMed Central

The neural representations associated with learned auditory behaviours, such as recognizing individuals based on their vocalizations, are not well described. Higher vertebrates learn to recognize complex conspecific vocalizations that comprise sequences of easily identified, naturally occurring auditory objects1,2, which should facilitate the analysis of higher auditory pathways. Here we describe the first example of neurons selective for learned conspecific vocalizations in adult animals—in starlings that have been trained operantly to recognize conspecific songs. The neuronal population is found in a non-primary forebrain auditory region, exhibits increased responses to the set of learned songs compared with novel songs, and shows differential responses to categories of learned songs based on recognition training contingencies. Within the population, many cells respond highly selectively to a subset of specific motifs (acoustic objects) present only in the learned songs. Such neuronal selectivity may contribute to song-recognition behaviour, which in starlings is sensitive to motif identity3,4. In this system, both top-down and bottom-up processes may modify the tuning properties of neurons during recognition learning, giving rise to plastic representations of behaviourally meaningful auditory objects.

Gentner, Timothy Q.; Margoliash, Daniel

2009-01-01

40

Visible photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population -- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets -- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study some 700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. Remarkably, the primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. Fortunately, our targets are generally bright, and obtaining good V band measurements of them requires only a modest amount of time on modest aperture telescopes. We propose here for 36 hours of SMARTS 1.3-m time or 54 hours of SMARTS 0.9-m time to obtain visible photometry of the 72 southern moderately bright ``B'' semester targets in our Warm Spitzer program. These program is ideal for queue/service observing because each observation requires only ~30 minutes and our targets are all over the sky.

Trilling, David E.; Jones, Sarah; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Spahr, Tim; Delbo, Marco

2009-08-01

41

The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

2012-12-01

42

Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the

Maria Cristina de Sanctis; Gianrico Filacchione; Fabrizio Capaccioni; Eleonora Ammannito; Maria Teresa Capria; Angioletta Coradini; Alessandra Migliorini

2010-01-01

43

Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within

J. N. Head; M. V. Sykes

2005-01-01

44

POPULATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new method for identifying young stellar objects (YSOs) from star-forming regions using the photometry data from Spitzer's c2d Legacy Project. The aim is to obtain YSO lists as complete as possible for studying statistical properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages. The largest obstacle in identifying YSOs comes from background galaxies with similar spectral energy distributions to YSOs. Traditionally, selected color-color and color-magnitude criteria are used to separate YSOs and galaxies. However, since there is no obvious boundary between YSOs and galaxies in color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), those criteria may exclude faint YSOs near the boundary. In this paper, we separate the YSOs and galaxies in a multi-dimensional (multi-D) magnitude space, which is equivalent to using all variations of CMDs simultaneously. Comparing sources from molecular clouds to Spitzer's SWIRE data, which have a negligible amount of YSOs, we can naturally identify YSO candidates (YSOc) located outside of the galaxy-populated regions in the multi-D space. In the five c2d surveyed clouds, we select 322 new YSOc and miss/exclude 33 YSOc compared to Evans et al., and this results in 1313 YSOc in total. As a result, SFR increases 28% correspondingly, but the lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages remain unchanged. Compared to theories by Krumholz and McKee, our derived SFR suggests that star formation at a large scale is dominated by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields. Furthermore, we identify seven new very low luminosity objects.

Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping, E-mail: shawinchone@gmail.com, E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-03-01

45

Properties and evolution of NEO families created by tidal disruption at Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the coherence and detectable lifetimes of synthetic near-Earth object (NEO) families created by catastrophic disruption of a progenitor as it suffers a very close Earth approach. The closest or slowest approaches yield the most violent ‘s-class’ disruption events where the largest remaining fragment after disruption and reaccumulation retains less than 50% of the parent’s mass. The resulting fragments have a ‘string of pearls’ configuration after their reaccummulation into gravitationally bound components (Richardson, D.C., Bottke, W.F., Love, S.G. [1998]. Icarus 134, 47-76). We found that the average absolute magnitude (H) difference between the parent body and the largest fragment is ?H?1.0. The average slope of the absolute magnitude (H) distribution, N(H)?10, for the fragments in the s-class families is steeper than the slope of the NEO population (Mainzer, A., et al. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 743, 156) in the same size range. The es remain coherent as statistically significant clusters of orbits within the NEO population for an average of ?barc=(14.7±0.6)×103 yr after disruption. The detectable lifetimes of tidally disrupted families are extremely short compared to the multi-Myr and -Gyr lifetimes of main belt families due to the chaotic dynamical environment in NEO space-they are detectable with the techniques developed by Fu et al. and Schunová et al. (Fu, H., Jedicke, R., Durda, D.D., Fevig, R., Binzel, R.P. [2005]. Icarus 178(2), 434-449 and Schunová, E., Granvik, M., Jedicke, R., Gronchi, G., Wainscoat, R., Abe, S. [2012]. Icarus 220, 1050-1063) for an average duration (?bardet) ranging from about 2000 to about 12,000 years for progenitors in the absolute magnitude (Hp) range from 20 to 13 corresponding to diameters in the range from about 0.5 to 10 km respectively. The maximum absolute magnitude of a progenitor capable of producing an observable NEO family (i.e. detectable by our family finding technique) is Hp,max=20 (about 350 m diameter). The short detectability lifetime explains why zero NEO families have been discovered to-date. Nonetheless, every tidal disruption event of a progenitor with diameter greater than 0.5 km is capable of producing several million fragments in the 1-10 m diameter range that can contribute to temporary local density enhancements of small NEOs in Earth’s vicinity. We expect that there are about 1200 objects in the steady state NEO population in this size range due to tidal disruption assuming that one 1 km diameter NEO tidally disrupts at Earth every 2500 years. These objects may be suitable targets for asteroid retrieval missions due to their Earth-like orbits with corresponding low v? which permits low-cost missions. The fragments from the tidal disruptions evolve into orbits that bring them into collision with terrestrial planets or the Sun or they may be ejected from the Solar System on hyperbolic orbits due to deep planetary encounters. The end-state for the fragments from a tidal disruption at Earth have ?5× the collision probability with Earth compared to the background NEO population.

Schunová, Eva; Jedicke, Robert; Walsh, Kevin J.; Granvik, Mikael; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Haghighipour, Nader

2014-08-01

46

Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within a specified dynamical range having requisite composition and frequency. A minimum size requirement is estimated assuming CONOPs has an NEO harvester on station at L1. When the NEO launch window opens, the vehicle departs, rendezvousing within 30 days. Mining and processing operations ( 60 days) produces dirty water for the return trip ( 30 days) to L1 for final refinement into propellants. A market for propellant at L1 is estimated to be 700 mT /year: 250 mT for Mars missions, 100 mT for GTO services (Blair et al. 2002), 50 mT for L1 to lunar surface services, and 300 mT for bringing NEO-derived propellants to L1. Assuming an appropriate NEO has 5% recoverable water, exploited with 50% efficiency, 23000 mT/year must be processed. At 1500 kg/m3, this corresponds to one object per year with a radius of 15 meters, or two 5 m radius objects per month, of which it is estimated there are 10000 having delta-v < 4.2 km/s and 200/year of these available for short roundtrip missions to meet resource requirements (Jones et al. 2002). The importance of these potential resource objects should drive a requirement that next generation NEO detection systems (e.g., Pan-STARRS/LSST) be capable by 2010 of detecting dark NEOs fainter than V=24, allowing for identification 3 months before closest approach. Blair et al. 2002. Final Report to NASA Exploration Team, December 20, 2002. Jones et al. 2002. ASP Conf. Series Vol. 202 (M. Sykes, Ed.), pp. 141-154.

Head, J. N.; Sykes, M. V.

2005-12-01

47

The NEO-FFI in Multiple Sclerosis: Internal Consistency, Factorial Validity and Correspondence Between Self and Informant Reports  

PubMed Central

Personality assessment is a potentially important component of clinical and empirical work with neurological patients because (1) individual differences in personality may be associated with different neurological outcomes and (2) central nervous system changes may give rise to alteration in personality. In order for personality assessment to be useful to clinicians and researchers, the tests must be reliable and valid, as self-report measures require certain baseline levels of comprehension and insight, both of which can be compromised by cerebral disease. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the widely used NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a group of 419 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to determine if the NEO-FFI is reliable and valid in this population. Results showed adequate estimates of internal consistency, factorial validity and self-informant correlation that support its use with MS patients. Implications, limitations of the current study and directions for future research are discussed.

Schwartz, Eben S.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H. B.

2010-01-01

48

Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). This two spacecraft mission mimics the likely architecture approach that human explorers will use: a “mother ship”(MS) designed to get from Earth to the NEO and a “Small Body Lander”(SBL) that performs in situ investigation on or close to the NEO’s surface. The MS carries the SBL to the target NEO. Once at the target NEO, the MS conducts an initial reconnaissance in order to produce a high resolution map of the surface. This map is used to identify coordinates of interest which are sent to the SBL. The SBL un-docks from the MS to rendezvous with the NEO and collect data. Landings are possible, though the challenges of anchoring to the NEO surface are significant. The SBL design is flexible and adaptable, enabling science data collection on or near the surface. After surface investigations are completed on the first NEO, the SBL will return and autonomously rendezvous and dock with the MS. The MS then goes to the next NEO target. During transit to the next NEO, the SBL could be refueled by the MS, a TRL8 capability demonstrated on the DARPA/NASA Orbital Express mission in 2007, or alternately sized to operate without requiring refueling depending on the mission profile. The mission goals are to identify surface hazards; quantify engineering boundary conditions for future human visits, and identify resources for future exploitation. The mission goals will be accomplished through the execution of key mission objectives: (1) high-resolution surface topography; (2) surface composition and mineralogy; (3) radiation environment near NEO; and (4) mechanical properties of the surface. Essential SBL instruments include: a) LIDAR (Obj. 1); b) 3D, high- resolution hyperspectral imaging cameras (Obj. 2); c) radiation sensor package (Obj. 3); and d) strain gauges (Obj. 4). Additional or alternative instruments could include: e) x-ray fluorescence or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor package (Obj. 2); f) gamma ray/neutron spectrometry package (Obj. 2); and g) radiometer package (to address variations in thermal environment). The ability to reach, survey, sample, and analyze multiple NEOs at close proximity is an enormous capability that can enable NASA to rapidly achieve the primary Exploration Precursor Robotic Mission (xPRM) Program goal of characterizing NEOs for future human exploration. Instead of launching multiple dedicated missions to each NEO of interest, a multi-NEO sortie mission can be planned and executed to achieve the same mission objectives with one launch, dramatically reducing the cost of NEO exploration. Collectively, our NEO Exploration System Architecture provides solutions for a wide variety of exploration activities using a common spacecraft bus and common core instrumentation for the spacecraft. This engineering consistency will substantially improve the probability of mission success, increase the likelihood of maintaining an aggressive launch schedule, and decrease the total cost of multiple missions. NASA successfully used this approach with the robotic precursors leading up to the Apollo missions, and we see significant benefits from this same programmatic approach for the xPRM program.

Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Cook, T.; Smith, D.

2010-12-01

49

Science from NEOs - Limitations and Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission, in addition of doing astrometry of stars and a 3D census of our Milky Way, has specific objectives for solar system objects (Tanga, 2011). In that respect it follows the Hipparcos/Tycho mission that already observed a few solar system objects. The astrometric accuracy involved with Gaia is however 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher, and the total number of targets observed is incomparably larger. Here we describe several scientific outcomes from the astrometry of asteroids and comets with particular emphasis on the Near Earth Objects (NEOs), their specificities and limitations.

Hestroffer, D.

2011-06-01

50

Coma cluster object populations down to MR ~ -9.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: This study follows a recent analysis of the galaxy luminosity functions and colour-magnitude red sequences in the Coma cluster. Aims: We analyze here the distribution of very faint galaxies and globular clusters in an east-west strip of ~ 42 × 7 arcmin2 crossing the Coma cluster center (hereafter the CS strip) down to the unprecedented faint absolute magnitude of MR ~ -9.5. Methods: This work is based on deep images obtained at the CFHT with the CFH12K camera in the B, R, and I bands. Results: The analysis shows that the observed properties strongly depend on the environment, and thus on the cluster history. When the CS is divided into four regions, the westernmost region appears poorly populated, while the regions around the brightest galaxies NGC 4874 and NGC 4889 (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889 being masked) are dominated by faint blue galaxies. They show a faint luminosity function slope of -2, very significantly different from the field estimates. Conclusions: Results are discussed in the framework of galaxy destruction (which can explain part of the very faint galaxy population) and of structures infalling on to Coma. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

Adami, C.; Picat, J. P.; Durret, F.; Mazure, A.; Pelló, R.; West, M.

2007-09-01

51

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

52

Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

2009-01-01

53

Debiased Populations of Kuiper Belt Objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) discovered nearly 500 Kuiper belt objects during 1998-2005 (Elliot et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1117). Of these objects, 146 objects are classified as Classical, 44 as Scattered, 18 as Centaurs, and 104 as resonant objects in 16 different resonances, the most populous of which is the 3:2, with 52 objects. The search fields used by DES are fully characterized, enabling us to calculate the probability that an object with the discovered orbital and physical parameters would have been detected by the DES. These probabilities can be used to estimate the true populations of objects in different dynamical classes. Knowing the true populations allows characterization of the current dynamical distributions and constraint of the current total mass of the Kuiper Belt, important keys to understanding the evolution of the outer solar system. One method for calculating probabilities is to use a maximum-likelihood model characterized by probability density functions for H-magnitude, semimajor axis (a), eccentricity (e) and inclination (i), within the ranges of these parameters defined by the DES discoveries. We have employed this method to estimate the numbers of objects in the most populated DES dynamical classes. We will present the methodology, limitations to our technique, and the results to date.

Adams, Elisabeth R.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

2012-10-01

54

ObStruct: A Method to Objectively Analyse Factors Driving Population Structure Using Bayesian Ancestry Profiles  

PubMed Central

Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

55

Searching for Astroids: Modifying the LSST MOPS Pipeline to Find NEOs in DECam/Blanco Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs), Solar System bodies that pass close to the Earth, are of great interest to both the scientific and impact hazard communities. The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) pipeline was designed to find NEOs in Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-STARRS 1 data. However, by modifying several of the settings in MOPS it is possible to use it on NEO survey data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope. We tested MOPS’ capabilities on synthetic data sets that contain implanted NEOs and noise and determined the limits of MOPS’ effectiveness in terms of noise, NEO sky velocity, and so on. MOPS will not only be a valuable tool for the DECam and Spitzer surveys but these projects will also serve as an opportunity to test MOPS on real data before construction of LSST begins. Funded by the NSF through grant number AST-1004107

Earle, Alissa M.; Trilling, D. E.; Fuentes, C.; Allen, L.; Axelrod, T. S.; Larson, S. M.; Christensen, E.; DECam NEO Survey Team

2013-01-01

56

Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s  

SciTech Connect

ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

1996-02-01

57

Sequence differentiation associated with an inversion on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes originate from pairs of autosomes that acquire controlling genes in the sex-determining cascade. Universal mechanisms apparently influence the evolution of sex chromosomes, because this chromosomal pair is characteristically heteromorphic in a broad range of organisms. To examine the pattern of initial differentiation between sex chromosomes, sequence analyses were performed on a pair of newly formed sex chromosomes in Drosophila americana. This species has neo-sex chromosomes as a result of a centromeric fusion between the X chromosome and an autosome. Sequences were analyzed from the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), big brain (bib), and timeless (tim) gene regions, which represent separate positions along this pair of neo-sex chromosomes. In the northwestern range of the species, the bib and Adh regions exhibit significant sequence differentiation for neo-X chromosomes relative to neo-Y chromosomes from the same geographic region and other chromosomal populations of D. americana. Furthermore, a nucleotide site defining a common haplotype in bib is shown to be associated with a paracentric inversion [In(4)ab] on the neo-X chromosome, and this inversion suppresses recombination between neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes. These observations are consistent with the inversion acting as a recombination modifier that suppresses exchange between these neo-sex chromosomes, as predicted by models of sex chromosome evolution.

McAllister, Bryant F

2003-01-01

58

Effects of NEO composition on deflection methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early stages of NEO mitigation campaign planning, it is indispensable to characterise the hazardous object. However, exhaustive characterisation in close proximity to the object may not always be feasible when the lead time is in the order of a few years to a decade, hence causing uncertainty in its physical and compositional properties. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and robustness of different deflection methodologies subject to uncertainty in the asteroid composition. The Evidence Theory is used to quantify epistemic uncertainty in the asteroid properties. The kinetic impact, nuclear intercept, and the solar sublimation [mitigation approaches] are applied to a set of virtual Earth-threatening asteroids with different Keplerian elements, sizes (30-150 m), and mission lead times (5-18 years) with the goal of a minimum 2½ Earth-radii deviation distance. A typical S-type rubble pile configuration is used as the baseline asteroid composition for the study.

Sugimoto, Y.; Radice, G.; Sanchez, J. P.

2013-09-01

59

Neo-Darwinism and Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, the humanities have been in thrall to postmodern skepticism, whereas Darwinism, brimming with confidence\\u000a in the genuine progress they have made in the sciences of biology and psychology, have set their sights on rescuing the humanities\\u000a from the ravages of postmodernism. In their attempt to formulate a biological theory of religion, the neo-Darwinists (Richard\\u000a Dawkins and Daniel

Eugene Goodheart

2008-01-01

60

Statistical Estimation of Orbital Debris Populations with a Spectrum of Object Size  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital debris is a real concern for the safe operations of satellites. In general, the hazard of debris impact is a function of the size and spatial distributions of the debris populations. To describe and characterize the debris environment as reliably as possible, the current NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2000) is being upgraded to a new version based on new and better quality data. The data-driven ORDEM model covers a wide range of object sizes from 10 microns to greater than 1 meter. This paper reviews the statistical process for the estimation of the debris populations in the new ORDEM upgrade, and discusses the representation of large-size (greater than or equal to 1 m and greater than or equal to 10 cm) populations by SSN catalog objects and the validation of the statistical approach. Also, it presents results for the populations with sizes of greater than or equal to 3.3 cm, greater than or equal to 1 cm, greater than or equal to 100 micrometers, and greater than or equal to 10 micrometers. The orbital debris populations used in the new version of ORDEM are inferred from data based upon appropriate reference (or benchmark) populations instead of the binning of the multi-dimensional orbital-element space. This paper describes all of the major steps used in the population-inference procedure for each size-range. Detailed discussions on data analysis, parameter definition, the correlation between parameters and data, and uncertainty assessment are included.

Xu, Y. -l; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J. -C; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

2008-01-01

61

Euclidean Shift-Twist Symmetry in Population Models of Self-Aligning Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the symmetry properties of a general class of nonlocal population models describing the aggregation and alignment of oriented objects in two dimensions. Such objects could be at the level of molecules, cells, or whole organisms. We show that the underlying interaction kernel is invariant under the so-called shift-twist action of the Euclidean group acting on the space R2

Paul C. Bressloff

2004-01-01

62

Near Earth Object Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) offers this Webpage (for another similar page from JPL, see the March 13, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) containing relevant information on Near Earth Objects (NEO). The site includes current tables with tracking data for potentially hazardous asteroids and their approaches towards earth, detailed information of recent NEO discoveries, and images of the objects themselves. An FAQ section and a variety of related links are also available here.

63

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

2013-01-01

64

NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

2013-01-01

65

SMASS Near-Earth Object Survey: An Album of Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) undertaken at MIT has produced and published visible spectra for more than 1300 main-belt asteroids. The infrared extension of this program (SMASSIR) has produced near-infrared spectra for about 200 main-belt asteroids. In this poster we present visible and near-infrared spectral results for more than 300 near-Earth objects (NEOs) measured during the SMASS and SMASSIR programs and through ongoing observations at Kitt Peak, Palomar, IRTF, and Magellan observatories. The scientific goals for this sample are to deduce the compositional distribution of the near-Earth object population. Knowledge of this distribution will allow the origin and relative hazard of the NEO population to be better understood and will provide the basis for gaining further insights to asteroid-meteorite and asteroid-comet relationships. While a portion of our NEO sample has been published, spectral measurements are newly presented here for more than 250 NEOs. All published SMASS spectra are available at our website http://smass.mit.edu/. These new near-Earth object spectra will also be made available at the SMASS website at the time they are submitted for publication.

Binzel, R. P.; Harris, A. W.; Bus, S. J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Burbine, T. H.

2003-01-01

66

Development of NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) is a web-based integrated simulator for Earth remote sensing applications. Initially developed for atmospheric remote sensing instruments, NEOS3 is equipped with start-of-the-art modules to enable the realistic simulation of satellite observables. The main objective of the development is to provide an advanced, sophisticated, and user-friendly simulator package that can be used by both scientists for research-oriented applications and by system engineers for an instrument design purpose. This system is accessible via a web interface and capable of distributing computationally intensive tasks to remote servers such as those at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division. Among other advanced models, the propagation models integrated in NEOS3 include DOMUS (DOppler MUltiple-Scattering simulator) and SHDOM (Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method) for simulation of radars and radiometers, respectively. These two models enable 3D simulation of wave propagation through the atmosphere. The electromagnetic scattering properties of snow and cloud ice particles can be obtained from the Snowfake database (built upon a realistic snow growth model and the Discrete Dipole Approximation technique). Alternatively, different libraries of models can be selected for individual components of the simulation procedure. The presentation will cover an overview of 3 distinct perspectives of the NEOS3 system: capabilities, architecture and basic workflow. It will serve as an introduction for prospective users as well as contributors who desire to further enhance this simulator suite by providing an improved model.

Niamsuwan, N.; Tanelli, S.; Johnson, M. P.; Jacob, J. C.

2012-12-01

67

New Findings on Primitive Asteroid Families in the Inner Asteroid Belt: An Important Source of Primitive NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner main asteroid belt (2.15 AU < a < 2.5 AU) is the dominant source region of near-Earth objects (NEOs). Most asteroids from this region become NEOs after being delivered via the ?6 secular resonance at 2.15 AU. In particular, this pathway is the most likely delivery source for NEOs on low delta-velocity orbits such as the proposed space mission targets 1996 RQ36 and 1999 JU3. These missions are specifically targeting primitive asteroids, those asteroids of C- or B- type that are thought to be related to Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorites. The largest collections of primitive bodies in the inner main asteroid belt are found among the Nysa-Polana complex and the diffuse background of low-albedo bodies. Data from the NASA WISE mission have allowed a closer analysis of all low-albedo, primitive, asteroids in this region which is valuable for determining the location and size of asteroid families and the background population. We have found that the low-albedo component of the Nysa-Polana complex is centered very close to the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, with (495) Eulalia as the likely parent. The previously assumed parent, (142) Polana, does not appear to be a member of the family. Also, the diffuse background of primitive bodies appears to be an asteroid family as well, potentially one of the oldest and most extended primitive asteroid family in this region of the asteroid belt.

Walsh, Kevin J.; Delbo, M.; Bottke, W. F.

2012-10-01

68

The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

Harris, Alan W.

2012-10-01

69

High Area-to-Mass Ratio object population assessment from data/track association  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, the actual population of High Area-to-Mass Ratio (HAMR) objects in deep Space is still unquantified. These are objects having area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) in the range of around 0.1-20 m2/kg and higher. Typical methods for population assessment using optical sensors either count the number of detections per unit time, or employ a disparate sequence of methods to compute HAMR object trajectories, where these methods assume linearized dynamics and fixed-gate correlations. This paper provides results from a set of actual angles (line of sight) data on HAMR objects, where the initial orbit determination and follow-on data/track association is performed probabilistically and autonomously. Moreover, the data are not only used to infer trajectories but also simultaneously exploited for their information content relating to each detected object's albedo-area-to-mass ratio. The results show that the inferred HAMR orbital elements and area-to-mass ratio values (CrA/m), parametrically, can be derived autonomously and without a priori knowledge of the orbit and CrA/m states. This will aid in the correlation of large numbers of uncorrelated tracks.

Kelecy, Thomas; Jah, Moriba; Baldwin, Jason; Stauch, Jason

2014-03-01

70

Multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering of microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-objective optimization (MOO) involves optimization problems with multiple objectives. Generally, theose objectives is used to estimate very different aspects of the solutions, and these aspects are often in conflict with each other. MOO first gets a Pareto set, and then looks for both commonality and systematic variations across the set. For the large-scale data sets, heuristic search algorithms such as EA combined with MOO techniques are ideal. Newly DNA microarray technology may study the transcriptional response of a complete genome to different experimental conditions and yield a lot of large-scale datasets. Biclustering technique can simultaneously cluster rows and columns of a dataset, and hlep to extract more accurate information from those datasets. Biclustering need optimize several conflicting objectives, and can be solved with MOO methods. As a heuristics-based optimization approach, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulate the movements of a bird flock finding food. The shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFL) is a population-based cooperative search metaphor combining the benefits of the local search of PSO and the global shuffled of information of the complex evolution technique. SFL is used to solve the optimization problems of the large-scale datasets. Results This paper integrates dynamic population strategy and shuffled frog-leaping algorithm into biclustering of microarray data, and proposes a novel multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering (MODPSFLB) algorithm to mine maximum bicluesters from microarray data. Experimental results show that the proposed MODPSFLB algorithm can effectively find significant biological structures in terms of related biological processes, components and molecular functions. Conclusions The proposed MODPSFLB algorithm has good diversity and fast convergence of Pareto solutions and will become a powerful systematic functional analysis in genome research.

2012-01-01

71

Immune response to mutant neo-antigens  

PubMed Central

Extending observations on the immunogenicity of neo-antigens that arise in the course of oncogenesis and tumor progression, we suggest that somatic mutations affecting normal tissues also lead to generation of new epitopes. We hypothesize that, at least under inflammatory conditions, immune responses against such neo-antigens may lead to the elimination or functional impairment of normal cells, thus contributing to aging.

Geyer, Rory J; Tobet, Rebecca; Berlin, Richard D; Srivastava, Pramod K

2013-01-01

72

Applying Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian Economics to Latin American Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops a Comprehensive Neo-Schumpeterian theory of development allowing synthesizing the market-driven, the state-driven and the more recent knowledge-based approaches. The theoretical part of this paper identifies (i) freedom and social welfare, (ii) knowledge and innovations, and (iii) future-oriented economic structures as mutual interconnected and reinforcing objective classes of development. In the empirical part we reveal characteristic patterns and

Dominik Hartmann; Andreas Pyka; Horst Hanusch

2010-01-01

73

Optimization environments and the NEOS server  

SciTech Connect

The authors are interested in the development of problem-solving environments that simplify the formulation of optimization problems, and the access to computational resources. Once the problem has been formulated, the first step in solving an optimization problem in a typical computational environment is to identify and obtain the appropriate piece of optimization software. Once the software has been installed and tested in the local environment, the user must read the documentation and write code to define the optimization problem in the manner required by the software. Typically, Fortran or C code must be written to define the problem, compute function values and derivatives, and specify sparsity patterns. Finally, the user must debug, compile, link, and execute the code. The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an Internet-based service for optimization providing information, software, and problem-solving services for optimization. The main components of NEOS are the NEOS Guide and the NEOS Server. The current version of the NEOS Server is described in Section 2. The authors emphasize nonlinear optimization problems, but NEOS does handle linear and nonlinearly constrained optimization problems, and solvers for optimization problems subject to integer variables are being added. In Section 4 the authors begin to explore possible extensions to the NEOS Server by discussing the addition of solvers for global optimization problems. Section 5 discusses how a remote procedure call (RPC) interface to NEOS addresses some of the limitations of NEOS in the areas of security and usability. The detailed implementation of such an interface raises a number of questions, such as exactly how the RPC is implemented, what security or authentication approaches are used, and what techniques are used to improve the efficiency of the communication. They outline some of the issues in network computing that arise from the emerging style of computing used by NEOS.

Gropp, W.; More, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

1997-03-01

74

The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a “potentially hazardous asteroid” (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m). These are big enough to cause, in the case of impact with Earth, destructive effects on a regional scale. Smaller objects can still produce major damage on a local scale, while the largest NEOs could endanger the survival of living species. Therefore, several national and international observational efforts have been started (i) to detect undiscovered NEOs and especially PHAs, (ii) to determine and continuously monitor their orbital properties and hence their impact probability, and (iii) to investigate their physical nature. Further ongoing activities concern the analysis of possible techniques to mitigate the risk of a NEO impact, when an object is confirmed to be on an Earth colliding trajectory. Depending on the timeframe available before the collision, as well as on the object’s physical properties, various methods to deflect a NEO have been proposed and are currently under study from groups of experts on behalf of international organizations and space agencies. This paper will review our current understanding of the NEO population, the scientific aspects and the ongoing space- and ground-based activities to foresee close encounters and to mitigate the effects of possible impacts.

Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

2013-09-01

75

The utilization of neural nets in populating an object-oriented database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms (i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

1989-01-01

76

Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sail Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office performed an assessment of the feasibility of using a near-term solar sail propulsion system to enable a single spacecraft to perform serial rendezvous operations at multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) within six years of launch on a small-to-moderate launch vehicle. The study baselined the use of the sail technology demonstrated in the mid-2000 s by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project and is scheduled to be demonstrated in space by 2014 as part of the NASA Technology Demonstration Mission Program. The study ground rules required that the solar sail be the only new technology on the flight; all other spacecraft systems and instruments must have had previous space test and qualification. The resulting mission concept uses an 80-m X 80-m 3-axis stabilized solar sail launched by an Athena-II rocket in 2017 to rendezvous with 1999 AO10, Apophis and 2001 QJ142. In each rendezvous, the spacecraft will perform proximity operations for approximately 30 days. The spacecraft science payload is simple and lightweight; it will consist of only the multispectral imager flown on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission to 433 Eros and 253 Mathilde. Most non-sail spacecraft systems are based on the Messenger mission spacecraft. This paper will describe the objectives of the proposed mission, the solar sail technology to be employed, the spacecraft system and subsystems, as well as the overall mission profile.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

2012-01-01

77

A Solar-Powered Near Earth Object Resource Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an offshoot of a project to study means of forming massive radiation- shielded structures using Near Earth Object (NEO) materials. The topic is the conceptual design of a solar-powered robotic craft to land on, attach to, and extract materials from, a typical NEO. A solar-powered trajectory to a candidate NEO is used to estimate requirements. A reconfigurable

Thilini Rangedera; Ravi Vanmali; Nilesh Shah; Waqar Zaidi; Narayanan Komerath

2005-01-01

78

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases, and (4) rights, options, and leases subject to a critical reliability constraint used to represent a maximally risk averse case. The portfolio planning strategies were evaluated using a 10 year Monte Carlo simulation of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) within Texas. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, surplus water, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. Using an additional severe drought scenario, this work shows that leases and options can reduce the potential for critical supply failures when urban supply systems must contend with unexpected and severe extremes in both demand and water scarcity. In summary, this paper contributes a framework that couples interactive visualization and many-objective optimization to innovate urban water portfolio planning under uncertainty. The many-objective analysis of the LRGV case study shows that effective water portfolio planning can simultaneously improve the costs, efficiency, and reliability of urban water supply while ensuring adaptability and resiliency to future changes.

Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

2009-12-01

79

Applications of MOPS to NEO searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are employing MOPS for two different NEO surveys. The first is a ground-based survey using the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope. We take transient source detections, create intra-night tracklets, and form inter-night tracks. We use find_orb to reject obviously bad orbits, and have successfully submitted over 100,000 measurements to the MPC. We have also adapted MOPS for use with a new Warm Spitzer NEO survey.

Burt, Brian; Trilling, D.; Allen, L.; Earle, A.; Fuentes, C.; Myers, J.

2013-10-01

80

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

2008-10-29

81

TAM: Explaining off-object fixations and central fixation tendencies as effects of population averaging during search  

PubMed Central

Understanding how patterns are selected for both recognition and action, in the form of an eye movement, is essential to understanding the mechanisms of visual search. It is argued that selecting a pattern for fixation is time consuming—requiring the pruning of a population of possible saccade vectors to isolate the specific movement to the potential target. To support this position, two experiments are reported showing evidence for off-object fixations, where fixations land between objects rather than directly on objects, and central fixations, where initial saccades land near the center of scenes. Both behaviors were modeled successfully using TAM (Target Acquisition Model; Zelinsky, 2008). TAM interprets these behaviors as expressions of population averaging occurring at different times during saccade target selection. A large population early during search results in the averaging of the entire scene and a central fixation; a smaller population later during search results in averaging between groups of objects and off-object fixations.

Zelinsky, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

82

Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

Morrison, David

2007-10-01

83

Relationships of objectively scored Bender variables with MMPI scores in an outpatient psychiatric population.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation system for the Bender Gestalt Test could reasonably predict the results of the most widely used objective measure of personality, the MMPI. Despite the widespread use of both tests, no previous studies could be found which correlated actual Bender scores with MMPI results, arising partly from the lack of a well-accepted, reliable, and objective scoring system for the Bender. The study compared the performance of 279 adult psychological outpatients on both the MMPI and Bender. The 55 Bender scorable points, which are seen most frequently in the outpatient population, were factor analyzed to yield 17 factors which were correlated with the MMPI. Significant multiple correlations were found between the Bender factors and 10 of 12 MMPI scales, with significant correlations ranging from .36 to .47. The Bender overall was able to discriminate moderately high scorers on the MMPI from low scorers. The overall results suggested that the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation scoring system includes measures that reflect general psychopathology and correlate with the MMPI as well as more specific content that is independent of the MMPI scales. The potential of this scoring system and joint use of the MMPI and Bender in personality assessment are discussed. Replication with a larger sample than 279 is encouraged for these 55 Bender and 12 MMPI items. PMID:12578263

Raphael, Alan J; Golden, Charles J

2002-12-01

84

Relation of multimorbidity to subjective and objective cognitive impairment: a population-based twin study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association of common chronic disease and multimorbidity with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND), and to explore the contribution of genetic background and shared familial environment to these associations. Design Population-based twin study. Setting Nationwide Swedish twins. Subjects 11,379 dementia-free individuals aged ? 65 from the Swedish Twin Registry. Main Outcome Measures SCI was defined as subjective complaint of cognitive change without objective cognitive impairment, and CIND was ascertained according to the standard definition. Chronic diseases were classified based on international criteria, and multimorbidity was assessed as the co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in the same individual. Results In unmatched, fully-adjusted regression models, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and urological diseases were significantly associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) of both SCI and CIND. Circulatory and gastrointestinal disorders were related to SCI, while endocrine diseases were associated with CIND. The adjusted ORs of multimorbidity were 2.1 [95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI): 1.8–2.3] for SCI and 1.5 for CIND (95% CI: 1.3–1.8). There was a significant dose-dependent relationship between number of chronic diseases and ORs for SCI but not for CIND. In co-twin control analyses, the chronic diseases-SCI association remained significant but the association with CIND was no longer statistically significant. Conclusion Chronic diseases are associated with both SCI and CIND and the association is stronger when there is multimorbidity. Genetic and shared environmental factors may partially explain the association of CIND but not that of SCI with chronic diseases.

Caracciolo, Barbara; Gatz, Margaret; Xu, Weili; Marengoni, Alessandra; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Fratiglioni, Laura

2014-01-01

85

The near-Earth objects segment of the european space situational awareness program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a description of the SSA-NEO segment and presents its content, capabilities, and basic features. The SSA-NEO segment is intended to estimate risks of collision of the known NEO objects with the Earth, to observe these objects, and to support appropriate programs of international cooperation and measures of reducing this hazard.

Drolshagen, G.; Koschny, D.; Bobrinsky, N.

2010-10-01

86

A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

87

Spectroscopic investigation of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEO population contains two classes of objects, asteroids and comets. The challenge of the investigation of this population is to achieve a representative sample down to the smallest diameters for resolving characteristics that conclusively distinguish and/or correlate each group and illuminate the population's diversity in term of composition. Observations of the smallest observable solar system bodies are vital for understanding their interaction with planets. We have started a program of visible and near-Infrared observations of the NEO population. The observations have begun and are being conducted at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and at the TNG (Canaries). To date we have obtained low-resolution spectra of 1 Amor (2003 RL10), and several Apollo's in the near-Infrared spectral region (0.8-2.5 micron). One of them (2000 SP43) shows spectra similar to that of Vesta, but is flatter. Two of them have a spectrum typical of C-type or maybe P-type objects. 2002 AL14 matches well the spectra of an ordinary chondrite. The ordinary chondrites are considered as the remnants of the primitive solar nebula, and it has been discovered that several NEA's show a spectrum that matches quite well those of OC. Thus, some of them could be the parent bodies of these meteorites.

Vernazza, P.; Fulchignoni, M.; Birlan, M.

88

SUBSTELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY YOUNG CLUSTERS (SONYC). II. THE BROWN DWARF POPULATION OF {rho} OPHIUCHI  

SciTech Connect

SONYC-Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters-is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of brown dwarfs (BDs) down to masses below the deuterium-burning limit in nearby star-forming regions. In this second paper, we present results on the {approx}1 Myr old cluster {rho} Ophiuchi, combining our own deep optical- and near-infrared imaging using Subaru with photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the candidates selected from iJK{sub s} photometry, we have confirmed three-including a new BD with a mass close to the deuterium limit-as likely cluster members through low-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also identify 27 substellar candidates with mid-infrared excess consistent with disk emission, of which 16 are new and 11 are previously spectroscopically confirmed BDs. The high and variable extinction makes it difficult to obtain the complete substellar population in this region. However, current data suggest that its ratio of low-mass stars to BDs is similar to those reported for several other clusters, though higher than what was found for NGC 1333 in Scholz et al.

Geers, Vincent; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lee, Eve; Lafreniere, David [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Scholz, Alexander [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: vcgeers@astro.utoronto.ca [National Astronomical Observatory, Osawa 2-21-2, Mitaka, Tokyo 181 (Japan)

2011-01-01

89

Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.  

PubMed

Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. PMID:23623452

Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

2013-10-30

90

Micro-MOPSO: A Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimizer That Uses a Very Small Population Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we present a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based on the heuristic called “particle swarm\\u000a optimization” (PSO). This multi-objective particle swarm optimizer (MOPSO) is characterized for using a very small population\\u000a size, which allows it to require a very low number of objective function evaluations (only 3000 per run) to produce reasonably\\u000a good approximations of the Pareto front

Juan Carlos Fuentes Cabrera; Carlos A. Coello Coello

2010-01-01

91

Origin of Near Earh Objects, Orbital Dynamics, and Collision Probabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an innovative procedure, we have constructed a model of the de-biased orbital and magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), up to absolute magnitude H=22. This model accounts for 4 main sources of Near Earth Objects in the asteroid belt and for extinct Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs). It fits well the orbital-magnitude distribution of the NEOs detected by the Spacewatch Survey, once the observational biases are properly taken into account. The model predicts the existence of 960 NEOs with absolute magnitude H<18 and semimajor axis a<7.8 AU. of these, 58 bodies should be Aten (NEOs with a<1 AU), 590 should be Apollo (NEOs with a>1 AU and perihelion distance q<1 AU) and 310 should be Amor (NEOs with 1NEOs with H<18 are known, of which 26, 195 and 204 are Atens, Apollos and Amors, respectively. The current completeness of the known NEO population with H<18 is thus only 45%. Using the albedo distribution in each NEO sources given by a Synthetic main belt As- teroid Model (SAM), we have computed the albedo distribution of NEOs, as a function of their orbital parameters. This model allows to convert the estimated absolute mag- nitude distribution into a size distribution. We predict that the total number of NEOs with D>1km is 834, which, compared to the total number of NEOs with H<18 (963), shows that the usually assumed conversion H=18 <=> D=1km is slightly pessimistic, on average (the exact correspondence would be H=17.82). In a size limited sample, our model predicts that the de-biased ratio between dark and bright (albedo smaller or larger than 0.089) NEOs is 0.8 (I.E., 56% of the NEO with a < 7.4 AU have dark albedos). Moreover, combining our orbital distribution model with the new albedo distribution model, and assuming that the density of bright and dark bodies is 2.7 and 1.3 g/cm3, respectively, we estimate that the Earth should undergo a 1000 megatons collision every 64,000 years. Based on our model, we have computed the expected NEO distribution in the sky to- gether with their apparent magnitudes and rates of motion. This is the basis to simulate the efficiency of the various survey strategies. To understand the detection efficiency of various survey strategies, we have first simulated ``perfect surveys" as benchmarks. These are 100% efficient, all-sky, every night survey, subject only to the constraints of 1 detection above a specified air mass and when the Sun is below the horizon. We have computed that such a survey must have a limiting magnitude of about V=21 to reach 90% detection of NEOs with H<18 within ten years. Slightly more realistic surveys, limited by latitude, the galaxy, minimum rates of NEO motion, etc, require progres- sively fainter limiting magnitude to reach the 90% completion level. A survey with the sky-coverage of LINEAR could detect 90% of the NEOs with H<18 only if its limiting magnitude is 24 (the current 50% efficiency magnitude of LINEAR is around 18.5). Our simulations suggest that there may be little need for distributing survey telescopes in longitude and latitude as long as there is sufficient sky coverage from a telescope or network of telescopes which may be geographically close. Conversely, a space based survey, especially from a satellite orbit much interior to Earth, offers a tremendous advantage over their terrestrial planted brethren. For instance, a perfect survey based at Mercury with limiting magnitude V=18 would discover 90% of the NEOs with H<18 in less than 4 years. 2

Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bottke, W. F.

92

Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express) and VIR (on DAWN).

de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

93

Guidebook for Development and Production of Materials for Neo-Literates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to the development of reading and reading-related materials for newly literate individuals is designed for use in developing nations in the Asian Pacific region with relatively large neo-literate populations who may have little opportunity to practice and improve literacy skills. The guide consists of three sections. The first section…

Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

94

Low solar elongation searches for NEO: a deep sky test and its implications for survey strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey for NEOs aiming at 90% completeness for a given size range cannot ignore that a significant fraction of the population passes in the neighborhood of opposition either never or very rarely or only in very poor observing conditions. Thus, a fraction of the available telescope time needs to be used at low solar elongations in the so called

Andrea Boattini; A. Milani; G. F. Gronchi; T. Spahr; G. B. Valsecchi

2007-01-01

95

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from

K. Ward

2008-01-01

96

The Emergence of Neo-DBAE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes that the original theory and practice of discipline based art education (DBAE) of the 1980s are undergoing significant changes, and that Neo-DBAE is emerging in the 1990s. Changes in original DBAE theory and practice of the 1980s are discussed, and reasons for such changes are proposed. Some identified changes are: more…

Hamblen, Karen A.

97

Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

98

On the development of space object optical and LWIR cross section population distributions from UHF cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resident population of artificial satellites is ever-changing, with new spacecraft and debris being orbited almost daily and older space objects decaying or commanded to earth. Decisions about deployment of future surveillance systems, in most cases requiring 5-10 years of development work before being placed in operation, must be based on a projection of the workload and target detectability which

K. E. Kissell; E. Muschell; R. C. Vanderburgh

1977-01-01

99

Diameters And Albedos Of Three Subkilometer Near Earth Objects Derived From Spitzer Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are fragments of remnant primitive bodies that date from the era of Solar System formation. At present, the physical properties and origins of NEOs are poorly understood. We have measured (Trilling et al. 2008) thermal emission from three NEOs --- (6037) 1988 EG, 1993 GD, and 2005 GL --- with Spitzer's IRAC instrument at 3.6, 4.5,

David E. Trilling; M. Mueller; J. L. Hora; G. Fazio; T. Spahr; J. A. Stansberry; H. A. Smith; S. R. Chesley; A. K. Mainzer

2008-01-01

100

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

2008-09-01

101

Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

2007-01-01

102

Deflection of large near-earth objects  

SciTech Connect

The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

Canavan, G.H.

1999-01-11

103

Covariance-based maneuver optimization for NEO threats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near Earth Object (NEO) conjunction analysis and mitigation problem is fundamentally the same as Earth-centered space traffic control, albeit on a larger scale and in different temporal and spatial frames. The Aerospace Corporation has been conducting conjunction detection and collision avoidance analysis for a variety of satellite systems in the Earth environment for over 3 years. As part of this process, techniques have been developed that are applicable to analyzing the NEO threat. In space traffic control operations in the Earth orbiting environment, dangerous conjunctions between satellites are determined using collision probability models, realistic covariances, and accurate trajectories in the software suite Collision Vision. Once a potentially dangerous conjunction (or series of conjunctions) is found, a maneuver solution is developed through the program DVOPT (DeltaV OPTimization) that will reduce the risk to a pre -defined acceptable level. DVOPT works by taking the primary's state vector at conjunction, back- propagating it to the time of the proposed burn, then applying the burn to the state vector, and forward-propagating back to the time of the original conjunction. The probability of collision is then re-computed based upon the new state vector and original covariances. This backwards-forwards propagation is coupled with a search algorithm to find the optimal burn solution as a function of time. Since the burns are small (typically cm/sec for Earth-centered space traffic control), Kepler's Equation was assumed for the backwards-forwards propagation with little loss in accuracy. The covariance-based DVOPT process can be easily expanded to cover heliocentric orbits and conjunctions between the Earth and an approaching object. It is shown that minimizing the burn to increase the miss distance between the conjuncting objects does not correspond to a burn solution that minimizes the probability of impact between the same two objects. Since a significant amount of uncertainty exists in the predicted position of a NEO at conjunction with the Earth, maneuver analysis should be based upon the covariances as well as the state vectors, and not solely upon a miss distance assessment.

Peterson, G.

104

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information

K Nelson; P Sokkappa

2008-01-01

105

Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria galericulata.  

PubMed

Four neo-clerodane diterpenoids, neoajugapyrin A, scutegalerins A and B and scutecolumnin C have been isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria galericulata. Neoajugapyrin A and scutecolumnin C are reported in this species for the first time, whereas scutegalerins A and B are new compounds. NMR data of neoajugapyrin A ar e discussed i n detail t o support t he proposed revised structure of ajugapyrin A. PMID:24689211

Bozov, Petko I; Penchev, Plamen N; Coll, Josep

2014-03-01

106

Discovery of M class objects among the near-earth asteroid population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadband colorimetry, visual photometry, near-infrared photometry, and 10 and 20 micron radiometry of the near-earth asteroids (NEAs) 1986 DA and 1986 EB are used to show that these objects belong to the M class of asteroids. The similarity among the distributions of taxonomic classes among the 38 NEAs to the abundances found in the inner astoroid belt between the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances suggests that NEAs have their origins among asteroids in the vicinity of these resonances. The implied mineralogy of 1986 DA and 1986 EB is mostly nickel-iron metal; if this is indeed the case, then current models for meteorite production based on strength-related collisional processes on asteroidal surfaces predict that these two objects alone should produce about one percent of all meteorite falls. Iron meteorites derived from these near-earth asteroids should have low cosmic-ray exposure ages.

Tedesco, Edward F.; Gradie, Jonathan

1987-01-01

107

X-ray scaling relations in Compact Group Galaxies: Compact Object Populations with Chandra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the latest results from an on-going campaign to understand nuclear and accreting binary activity, as well as diffuse emission, in compact groups (CGs) of galaxies. Using multi-wavelength data for a sample of 19 CGs, we have measured star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (M*). Using Chandra data for this sample, we have detected X-ray point sources (both nuclear and non-nuclear), as well as X-ray diffuse emission. We have thus achieved a detailed characterization of the X-ray data, which allows us, for the first time, to systematically explore the form of the X-ray scaling relations between, on the one hand, point-source X-ray luminosity, Lx, due to X-ray binary populations, and, on the other hand, SFR and M* in this unique extragalactic environment. We compare the Lx-SFR-M* correlation in CGs to (1) the well established correlation for the general extragalactic X-ray binary population, and (2) the Lx vs. SFR results for Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs). Both CG galaxies and UVLGs are earlier Universe analogs, allowing us to explore Lx-SFR-M* evolution as a function of environment and cosmic time.

Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Brandt, W. N.; Johnson, K. E.; Charlton, J. C.; Gallagher, S.; Desjardins, T. D.; Lenkic, L.

2014-01-01

108

Comparison of Opposition and Near Sun NEO Discoveries by the Catalina Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Catalina Sky Survey has been operating 3 telescopes for the past three years while extending its sky coverage into the far southern hemisphere but also towards lower solar elongations. Several recent studies (Chesley and Spahr 2002, Milani et al. 2005, Bernardi et al. 2005, Boattini PhD thesis 2007) have pointed out the importance of extending NEO searches at regions of the sky closer to the sun, despite the more challenging observing and orbital determination: to speed up the discovery of the largest unknown NEOs, to debias the known population by finding bodies with small aphelia and/or larger eccentricity/inclination and to encourage the discovery of PHAs in the so-called "sweet spots". In this work we compare orbital characteristics, size distributions, sky-plane densities, of NEOs discovered at different solar elongations (ecliptic longitude and latitude) by the CSS facilities between October 2004 and September 2007: in particular we focus on what has been found in the opposition region respect to areas closer ot the sun. Results from our sample ( 400 Amors, 500 Apollos and 100 Atens) will be analyzed and discussed in view also of refining observing strategies of future NEO surveys. This work is supported by the NASA NEOO program.

Boattini, Andrea; Beshore, E. C.; Burton, D.; Garradd, G. J.; Gibbs, A. R.; Grauer, A. D.; Hill, R. E.; Kowalski, R. A.; Larson, S. M.; McNaught, R. H.

2007-10-01

109

A Neo-Sex Chromosome That Drives Postzygotic Sex Determination in the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)  

PubMed Central

Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual properties originated from the anomalous Hessian fly sex determination system in which postzygotic chromosome elimination is used to establish the sex-determining karyotypes. This system permitted the evolution of a master switch (Chromosome maintenance, Cm) that acts maternally. All of the offspring of females that carry Cm-associated neo-sex chromosomes attain a female-determining somatic karyotype and develop as females. Thus, the chromosomes act as maternal effect neo-W's, or W-prime (W?) chromosomes, where ZW? females mate with ZZ males to engender female-producing (ZW?) and male-producing (ZZ) females in equal numbers. Genetic mapping and physical mapping identified the inversions. Their distribution was determined in nine populations. Experimental matings established the association of the inversions with Cm and measured their recombination suppression. The inversions are the functional equivalent of the sciarid X-prime chromosomes. We speculate that W? chromosomes exist in a variety of species that produce unisexual broods.

Benatti, Thiago R.; Valicente, Fernando H.; Aggarwal, Rajat; Zhao, Chaoyang; Walling, Jason G.; Chen, Ming-Shun; Cambron, Sue E.; Schemerhorn, Brandon J.; Stuart, Jeffrey J.

2010-01-01

110

A neo-sex chromosome that drives postzygotic sex determination in the hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor).  

PubMed

Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual properties originated from the anomalous Hessian fly sex determination system in which postzygotic chromosome elimination is used to establish the sex-determining karyotypes. This system permitted the evolution of a master switch (Chromosome maintenance, Cm) that acts maternally. All of the offspring of females that carry Cm-associated neo-sex chromosomes attain a female-determining somatic karyotype and develop as females. Thus, the chromosomes act as maternal effect neo-W's, or W-prime (W') chromosomes, where ZW' females mate with ZZ males to engender female-producing (ZW') and male-producing (ZZ) females in equal numbers. Genetic mapping and physical mapping identified the inversions. Their distribution was determined in nine populations. Experimental matings established the association of the inversions with Cm and measured their recombination suppression. The inversions are the functional equivalent of the sciarid X-prime chromosomes. We speculate that W' chromosomes exist in a variety of species that produce unisexual broods. PMID:20026681

Benatti, Thiago R; Valicente, Fernando H; Aggarwal, Rajat; Zhao, Chaoyang; Walling, Jason G; Chen, Ming-Shun; Cambron, Sue E; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Stuart, Jeffrey J

2010-03-01

111

KLENOT Project 2002-2008 contribution to NEO astrometric follow-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth object (NEO) research plays an increasingly important role not only in solar system science but also in protecting our planetary environment as well as human society from the asteroid and comet hazard. Consequently, interest in detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and the physical characterizing of these bodies has steadily grown. The discovery rate of current NEO surveys reflects progressive improvement in a number of technical areas. An integral part of NEO discovery is astrometric follow-up crucial for precise orbit computation and for the reasonable judging of future close encounters with the Earth, including possible impact solutions. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) is aimed especially at the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up, and recovery of near-Earth objects. It ranks among the world’s most prolific professional NEO follow-up programs. The 1.06 m KLENOT telescope, put into regular operation in 2002, is the largest telescope in Europe used exclusively for observations of minor planets and comets, and full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. In this paper, we present the equipment, technology, software, observing strategy, and results of the KLENOT Project obtained during its first phase from March 2002 to September 2008. The results consist of thousands of precise astrometric measurements of NEOs and also three newly discovered near-Earth asteroids. Finally, we also discuss future plans reflecting also the role of astrometric follow-up in connection with the modus operandi of the next generation surveys.

Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

2009-01-01

112

Differential distribution of subjective and objective cognitive impairment in the population: A nationwide twin-study  

PubMed Central

We report the prevalence of subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND), their socio-demographic profile, and the contribution of genetic background and shared familial environment to SCI and CIND. Subjects were 11,926 dementia-free twin individuals aged ? 65 from the Swedish Twin Registry. SCI was defined as subjective complaint of cognitive change without objective cognitive impairment and CIND was defined according to current criteria. Overall prevalence of SCI and CIND was 39% (95% CI 38-39) and 25% (95% CI 24-25). Among those with CIND, 57% had subjective cognitive complaints; 43% did not. In multivariate GEE models, both SCI and CIND were older compared with people without any cognitive impairment. CIND were also less educated, more likely to be unmarried and to have lower socioeconomic status (SES). SCI individuals differed from persons with CIND as they were older, more educated, more likely to be married, and to have higher SES. Co-twin control analysis, which corrects for common genetic and shared environmental background, confirmed that low education was still associated with CIND. Probandwise concordance for SCI and CIND was 63% and 52% in monozygotic twins, 63% and 50% in dizygotic same-sex twins, and 42% and 29% in dizygotic unlike-sex twins. Tetrachoric correlations showed no significant differences between monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twins. We conclude that subjective and objective cognitive impairment are both highly prevalent among nondemented elderly yet have distinct sociodemographic profiles. Shared environmental influences rather than genetic background play a role in the occurrence of SCI and CIND.

Caracciolo, Barbara; Gatz, Margaret; Xu, Weili; Marengoni, Alessandra; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Fratiglioni, Laura

2014-01-01

113

Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar Population in Lupus 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ~1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ?, for AV <= 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff <= 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H? or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) - (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 087.C-0386 and 089.C-0432, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's programs 2010A-0054 and 2011A-0144.

Muži?, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; López Martí, Belén

2014-04-01

114

Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Right Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, post-deflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonemetti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

2004-01-01

115

On the non-uniform distribution of the angular elements of near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the angular distributions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which are often regarded as uniform. The apparent distribution of the longitude of ascending node, ?, is strongly affected by well-known seasonal effects in the discovery rate of NEOs. The deviation from the expected ?-periodicity in the apparent distribution of ? indicates that its intrinsic distribution is slightly enhanced along a mean direction, ??=111°; approximately 53% of NEOs have ? values within ±90° of ??. We also find that each subgroup of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects which cause different non-uniformities in the apparent distributions of their arguments of perihelion ?, and longitudes of perihelion ?. For their intrinsic distributions, our analysis reveals that the Apollo asteroids have non-uniform ? due to secular dynamics associated with inclination-eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors' ? distribution is peaked towards the secularly forced eccentricity vector. The Apollos' ? distribution is axial, favoring values near 0° and 180°; the two quadrants centered at 0° and 180° account for 55% of the Apollos' ? values. The Amors' ? distribution peaks near ??=4°; 61% of Amors have ? within ±90° of this peak. We show that these modest but statistically significant deviations from uniform random distributions of angular elements are owed to planetary perturbations, primarily Jupiter's. It is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu

2014-02-01

116

Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Flight Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, postdeflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonometti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

2004-01-01

117

Physical Characterization of Near-Earth Objects With the Keck Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from a new program of thermal IR measurements of near-Earth objects (NEOs) and other small bodies carried out with the 10-m Keck 1 telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Our goals are to physically characterize the NEO and small body populations by determining reliable albedos and sizes for a significant sample. We also aim to improve the thermal models used for interpreting these types of data. Knowledge of albedos is vital for the interpretation of optical and near-IR reflectance spectra in terms of mineralogy and the correct taxonomic classification of NEOs. Is the mix of taxonomic types consistent with NEOs arising entirely as fragments from collisions between main-belt asteroids, or do other types of objects (e.g. dormant or extinct comets) contribute significantly to the NEO population? As an example of an object with a likely cometary origin, albeit in the outer solar system, is 1999 LD31. One of our important results is the discovery of a very low albedo (0.03) for 1999 LD31 which has a retrograde orbit. Such a low albedo is a strong argument in favor of its cometary origin. Previous studies of small bodies in the thermal IR have been limited to a relatively small number of IR-bright (large) objects which are not representative of the population as a whole. With the Keck telescope we are able to study much fainter and smaller objects and thus remove some of the observational bias inherent in earlier studies. Results of fitting thermal models to spectrophotometry in the 5 - 20 micron range will be presented and discussed, and reflectance spectra of the objects, where available, will be discussed in the light of albedos derived. We show how a first order approximation thermal model like NEATM (a modified Standard Thermal Model) can provide reliable results in most cases. However, neglecting the thermal inertia and the irregular shape of the object (which for small bodies are normally unknown) can lead to erroneous conclusions. Numerical simulations indicate that significant errors can arise in particular in the case of objects observed at large solar phase angles. The uncertainties associated with our approach are discussed.

Delbo, M.; Harris, A. W.; Binzel, R. P.; Davies, J. K.

2000-10-01

118

Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ? 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. PMID:23278771

Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

2014-06-01

119

Towards a Population Synthesis Model of Objects formed by Self-Gravitating Disc Fragmentation and Tidal Downsizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the gravitational instability (GI) model of giant planet and brown dwarf formation has been revisited and recast into what is often referred to as the "tidal downsizing" hypothesis. The fragmentation of self-gravitating protostellar discs into gravitationally bound embryos - with masses of a few to tens of Jupiter masses, at semi major axes above 30 - 40 AU - is followed by a combination of grain sedimentation inside the embryo, radial migration towards the central star and tidal disruption of the embryo's upper layers. The properties of the resultant object depends sensitively on the timescales upon which each process occurs. Therefore, GI followed by tidal downsizing can theoretically produce objects spanning a large mass range, from terrestrial planets to giant planets and brown dwarfs. Whether such objects can be formed in practice, and what proportions of the observed population they would represent, requires a more involved statistical analysis. We present a simple population synthesis model of star and planet formation via GI and tidal downsizing. We couple a semi-analytic model of protostellar disc evolution to analytic calculations of fragmentation, initial embryo mass, grain growth and sedimentation, embryo migration and tidal disruption. While there are key pieces of physics yet to be incorporated, it represents a first step towards a mature statistical model of GI and tidal downsizing as a mode of star and planet formation. We show results from four runs of the population synthesis model, varying the opacity law and the strength of migration, as well as investigating the effect of disc truncation during the fragmentation process.

Forgan, Duncan; Rice, Ken

2013-07-01

120

Deep Interior: Spacecraft Initiatives for Near-Earth Object Geophysical Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a superlative sampling of protoplanetary materials from throughout the solar system. They also have come to focus in recent years as potential natural disasters in need of careful assessment - not only the determination of NEO populations and detailed orbits, but also an understanding of how they are put together, and how they will behave during the course of energetic surface operations (from penetrometry to human visitation to diversion). We describe a concept for a robust multiple-rendezvous science mission to three representative near-Earth objects including a dormant or extinct comet nucleus. Key features include solar electric propulsion, autonomous navigation, stereogrammetric imaging, plus dual-wavelength radio tomography from orbit and small cratering science experiments for material and dynamical studies. The cratering experiments (conducted by instrumented blast payloads) will serve as precursors to future landed seismic investigations, and will enable the construction of realistic simulation environments for lowering the risk of future landed NEO missions. Mission science goals include: (1) definitive test of the rubble pile hypothesis for asteroids, (2) definitive test of the mantling hypothesis for comets, and whether primitive materials inhabit their interior, and (3) definitive study of the depth and mobility of regolith. This mission can be delivered for under the NASA Discovery cost cap. Significant payload margins allow for the addition of auxiliary landed instruments (penetrometer/seismometer) at each NEO visited, in which case the existing cratering experiments would serve as seismic signals. This combination of multiple wavelength radar tomography and seismic analysis would be an especially powerful probe of NEO interiors.

Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Huebner, W.; Kakuda, R.; Yeomans, D.

2002-12-01

121

Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

Ryan, Ann

2008-01-01

122

Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

Finnegan, Fergal

2008-01-01

123

Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2005-01-01

124

Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This document reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of Near Earth Objects (NEO's) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are then given of an MSFC-led study, intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. An existing program, used to model the NE0 threat, was extensively modified and is presented here. Details of various analytical tools, developed to evaluate the performance of proposed technologies for protection against the NEO threat, are also presented. Trajectory tools, developed to model the outbound path a vehicle would take to intercept or rendezvous with a target asteroid or comet, are described. Also, details are given of a tool that was created to model both the un-deflected inbound path of an NE0 as well as the modified, post-deflection, path. The number of possible options available for protection against the NE0 threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. The major output from this work was a novel process by which the relative effectiveness of different threat mitigation concepts can be evaluated during future, more detailed, studies. In addition, several new or modified mathematical models were developed to analyze various proposed protection systems. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work. It is hoped that this study will serve to raise the level attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; Hopkins, R.; Chapman, J.; White, S.; Bonometti, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Kalkstein, M.

2003-01-01

125

The Campo Imperatore Near Earth Object Survey (CINEOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campo Imperatore Near Earth Object Survey (CINEOS) is an Italian survey dedicated to the search and follow-up of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). It is operated with the 90 cm f/3 Schmidt telescope at the Campo Imperatore of the Rome Astronomical Observatory (INAF-OAR) as a joint project with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale and Fisica Cosmica (INAF-IASF) in Rome. Since the end of 2001 CINEOS has covered about 4,250 sq. deg to 20th magnitude in the course of about 160 nights. This effort led to the discovery of 7 Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), 1 comet (167P/CINEOS; a member of the Centaur group) and a few other unusual objects including 2004 XH50 with a unique comet-like orbit. CINEOS has also contributed almost 2,200 preliminary designations and over 30,000 detections to the Minor Planet Center. About 20% of the survey effort was carried out at low solar elongations (LSE), although no object with an orbit interior (Inner Earth Objects, IEO class) or nearly interior to the Earth (Aten class) was found. The work at LSE was, however, very important to test survey strategies implemented with larger telescopes. We also provide the results of a CINEOS simulation on a reliable NEO population model based on the results of two larger scale surveys, Spacewatch and LINEAR.

Boattini, Andrea; D'Abramo, Germano; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Carusi, Andrea; di Paola, Andrea; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Jedicke, Robert; Harris, Alan W.; Dotto, Elisabetta; de Luise, Fiore; Perna, Davide; Leoni, Riccardo

2007-06-01

126

NEOview: Near Earth Object Data Discovery and Query  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) figure prominently in NASA's Flexible Path approach to human space exploration. NEOs offer insight into both the origins of the Solar System and of life, as well as a source of materials for future missions. With NEOview scientists can locate NEO datasets, explore metadata provided by the archives, and query or combine disparate NEO datasets in the search for NEO candidates for exploration. NEOview is a software system that illustrates how standards-based interfaces facilitate NEO data discovery and research. NEOview software follows a client-server architecture. The server is a configurable implementation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Table Access Protocol (TAP), a general interface for tabular data access, that can be deployed as a front end to existing NEO datasets. The TAP client, seleste, is a graphical interface that provides intuitive means of discovering NEO providers, exploring dataset metadata to identify fields of interest, and constructing queries to retrieve or combine data. It features a powerful, graphical query builder capable of easing the user's introduction to table searches. Through science use cases, NEOview demonstrates how potential targets for NEO rendezvous could be identified by combining data from complementary sources. Through deployment and operations, it has been shown that the software components are data independent and configurable to many different data servers. As such, NEOview's TAP server and seleste TAP client can be used to create a seamless environment for data discovery and exploration for tabular data in any astronomical archive.

Tibbetts, M.; Elvis, M.; Galache, J. L.; Harbo, P.; McDowell, J. C.; Rudenko, M.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

2013-10-01

127

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics

David E. Trilling; B. Bhattacharya; W. Bottke; S. Chesley; M. Delbo; J. Emery; G. Fazio; A. Harris; J. Hora; A. Mainzer; M. Mueller; B. Penprase; H. Smith; T. Spahr; J. Stansberry

2009-01-01

128

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near Earth space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics

David Trilling; Bidushi Bhattacharya; William Bottke; Steve Chesley; Marco Delbo; Joshua Emery; Giovanni Fazio; Alan Harris; Joseph Hora; Amy Mainzer; Michael Mueller; Bryan Penprase; Howard Smith; Timothy Spahr; John Stansberry

2008-01-01

129

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference: Protecting Earth from Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We now realize, from the case of 2008 TC3's discovery and subsequent impact in Sudan, that it is much more likely that a Near Earth Object (NEO) large enough to cause damage on the ground will be found (by the current Spaceguard Survey telescopes) on its \\

Clark R. Chapman; Russell L. Schweickart

130

Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum  

PubMed Central

The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including ?-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. ?-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for ?-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed the strongest activity. Moderate ligninase activity was only observed in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. In contrast, pectinase, amylase, protease, and cellulase were not present in Ganoderma. The results show that the degree of activity of the tested enzymes varied depending on the Ganoderma species tested.

Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

2011-01-01

131

AIT-082 NeoTherapeutics Inc.  

PubMed

AIT-082 (an analog of hypoxanthine) is an orally-active nerve growth factor (NGF) agonist under development by NeoTherapeutics as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke and motor neuron disease. A phase II safety and efficacy trial in AD, originally scheduled to begin in the summer of 1997 [283677], began in May 1998 [286975,285562]. The study will enroll more than 60 AD patients [286975]. In February 1998, NeoTherapeutics began a phase I multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study of AIT-082 in 24 healthy elderly volunteers. Subjects of the phase I study will be administered AIT-082 once a day for 7 consecutive days at doses of 100 to 2000 mg per dose [279422]. A limited double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I/II trial in 10 AD patients commenced in Canada in the first quarter of 1997. Treatment with 4000 mg improved memory in 60% of the patients within 3 h, as determined by the word recall test. A decrease in memory was observed in 80% of placebo-treated patients [257132]. A phase I US trial, conducted by the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study, with funding from the National Institute of Aging, began in July 1997. AIT-082 was administered to eight healthy, elderly volunteers as part of an escalating single-dose study. Oral administration of AIT-082 was well-tolerated at high doses [284325] AIT-082 also enhanced memory function in both young adult and aged mice within 2 h of oral administration. Prophylactic treatment prevented or delayed the onset of age-induced memory deficits in mice when administered in drinking water. When memory impairment was produced by brain lesions, the drug restored memory performance and increased the genetic expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a natural protein growth factor associated with nerve cell function [284325]. AIT-082 appears to have at least three effects on the growth of PC-12 cells in culture. Firstly, it stimulates outgrowth of neurites, secondly it potentiates the growth effects of neurotrophin, and thirdly, it stimulates the synthesis of certain neurotrophins (nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 and fibroblast growth factor) and pleiotrophins by astrocytes. These progrowth mechanisms are thought to form the basis of the ability of AIT-082 to restore and prevent age-related working memory deficits in mice [195438]. In October 1997, further preclinical results were presented, demonstrating that treatment with AIT-082 produced an increase in neurotrophic factors following spinal cord injury in rats. This study was conducted at NeoTherapeutics and McMaster University, and was partially funded by the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Society of Canada. After 7 days of treatment, rats with spinal cord injuries showed an increase in the levels of CNTF and BDNF, naturally occurring growth factors in the spinal cord [267514]. PMID:18465624

Geerts, H

1998-10-01

132

Post Neo-Liberalism and the Humanities: What the Repressive State Apparatus Means for Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore how neo-liberal and post neo-liberal policies threaten the humanities in post-secondary education as a potential site of democratic dialogue and social transformation. We distinguish between neo-liberalism and post neo-liberalism on the basis of the latter's increased police suppression of democratic dissent. We are…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Leonard, Hugh A.

2012-01-01

133

HPLC analysis of neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Teucrium chamaedrys.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid analytical method for the quantitative determination of nine neo-clerodane diterpenoids was developed. The neo-clerodane diterpenoids present in the plant material and extracts were separated with an acetonitrile-water gradient at a flow rate of 1 mL per minute. The HPLC separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna C18(2) (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 5 microm) reversed phase column with detection at 220 nm. The limit of detection was 0.24-0.90 microg/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values for the determination of neo-clerodane diterpenoids in plant extracts were less than 3.20%. This is the first analytical method developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine neo-clerodane diterpenoids by HPLC with PDA detection. PMID:12889535

Avula, B; Manyam, R B; Bedir, E; Khan, I A

2003-07-01

134

STAR FORMATION IN THE CENTRAL 400 PC OF THE MILKY WAY: EVIDENCE FOR A POPULATION OF MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gasdynamics and the formation of young stellar objects (YSOs). We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer and with Midcourse Space Experiment. We use color-color diagrams and spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 {mu}m excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small-scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation by comparing the mid-IR, radio, submillimeter, and methanol maser data. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5 {mu}m excesses. We use the SEDs of these sources to estimate their physical characteristics; their masses appear to range from {approx}10 to {approx}20 M{sub sun}. Within the central 400 x 50 pc (|l| < 1.{sup 0}3 and |b| < 10') the star formation rate (SFR) based on the identification of Stage I evolutionary phase of YSO candidates is about 0.14 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Given that the majority of the sources in the population of YSOs are classified as Stage I objects, we suggest that a recent burst of star formation took place within the last 10{sup 5} yr. This suggestion is also consistent with estimates of SFRs within the last {approx}10{sup 7} yr showing a peak around 10{sup 5} yr ago. Lastly, we find that the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law applies well in the central 400 pc of the Galaxy. This implies that star formation does not appear to be dramatically affected by the extreme physical conditions in the Galactic center region.

Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Hewitt, J. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Arendt, R. G. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Baltimore County, GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Whitney, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rieke, G.; Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stolovy, S.; Ramirez, S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lang, C. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)], E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu

2009-09-01

135

neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata with cytotoxic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three neo-clerodane diterpenoids, named barbatins A–C (1–3), and the neo-clerodane diterpenoid nicotinyl ester, named scutebarbatine B (4), were isolated from the whole plant of Scutellaria barbata D. Don. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRFAB-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR). In vitro, compounds 1–4 showed significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer lines, namely, HONE-1 nasopharyngeal, KB

Sheng-Jun Dai; Jia-Yi Tao; Ke Liu; Yong-Tao Jiang; Li Shen

2006-01-01

136

The Semantic Structure of Neo-Classical Compounds  

PubMed Central

The automated analysis of neo-classical compounds in the medical domain has been proposed and carried out by a number of researchers in recent years. This paper discusses the semantics of these compounds. The results of our work indicate that neo-classical compounds are semantically underdetermined by their constituent parts. Thus, automated analysis of these compounds will need to be supplemented by human review.

McCray, Alexa T.; Browne, Allen C.; Moore, Dorothy L.

1988-01-01

137

Car tracking and vibration test rig using Neo-Freerunner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present our idea of using a cell-phone (the Neo Freerunner) for tracking a Car's location using GPS and measuring the road's quality using the accelerometer in the cell-phone. Neo-Freerunner is an open source Linux phone by Open Moko Inc. The phone can run many flavors of linux like Android, Qt, SHR etc. Here the implementation was done in

Sriranjan Rasakatla; Kashyap Kompella; Krishna Koundinya

2010-01-01

138

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from 45 different datasets with daily, weekly, and/or monthly temporal resolutions, with more datasets currently under development. The imagery from these datasets is produced in coordination with several data partners who are affiliated either with the instrument science teams or with the respective data processing center. NEO is a system of three components -- website, WMS (Web Mapping Service), and ftp archive -- which together are able to meet the wide-ranging needs of our users. Some of these needs include the ability to: view and manipulate imagery using the NEO website -- e.g., applying color palettes, resizing, exporting to a variety of formats including PNG, JPEG, KMZ (Google Earth), GeoTIFF; access the NEO collection via a standards-based API (WMS); and create customized exports for select users (ftp archive) such as Science on a Sphere, NASA's Earth Observatory, and others.

Ward, K.

2008-12-01

139

A new standardized stimulus set for studying need-of-help recognition (NeoHelp).  

PubMed

This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open-access standardized visual stimuli set for investigation of need-of-help recognition and invite researchers to use and extend it. PMID:24409294

Brielmann, Aenne A; Stolarova, Margarita

2014-01-01

140

Lack of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 in patients treated with mite sublingual immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies reported the possible induction of food allergy, caused by neo-sensitization to cross-reacting allergens, during immunotherapy with aeroallergens, while other studies ruled out such possibility. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 (tropomyosin) as well as the appearance of reactions after ingestion of foods containing tropomyosin as a consequence of sublingual mite immunization. Materials and methods Specific IgE to Tropomyosin (rPen a 1) before and after mite sublingual immunotherapy in 134 subjects were measured. IgE-specific antibodies for mite extract and recombinant allergen Pen a 1 were evaluated using the immunoenzymatic CAP system (Phadia Diagnostics, Milan, Italy). Results All patients had rPen a 1 IgE negative results before and after mite SLIT and did not show positive shrimp extract skin reactivity and serological rPen a 1 IgE conversion after treatment. More important, no patient showed systemic reactions to crustacean ingestion. Conclusions Patients did not show neo-sensitization to tropomyosin, a component of the extract (namely mite group 10) administered. An assessment of a patient's possible pre-existing sensitisation to tropomyosin by skin test and/or specific IgE prior to start mite extract immunotherapy is recommended. Trial Registration This trial is registered in EudraCT, with the ID number of 2010-02035531.

2010-01-01

141

A New Approach on the Long Term Dynamics of NEO's Under Yarkovsky Effect.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classical approach to the many-body problem is that of using special perturbation methods. Nowadays and due to the availability of high-speed computers is an essential tool in Space Dynamics which exhibits a great advantage: it is applicable to any orbit involving any number of bodies and all sorts of astrodynamical problems, especially when these problems fall into regions in which general perturbation theories are absent. One such case is, for example, that Near Earth Objects (NEO's) dynamics. In this field, the Group of Tether Dynamics of UPM (GDT) has developed a new regularisation scheme - called DROMO - which is characterised by only 8 ODE. This new regularisation scheme allows a new approach to the dynamics of NEO's in the long term, specially appropriated to consider the influence of the anisotropic thermal emission (Yarkovsky and YORP effects) on the dynamics. A new project, called NEODROMO, has been started in GDT that aims to provide a reliable tool for the long term dynamics of NEO's.

Peláez, Jesús; Urrutxua, Hodei; Bombardelli, Claudio; Perez-Grande, Isabel

2011-12-01

142

Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is currently the only country with an active, government-sponsored effort to detect and track potentially hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs). At congressional direction, NASA funds several ground-based observatories primarily dedicated ...

2009-01-01

143

Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

Showstack, Randy

2010-09-01

144

Adherence to physical activity guidelines in older adults, using objectively measured physical activity in a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity (PA) levels in older adults decline with age. The prevalence and correlates of adherence to current UK PA guidelines in older adults has not been studied using objectively measured PA, which can examine precisely whether PA is carried out in bouts of specified length and intensity. Methods Free living men and women aged 70–93 years from 25 towns in the United Kingdom, participating in parallel on-going population based cohort studies were invited (by post) to wear a GT3x accelerometer over the hip for one week in 2010–12. Adherence to UK PA guidelines was defined as ?150 minutes/week of moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA) in bouts of ?10 minutes; the effect of different intensities and durations were examined. Results 1593 men and 857 women participated (responses 51% and 29% respectively). 15% men and 10% women achieved ?150 minutes/week of MVPA (defined as >1040 cpm) in bouts lasting ?10 minutes. With MVPA defined as >1952 cpm, prevalences were 7% and 3% respectively. Those adhering to guidelines were younger, had fewer chronic health conditions, less depression, less severe mobility limitations, but higher exercise self-efficacy and exercise outcomes expectations. They rated their local environment more highly for social activities and leisure facilities, having somewhere nice to go for a walk and feeling safe after dark, They left the house on more days per week, were more likely to use active transport (cycle or walk) and to walk a dog regularly. Conclusions Few older adults attain current PA guidelines. Health promotion to extend the duration of moderate-intensity activity episodes to 10 minutes or more could yield important health gains among older adults. However future studies will need to clarify whether attaining guideline amounts of PA in spells lasting 10 minutes or more is critical for reducing chronic disease risks as well as improving cardiometabolic risk factors.

2014-01-01

145

Studies of NEOs as a task for small telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decades of successful research at the high-altitude observatory Terskol in the Northern Caucasus have yielded new data and findings in the field of monitoring and studies of NEOs. Facilities of the Terskol Observatory, which include optical telescopes with diameters up to 2 m, their instrumentation (high- and low-resolution spectrometers, high-speed photometers, CCDs, etc.), have been heavily used for follow-up astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. In this paper, advances in studies of NEOs achieved in the last years at Terskol are presented.

Tarady, V.; Sergeev, O.; Andreev, M.; Godunova, V.; Reshetnyk, V.

2014-03-01

146

Cultural Influences on Economic Thought in India: Resistance to diffusion of neo-classical economics and the principles of Hinduism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the reasons why, despite the ascendancy of ?liberalising? neo-classical economics in the 1980s, many Indian economists have remained determinedly resistant to the IMF\\/World Bank pro-stabilisation and structural adjustment arguments that so dominate global political economic thinking. We argue that part of the objection to economic ?global liberalisation? in India is explicable from the significant, but not exclusive,

J Cameron; T P Ndhlovu

2001-01-01

147

Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

148

The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study: study design and data collection.  

PubMed

Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic diseases. Incomplete insight exists in the causal pathways responsible for obesity-related disorders and consequently, in the identification of obese individuals at risk of these disorders. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is designed for extensive phenotyping to investigate pathways that lead to obesity-related diseases. The NEO study is a population-based, prospective cohort study that includes 6,673 individuals aged 45-65 years, with an oversampling of individuals with overweight or obesity. At baseline, data on demography, lifestyle, and medical history have been collected by questionnaires. In addition, samples of 24-h urine, fasting and postprandial blood plasma and serum, and DNA were collected. Participants underwent an extensive physical examination, including anthropometry, electrocardiography, spirometry, and measurement of the carotid artery intima-media thickness by ultrasonography. In random subsamples of participants, magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal fat, pulse wave velocity of the aorta, heart, and brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the liver, indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or accelerometry measurements were performed. The collection of data started in September 2008 and completed at the end of September 2012. Participants are followed for the incidence of obesity-related diseases and mortality. The NEO study investigates pathways that lead to obesity-related diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of disease in obesity may help to identify individuals who are susceptible to the detrimental metabolic, cardiovascular and other consequences of obesity and has implications for the development of prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:23576214

de Mutsert, Renée; den Heijer, Martin; Rabelink, Ton Johannes; Smit, Johannes Willem Adriaan; Romijn, Johannes Anthonius; Jukema, Johan Wouter; de Roos, Albert; Cobbaert, Christa Maria; Kloppenburg, Margreet; le Cessie, Saskia; Middeldorp, Saskia; Rosendaal, Frits Richard

2013-06-01

149

Mini-satellite exploration of very near earth space fuel objects  

SciTech Connect

A prospecting plan is presented to assay near Earth objects (NEO) for their potential to yield rocket fuel. The plan calls out small satellites as the near-term means to achieve low cost surveys and deep subsurface sampling of NEO composition. The water bearing classes of NEO to be considered are limited to those accessible in short time and with small thrusters. These include the water bearing clay objects (phylosilicates) at nearly trivial distances from Earth, and the recently identified water ice objects such as comet ([number sign]4015) 1979 VA. These objects are evaluated as small satellite prospecting and assay vehicle targets.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-09-19

150

Mini-satellite exploration of very near earth space fuel objects  

SciTech Connect

A prospecting plan is presented to assay near Earth objects (NEO) for their potential to yield rocket fuel. The plan calls out small satellites as the near-term means to achieve low cost surveys and deep subsurface sampling of NEO composition. The water bearing classes of NEO to be considered are limited to those accessible in short time and with small thrusters. These include the water bearing clay objects (phylosilicates) at nearly trivial distances from Earth, and the recently identified water ice objects such as comet ({number_sign}4015) 1979 VA. These objects are evaluated as small satellite prospecting and assay vehicle targets.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-09-19

151

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

152

The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and "effectiveness", as well as…

Clarke, Matthew

2012-01-01

153

High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring magnet is presented and compared with the seat motor performance with both commercial isotropic bonded Neo and anisotropic NdFeB rings of the same geometry. The comparisons are made at both room and elevated temperatures. The airgap flux for the magnet produced by the proposed method is 6% more compared to the commercial isotropic bonded Neo magnet. After exposure to high temperature due to the superior thermal aging stability of isotropic NdFeB powders the motor performance with this material is comparable to the motor performance with an anisotropic NdFeB magnet.

Herchenroeder, J.; Miller, D.; Sheth, N. K.; Foo, M. C.; Nagarathnam, K.

2011-04-01

154

Inside "The Turner Diaries": neo-Nazi Scripture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the content of the fictional "Turner Diaries." Points out the antisemitic, racist, and antidemocratic aspects of the novel. Brings attention to the role of the "Diaries" to white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups in the United States. Also links the "Diaries" to Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing. (DSK)

Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard

1997-01-01

155

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a 'pilot personality' does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Donald; Schutte, Paul C.

2004-01-01

156

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a "pilot personality" does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Don; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

157

The Border Wars: a neo-Gricean perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reports filed from several fronts in the semantics\\/pragmatics border wars, I seek to bolster the loyalist (neo-)Gricean forces against various recent revisionist sorties, including (but not limited to) the relevance-theoretic view on which the maxims (or more specifically their sole surviving descendant, the principle of relevance) inform truth- conditional content through the determination of \\

Laurence R. Horn

158

Is the French Connection Neo-Piagetian? Not Nearly Enough!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some general-causal assumptions of current neo-Piagetian research and compares them with those of French European developmentalists with regard to individual differences, developmental stages, and methodology. Discusses the developmental unfolding of mental attentional mechanisms. Highlights developmental theory problems for the…

Pascual-Leone, Juan

2000-01-01

159

The (absent) politics of neo-liberal education policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like ‘quality’ and ‘effectiveness’, as well as in the apparent consensus around the necessity of particular practices, such as

Matthew Clarke

2012-01-01

160

Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

Evans, Mary

2014-01-01

161

Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

Ranson, Stewart

2003-01-01

162

Optimal design for a NEO tracking spacecraft formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper presents the design and methodology for developing an optimal set of spacecraft orbits for a NEO tracking mission. The spacecraft is designed to fly in close formation with the asteroid, avoiding the nonlinear gravity field produced by the asteroid. A periodic orbit is developed, and the initial conditions are optimized by use of a global optimizer for

Christie Alisa Maddock; Massimiliano Vasile

2007-01-01

163

NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO!  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEEMO (NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations) at the Aquarius underwater habitat off Key Largo, Florida provide valuable mission planning and operations experience as well as crew training for living and working in the extreme environment of a planetary surface such as a NEO.

M. S. Bell; P. J. Baskin; W. L. Todd

2011-01-01

164

Invariance on the NEO PI-R Neuroticism Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored between-gender invariance on the NEO PI-R Neuroticism scale (Costa and McCrae, 1992) with a sample of 1,056 undergraduates. Several items displayed significant differential item functioning (DIF), but it was difficult to associate DIF with specific aspects of item content, and findings indicate that item-level DIF does not necessarily…

Reise, Steven P.; Smith, Larissa; Furr, R. Michael

2001-01-01

165

NASA Space Missions to Asteroids: Protecting the Earth from NEO Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a general recognition of the hazard of impacts on Earth by comets and asteroids, but there is yet no consensus concerning international actions that should be taken to protect the planet from such impacts. An essential step in the analysis of the situation involves estimating the relative hazard posed by comets and asteroids of different sizes and orbits. All recent studies agree that the larger impacts pose the greater danger, and that our primary concern from the perspective of total risk should be on impacts that are large enough to cause global ecological catastrophe. These global catastrophes are also of special interest, since they (alone among natural disasters) have the potential to destroy civilization. Studies of the sensitivity of the Earth's environment suggest that the energy threshold energy for causing a global catastrophe is at about 1 million megatons, corresponding to impactor diameters of 1.5 to 2 km. This information leads naturally to a strategy of concentrating on the larger NEOs, say those 1 km or more in diameter. This is the rationale for the Spaceguard Survey, which must be the highest priority in mitigation efforts. The second question concerns the value of developing standing defensive systems that could deflect or destroy an incoming NEO. In the case of the asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, no such system is needed, since there will be ample time (at least several decades) between the discovery of the threatening object by Spaceguard and the requirement to take action against it. In the case of objects smaller than 1 km diameter, development of defensive systems is not cost-effective; there are many greater dangers to persons and property that are much more urgent. Only in the case of large long-period comets is there a rationale for standing defense systems. The question is also raised whether the risks inherent in developing and maintaining a defense system might be greater than the impact risks it is intended to guard against. These and related issues are the focus of much current international debate on defense of the planet against NEO impacts. Meanwhile, the most critical issue remains the expansion of the telescopic search for NEOs.

Morrison, David; Berry, William E. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

166

Infrared Detection and Characterization of Near Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared detection from space offers an invaluable adjunct to ground based visible searches for the discovery and characterization of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The known Near Earth Objects are predominately highly reflective, presumably due to a discovery bias against dark objects inherent in visual surveys. For a given diameter, dark objects are at least a factor of four fainter in

M. P. Egan; S. D. Price; E. F. Tedesco

1998-01-01

167

Socioeconomic status moderates the association between John Henryism and NEO PI-R personality domains  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate associations between John Henryism (JH) and NEO PI-R personality domains. JH—a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping with difficult psychosocial and economic stressors—has been associated with poor health, particularly among persons in lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Unfavorable personality profiles have also been frequently linked to poor health; however, no studies have yet examined what global personality traits characterize JH. METHODS Hypotheses were examined using data from a sample of 233 community volunteers (mean age: 33 years; 61% black and 39% white) recruited specifically to represent the full range of the SES gradient. Personality (NEO PI-R) and active coping (12-item John Henryism scale) measures and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis, independent of SES JH was positively associated with Conscientiousness (C; p<.001) and Extraversion (E; p<.001), while the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with Neuroticism (N; p=0.02) When examining associations between JH and combinations of NEO PI-R domains called “styles,” high JH was most strongly associated with a high E/high C “Go-Getters” style of activity while low JH was associated with the low E/high O “Introspectors” style. In facet level data, the most robust associations with JH were found for five C and five E facets. CONCLUSIONS High JH was associated with higher scores on C and E, but the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with higher scores on N.

Stanton, Michael V.; Jonassaint, Charles R.; Williams, Redford B.; James, Sherman A.

2010-01-01

168

The Catalina Sky Survey for NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are bringing into operation a wide-field near-earth object detection system at the Catalina Observatory north of Tucson. A Lockheed 4k x 4k CCD has replaced the plate holder in the 42/68 cm Schmidt telescope providing an 8.3 square degree field with 2.5 arcsec pixels. Telescope pointing, guiding and sequencing is under computer control. The data acquisition and reduction is carried out with a networked "farm" of 6 computers running the Linux OS. CCD control is through IRAF/ICE, and most image reduction is carried out in the IRAF environment. Stationary background objects are mostly eliminated by differencing average and median coadded images from multiple "visits" to the same field. Candidate objects are flagged from the list of remaining objects by velocity matching and visually checked before reporting to the Minor Planet Center. We will show sample images and demonstration of the reduction algorithm. This work has been supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy Program grant NAG5-4049

Larson, S.; Brownlee, J.; Hergenrother, C.; Spahr, T.

1998-09-01

169

GDS2NEO: high-compression data processing system for a new EB handling format  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently as the node size gets smaller into deep sub-micron, both chip designers and mask manufacturers have faced great problems as follows: (1) Explosion of the data size; (2) Further data complexity due to OPC or PSM; (3) Increasing numbers of data formats. Since these problems directly lead to the increase of the mask costs, we have thought that they need to be overcome from the viewpoint of data processing as well. Selete have made a proposal of a next generation EB handling format, called 'NEO', in order to cope with these issues. The greatest feature of NEO is its compaction capability of the data description and it is expected that the chip data size could be reduced far smaller than in any other existing EB formats. We have been working on the NEO project in cooperation with Selete and developed a new system 'GDS2NEO', which converts the conventional layout data described in GDSII to the NEO-formatted data. We also investigated the compaction efficiency of NEO with several sets of actual layout data using GDS2NEO. As the result, we have proved that NEO has an excellent efficiency of data compaction and GDS2NEO has achieved a satisfactory performance of data conversion. In this paper we present the concept of NEO format, the data processing flow and the basic algorithm of GDS2NEO, the experimental results and the future plans.

Kawase, Hidemuchi; Kamimoto, Tomoko; Ogasawara, Hiroji; Kuriyama, Koki; Hirumi, Junji; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki

2003-08-01

170

Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine associations between symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective evidence of lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction in a population based sample. To determine associations between these elements and the presence of autoantibodies.?METHODS—A cross sectional population based survey. Subjects were interviewed and examined (Schirmer-1 test and unstimulated salivary flow) for the presence of dry eyes and mouth. Antibodies (anti-Ro [SS-A], anti-La [SS-B], rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody) were measured.?RESULTS—341 subjects were examined. Twenty four per cent had dry eye symptoms, 29% dry mouth symptoms, and 14% both. There was only a weak association between the presence of oral or ocular symptoms and their respective test results. Associations were strongest between dry mouth symptoms and positive test results, and in subjects under 55 years of age. There was no association between the presence of autoantibodies and either symptoms or signs of dry eyes or dry mouth.?CONCLUSION—Only weak associations were found between self reported symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective measures said to define Sjögrens syndrome in the general population. The clinical significance of these symptoms in the community needs reappraisal.?? Keywords: Sjögrens syndrome; Schirmer's test; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; xerostomia

Hay, E.; Thomas, E; Pal, B; Hajeer, A.; Chambers, H; Silman, A

1998-01-01

171

European near-Earth object radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar astronomy paradox (RAP): practically everybody agree with essential contributions of active radar observations to Solar System and especially to near-Earth object (NEO) explorations, but despite everything prefer to develop new and new passive telescopes and disposable space missions, only, and nobody want to build at least one dedicated multipurpose radar telescope (neither Arecibo nor Goldstone and Evpatoria radars were

Alexander L. Zaitsev

2002-01-01

172

[Prevalence of carotid kinking in a resident population. Partial results of the OPI (Objective Prevention of Ictus)].  

PubMed

This paper reports partial results on carotid kinking prevalence from the ongoing program Obiettivo Prevenzione Ictus, whose main target is to detect atherosclerotic carotid lesions in a resident population. Over a period of 23 months, 13.936 subjects, aged 45 to 75, were screened by physical vascular and carotid CW Doppler ultrasound examinations; 1.386 (9.9%) subjects underwent color coded echoflow imaging, according to the design of the screening program (suspected carotid atherosclerotic lesion at first level screening): 185 among this subgroup, 40 males and 145 females, were affected with 266 carotid kinkings. In 81 cases (43.8%) the lesions were bilateral. Sensibility and specificity of carotid bruit (25% and 73%, respectively) and CW Doppler ultrasound (48.5% and 55.8%, respectively) proved inadequate for routine diagnosis of carotid kinking. Hypertension was recorded in 146 cases (78.9%). No cerebral ischemic attack was recorded in these 185 subjects over the period considered. PMID:8332268

Ghilardi, G; De Monti, M; Longhi, F; Trimarchi, S; Bortolani, E

1993-04-01

173

Interaction potential and transport properties of NeO+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of both experimental and theoretical studies of the mobility of O+ in Ne are reported. Errors in the experiments have been carefully assessed, allowing the obtained data to serve as stringent tests of the ab initio potentials. These potentials were calculated using the RCCSD(T) method, employing basis sets of quintuple-? quality. Curves were calculated for the lowest 4?- state [arising from O+(4S) interacting with Ne] and for the 2? state [arising from O+(2D) interacting with Ne]. Then, the effects of spin-orbit coupling were incorporated by using the Breit-Pauli operator. The resulting ground state (?=3/2) of NeO+ gives mobility values in good agreement with experiment at all field strengths. Values of spectroscopic quantities for the ground electronic state of NeO+ are also presented.

Danailov, Daniel M.; Viehland, Larry A.; Johnsen, Rainer; Wright, Timothy G.; Lee, Edmond P. F.

2007-08-01

174

Low-cost Mission to NEO Binary 1999 KW4  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a procedure to generate a low-cost trajectory that will intercept the binary NEO 1999 KW4 in 2018, when it will be at closest point approach with the Earth. The transfer is studied considering natural routes between LEOs and the lunar sphere of in-fluence and also swing-by maneuvers with the Moon and the Earth (de Melo

Othon Winter; Cristiano F. de Melo; Elbert E. N. Macau

2010-01-01

175

The Neo-Communist Regime of Present-Day China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first goal of this article is to define the neo-communist regime as a specific type of undemocratic post-communist construct.\\u000a Three case studies analyzing the regimes led by Zhan Videnov in Bulgaria, Ion Iliescu in Romania, and Alyaksandr Lukashenka\\u000a in Belarus are used to identify its main characteristics. The second goal is to show that the present-day Chinese regime falls

Theodor Tudoroiu

176

Cost-Effective NEO Characterization Using Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a cost-effective multiple NEO rendezvous mission design optimized around the capabilities of Ball's 200-kg NEOX Solar Electric Propelled microsatellite. The NEOX spacecraft is 3-axis stabilized with better-than 1 milliradian pointing accuracy to serve as an excellent imaging platform; its DSN compatible telecommunications subsystem can support a 6.4-kbps downlink rate at 3 AU earth range. The spacecraft mass is

R. W. Dissly; R. Reinert; S. Mitchell

2003-01-01

177

[Construction of recombinant plasmid using Neo/E Technology].  

PubMed

A new neo/E counterselection technique was set up using Red recombination, which could be used in constructing recombinant plasmid. Firstly, linear targeting cassettes were amplified by PCR; secondly, two steps of homology recombination occurred in vivo: (1) The neo/E counterselection targeting cassette, consisting of a unique endonuclease recognition site and an antibiotic resistance gene, was introduced into the targeted region. (2) The neo/E cassette was replaced in the second round of recombination by another linear targeting cassettes DNA fragment carrying the targeted gene. For selecting a correct recombinant plasmid from the mixture of nonrecombinant and recombinant clones, the unique endonuclease recognition site in the nonrecombinant clones was cut by endonuclease and then transformed into the E. coli competent cells, up to 20% correct recombinants were yielded. A recombinant plasmid of pGL3-Basic PC1900T was successfully constructed in this way. Application of this technique offers a new and highly efficient way for recombinant plasmids construction. PMID:16176085

Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie-Zhi; Huang, Cui-Fen; Zhou, Jian-Guang

2005-07-01

178

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

PubMed Central

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO-PI-3, a more readable version of the NEO-PI-R, are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item/total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. We discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan.

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.

2010-01-01

179

The feasibility of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement in a natural experimental study of a commuting population  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the effects of environmental interventions on physical activity should include valid measures of physical activity before and after the intervention. Baseline data collection can be difficult when the timetable for introduction of an intervention is outside researchers’ control. This paper reports and reflects on the practical issues, challenges and results of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement using accelerometers distributed by post in a natural experimental study. Methods A sample of working adults enrolling for the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study and expressing willingness to wear an activity monitor was selected to undertake baseline accelerometer assessment. Each selected participant received a study pack by post containing the core study questionnaire and an accelerometer to wear for seven consecutive days, and was asked to return their accelerometer and completed questionnaire in person or by post using the prepaid special delivery envelope provided. If a pack was not returned within two weeks of issue, a reminder was sent to the participant. Each participant received up to five reminders by various methods including letter, email, telephone and letter sent by recorded delivery. Results 95% of participants registering for the study were willing in principle to undertake accelerometer assessment. Using a pool of 221 accelerometers, we achieved a total of 714 issues of accelerometers to participants during a six month period. 116 (16%) participants declined to use the accelerometer after receiving it. Three accelerometers failed, 45 (6% of 714) were lost and many were returned with insufficient data recorded, resulted in 109 (15%) participants re-wearing their accelerometer for a second week of measurement. 550 (77%) participants completed data collection, 478 (87% of 550) to the required standard. A total of 694 reminders were issued to retrieve unreturned accelerometers. More than 90% of accelerometers were retrieved after a maximum of two reminders. Conclusions It is feasible to use accelerometers to collect baseline objective physical activity data by post from a large number of participants in a limited time period. However, a substantial pool of devices is required and researchers need to be prepared to make significant efforts to recover some of the devices.

2012-01-01

180

The Inexorable Spread of a Newly Arisen Neo-Y Chromosome  

PubMed Central

A newly arisen Y-chromosome can become established in one part of a species range by genetic drift or through the effects of selection on sexually antagonistic alleles. However, it is difficult to explain why it should then spread throughout the species range after this initial episode. As it spreads into new populations, it will actually enter females. It would then be expected to perform poorly since it will have been shaped by the selective regime of the male-only environment from which it came. We address this problem using computer models of hybrid zone dynamics where a neo-XY chromosomal race meets the ancestral karyotype. Our models consider that the neo-Y was established by the fusion of an autosome with the ancestral X-chromosome (thereby creating the Y and the ‘fused X’). Our principal finding is that sexually antagonistic effects of the Y induce indirect selection in favour of the fused X-chromosomes, causing their spread. The Y-chromosome can then spread, protected behind the advancing shield of the fused X distribution. This mode of spread provides a robust explanation of how newly arisen Y-chromosomes can spread. A Y-chromosome would be expected to accumulate mutations that would cause it to be selected against when it is a rare newly arrived migrant. The Y can spread, nevertheless, because of the indirect selection induced by gene flow (which can only be observed in models comprising multiple populations). These results suggest a fundamental re-evaluation of sex-chromosome hybrid zones. The well-understood evolutionary events that initiate the Y-chromosome's degeneration will actually fuel its range expansion.

Veltsos, Paris; Keller, Irene; Nichols, Richard A.

2008-01-01

181

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

182

Object Oriented Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

Morris, Ed

2005-01-01

183

Improving the Detection of Near Earth Objects for Ground Based Telescopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress has mandated the detection of 90 percent of 140 meter diameter and larger Near Earth Objects (NEOs). While a dedicated satellite would be the preferred method of detection, ground-based telescopes are the current detection technology available. W...

A. O'Dell

2009-01-01

184

The Role of Groundbased Radar in Near-Earth-Object Hazard Identification and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundbased radar is a key technique for the post-discovery reconnaissance of NEOs and is likely to play a central role in identification of possibly threatening objects during the foreseeable future.

Ostro, S. J.

1993-01-01

185

A New Learning Environment: The NeoMuseum\\/Children's Media Museum Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NeoMuseum in Yoshino, Japan is a prototype for a chidrens media museum, an experiment in collaborative research with the goal of creating a multimedia-based learning environment for children. The name NeoMuseurn reflects the goal of exploring new roles for childrens museums made possible by new educatlon- al technologies. The purpose of the NeoMuseum is to design and develop socially

Nobuyuki Ueda; Mark D. Gross

1991-01-01

186

Evidence of a neo-sex chromosome in birds  

PubMed Central

Neo-sex chromosomes often originate from sex chromosome–autosome fusions and constitute an important basis for the study of gene degeneration and expression in a sex chromosomal context. Neo-sex chromosomes are known from many animal and plant lineages, but have not been reported in birds, a group in which genome organization seems particularly stable. Following indications of sex linkage and unexpected sex-biased gene expression in warblers (Sylvioidea; Passeriformes), we have conducted an extensive marker analysis targeting 31 orthologues of loci on zebra finch chromosome 4a in five species, representative of independent branches of Passerida. We identified a region of sex linkage covering approximately the first half (10?Mb) of chromosome 4a, and associated to both Z and W chromosomes, in three Sylvioidea passerine species. Linkage analysis in an extended pedigree of one species additionally confirmed the association between this part of chromosome 4a and the Z chromosome. Markers located between 10 and 21?Mb of chromosome 4a showed no signs of sex linkage, suggesting that only half of the chromosome was involved in this transition. No sex linkage was observed in non-Sylvioidea passerines, indicating that the neo-sex chromosome arose at the base of the Sylvioidea branch of the avian phylogeny, at 47.4–37.6 millions years ago (MYA), substantially later than the ancestral sex chromosomes (150 MYA). We hypothesize that the gene content of chromosome 4a might be relevant in its transition to a sex chromosome, based on the presence of genes (for example, the androgen receptor) that could offer a selective advantage when associated to Z-linked sex determination loci.

Pala, I; Naurin, S; Stervander, M; Hasselquist, D; Bensch, S; Hansson, B

2012-01-01

187

Interrelations and physical properties of asteroids, comets and trans-Neptunian objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we studied different populations of minor bodies of the Solar System in order to obtain a better understanding of their physical properties and the interrelations between them. In first place, we studied the rotational properties of asteroids members of the Themis, Eos and Maria dynamical families. The results show that there exists a correlation between the rotational frequency and the diameter of the objects for the Themis and Maria family members. From the comparison of the distributions of rotational frequencies of the families, we obtained that Themis and Maria have the lowest and highest mean frequency, respectively. We also performed a spectroscopic and dynamical analysis of the inner region on the Main Belt. The results show that there exists a complicated web of resonances which probably shapes the observed compositional distribution along this region. Concerning transitional objects, we performed studies on asteroids in cometary orbits and Jupiter family comets. We obtained that two sub-populations of asteroids in cometary orbits can have different sources. The NEOs, with perihelion distance lower than 1.3 AU, seem to come from the Main Belt while the non-NEOs from the Jupiter family comets. Finally, we performed two studies on trans-Neptunian objects. In the first we measured the radius of Charon from a stellar ocucltation. The obtained radius was of 603:6 pm 1:4 km. In the second study we observed the trans-Neptunian object (59358) 1999 CL158 searching for evidence of a recent collision. On its near-infrared spectrum we found an absorption feature possibly due to methane ice on the surface of the object. This feature is interpreted as evidence of a recent collisional event.

Alvarez-Candal, A.

2007-02-01

188

The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

Michel, P.

2008-09-01

189

Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

2007-01-01

190

High sensitivity of cancer exome-based CD8 T cell neo-antigen identification  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that T-cell reactivity against tumor-specific neo-antigens may be central to the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. The development of personalized vaccines designed to boost T-cell reactivity against patient specific neo-antigens has been proposed largely on the basis of these findings. Work from several groups has demonstrated that novel tumor-specific antigens can be discovered through the use of cancer exome sequencing data, thereby providing a potential pipeline for the development of patient-specific vaccines. Importantly though, it has not been established which fraction of cancer neo-antigens that can be recognized by CD8+ T cells is successfully uncovered with the current exome-based epitope prediction strategies. Here, we use a data set comprising human cancer neo-antigens that was previously identified through the use of unbiased, computational-independent strategies to describe the potential of cancer exome-based neo-antigen discovery. This analysis shows a high sensitivity of exome-guided neo-antigen prediction of approximately 70%. We propose that future research should focus on the analysis and optimization of the specificity of neo-antigen prediction, and should undoubtedly entail the clinical evaluation of patient-specific vaccines with the aim of inducing immunoreactivity against tumor-displayed neo-antigens in a physiologically relevant context.

van Buuren, Marit M; Calis, Jorg JA; Schumacher, Ton NM

2014-01-01

191

Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.…

Poole, Wendy

2007-01-01

192

Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower "Conscientiousness" and lower…

Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

2011-01-01

193

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Virtual Impactors (VIs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs up to 90 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observable in the range 21objects where the longest arcs can be created, but we will observe other, more recently discovered NEOs as well. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of the most dangerous NEOs that accumulate large errors, enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

2014-02-01

194

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program. ExploreNEOs or “The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near-Earth space” was allocated 500 hours over two years (2009-2011) to determine diameters and albedos for approximately 600 near-Earth objects using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron IRAC bands. We present the results of the SpeX component of our campaign. In order to increase our sample size we also include all near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets in the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our complete dataset includes 125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey. The combination of the two surveys includes near-infrared spectroscopy of 187 ExploreNEOs targets. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We identified all potential ordinary chondrites within our sample and determined likely ordinary chondrite types using the equations derived by Dunn et al. 2010. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites are different than those previously calculated for ordinary chondrite-like near-Earth objects and meteorite falls.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D. E.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.

2013-10-01

195

Distinguishing Bounce-Resonant from Bounce-Averaged Neo-Classical Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments, theory, and simulation for single-species plasmas now show quantitative agreement for both Bounce-Resonant (BR) and Bounce-Averaged (BA) Neo-Classical Transport, with distinct magnetic field scalings over 0.5 < B < 12.kG. Here, we consider cylindrical pure electron plasmas, with particle orbit excursions caused by a global ``field error'' such as magnetic tilt (analogous to global toroidal curvature); and with controlled electrostatic separatrices producing populations of trapped and un-trapped particles. With distinct trapped-particle populations, BA theory correctly describes both collisional NCT scaling as &1/2circ;B-1/2, and the novel chaotic NCT scaling as 0?B-1 which occurs when the separatrix is ``ruffled'' in the E xB drift direction.ootnotetextA.A. Kabantsev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 205001 (2010); D.H.E. Dubin and Yu.A. Tsidulko, Phys. Plasmas 18, 062114 (2011). For weak magnetic fields, BR transport dominates, typically scaling as B-2 to B-3, with different scalings observed for z-extended and z-localized field errors. Also, we are able to observe the transition from banana regime to plateau regime, with dependence on applied error field strength ? changing from 2? to &1/2circ;.

Driscoll, C. F.; Kabantsev, A. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.

2011-11-01

196

The Sardinian Radio Telescope as Radar for the study of near-Earth Objects and Space Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the definition of the scientific programs of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (under construction), our team have proposed to use this facility as radar system for the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) and space debris

L. Saba; Di Martino M; M. Delbò; A. Cellino; ZappalàV; S. Montebugnoli; S. Righini; L. Zoni; R. Orosei; F. Tosi; G. Valsecchi; A. Gardini; D. Grassi; Rossi; A. Milani; M. Lazzarin

2005-01-01

197

The Sardinian Radio Telescope as Radar for the study of near-Earth Objects and Space Debris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the definition of the scientific programs of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (under construction), our team have proposed to use this facility as radar system for the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) and space debris

Saba, L.; Di Martino M.; Delbò, M.; Cellino, A.; ZappalàV.; Montebugnoli, S.; Righini, S.; Zoni, L.; Orosei, R.; Tosi, F.; Valsecchi, G.; Gardini, A.; Grassi, D.; Rossi; A.; Milani, A.; Lazzarin, M.

198

Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

2013-06-01

199

The Epigenome of Evolving Drosophila Neo-Sex Chromosomes: Dosage Compensation and Heterochromatin Formation  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes originated from autosomes but have evolved a highly specialized chromatin structure. Drosophila Y chromosomes are composed entirely of silent heterochromatin, while male X chromosomes have highly accessible chromatin and are hypertranscribed as a result of dosage compensation. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanisms and functional pressures driving heterochromatin formation and dosage compensation of the recently formed neo-sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda. We show that the onset of heterochromatin formation on the neo-Y is triggered by an accumulation of repetitive DNA. The neo-X has evolved partial dosage compensation and we find that diverse mutational paths have been utilized to establish several dozen novel binding consensus motifs for the dosage compensation complex on the neo-X, including simple point mutations at pre-binding sites, insertion and deletion mutations, microsatellite expansions, or tandem amplification of weak binding sites. Spreading of these silencing or activating chromatin modifications to adjacent regions results in massive mis-expression of neo-sex linked genes, and little correspondence between functionality of genes and their silencing on the neo-Y or dosage compensation on the neo-X. Intriguingly, the genomic regions being targeted by the dosage compensation complex on the neo-X and those becoming heterochromatic on the neo-Y show little overlap, possibly reflecting different propensities along the ancestral chromosome that formed the sex chromosome to adopt active or repressive chromatin configurations. Our findings have broad implications for current models of sex chromosome evolution, and demonstrate how mechanistic constraints can limit evolutionary adaptations. Our study also highlights how evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories, by repeatedly acquiring the same 21-bp consensus motif for recruitment of the dosage compensation complex, yet utilizing a diverse array of random mutational changes to attain the same phenotypic outcome.

Kaiser, Vera B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Gorchakov, Andrey A.; Bachtrog, Doris

2013-01-01

200

Loco-regional Control After Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy and Conservative Treatment for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients.  

PubMed

Breast-conserving treatment (BCT) has been validated for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rates between BCT and mastectomy in patients receiving radiation therapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). A retrospective data base was used to identify all patients with breast cancer undergoing NCT from 2002 to 2007. Patients with initial metastatic disease were excluded from this analysis. LRR was compared between those undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Individual variables associated with LRR were evaluated. Two hundred eighty-four patients were included, 111 (39%) underwent BCT and 173 (61%) mastectomy. Almost all patients (99%) in both groups received postoperative radiation. Pathologic complete response was seen in 37 patients, of which 28 underwent BCT (p < 0.001). Patients receiving mastectomy had more invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.007) and a higher American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (p < 0.001) at diagnosis than those with BCT. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, the loco-regional control rate was 91% (95% CI: 86-94%). The 10-year LRR rate was similar in the BCT group (9.2% [95% CI: 4.9-16.7%]) and in the mastectomy group (10.7% [95% CI: 5.9-15.2%]; p = 0.8). Ten-year overall survival (OS) rates (63% [95% CI: 46-79%] in the BCT group; 60% [95% CI: 47-73%] in the mastectomy group, p = 0.8) were not statistically different between the two patient populations. Multivariate analysis showed that AJCC stage ? III (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8; p = 0.02), negative PR (HR: 6; 95% CI: 1.2-30.6, p = 0.03), and number of positive lymph nodes ?3 (HR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of LRR. Ten-year OS was similar in the BCT and in the mastectomy group (p = 0.1). The rate of LRR was low and did not significantly differ between the BCT and the mastectomy group after NCT. Randomized trials assessing whether mastectomy can be safely omitted in selected breast cancer patients (nonstage III tumors or those which do not require adjuvant hormone suppression) which respond to NCT are required. PMID:24890310

Levy, Antonin; Borget, Isabelle; Bahri, Manel; Arnedos, Monica; Rivin, Eleonor; Vielh, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Rimareix, Françoise; Bourgier, Céline

2014-07-01

201

Physics Teaching and Cognitive Functioning--A Neo-Piagetian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the "neo-Piagetian" concepts of Juan Pascual-Leone which are present in Piaget's theory. The concepts presented are the repertoire of schemes, mental processing capacity, and field dependence-independence. (Author/SA)

Gauld, Colin F.

1979-01-01

202

The Application of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Ideas to Further and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines theoretical perspectives of neo-Piagetians (Kohlberg, Peel, Labouvie-Vief), synthesizers (Kolb, Biggs, Pascual-Leone), and alternative theorists (Perry, Gilligan). Considers their applicability to adults and the implications for adult and higher education. (SK)

Sutherland, Peter

1999-01-01

203

Issues That Drive Near-Earth Object Mitigation Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Find them early: The most important aspect for the mitigation of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs) is to find them early enough so that an appropriate and timely response can be carried out. Although about 84% of the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) larger than one kilometer had been found by mid-2009, only about 5% of the NEAs 140 meters and larger that could cause regional devastation had been found. Because of their fewer numbers, comets represent only ~1% of the asteroid threat in the Earth’s neighborhood. Improve impact predictions: The vast majority of true impactors will reach very high probabilities of impact after their second apparition and that is usually within a few years of discovery. Simulations suggest that radar astrometry increases the average Earth encounter predictability from 80 to 400 years and increases the impact warning time an average of up to 4 years. In addition, radar imaging can often resolve the shapes of NEOs down to the few meter level. For NEOs that have been identified as potential threats, the radiometric tracking of a rendezvous spacecraft, coupled with spacecraft imaging of the NEO, could be used to dramatically improve the asteroid’s ephemeris. Ongoing activities to improve the orbit determination and ephemeris prediction process for NEOs include efforts to de-bias reference star positions and the modeling of the small asteroid accelerations introduced by the asymmetric re-radiation of sunlight (i.e., Yarkovsky effect). Study risk mitigation responses: For the deflection of hazardous NEOs on direct impacting trajectories, relatively mature techniques include the kinetic energy impacts by spacecraft for relatively small (< 300 meters) NEOs and either stand-off or surface nuclear explosions for the larger, but far less numerous, NEO impactors. For both cases, the ejecta blown back as a result of the collision or explosion would introduce a momentum enhancement that would be expected to augment the momentum delivered by the crater forming mechanism itself. Studies need to be carried out to understand this momentum enhancement factor since it can vary by more than an order of magnitude depending upon the NEO’s structure and composition. For the few percent of simulated Earth impactors that pass closely by the Earth prior to impact, the gravitational attraction between the threatening NEO and a nearby thrusting spacecraft (gravity tractor) could be used to drag the NEO out of harms way. For example, near-Earth asteroid Apophis has a small chance of passing through a 610-meter “keyhole” during its dramatic Earth close approach to within 0.1 lunar distances on April 13, 2029 - a keyhole passage that would then allow it to return seven years later for an Earth impact on April 13, 2036. A gravity tractor could be employed in the early 2020’s to ensure that Apophis would not enter this tiny keyhole. However, the Apophis situation, where a very close Earth approach a few years prior to a potential impact offers a tremendous amount of leverage for a deflection, is not typical. In the near term, the most likely scenarios would include impacts by relatively small NEOs with little or no warning so that plans for rapid evacuations also need to be considered.

Yeomans, D. K.; Chamberlin, A.; Chesley, S.; Chodas, P. W.

2009-12-01

204

Neo-clerodane diterpenoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from Teucrium chamaedrys L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neo-clerodane type diterpenoid, 12(S)-15,16-epoxy-19-hydroxy-neo-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-18,6?:20,12-diolide, and two phenylethanoid glycosides, teucrioside-3?-O-methylether and teucrioside-3?,4?-O-dimethylether were isolated from the aerial parts of Teucrium chamaedrys. Their structures were identified on the basis of extensive NMR spectra, LC-ESIMS analysis, and molecular modeling studies.

Erdal Bedir; Rangavalli Manyam; Ikhlas A Khan

2003-01-01

205

Neo-clerodane diterpenoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from Teucrium chamaedrys L.  

PubMed

A neo-clerodane type diterpenoid, 12(S)-15,16-epoxy-19-hydroxy-neo-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-18,6alpha:20,12-diolide, and two phenylethanoid glycosides, teucrioside-3(IIII)-O-methylether and teucrioside-3(IIII),4(IIII)-O-dimethylether were isolated from the aerial parts of Teucrium chamaedrys. Their structures were identified on the basis of extensive NMR spectra, LC-ESIMS analysis, and molecular modeling studies. PMID:12895549

Bedir, Erdal; Manyam, Rangavalli; Khan, Ikhlas A

2003-08-01

206

Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum were studied. Treatment with the water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum caused a marked decrease in the CCl4-induced toxicity in rat liver, made evident by their effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the

Jer-Min Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Ming-Feng Chen; Takashi Ujiie; Atsushi Takada

1995-01-01

207

Transduction of cellular neo mRNA by retrovirus-mediated recombination.  

PubMed Central

Transduction of cellular oncogenes by retroviruses is thought to be a multistep process, involving transcriptional activation of a cellular gene by upstream proviral integration and joining of cellular DNA to retroviral transcriptional signals, followed by copackaging and recombination with a helper virus genome during reverse transcription. To examine the molecular mechanism of the reverse transcriptase-mediated recombination, we introduced into mouse fibroblast cells a variety of constructs in which the neo selectable marker was joined to flanking retroviruslike or cell-like sequences. After superinfection and copackaging with a replication-competent Mo-MuLVsupF virus, the formation of recombinant neo transducing viruses was assessed in a second round of virus infection by the ability to confer G418 resistance to infected cells. Our results showed that recombinant neo proviruses were generated from neo RNA containing either a 5' or 3' retroviral end, implying that one recombination event with helper virus RNA was sufficient to incorporate the neo gene into proviral DNA. Recombination occurred with an apparent frequency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) per replication cycle in the absence of homology between the two recombining partners. This frequency, however, increased at least 100-fold if homology was provided at the site of recombination. Our results support the hypothesis that neo-transducing viruses arise via reverse transcriptase-mediated recombination of RNA rather than by recombination proceeding through DNA intermediates. Unexpectedly, removal of the retroviral packaging site psi reduced the number of neo recombinants only slightly. Our data indicated that although RNAs lacking the psi site are poorly packaged into virions, those RNAs that are included in the virions undergo frequent recombination, even if there is no selection for recombination. Many of the neo recombinants formed with the psi- constructs had undergone additional recombinations and often incorporated the psi site from the helper RNA. Images

Stuhlmann, H; Dieckmann, M; Berg, P

1990-01-01

208

High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure shows an example of this capability where the Brazil Nut problem is simulated: as the container full of granular material is vibrated, the large ball slowly moves upwards. This capability was expanded to account for anchors of different shapes and penetration velocities, interacting with granular soils.

Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

2012-01-01

209

Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, Paul A.

2010-01-01

210

System models used to support a space-based telescope design for discovery of near Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the effects of several key system parameters related to development of a space-based observatory for discovering near-earth objects (NEOs). The space-based mission is seen as complementary to ground-based observations for identifying objects with the potential to impact the Earth. A system model is developed from an articial data set of 1218 NEOs with initial orbital elements generated from a probability distribution model similar to that incorporated in the NASA NEO Science Definition Team Report. By running the model over a 7 year period, the statistics of NEO detection can be investigated as a function of changes to telescope parameters. This paper discusses the system model development of orbital models, radiometric calculations and some initial results from parameter studies on the engineering design.

Lieber, Mike; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Arentz, Robert; Reitsema, Harold; Linfield, Roger; Hardesty, Chuck

2007-09-01

211

The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care  

PubMed Central

Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact.

2014-01-01

212

European near-Earth object radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar astronomy paradox (RAP): practically everybody agree with essential contributions of active radar observations to Solar System and especially to near-Earth object (NEO) explorations, but despite everything prefer to develop new and new passive telescopes and disposable space missions, only, and nobody want to build at least one dedicated multipurpose radar telescope (neither Arecibo nor Goldstone and Evpatoria radars were created as dedicated radar astronomy instruments). Also, as of June 2002, among of 188 radar detected asteroids and comets there are only 3 NEOs, which were investigated in Europe, with single European radar facility, sited in Evpatoria. The main reason of such deep gap is a low sensitivity of Evpatoria radar, which is in 10 and 300 times less powerful than Goldstone and Arecibo. Therefore, I guess the first dedicated European NEO Radar (ENEOR) is earnestly needful now. From time to time we discuss this problem, but it is not solve for the present moment, perhaps because of above formulated RAP. Origin and concept of the ENEOR, as well as the ENEOR project, based on the being under construction 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope, will be presented below.

Zaitsev, Alexander L.

2002-11-01

213

Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Targets include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs), other close approachers, and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence the need to reach fainter magnitudes on short notice. About half of our targets are therefore unknown at the time of this proposal. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by WISE that need astrometry. Our past use of the Mayall telescope has been determined by Co-Investigator Tim Spahr of the Minor Planet Center to provide ``dramatic improvement'' to orbits.

McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeff; Scotti, Jim; Bressi, Terry; Spahr, Tim; Maleszewski, Chet

2014-08-01

214

Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Traits: A Comparison of SCID-II BPD and NEO-PI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitalized female patients with a clinical diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) were assessed for Axis II disorders by the SCID-II and for personality traits with the NEO-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI). The predominant personality trait profile for these patients involved a very high Neuroticism score and low Agreeableness score. Five of the 8 BPD criteria had significant correlations with NEO-PI scales.

John F. Clarkin; James W. Hull; Jennifer Cantor; Cynthia Sanderson

1993-01-01

215

MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European–Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a\\u000a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue,\\u000a scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation.\\u000a Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of

M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; P. Michel; J. Kawagushi; H. Yano; J. R. Brucato; I. A. Franchi; E. Dotto; M. Fulchignoni; S. Ulamec

2009-01-01

216

Requirement for Neo1p in Retrograde Transport from the Golgi Complex to the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

PubMed Central

Neo1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential P-type ATPase and potential aminophospholipid translocase (flippase) in the Drs2p family. We have previously implicated Drs2p in protein transport steps in the late secretory pathway requiring ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and clathrin. Here, we present evidence that epitope-tagged Neo1p localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex and is required for a retrograde transport pathway between these organelles. Using conditional alleles of NEO1, we find that loss of Neo1p function causes cargo-specific defects in anterograde protein transport early in the secretory pathway and perturbs glycosylation in the Golgi complex. Rer1-GFP, a protein that cycles between the ER and Golgi complex in COPI and COPII vesicles, is mislocalized to the vacuole in neo1-ts at the nonpermissive temperature. These phenotypes suggest that the anterograde protein transport defect is a secondary consequence of a defect in a COPI-dependent retrograde pathway. We propose that loss of lipid asymmetry in the cis Golgi perturbs retrograde protein transport to the ER.

Hua, Zhaolin; Graham, Todd R.

2003-01-01

217

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Moving Data Access Forward for Outreach and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) dramatically simplifies public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the unsophisticated, non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. NEO currently serves imagery from 10 different datasets with daily, weekly, and monthly temporal resolutions (including 3 datasets that also have 5-minute regional resolutions). There will be an additional 13 datasets added by the end of 2006. Users are able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery within the NEO interface itself (e.g., applying color palettes, subsetting, and importing to NASA's Earth Observatory's Image Composite Editor), open NEO imagery directly using third party software (e.g., Google Earth, any GeoTIFF or WMS capable application), and, if they desire, download or order the source HDF data directly from the data provider via a single, integrated interface.

Ward, K.; Herring, D.

2006-12-01

218

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to degradation or healing associated with diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation/healing mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid—which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context—creeps and stress relaxes due to degradation/healing when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a degrading/healing generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Karra, Satish; Rajagopal, K. R.

2012-02-01

219

Swallowed Object  

MedlinePLUS

... toys, coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. Problems may arise ... toys, coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. These objects often ...

220

Optimal detection of short-warning near-earth object threats  

SciTech Connect

Detection of near-Earth Objects (NEOs) has concentrated on long-warning threats. LPCs (long period comets) and smaller objects do not offer such warning. Their detection on final approach is a more demanding search problem. Improvements in ground- and space-based search sensors and strategies could provide adequate search capability.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-05-01

221

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth-Objects Surveys and Hazard Mitigations Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States spends approximately 4 million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that sca...

2010-01-01

222

Innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap for neo-phallic reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals.  

PubMed

Many techniques have been described to create an aesthetic and functional neo-phallus after penile amputation or in female-to-male transsexuals. Microsurgical free-flap phalloplasty seems to be the preferred method of penile reconstruction. For many years the radial forearm free flap has been considered the best procedure, but other flaps have been attempted to minimize donor site morbidity and optimize outcome. Pedicled flaps are considered to be reliable and to decrease the risk of total failure. Recently, a one-stage non-microsurgical technique was described for phallic reconstruction in a young male patient. We report successful total phallic reconstruction in a female-to-male transsexual patient using an island pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. Urethral reconstruction was left as a possible further procedure due to patient's preference. A malleable soft silicone penile prosthesis was inserted within the flap and the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve stump was sutured to the dorsal clitoris branch from the pudendal nerve for flap sensation. After 6 months, the patient demonstrated successful aesthetic and functional reconstruction referring to satisfactory sexual activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an innervated island pedicled ALT flap used for female-to-male penile reconstruction in a transsexual patient. The pedicled ALT flap may be a reliable option to avoid visible scarring at the donor site on exposed parts of the body, and reduce the risk of total flap failure from microsurgical procedures for reconstruction of a neo-phallus in this increasing population of patients. PMID:18455975

Rubino, C; Figus, A; Dessy, L A; Alei, G; Mazzocchi, M; Trignano, E; Scuderi, N

2009-03-01

223

Optimal Media Conditions for the Detection of Extracellular Cellulase Activity in Ganoderma neo-japonicum.  

PubMed

To determine the optimal media conditions for the detection of the extracellular cellulase activity in Ganoderma neo-japonicum, we varied three media conditions: dye reagent, pH, and temperature. We evaluated the use of four dyes, Congo red, phenol red, remazol brilliant blue, and trypan blue. To observe the effect of pH on the chromogenic reaction, we tested media ranging from 4.5 to 8.0. To research the effect of temperature on the clear zone and the fungus growing zone, we tested temperatures ranging from 15 to 35?. On the whole, the best protocol called for Ganoderma neo-japonicum transfer onto media containing Congo red with a pH of 7.0, followed by incubation at 25? for 5 days. Our results will be useful to researchers who study extracellular enzyme activity in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. PMID:22783091

Jo, Woo-Sik; Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

2011-06-01

224

Characterization of intact neo-glycoproteins by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

In this study, an HPLC HILIC-UV method was developed for the analysis of intact neo-glycoproteins. During method development the experimental conditions evaluated involved different HILIC columns (TSKgel Amide-80 and ZIC-pHILIC), and water-acetonitrile mixtures containing various types of acids and salts. The final selected method was based on a TSKgel Amide-80 column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water both containing 10 mM HClO4. The influence of temperature and sample preparation on the chromatographic performances of the HILIC method was also investigated. The method was applied to the separation of neo-glycoproteins prepared starting from the model protein RNase A by chemical conjugation of different glycans. Using the method here reported it was possible to monitor by UV detection the glycosylation reaction and assess the distribution of neo-glycoprotein isoforms without laborious sample workup prior to analysis. PMID:24983858

Pedrali, Alice; Tengattini, Sara; Marrubini, Giorgio; Bavaro, Teodora; Hemström, Petrus; Massolini, Gabriella; Terreni, Marco; Temporini, Caterina

2014-01-01

225

In vitro neo-cartilage formation on a three-dimensional composite polymeric cryogel matrix.  

PubMed

Limited blood supply and the avascular nature of articular cartilage restricts its self repair capacity, frequently leading to osteoarthritis. This work focuses on scaffolds for tissue repair from natural polymers, for example gelatin, chitosan, and agarose in the form of composite. A novel way of fabrication, known as cryogelation, is presented, in which matrices are synthesized at sub-zero temperature. Cell seeded scaffolds incubated under appropriate conditions result in the accumulation of matrix components on the surface of the gel in the form of neo-cartilage. Neo-cartilage exhibits similarity to native cartilage with respect to its physical, mechanical and biochemical properties. Based on the similarities of neo-cartilage to the native cartilage, it can provide a new approach for the treatment of localised joint injuries. PMID:23619817

Bhat, Sumrita; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

2013-07-01

226

Neoclassical study of temperature anisotropy in NSTX experiments using the GTC-NEO particle code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the level of ion transport in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) is close to the neoclassical level. This makes self-consistent neoclassical simulations carried out with the GTC-NEO particle code highly relevant for studying transport-related issues in NSTX. GTC-NEO, which now treats multiple species of ion impurities [1], takes as input the experimental profiles from NSTX discharges and calculates the fully non-local, self-consistent neoclassical fluxes and radial electric field. One unanswered question related to NSTX plasmas is that of possible ion temperature anisotropy, which cannot be determined experimentally with the current diagnostics. This work describes new numerical diagnostics and computational improvements that were implemented in GTC-NEO to enable the study of temperature anisotropy.[4pt] [1] R.A. Kolesnikov et al., Phy. Plasmas 17, 022506 (2010)

Perkins, David; Ethier, Stephane; Wang, Weixing

2012-10-01

227

Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region  

SciTech Connect

A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

Panza, G. F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Kouteva, M. [ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F. [DST--University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G. [NIEP-Magurele-Bucharest, 12 Calugareni str., Ilfov (Romania); Paskaleva, I. [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P. [Geodetic and Geophysical Research, Institute of HAS, Sopron (Hungary); Herak, M. [Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zaichenco, A. [IGG, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zivcic, M. [ARSO-Seismology and Geology Office, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-07-08

228

Neo-adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma before liver transplantation: Where do we stand?  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria is a widely accepted optimal therapy. Neo-adjuvant therapy before transplantation has been used as a bridging therapy to prevent dropout during the waiting period and as a down-staging method for the patient with intermediate HCC to qualify for liver transplantation. Transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation are the most commonly used method for locoregional therapy. The data associated with newer modalities including drug-eluting beads, radioembolization with Y90, stereotactic radiation therapy and sorafenib will be discussed as a tool for converting advanced HCC to LT candidates. The concept “ablate and wait” has gained the popularity where mandated observation period after neo-adjuvant therapy allows for tumor biology to become apparent, thus has been recommended after down-staging. The role of neo-adjuvant therapy with conjunction of “ablate and wait” in living donor liver transplantation for intermediate stage HCC is also discussed in the paper.

Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico; Choi, Minsig; Kim, Richard

2014-01-01

229

NEO PI-R profiles of adults with attention deficit disorder.  

PubMed

The personality functioning of adults diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) without comorbid psychiatric illness was examined. NEO PI-R profiles in a group of 25 adults referred for ADD evaluation meeting criteria for this diagnosis without any history of other psychiatric disturbance were compared to profiles from a control group of 23 nonpsychotic adult outpatients being treated with psychotherapy. All participants completed self-report measures of ADD symptoms as well as the NEO PI-R (Form S). The ADD adult group obtained significantly higher scores in the Neuroticism domain and significantly lower scores in the Conscientiousness domain than the outpatient comparison group. The NEO PI-R appears useful to the understanding of ADD in adulthood. PMID:9458338

Ranseen, J D; Campbell, D A; Baer, R A

1998-03-01

230

Evolution of a recent neo-Y sex chromosome in a laboratory population of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species of animals, one of the sexes has a chromosome that is structurally and functionally different from its socalled\\u000a homologue. Conventionally, it is called Y chromosome or W chromosome depending on whether it is present in males or females\\u000a respectively. The corresponding homologous chromosomes are called X and Z chromosomes. The dimorphic sex chromosomes are believed\\u000a to have

M. T. Tanuja; N. B. Ramachandra; H. A. Ranganath

1999-01-01

231

Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

2010-01-01

232

Physical modeling and high-performance GPU computing for characterization, interception, and disruption of hazardous near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few decades, both the scientific community and the general public have been becoming more aware that the Earth lives in a shooting gallery of small objects. We classify all of these asteroids and comets, known or unknown, that cross Earth's orbit as near-Earth objects (NEOs). A look at our geologic history tells us that NEOs have collided with Earth in the past, and we expect that they will continue to do so. With thousands of known NEOs crossing the orbit of Earth, there has been significant scientific interest in developing the capability to deflect an NEO from an impacting trajectory. This thesis applies the ideas of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) theory to the NEO disruption problem. A simulation package was designed that allows efficacy simulation to be integrated into the mission planning and design process. This is done by applying ideas in high-performance computing (HPC) on the computer graphics processing unit (GPU). Rather than prove a concept through large standalone simulations on a supercomputer, a highly parallel structure allows for flexible, target dependent questions to be resolved. Built around nonclassified data and analysis, this computer package will allow academic institutions to better tackle the issue of NEO mitigation effectiveness.

Kaplinger, Brian Douglas

233

Microscope objectives.  

PubMed

The objective is the most crucial image-forming component of a microscope. A knowledge of the many types of objectives available and their characteristics is critical to the selection of appropriate objectives for image cytometry. This unit discusses aberrations in image formation and their correction, construction, and types of objectives, and objectives for other microscopy applications, explaining the advantages and limitations of each one. PMID:21965106

LoBiondo, Joseph; Abramowitz, Mortimer; Friedman, Marc M

2011-10-01

234

Inhibition of Notch signaling induces extensive intussusceptive neo-angiogenesis by recruitment of mononuclear cells.  

PubMed

Notch is an intercellular signaling pathway related mainly to sprouting neo-angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to evaluate the angiogenic mechanisms involved in the vascular augmentation (sprouting/intussusception) after Notch inhibition within perfused vascular beds using the chick area vasculosa and MxCreNotch1(lox/lox) mice. In vivo monitoring combined with morphological investigations demonstrated that inhibition of Notch signaling within perfused vascular beds remarkably induced intussusceptive angiogenesis (IA) with resultant dense immature capillary plexuses. The latter were characterized by 40 % increase in vascular density, pericyte detachment, enhanced vessel permeability, as well as recruitment and extravasation of mononuclear cells into the incipient transluminal pillars (quintessence of IA). Combination of Notch inhibition with injection of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells dramatically enhanced IA with 80 % increase in vascular density and pillar number augmentation by 420 %. Additionally, there was down-regulation of ephrinB2 mRNA levels consequent to Notch inhibition. Inhibition of ephrinB2 or EphB4 signaling induced some pericyte detachment and resulted in up-regulation of VEGFRs but with neither an angiogenic response nor recruitment of mononuclear cells. Notably, Tie-2 receptor was down-regulated, and the chemotactic factors SDF-1/CXCR4 were up-regulated only due to the Notch inhibition. Disruption of Notch signaling at the fronts of developing vessels generally results in massive sprouting. On the contrary, in the already existing vascular beds, down-regulation of Notch signaling triggered rapid augmentation of the vasculature predominantly by IA. Notch inhibition disturbed vessel stability and led to pericyte detachment followed by extravasation of mononuclear cells. The mononuclear cells contributed to formation of transluminal pillars with sustained IA resulting in a dense vascular plexus without concomitant vascular remodeling and maturation. PMID:23881168

Dimova, Ivanka; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Makanya, Andrew; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Ceausu, Amalia; Flueckiger, Stefanie; Lang, Sonja; Semela, David; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Chatterjee, Suvro; Djonov, Valentin

2013-10-01

235

"Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people…

Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

2009-01-01

236

Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

Wiborg, Susanne

2013-01-01

237

Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

2007-01-01

238

A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

Landis, Rob R.

2011-01-01

239

Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

Abell, Paul

2011-01-01

240

Robotic and Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, Paul

2011-01-01

241

Predicting Training Success with the NEO-PI-R: The Use of Logistic Regression to Determine the Odds of Completing a Pilot Screening Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) measuring the 'big five' personality domains has been used as a descriptive tool for assessing 'normal' personality attributes of Air Force pilots; yet the predictive potential of NEO-PI-R has not been real...

M. N. Anesgart J. D. Callister

2001-01-01

242

The “Closure” Assumption as a First Step: Neo-Ricardian Economics and Post-Keynesianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I accept that just as mainstream economics can be characterized by its insistence upon a deductivist method, so the least contentious, most widely accepted aspects of Post-Keynesianism can be accounted for by its anti-deductivist stance and more specifically by its tacit commitment to something like critical realism. I argue that neo- Ricardian economics, to the extent that

Stephen Pratten

1996-01-01

243

Enlightenment and the "Heart of Darkness": (Neo)Imperialism in the Congo, and Elsewhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article approaches the current state of qualitative inquiry by constructing an allegory of neo-imperialism. It is based substantively on a history and contemporary anthro-politics of the Congo and in particular the city of Kisangani; metaphorically on Conrad's unsettling deployment of that same place as "the heart of darkness"; and ironically…

Stronach, Ian

2006-01-01

244

Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing…

Morra, Sergio

2005-01-01

245

A Neo-Aristotelian Account of Education, Justice, and the Human Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sketches the contours of a neo-Aristotelian account of education, justice, and the human good, organized around a sequence of three increasingly distinctive features of the Aristotelian understanding of respect for persons as rational beings. The first and second of these features bear on important aspects of educational justice,…

Curren, Randall

2013-01-01

246

ESA research and development activity on SSA-NEO preliminary definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper gives an account of goals, prospects, and planning of the first ESA research associated with definition of the SSA-NEO segment and puts it in the context of ESA system engineering practices of ESA (as defined in ESA’s ECSS standards).

Franco, R.

2010-10-01

247

The SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling pathway: a molecular hub modulating neo-angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pro-angiogenic bone marrow (BM) cells include subsets of hematopoietic cells that provide vascular support and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which under certain permissive conditions could differentiate into functional vascular cells. Recent evidence demonstrates that the chemokine stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12) has a major role in the recruitment and retention of CXCR4+ BM cells to the neo-angiogenic niches supporting revascularization of ischemic tissue and tumor growth. However, the precise mechanism by which activation of CXCR4 modulates neo-angiogenesis is not clear. SDF-1 not only promotes revascularization by engaging with CXCR4 expressed on the vascular cells but also supports mobilization of pro-angiogenic CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hematopoietic cells, thereby accelerating revascularization of ischemic organs. Here, we attempt to define the multiple functions of the SDF-1–CXCR4 signaling pathway in the regulation of neo-vascularization during acute ischemia and tumor growth. In particular, we introduce the concept that, by modulating plasma SDF-1 levels, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 acutely promotes, while chronic AMD3100 treatment inhibits, mobilization of pro-angiogenic cells. We will also discuss strategies to modulate the mobilization of essential subsets of BM cells that participate in neo-angiogenesis, setting up the stage for enhancing revascularization or targeting tumor vessels by exploiting CXCR4 agonists and antagonists, respectively.

Petit, Isabelle; Jin, David; Rafii, Shahin

2010-01-01

248

Second generation synthesis of the neo-clerodane diterpenoid methyl barbascoate.  

PubMed

The second generation total synthesis of the neo-clerodane diterpenoid, methyl barbascoate, was accomplished in seven or nine linear steps via double enol triflation and subsequent palladium catalyzed double carbonylation, followed by regioselective samarium diiodide mediated conjugate reduction. PMID:23980414

Hagiwara, Hisahiro; Honma, Naomi; Kinugawa, Kimihiko; Sato, Shota; Hoshi, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio

2013-07-01

249

Structure of salvioccidentalin, a diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton from Salvia occidentalis.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed. PMID:22041884

Jaime-Vasconcelos, Miguel Ángel; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo Antonio; Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Salmón, Manuel; Cárdenas, Jorge

2011-01-01

250

Neo-Liberal Reforms in Israel's Education System: The Dialectics of the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a reading of the Dovrat Report with the aim of assessing the convoluted and dialectical manifestations of the state--"the weak and the strong state"--in the era of global neo-liberalism. The Dovrat Report (Ministry Of Education 2005) includes a set of recommendations aiming to bring about structural and comprehensive changes in…

Yonah, Yossi; Dahan, Yossi; Markovich, Dalya

2008-01-01

251

Mental Strategies, Mental Capacity, and Instruction: A Neo-Piagetian Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pascual-Leone's neo-Piagetian theory of development is used to predict the pre- and postinstruction distributions of scores on a subject-controlled digit placement task as a function of three parameters dealing with mental strategy and capacity. (Author/ED)

Case, Robbie

1974-01-01

252

The Measurement of Mental Attentional Capacity: A Neo-Piagetian Developmental Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether mental attentional capacity increases as a linear function of age during normal childhood development, as predicted by the neo-Piagetian developmental theory of J. Pascual-Leone (1970 and later), was studied with 215 children aged 5 to 12 years. Results provide only partial support for the Pascual-Leone theory. (SLD)

Pennings, Alber H.; Hessels, Marco G. P.

1996-01-01

253

Dimensional Analysis: A Neo-Piagetian Evaluation of M-demand of Chemistry Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for the evaluation of M-demand of chemistry problems. It was shown that dimensional analysis upon the Neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone could help science teachers to understand the epistemological basis of their discipline. (CW)

Niaz, Mansoor

1989-01-01

254

A Neo-Piagetian Analysis of Communication Performance in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study was conducted to interpret age and individual differences in 48 kindergarteners' and second graders' performance on a referential communication task in light of the Pascual-Leone Theory of Constructive Operations, a neo-Piagetian theory of cognitive development. Stimulus materials were black and white photographs of dogs,…

Foorman, Barbara R.

255

Linking New Literacy Studies Approach & neo-Vygotskian Theory: Literacy Education in Brunei Darussalam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general theme of this paper is to explore relat ionships between the New Literacy Studies approach and the neo-Vygotskian approach to teaching and learning as a social practice, in order to draw att ention towards the problems and solutions of literacies education in Brunei Darussa lam and beyond. The relationship will be explored in the context of how the

Mukul Saxena

2007-01-01

256

Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

Girdwood, John

2007-01-01

257

NEO PI-R Profiles of Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personality functioning of adults diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) without comorbid psychiatric illness was examined. NEO PI-R profiles in a group of 25 adults referred for ADD evaluation meeting criteria for this diagnosis without any history of other psychiatric disturbance were compared to profiles from a control group of 23 nonpsychotic adult outpatients being treated with psychotherapy. All

John D. Ranseen; Derek A. Campbell; Ruth A. Baer

1998-01-01

258

Becoming self harm, theodicy and neo?primitive organizing – necessary evil or evil of necessity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self has emerged as integral to how we comprehend the ethos of contemporary post?bureaucratic – or what will be termed neo?primitive – organizing. In juxtaposition, and immanent, are multiple requirements for the self to be harmed, in various ways, for the purposes of achieving organizational progress. This post?structuralist composition explores how these requirements are inscribed, and desired, in different

Lloyd Gray

2008-01-01

259

Neo-Liberal "Governmentality" in the English and Japanese Higher Education Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to identify common patterns in central authorities' steering of universities and the institutional power in neo-liberal higher education regimes. The paper examines the regulatory mechanisms of England and Japan through Foucault's idea of "governmentality" and utilises the concept of autonomy to identify the…

Yokoyama, Keiko

2008-01-01

260

The NEO and Exoplanet Search with the Refurbished Schmidt Telescope at Asiago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 67\\/92 cm Schmidt Telescope on Mount Ekar at Asiago underwent a major upgrade during 2002. The refurbished telescope allows one to conduct wide-field programs like NEOs discovery and search for exoplanets by the photometric transit method.

R. U. Claudi; C. Barbieri; P. Bruno; S. Magrin; S. Mottola

2004-01-01

261

Toward a Neo-Deweyan Theory of Curriculum Analysis and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We adapted an existing comprehensive theory of curriculum analysis for application across complex, multicultural educational environments in P-12 schools. Our theoretical framework is neo-Deweyan in that it draws heavily from John Dewey's curriculum philosophy and because it goes beyond him to draw extensively from other curriculum theorists. The…

Simpson, Douglas J.; Almager, Irma L.; Beerwinkle, Andrea L.; Celebi, Dilber; Ferkel, Ricky C.; Holubik, Thomas E.; Reed, Christy A.; Tomlinson, Tracee A.

2011-01-01

262

An Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Dana F. Sutton, Professor of Classics at the University of California, this straightforward metasite currently links to 549 free Neo-Latin electronic texts written during the Renaissance and later. The list is browsed alphabetically. Each entry includes author, title, URL, source site, and notes (usually download formats).

Sutton, Dana F.

263

Neo Monachism: A Coming Role for Church-Related Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The coming role of the church-related undergraduate college of the liberal arts and sciences will be essentially monastic, or rather, it will be compelled toward a form of neo-monachism if it is to pursue seriously its historically proclaimed goals of liberal education. The contemporary university is the heart of "the self-sufficient finitude,"…

Hotchkiss, Wesley A.

264

Chronic limitations of neo-liberal capitalism and oligopolistic markets : An urgent case for socialized capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the serious limitations of neo-liberal capitalism and urge for a shift to socialized capital before further economic deterioration leads to a succession of global conflicts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This conceptual paper adopts a macro perspective in presenting argument on how global, financial markets integration and capital flow liberalization have led to

Philip Reeves Knyght; Nada K. Kakabadse; Alexander Kouzmin; Andrew Kakabadse

2011-01-01

265

Worlds of Knowledge, Cosmologies of Skills: Ethnography Outdoors in a Neo-Liberal University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the signs that modernizing agendas in contemporary UK universities have not only reduced autonomy and marketized practices but have also stimulated the crystallization of a ramifying academic worldview, structurally consonant with neo-liberal horizons and new organizational vistas. Ethnographically, the account focuses…

Abramson, Allen

2006-01-01

266

Manipulating Images of Popular Culture upon Neo-Classical Theatre: "Tartuffe" at Susquehanna University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moliere's "Tartuffe" is an attack, not on religion, but on people who hide behind religion and exploit it. As a college professor in charge of student production searched for a director's concept for "Tartuffe," she realized that it would be unwise to attempt a museum staging of neo-classical theater with limited funding. She therefore chose a…

Sodd, Mary Jo

267

Issues That Drive Near-Earth Object Mitigation Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Find them early: The most important aspect for the mitigation of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs) is to find them early enough so that an appropriate and timely response can be carried out. Although about 84% of the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) larger than one kilometer had been found by mid-2009, only about 5% of the NEAs 140 meters and larger that

D. K. Yeomans; A. Chamberlin; S. Chesley; P. W. Chodas

2009-01-01

268

Adaptive Evolution of Genes Duplicated from the Drosophila pseudoobscura neo-X Chromosome  

PubMed Central

Drosophila X chromosomes are disproportionate sources of duplicated genes, and these duplications are usually the result of retrotransposition of X-linked genes to the autosomes. The excess duplication is thought to be driven by natural selection for two reasons: X chromosomes are inactivated during spermatogenesis, and the derived copies of retroposed duplications tend to be testis expressed. Therefore, autosomal derived copies of retroposed genes provide a mechanism for their X-linked paralogs to “escape” X inactivation. Once these duplications have fixed, they may then be selected for male-specific functions. Throughout the evolution of the Drosophila genus, autosomes have fused with X chromosomes along multiple lineages giving rise to neo-X chromosomes. There has also been excess duplication from the two independent neo-X chromosomes that have been examined—one that occurred prior to the common ancestor of the willistoni species group and another that occurred along the lineage leading to Drosophila pseudoobscura. To determine what role natural selection plays in the evolution of genes duplicated from the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome, we analyzed DNA sequence divergence between paralogs, polymorphism within each copy, and the expression profiles of these duplicated genes. We found that the derived copies of all duplicated genes have elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism, suggesting that they are under relaxed selective constraints. The derived copies also tend to have testis- or male-biased expression profiles regardless of their chromosome of origin. Genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome appear to be under less constraints than those duplicated from other chromosome arms. We also find more evidence for historical adaptive evolution in genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome, suggesting that they are under a unique selection regime in which elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism provides a large reservoir of functional variants, some of which are fixed by natural selection.

Meisel, Richard P.; Hilldorfer, Benedict B.; Koch, Jessica L.; Lockton, Steven; Schaeffer, Stephen W.

2010-01-01

269

An "entry level" mission to a Near Earth Object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects' mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An 'entry level' mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10kg science 'reference' payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of Euro 20 million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2003-11-01

270

An ‘entry level’ mission to a near Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects’ mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An ‘entry level’ mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10 kg science ‘reference’ payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of €20million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2006-10-01

271

Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

2011-01-01

272

Objective lens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

273

Cognitive Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting on obsessional play objects of infants, Hodgkin suggests that a proper understanding of these "transitional" or "cognitive" objects could lead to an educational model of a "learner" involving a number of human competencies, all developing synergistically. Contends that such a model may be truer to life than the more unified and…

Hodgkin, Robin A.

1988-01-01

274

The Next Giant Leap: Human Exploration and Utilization of NEOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planetary science plays a unique role as the pathfinder for future human space activities beyond the International Space Station. It can also provide the rationale for the first human departure from LEO since the Apollo program. We are examining the potential for human missions to small near-Earth objects (typically tens of meters), passing close by the Earth-Moon system with very

T. D. Jones; F. Vilas; S. Love; K. Hack; L. Gefert; M. V. Sykes; J. S. Lewis; R. Jedicke; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; R. Farquhar; L. McFadden; D. Durda

2001-01-01

275

The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) team of the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS telescope is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 300 m, and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. MOPS relies on new, efficient, multiple-hypothesis KD-tree and variable-tree search algorithms to search the ˜10^{12} detection pairs that are expected per night. Candidate intra- and inter-night associations of detections are evaluated for consistency with a real solar system object, and orbits are computed. We describe the basic operation of the MOPS pipeline, identify pipeline processing steps that are candidates for multiple-hypothesis spatial searches, describe our implementation of those algorithms, and provide preliminary results for MOPS.

Denneau, L., Jr.; Kubica, J.; Jedicke, R.

2007-10-01

276

NEOS Server Usage in Wastewater Treatment Cost Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes the optimal design and operation of an activated sludge system in wastewater treatment plants. The optimization\\u000a problem is represented as a smooth programming problem with linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints, in which\\u000a the objective is to minimize the total cost required to design and operate the activated sludge system under imposed effluent\\u000a quality laws. We

I. A. C. P. Espírito-santo; Edite M. G. P. Fernandes; M. M. Araújo; E. C. Ferreira

2005-01-01

277

Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA’s Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

2009-01-01

278

Trusted Objects  

SciTech Connect

In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

1999-10-27

279

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The "Copernicus" crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth object (NEO) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. The paper also discusses NASA s current activities and future plans for NTP development that include system-level Technology Demonstrations - specifically ground testing a small, scalable NTR by 2020, with a flight test shortly thereafter.

Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

280

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.  

PubMed

The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

2013-12-01

281

Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the George E. Brown, Jr. NEO Survey Program are to detect, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristics of NEOs equal to or larger than 140 meters in diameter with a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, achieving 90 percent completion of the survey within 15 years after enactment of the NASA Authorization Act of 2005. The Act was signed into law by President Bush on December 30, 2005. A study team, led by NASAs Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E), conducted the analysis of alternatives with inputs from several other U.S. government agencies, international organizations, and representatives of private organizations. The team developed a range of possible options from public and private sources and then analyzed their capabilities and levels of performance including development schedules and technical risks.

2007-01-01

282

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will use the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to recover Near Earth Objects (NEOs) by adding astrometric observations at one or more orbits since discovery. Recovery observations place the strongest constraints on the orbital solution and can be expected to improve the impact risk assessment for Virtual Impactors (VIs). Many NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non- zero risk of Earth impact, all but 21 are classified as "Lost" until rediscovered by the surveys. Through this on-going work, we seek to minimize the number of new discoveries that are "lost", improve the characterization of VI/PHA orbits and to further the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2013-02-01

283

NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will directly support the investigation of open questions and operational concepts that will enable NASA to continue its plan for planetary exploration.

Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

2011-01-01

284

Testing the neo-classical and the Newtonian theory of production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We search for regularities observed in the production of goods by studying Finnish data. Despite the heterogeneity of sectoral growth rates in Finland, unit root is observed in annual productions in all main sectors and all manufacturing industries. Thus a linear time trend exists in annual flows of production. This is inconsistent with the static neo-classical theory that assumes firms to produce at their equilibrium flow of production. A different framework is thus needed for modeling the behavior of firms. We test a Newtonian type of model for production against the neo-classical one, and our observation is that the former works better with annual data at every manufacturing industry in Finland.

Estola, Matti; Dannenberg, Alia

2012-12-01

285

Surgical, Neo-Adjuvant and Adjuvant Management Strategies in Biliary Tract Cancer  

PubMed Central

The majority of patients with biliary tract carcinoma (cholangiocarcinoma and cancer of the gall bladder) present with advanced, irresectable tumours associated with poor prognosis. Death commonly occurs secondary to recurrent biliary obstruction and intra-biliary sepsis, rather than metastatic disease. The only current potentially curative treatment is surgical resection, but this remains possible in less than a third of patients. The incidence and mortality rates associated with biliary tract carcinoma continue to rise, mandating the development of novel strategies for early detection, improved resection techniques and treatment of residual lesions. However, there remains limited data on the use of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant techniques and much of the literature to date concerns palliation of inoperable disease. Here, we review the current evidence base for surgical, neo-adjuvant and adjuvant management techniques in biliary tract carcinoma.

Skipworth, JRA; Olde Damink, SWM; Imber, C; Bridgewater, J; Pereira, SP; Malago', M

2011-01-01

286

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2007-01-01

287

The Near-Earth Objects Follow-up Program. III. 32 Lightcurves for 12 Objects from 1992 and 1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present lightcurves and physical parameters for nine near-Earth objects (NEOs) (433 Eros, 1917 Cuyo, 2368 Beltrovata, 3753 Cruithne, 4769 Castalia, 4953 1990 MU, 6491 1991 OA, 1995 EK1, and 1995 FJ) and three Mars crossers (5738 Billpickering, 7467 1989 WQ1, and 10578 1995 LH) observed during six campaigns in 1992 and 1995. The photometric lightcurve observations discussed here are part of an ongoing observational follow-up program (S. Mottola et al. 1995, Icarus117, 62-70; P. Pravec et al. 1997, Icarus130, 275-286). The purpose of this program is to determine important physical parameters (rotational period and state, spin vectors, colors, and shapes) for NEOs.

Erikson, A.; Mottola, S.; Lagerros, J. S. V.; Lindgren, M.; Piironen, J.; Oja, T.; Hahn, G.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Harris, A. W.; Nathues, A.; Neukum, G.

2000-10-01

288

Qualitative analysis of dynamical behavior for an imperfect incompressible neo-Hookean spherical shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radial symmetric motion problem was examined for a spherical shell composed of a class of imperfect incompressible hyper-elastic\\u000a materials, in which the materials may be viewed as the homogeneous incompressible isotropic neo-Hookean material with radial\\u000a perturbations. A second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation that describes the radial motion of the inner surface\\u000a of the shell was obtained. And the first

Yuan Xue-gang; Zhu Zheng-you; Cheng Chang-jun

2005-01-01

289

From socialist Solidarity to neo-populist neoliberalisation? The paradoxes of Poland's post-communist transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper interrogates the current neo-populist turn in Poland. The Kaczynski government contains a disparate group of ideological positions with a shared antagonism to the preceding neoliberal and post-Solidarity political mainstream. With Poland in the vanguard of neoliberal post-communist transition, the paper sets out to consider whether recent events signal a clear and decisive rejection of neoliberalisation despite the absence

Stuart Shields

2007-01-01

290

New neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata with cytotoxic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new neo-clerodane diterpenoids have been isolated from the whole plant of Scutellaria barbata D. Don, and their structures were established by detailed spectral analyses as scutehenanine H (1) and 6-(2,3-epoxy-2-isopropyl-n-propoxyl)barbatin C (2). In vitro, the isolated two new compounds showed significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer lines, and gave IC50 values in the range OF 2.0-4.2??.

Sheng-Jun Dai; Gui-Wu Qu; Qun-Ying Yu; De-Wu Zhang; Gui-Sheng Li

2010-01-01

291

Neo-sex chromosome diversity in Neotropical melanopline grasshoppers (Melanoplinae, Acrididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a study on the neo-sex chromosome systems of six Neotropical Melanoplinae species for contributing\\u000a to a better understanding of their origin and behaviour of these systems. Our analyses included detailed descriptions of the\\u000a structure and behaviour of the sex chromosome configurations in male and female meiosis of species belonging to the genera\\u000a Ronderosia, Dichromatos and

Elio R. D. Castillo; Claudio J. Bidau; Dardo A. Martí

2010-01-01

292

Progressive Planning Ideals in a Neo-liberal Context, the Case of Ørestad Copenhagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale development projects have frequently been interpreted as products of neo-liberal policies. Many of them have been fiercely criticized because of their closed governance settings and their negative local spatial impacts. What space is left in them for a more progressive planning agenda? This article presents an empirical investigation of a major mixed-use large-scale development, the Ørestad project in Copenhagen.

Stan Majoor

2008-01-01

293

Sensitivity, Specificity, and Reproducibility of the Capilia TB-Neo Assay  

PubMed Central

The performance of the Capilia TB-Neo assay, a new-generation assay, was assessed by determining its sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and cross-reaction with contaminating organisms. The sensitivity and specificity were 99.2 and 96.4% and 89.3 and 100% in pure and mixed-culture isolates, respectively. The kappa statistic was 95.0 and 77.9% in pure and mixed culture isolates, respectively. There was no cross-reaction with contaminating organisms.

Mwanza, Winnie C.; Kasese, Nkatya; Cheeba-Lengwe, Maina; Moyo, Maureen; Kaluba-Milimo, Deborah; Ayles, Helen

2013-01-01

294

Development of a sodium-pump\\/neo-lasant photopumped soft X-ray laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intense source of sodium pump-line radiation has been created and used to photopump a neon plasma for application to a pulsed-power driven sodium\\/neo X-ray laser. Properties of the sodium-pump plasma and the neon-lasant plasma required to optimize fluorescence and lasing are determined. The implosion of a sodium-bearing plasma with a megampere pulsed-power driver (Gamble II) is used to produce

S. J. Stephenakis; J. P. Apruzese; P. G. Burkhalter; G. Cooperstein; J. Davis; D. D. Hinshelwood; G. Mehlman; D. Mosher; P. F. Ottinger; V. E. Scherrer; J. W. Thornhill; B. L. Welch; F. C. Young

1988-01-01

295

Cloninger's temperament and character inventory and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.  

PubMed

A principal axis factor analysis was performed jointly for the seven Temperament and Character Inventory scales and the five NEO Five-Factor Inventory scales, using 95 male and 109 female introductory psychology students. The five factors obtained were similar to the five major personality factors of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and supported the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model of personality. PMID:12150384

Ramanaiah, Nerella V; Rielage, Jennifer K; Cheng, Yuqiu

2002-06-01

296

Global Solutions of the Equations of Elastodynamics of Incompressible Neo-Hookean Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that the initial-value problem for the motion of a certain type of\\u000aelastic body has a solution for all time if the initial data are sufficiently\\u000asmall. The body must fill all of three space, obey a ``neo-Hookean''\\u000astress-strain law, and be incompressible. The proof takes advantage of the\\u000adelayed singularity formation which occurs for solutions of quasi-linear

David G. Ebin; SUNY at Stony Brook

1993-01-01

297

Toward Identifying Needed Investments in Modeling and Simulation Tools for NEO Deflection Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Its time: a) To bring planetary scientists, deflection system investigators and vehicle designers together on the characterization/mitigation problem. b) To develop a comprehensive trade space of options. c) To trade options under a common set of assumptions and see what comparisons on effectiveness can be made. d) To explore the synergy that can be had with proposed scientific and exploration architectures while interest in NEO's are at an all time high.

Adams, Robert B.

2009-01-01

298

Neo-structuralist analysis of green-marketing discourse: interpreting hybrid car manufacturers and consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explain inconsistent behaviour that is well documented in green-marketing and consumption, the authors develop the (neo)structuralist model of meaning cocreation that is based on the signifying practices of hybrid car manufacturers and consumers. The model reveals that market agents are recruited into a symbolic order that requires the perpetual reinforcement of self-opposing meanings as a condition for signification. The

Djavlonbek Kadirov; Richard J. Varey

2012-01-01

299

LC-MS-SPE-NMR for the Isolation and Characterization of neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Teucrium luteum subsp. flavovirens  

Microsoft Academic Search

neo-Clerodane diterpenes of plant origin are molecules difficult to monitor due to their nonspecific UV\\/vis absorption. The present work describes for the first time the application of the LC-MS-SPE-NMR technique for the isolation and characterization of three new neo-clerodane diterpenes, 3?-hydroxyteucroxylepin and teuluteumin A and teuluteumin B, from Teucrium luteum subsp. flavovirens, harvested from two different locations

A. Castro; S. I. A. Moco; J. Coll; J. J. M. Vervoort

2010-01-01

300

Privatisation and deregulation of public utilities: contesting the neo-classical paradigm from a business strategy perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neo-classical economics paradigm postulates a hypothetical model of perfe ct competition as the ideal environment for business success. Yet this model has had great difficulty in apprehending the day-to-day operations of actual business organisations. This paper explores some of the apparent inadequacies of the neo-classical paradigm, drawing on business strategy theory to suggest a potentially more fruitful mode of

Lucas Skoufa; George Lafferty

2001-01-01

301

Influence of ethnocentrism and neo-phobia on ethnic food consumption in Spain.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, a strong upsurge in Spanish immigration has fostered a thriving ethnic food market. To examine indigenous consumer predilections toward ethnic foods, a carefully designed choice experiment is employed, with particular focus on ethnocentricity and food neo-phobia traits on potential purchase decisions. Employing a two level nested logit model, consumers choose to accept/reject ethnic foods, with a positive response met by a further series of different ethnic cuisine and consumption scenario alternatives. Bivariate tests reveal that higher ethnocentric and neo-phobic segments possess common socio-demographic characteristics, whilst neo-phobia plays a significantly stronger role in determining the probability of rejection. Further tests reveal culturally similar Mexican food as the preferred ethnic food across all consumption scenarios. Moreover, the 'restaurant' is the favoured format of consumption, whilst there is evidence of a strong association between specific ethnic food types and consumption formats. The implications of our research suggest that in the short to medium turn, price is a strong strategic variable, whilst marketing strategies must successfully isolate and exploit specific 'ethnic food/consumption scenario' mixes. Finally, stronger messages emphasizing quality and convenience factors are seen as key to bolstering the underrepresented 'home preparation' ethnic food market in Spain. PMID:21513751

Camarena, Dena M; Sanjuán, Ana I; Philippidis, George

2011-08-01

302

Introducing an osteopathic approach into neonatology ward: the NE-O model  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies showed the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on neonatal care in reducing length of stay in hospital, gastrointestinal problems, clubfoot complications and improving cranial asymmetry of infants affected by plagiocephaly. Despite several results obtained, there is still a lack of standardized osteopathic evaluation and treatment procedures for newborns recovered in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this paper is to suggest a protocol on osteopathic approach (NE-O model) in treating hospitalized newborns. Methods The NE-O model is composed by specific evaluation tests and treatments to tailor osteopathic method according to preterm and term infants’ needs, NICU environment, medical and paramedical assistance. This model was developed to maximize the effectiveness and the clinical use of osteopathy into NICU. Results The NE-O model was adopted in 2006 to evaluate the efficacy of OMT in neonatology. Results from research showed the effectiveness of this osteopathic model in reducing preterms’ length of stay and hospital costs. Additionally the present model was demonstrated to be safe. Conclusion The present paper defines the key steps for a rigorous and effective osteopathic approach into NICU setting, providing a scientific and methodological example of integrated medicine and complex intervention.

2014-01-01

303

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, nontraditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NE0 will accomplish this goal by anticipating users expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

Ward, Kevin; Herring, David

2005-01-01

304

The ROSA26 LacZ-neo(R) insertion confers resistance to mammary tumors in Apc(Min/+) mice.  

PubMed

B6.129S7-Gtrosa26 (ROSA26) mice carry a LacZ-neo(R) insertion on Chromosome (Chr) 6, made by promoter trapping with AB1 129 ES cells. Female C57BL/6J Apc(Min/+) (B6 Min/+) mice are very susceptible to the induction of mammary tumors after treatment with ethylnitrosourea (ENU). However, ENU-treated B6 mice carrying both Apc(Min) and ROSA26 are resistant to mammary tumor formation. Thus, ROSA26 mice carry a modifier of Min-induced mammary tumor susceptibility. We have previously mapped the modifier to a 4-cM interval of 129-derived DNA that also contains the ROSA26 insertion. Here we report additional evidence for the effect of the ROSA26 insertion on mammary tumor formation. To test the hypothesis that the resistance was due to a linked modifier locus, we utilized two approaches. We have derived and tested two lines of mice that are congenic for 129-derived DNA within the minimal modifier interval and show that they are as susceptible to mammary tumors as are B6 mice. Additionally, we analyzed a backcross population segregating for the insertion and show that mice carrying the insertion are more resistant to mammary tumor development than are mice not carrying the insertion. Thus, the resistance is not due to a 129-derived modifier allele, but must be due to the ROSA26 insertion. In addition, the effect of the ROSA26 insertion can be detected in a backcross population segregating for other mammary modifiers. PMID:11471054

Kohlhepp, R L; Hegge, L F; Moser, A R

2001-08-01

305

Continued Astrometric Follow-up Of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the grant periods overlapped, some of this information below will also be present on the previous final report. During the period May 1 2004 to April 30 2005, approximately 100 NEOs fainter than V = 20 were observed on separate nights from the 1.2-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins. Additionally, a few comets were targeted, including astrometric support of the Deep Impact mission by observing comet P/Tempel 1. Kyle Smalley was again employed as an independent contractor, and he was trained in use of the telescope, performed several remote observing runs on his own, and has now begun critical software support of the observing program. Code to automatically operate the telescope, given a target list, is approximately 90% done. During the first observing run scheduled in late September or early October, this code will be tested at on the telescope. It is probable that the 1.2m telescope will be run automatically all night without any interruption from the observer for anything during this time. Additional work on selecting which NEO targets to observe is progressing, with a beta-release of a simple target selection web page. Additionally, two-night objects with the potential of being NEOs have been extracted on a routine basis during this last grant cycle. These will also be added to a web page to facilitate additional astrometric follow-up.

Spahr, Timothy; Johnson, Lindley (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

306

Astrometry of Near-Earth Objects Using Small Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, when a near-Earth object (NEO: any asteroid or comet approaching the terrestrial orbit about the Sun) is discovered, there is a distinct chance that it will be lost again due to the lack of suitable follow-up astrometry. The burgeoning international Spaceguard program — which has an aim of discovering and determining the orbits of all possible Earth-impactors so that calamitous collisions can be avoided-will make this problem more acute, as the discovery rate increases. When NEOs reach visual magnitudes brighter than 21, they may be observed with suitable CCD-equipped telescopes with apertures of one metre or less; in fact, even 0.25-m aperture instruments are now being employed to great effect in this regard. This means that in the present situation, countries or individuals having access to quite modest-sized and modest-priced equipment can make a real, valuable contribution to this international effort. When Spaceguard begins in earnest it will be vital that astronomers spread around the world, using small telescopes, take over the tracking of NEOs discovered by the large, expensive, search instruments. The Spaceguard project therefore represents an excellent opportunity for international collaboration, with scientists in developing nations being valuable contributors in a space program with real significance for all humankind. The authors are also with The Spaceguard Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Steel, D. I.; Marsden, B. G.

1996-01-01

307

Object oriented data analysis: Sets of trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object oriented data analysis is the statistical analysis of populations of complex objects. In the special case of functional data analysis, these data objects are curves, where standard Euclidean approaches, such as principal component analysis, have been very successful. Recent developments in medical image analysis motivate the statistical analysis of populations of more complex data objects which are elements of

Haonan Wang; J. S. Marron

2007-01-01

308

Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical astronomical surveying system - the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) client of the Pan-STARRS image processing pipeline is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) 300m in diameter and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. In developing its software, MOPS has created a synthetic solar system model (SSM) with over 10 million objects whose distributions of orbital characteristics matches those expected for objects that Pan-STARRS will observe. MOPS verifies its correct operation by simulating the survey and subsequent discovery of synthetically generated objects. MOPS also employs novel techniques in handling the computationally difficult problem of linking large numbers of unknown asteroids in a field of detections. We will describe the creation and verification of the Pan-STARRS MOPS SSM, demonstrate synthetic detections and observations by the MOPS, describe the MOPS asteroid linking techniques, describe accuracy and throughput of the entire MOPS system, and provide predictions regarding the numbers and kinds of objects, including as yet undiscovered "extreme objects", that the MOPS expects to find over its 10-year lifetime. Pan-STARRS is funded under a grant from the U.S. Air Force.

Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J.; Kubica, Jeremy; Pan-STARRS Team

2005-12-01

309

Synthesis, structural characterization, aromatic characteristics, and metalation of neo-confused porphyrins, a newly discovered class of porphyrin isomers.  

PubMed

Neo-confused porphyrins represent a unique family of porphyrin isomers that retain overall aromatic characteristics by virtue of a 17-atom 18? electron delocalization pathway. These porphyrin analogues have a pyrrolic subunit linked in a 1,3-fashion so that a nitrogen atom is directly connected to a meso-bridging carbon. Pyrrole-3-carbaldehydes were shown to react with sodium hydride and 5-acetoxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehydes in DMF to give the crucial neo-confused dipyrrolic dialdehyde intermediates. MacDonald "2 + 2" condensation of the dialdehydes with a dipyrrylmethane afforded a dihydroporphyrinoid, and subsequent oxidation with 0.2% aqueous ferric chloride generated a series of fully conjugated neo-confused porphyrins. Unusual dihydroporphyrin byproducts were also identified. Reaction of neo-confused porphyrins with nickel(II) or palladium(II) acetate in refluxing acetonitrile gave excellent yields of the corresponding organometallic derivatives. Proton NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the diatropic character of this system is diminished compared to regular porphyrins, although neo-confused porphyrins retain porphyrin-like UV-vis spectra. Protonation led to the sequential formation of mono- and dicationic species. Proton NMR spectra for the dications showed the presence of enhanced diamagnetic ring currents. PMID:24697282

Li, Ruoshi; Lammer, Aaron D; Ferrence, Gregory M; Lash, Timothy D

2014-05-01

310

Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.

McCauley, Joseph L.

2001-10-01

311

Teucvisins A-E, five new neo-clerodane diterpenes from Teucrium viscidum.  

PubMed

Two new neo-clerodane diterpenoids, teucvisins A and B (1, 2), and three new 19-nor-neoclerodane diterpenoids, teucvisins C-E (3-5), together with ten known constituents (6-15) were isolated from the whole plants of Teucrium viscidum. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that compounds 11 and 15 showed moderate inhibition with an IC50 value of 21.9 and 22.4?µM, respectively. PMID:24789929

Lv, Hua-wei; Luo, Jian-guang; Zhu, Meng-di; Shan, Si-ming; Kong, Ling-yi

2014-01-01

312

Piloted Missions to Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study has examined the feasibility of sending the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration and Exploration Systems Architecture Study in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade ( 2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program's Orion CEV capsule and Ares launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the Earth-Moon system and would help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting crewed exploration missions outside of low-Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years. Such a mission would not only provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration, but would also provide the capability to conduct an in-depth scientific investigation of a NEO. Essential physical and geochemical properties of these objects can best be determined from dedicated spacecraft. In addition, a crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques, and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) much more capably than a robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance any scientific return from this type of mission. Missions to NEOs would also have practical applications for resource utilization and planetary defense, two issues that will be relevant in the not-too-distant future as humanity begins to explore, understand, and utilize the solar system. These scientific and practical aspects, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture into deep space, make a mission to a NEO using Constellation systems a compelling prospect. This work is sponsored by NASA's Constellation Advanced Programs Office.

Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D.; Landis, R.; Jones, T.; Morrison, D.; Adamo, D.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.; Lu, E.

2007-10-01

313

Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

2011-01-01

314

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of carotid plaque neo-vascularization: accuracy of visual analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to evaluate whether neo-vascularization of the carotid plaque can be accurately assessed by visual analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasound images and whether these findings correlate with intensity-over-time curve analysis (ITC) and histopathology. Patients with ?50% symptomatic or ?60% asymptomatic stenosis according to European Carotid Surgery Trial criteria were included. Four investigators evaluated contrast enhancement visually (three grades), with positive agreement when three or more investigators were unanimous. ITC analysis of contrast enhancement was performed in the plaque and in the lumen. Histopathology (microvessel density with CD34 + staining) was completed when endarterectomy was performed. Visual grading (33 patients, inter-observer agreement = 94%) correlated significantly with ITC analysis (p = 0.03). Histopathology (n = 19) revealed a larger CD34 + area in patients with grade 1/2 versus grade 0 (p = 0.03). Visual analysis of neo-vascularization by means of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is accurate and reproducible, with significant correlations with ITC and histopathology. PMID:24139919

Müller, Hubertus Fritz Georg; Viaccoz, Aurélien; Kuzmanovic, Igor; Bonvin, Christophe; Burkhardt, Karim; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Sztajzel, Roman

2014-01-01

315

Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument.

Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

316

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.  

PubMed

Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

2013-08-15

317

The McDonaldization of childhood: children's mental health in neo-liberal market cultures.  

PubMed

As the failings of neo-liberalism have recently been revealed through the collapse of much of the banking and financial services sector, it seems an opportune time to think about the impact this economic, political, and social value system has had on the well-being of children. After analyzing how our beliefs and practices around children and families are shaped by a variety of economic, political, and cultural pressures, I discuss how policies that promote a particular form of aggressive capitalism lead to a narcissistic value system that permeates social institutions, including those that deal with children. Not only does this impact children's emotional well-being, but it also shapes the way we conceptualize children and their problems. These dynamics facilitate the rapid growth of child psychiatric diagnoses and the tendency to deal with aberrant behavior or emotions in children through technical--particularly pharmaceutical--interventions, a phenomenon I refer to as the 'McDonaldization' of children's mental health. The present article seeks to challenge many of the unhelpful cultural assumptions regarding childhood embedded within the narrow biomedical frame that neo-liberalism has encouraged. PMID:21088100

Timimi, Sami

2010-11-01

318

Oxygen Sensing Mesenchymal Progenitors Promote Neo-Vasculogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Despite insights into the molecular pathways regulating hypoxia-induced gene expression, it is not known which cell types accomplish oxygen sensing during neo-vasculogenesis. We have developed a humanized mouse model of endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor co-transplantation to delineate the cellular compartments responsible for hypoxia response during vasculogenesis. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) accumulated nuclear hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? earlier and more sensitively than endothelial colony forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxic ECFCs showed reduced function in vitro and underwent apoptosis within 24h in vivo when used without MSPCs. Surprisingly, only in MSPCs did pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HIF-1? abrogate neo-vasculogenesis. HIF deletion in ECFCs caused no effect. ECFCs could be rescued from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by HIF-competent MSPCs resulting in the formation of patent perfused human vessels. Several angiogenic factors need to act in concert to partially substitute mesenchymal HIF-deficiency. Results demonstrate that ECFCs require HIF-competent vessel wall progenitors to initiate vasculogenesis in vivo and to bypass hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We describe a novel mechanistic role of MSPCs as oxygen sensors promoting vasculogenesis thus underscoring their importance for the development of advanced cellular therapies.

Hofmann, Nicole A.; Ortner, Anna; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Reinisch, Andreas; Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohban, Rokhsareh; Etchart, Nathalie; Fruehwirth, Margareta; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Andreeff, Michael; Strunk, Dirk

2012-01-01

319

Generation and characterization of antibodies specific for caspase-cleaved neo-epitopes: a novel approach  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis research has been significantly aided by the generation of antibodies against caspase-cleaved peptide neo-epitopes. However, most of these antibodies recognize the N-terminal fragment and are specific for the protein in question. The aim of this project was to create antibodies, which could identify caspase-cleaved proteins without a priori knowledge of the cleavage sites or even the proteins themselves. We hypothesized that many caspase-cleavage products might have a common antigenic shape, given that they must all fit into the same active site of caspases. Rabbits were immunized with the eight most prevalent exposed C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences following caspase cleavage. After purification of the antibodies we demonstrated (1) their specificity for exposed C-terminal (but not internal) peptides, (2) their ability to detect known caspase-cleaved proteins from apoptotic cell lysates or supernatants from apoptotic cell culture and (3) their ability to detect a caspase-cleaved protein whose tetrapeptide sequence differs from the eight tetrapeptides used to generate the antibodies. These antibodies have the potential to identify novel neo-epitopes produced by caspase cleavage and so can be used to identify pathway-specific caspase cleavage events in a specific cell type. Additionally this methodology may be applied to generate antibodies against products of other proteases, which have a well-defined and non-promiscuous cleavage activity.

Ai, X; Butts, B; Vora, K; Li, W; Tache-Talmadge, C; Fridman, A; Mehmet, H

2011-01-01

320

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of Parkinson's disease related kinase PINK1  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal recessive form of early onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered since no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD related mutant PINK1G309D and PINK1wt. Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity.

Hertz, Nicholas T.; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Burlingame, Al L.; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M.

2014-01-01

321

Acantholactam and Pre-neo-kauluamine, Manzamine-Related Alkaloids from the Indonesian Marine Sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens.  

PubMed

Two new manzamine alkaloids, acantholactam (3) and pre-neo-kauluamine (4), were isolated from the marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens along with manzamine A (1) and neo-kauluamine (2). Acantholactam contains a ?-lactam ring N-substituted with a (Z)-2-hexenoic acid moiety and is proposed to be biosynthetically derived from manzamine A by oxidative cleavage of the eight-membered ring. Compound 4 was converted to the dimer 2 during storage, suggesting nonenzymatic dimer formation. Among the four isolated compounds, 1, 2, and 4 showed proteasome inhibitory activity. PMID:24902064

El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Eguchi, Keisuke; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Takeya, Motohiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

2014-06-27

322

Association of NEO personality domains and facets with presence, onset, and treatment outcomes of major depression in older adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the relationship of multiple domains and facets of the five factor model of personality with presence, onset, and severity of late life depression. Design Cross-sectional analysis of depression status, and age of onset. Retrospective analysis of baseline severity. Longitudinal analysis of severity after 3 and 12 months of psychiatric treatment. Setting: Private university-affiliated medical center in the Southeastern US. Participants One hundred twelve psychiatric patients with a current episode of unipolar major depression, and 104 nondepressed comparison subjects, ages 60 years and older (mean = 70, SD = 6). Measurements Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Results Binary logistic regression found that depression was related to higher neuroticism (and all its facets), and to lower extraversion (and facets of assertiveness, activity, and positive emotionality), and conscientiousness (and facets of competence, order, dutifulness, and self-discipline). Multinomial logistic regression found some of these relationships held only for depression with onset before age 50 (hostility, self-consciousness, extraversion, assertiveness, positive emotions, order, and dutifulness). Linear regression found that personality was unrelated to depression severity at the beginning of treatment, but improvement after 3 months was related to lower neuroticism (and facets depressiveness and stress-vulnerability) and higher warmth and competence. Improvement after 12 months was related to lower neuroticism, depressiveness, and stress-vulnerability. Conclusions Specific personality facets are related with depression and treatment outcomes. Screening for certain personality traits at the start of treatment may help identify patients at risk of worse response to treatment after 3 months.

Hayward, R. David; Taylor, Warren D.; Smoski, Moria J.; Steffens, David C.; Payne, Martha E.

2012-01-01

323

Purification, properties and cDNA cloning of neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), a hemolytic lethal factor from the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa venom.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous toxin with hemolytic and lethal activities, named neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), was purified from the venom fluid of stonefish Synanceia verrucosa and its primary structure was elucidated by a cDNA cloning technique. NeoVTX is a dimeric 166 kDa protein composed of alpha-subunit (702 amino acid residues) and beta-subunit (699 amino acid residues) and lacks carbohydrate moieties. Its hemolytic activity is inhibited by anionic lipids, especially potently by cardiolipin. These properties are comparable to those of stonustoxin (SNTX) previously purified from S. horrida. Alignment of the amino acid sequences also reveals that the neoVTX alpha- and beta-subunits share as high as 87 and 95% sequence identity with the SNTX alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively. The distinct differences between neoVTX and SNTX are recognized only in the numbers of Cys residues (18 for neoVTX and 15 for SNTX) and free thiol groups (10 for neoVTX and 5 for SNTX). In contrast, neoVTX considerably differs from verrucotoxin (VTX), a tetrameric 322 kDa glycoprotein, previously purified from S. verrucosa. In addition, the sequence identity of the neoVTX beta-subunit with the reported VTX beta-subunit is 90%, being lower than that with the SNTX beta-subunit. PMID:17023116

Ueda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Mika; Honma, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

2006-11-01

324

The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships with Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of "DSM-IV" anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder…

Rosellini, Anthony J.; Brown, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

325

Racism against the Mayan Population in Yucatan, Mexico: How Current Education Contradicts the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discriminatory situation suffered by the Maya population in the Mexican state of Yucatan is discussed using the concept of neo-racism. Statistical evidence about the school system is presented, along with testimonies of Mayan speakers which uncover a phenomena frequently denied or obliterated by politically correct speeches that actually serve…

Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos

2009-01-01

326

Stable isotope chemistry, population histories and Late Prehistoric subsistence change in the Aleutian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aleut population history has been a topic of debate since the earliest archaeological investigations in the region. In this paper, we use stable isotope chemistry to evaluate the hypothesis that two distinct groups of people, Paleo- and Neo-Aleut, occupied the eastern Aleutians after 1000BP. This study focuses on 80 sets of directly dated eastern Aleutian burial assemblages from Chaluka midden,

David A. Byers; David R. Yesner; Jack M. Broughton; Joan Brenner Coltrain

2011-01-01

327

Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the role of ideas and ideology in the mental policy design maps of regulators in the US and in India. The research approach is to describe the regulatory design process in the history of the US electric industry from a neo-institutional and developmental perspective. And then to use the insights of such a study to suggest policy options to a sample of Indian experts. A regulatory process model explores the interactions among normative values, regulatory instruments and historical phases in policy design. A spectrum of seven regulatory instruments--subsidized rates, average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, time-of-use pricing, ramsey pricing, incentive regulation and spot pricing is examined. A neo-institutional perspective characterizes the process of institutionalizing these regulatory instruments as a design process that infuses them with values beyond mere technical requirements. The process model includes normative values such as efficiency, fairness, free choice and political feasibility. These values arise from an analytical classification of various market metaphors debated in the history of economic thought. The theory of development and co-evolution applied to the history of electricity regulation yields a typology of evolutionary phases in the US. The typology describes hierarchically emergent relationships between supply and demand and among the normative values. The theory hypothesizes technologically contingent relationships between pricing policies and normative values in the historical phases of dependence (or rural), independence (or urban) and interdependence (or informational). The contents of this model are represented as related elements in a policy design map that simplifies the process of designing regulatory instruments in the US. This neo-institutional, developmental policy design map was used to design a survey instrument. The survey was conducted among electricity experts in India to test the hypothesized inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.

Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

328

Weakly nonlinear analysis of viscous instability in flow past a neo-Hookean surface.  

PubMed

We analyze the stability of the plane Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid past an incompressible deformable solid in the creeping flow limit where the viscous stresses in the fluid (of the order eta_{f}VR ) are comparable with the elastic stresses in the solid (of the order G ). Here, eta_{f} is the fluid viscosity, V is the top-plate velocity, R is the channel width, and G is the shear modulus of the elastic solid. For (eta_{f}VGR)=O(1) , the flexible solid undergoes finite deformations and is, therefore, appropriately modeled as a neo-Hookean solid of finite thickness which is grafted to a rigid plate at the bottom. Both linear as well as weakly nonlinear stability analyses are carried out to investigate the viscous instability and the effect of nonlinear rheology of solid on the instability. Previous linear stability studies have predicted an instability as the dimensionless shear rate Gamma=(eta_{f}VGR) is increased beyond the critical value Gamma_{c} . The role of viscous dissipation in the solid medium on the stability behavior is examined. The effect of solid-to-fluid viscosity ratio eta_{r} on the critical shear rate Gamma_{c} for the neo-Hookean model is very different from that for the linear viscoelastic model. Whereas the linear elastic model predicts that there is no instability for Hneo-Hookean model predicts an instability for all values of eta_{r} and H . The value of Gamma_{c} increases upon increasing eta_{r} from zero up to sqrt[eta_{r}]H approximately 1 , at which point the value of Gamma_{c} attains a peak and any further increase in eta_{r} results in a decrease in Gamma_{c} . The weakly nonlinear analysis indicated that the bifurcation is subcritical for most values of H when eta_{r}=0 . However, upon increasing eta_{r} , there is a crossover from subcritical to supercritical bifurcation for sqrt[eta_{r}]H approximately 1 . Another crossover is observed as the bifurcation again becomes subcritical at large values of eta_{r} . A plot in H versus sqrt[eta_{r}]H space is constructed to mark the regions where the bifurcation is subcritical and supercritical. The equilibrium amplitude and some physical quantities of interest, such as the total strain energy of the disturbance in the solid, have been calculated, and the effect of parameters H , eta_{r} , and interfacial tension on these quantities are analyzed. PMID:18643157

Chokshi, Paresh; Kumaran, V

2008-05-01

329

Teachers' Collective Actions, Alliances and Resistance within Neo-Liberal Ideas of Education: The Example of the Individual Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The education system in Sweden has taken a strong neo-liberal turn over the past 15 years. This article uses ethnographic research from an Individual Programme (IP) in a Swedish upper secondary school to explore how alliances, collective actions and resistance can be materialised within the changed system. According to the author, the teachers in…

Dovemark, Marianne

2010-01-01

330

Germany's National Socialism and America's "New Left": A Comparative Study of Two-Neo-Romantic Political Movements and Their Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neo-Romantic aspects of Hitler's National Socialism Movement in Germany and the New Left movement in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s are detailed in this paper. Following a discussion of fundamental concepts, the paper analyzes the Romantic bases of the two movements, including their use of nonverbal symbols; their views on morality,…

Casmir, Fred L.

331

Insect abundance and colonization rate in Fontinalis neo-mexicana (Bryophyta) in an Idaho Batholith stream, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect colonization rate and abundance in the aquatic moss, Fontinalis neo-mexicana were examined in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, June 1978–August 1979 to determine the importance of moss as a habitat for insects. The insect communities in moss as well as in the underlying and adjacent mineral substrates were examined. Insects were sampled with a nylon organdy net in

M. A. Maurer; M. A. Brusven

1983-01-01

332

Teachers' Reflections on the Perceptions of Oppression and Liberation in Neo-Marxist Critical Pedagogies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical pedagogy speaks of teachers as liberating and transformative intellectuals. Yet their voice is absent from its discourse.The emancipatory action research, described in this article, created a dialogue between teachers and the ideas concerning oppression and liberation found in Neo-Marxist pedagogies. It strongly suggests that teachers can…

Yaakoby, Tova

2013-01-01

333

X: a case study of a Swedish neo-nazi and his reintegration into Swedish society.  

PubMed

This article provides a case study of a Swedish neo-Nazi and the reintegration program being provided to him. During an extensive interview that took place over two days, he told a researcher that he was interested in having a violent adventure, and that he was drawn to Nazi symbols and history more than their creed. In comparison with ordinary crime, terrorist crime is quite rare, and access to detailed case studies is rarer still, making the development of a prospective risk-assessment instrument extremely difficult. Researchers' "thick descriptions" of their encounters with terrorists can help us to develop putative risk factors which can then be tested against controls. The article concludes by arguing that just as there is no single pathway into or out of terrorism, there can be no single reintegration program. A series of thick descriptions is a first step toward understanding what leads individuals into and out of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24711284

Stern, Jessica Eve

2014-05-01

334

Neo-Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments: a Comparison over the Italian Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of seismic hazard obtained using the neo-deterministic approach (NDSHA) and the probabilistic approach (PSHA) are compared for the Italian territory. The NDSHA provides values larger than those given by the PSHA in areas where large earthquakes are observed and in areas identified as prone to large earthquakes, but lower values in low-seismicity areas. These differences suggest the adoption of the flexible, robust and physically sound NDSHA approach to overcome the proven shortcomings of PSHA, thus allowing for a reliable seismic hazard estimation, especially for those areas characterized by a prolonged quiescence, i.e. in tectonically active sites where events of only moderate size have occurred in historical times.

Zuccolo, E.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.

2011-01-01

335

Community psychology and transformative policy change in the neo-liberal era.  

PubMed

I present ideas about how community psychologists, as researcher-activists, can influence public policy. I begin by describing the current neo-liberal era, noting the immense obstacles it poses to progressive policy change. Next I contrast two approaches to understanding policy formation, evidence-based policy and discursive policy analysis, and argue that transformative policy change can benefit from both approaches. I then propose three types of policy outcomes that community psychology research and activism should aim to promote: (a) shaping problem definition, (b) controlling channels for debate and participation, and (c) allocating resources. I use examples from community psychologists' involvement in policy, mostly in Canada, to illustrate how such policy change can be both achieved and constrained. I conclude by discussing implications for theory and practice related to policy change. PMID:23877840

Nelson, Geoffrey

2013-12-01

336

Peroxynitrite induced structural changes result in the generation of neo-epitopes on human serum albumin.  

PubMed

Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein, is quite vulnerable to oxidizing and nitrating agents. In this study, peroxynitrite induced nitration and oxidation of HSA was assessed by various physicochemical techniques. Cross-linking of HSA was evident on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The carbonyl content was markedly elevated in peroxynitrite-modified HSA as compared to the native protein. Dityrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine were present only in peroxynitrite-modified HSA. The peroxynitrite-modified HSA induced high titre antibodies in experimental animals showing high specificity towards the immunogen. Spectroscopic studies showed structural alterations in the HSA molecule upon peroxynitrite treatment which result in the generation of neo-epitopes and enhanced immunogenicity. The possible role of damaged HSA in various diseases has been suggested. PMID:23643627

Ahmad, Parvez; Moinuddin; Ali, Asif

2013-08-01

337

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction.  

SciTech Connect

In his 1960 paper Man-Machine Symbiosis, Licklider predicted that human brains and computing machines will be coupled in a tight partnership that will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. Today we are on the threshold of resurrecting the vision of symbiosis. While Licklider’s original vision suggested a co-equal relationship, here we discuss an updated vision, neo-symbiosis, in which the human holds a superordinate position in an intelligent human-computer collaborative environment. This paper was originally published as a journal article and is being published as a chapter in an upcoming book series, Advances in Novel Approaches in Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2008-12-01

338

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

339

Comet\\/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS): a Space-Based System Concept for Revolutionizing Earth Protection and Utilization of Near Earth-Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists an infrequent, but significant hazard to life and property due to impacting asteroids and comets. Earth approaching asteroids and comets are collectively termed NEOs (near-Earth objects). The goal of current search efforts is to catalog and characterize by 2008 the orbits of 90% of the estimated 1200 near-Earth asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter. Impacts can also

Daniel D. Mazanek; Carlos M. Roithmayr; Jeffrey Antol

2002-01-01

340

World Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access and visualize world population data using the user friendly MyWorld GIS software. Data includes total population, population density, projected population, male and female population, and age specific population, etc.

This starting point example compiled by R.M. MacKay. utilizes the MyWorld (more info) Geographic Information System (GIS) software created at Norhtwestern University.

341

Population Connection: Population Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Population Connection "is the national grassroots population organization that educates young people and advocates progressive action to stabilize world population at a level that can be sustained by Earth's resources." The Population Connection's Education Program develops "age-appropriate curricula to complement students' science and social science instruction about human population trends and their impacts on natural resources, environmental quality and human well-being." The Population Education website offers a variety of educational resources including downloadable classroom activities and readings, and newsletters for teachers and students. The site also provides information about professional development opportunities for educators and free population education workshops held at universities for pre-service teachers and graduate students.

342

Dynamics of asteroids and near-Earth objects from Gaia astrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia is an astrometric mission that will be launched in spring 2013. There are many scientific outcomes from this mission and as far as our Solar System is concerned, the satellite will be able to map thousands of main belt asteroids (MBAs) and near-Earth objects (NEOs) down to magnitude ?20. The high precision astrometry (0.3-5 mas of accuracy) will allow orbital improvement, mass determination, and a better accuracy in the prediction and ephemerides of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). We give in this paper some simulation tests to analyse the impact of Gaia data on known asteroids's orbit, and their value for the analysis of NEOs through the example of asteroid (99942) Apophis. We then present the need for a follow-up network for newly discovered asteroids by Gaia, insisting on the synergy of ground and space data for the orbital improvement.

Bancelin, D.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

2012-12-01

343

[Cancer of the maxillary antrum--a new multidisciplinary treatment containing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy].  

PubMed

During the period 1957-1982, 227 patients with maxillary carcinoma were treated. These cases were divided into 4 groups according to periods and methods of treatment. Five-year determinate survival figures for each group are as follows: I (1957-1966) 22%, 20/91, II (1967-1973) 40%, 27/67, III (1974-1978) 37%, 13/35, IV (1979-1982) 56%, 9/16 (3-year survival). The incorporation of intraarterial chemotherapy into the treatment of maxillary carcinoma has much contributed to an improvement of 5-year survival. Since 1982, a new multidisciplinary treatment containing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has been introduced into the treatment of this type of carcinoma. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy: day 1, cisplatin ( CPDD ) 50 mg/m2 or 80 mg/body i.a. over 2 hr., day 2-6, peplomycin (PEP) 5 mg/day i.a. over 5 hr. Two courses of chemotherapy were given with an interval of 2 weeks. Radiotherapy combined with intraarterial chemotherapy: Linac. 40 Gy/4 wks., 5-FU i.a. 250 mg/day q.d. (for 10 days). When no cancer cells were detected at the completion of this therapy, adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy was given. When an apparent tumor was still revealed by CT, radical surgery was performed. When cancer cells were detected only by histological examination, additional radiotherapy up to 60 Gy was given by Linac. The results obtained were analysed in 9 patients who completed this therapy. At the completion of CPDD and PEP treatment, complete response was achieved in 5 cases and partial response in 3 cases with a response rate of 89%. In 2 out of the 9 cases, no cancer cells were detected by histological examination after chemotherapy. No cancer cells were detected in 2 other cases after 40 Gy by Linac. combined with 5-FU i.a. infusion, and in 3 other cases after 60 Gy by Linac. combined with 5-FU. Two patients had radical surgery because of uncontrolled tumors. Periods of follow-up are too short, but it is expected that this new multidisciplinary treatment results in the higher survival. PMID:6203487

Inuyama, Y; Fujii, M; Tnaka, J; Takaoka, T; Hosoda, H; Kohno, N

1984-06-01

344

Foxp3+ CD25+ regulatory T cells specific for a neo-self-antigen develop at the double-positive thymic stage  

PubMed Central

Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing CD4, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3 play major roles in preventing autoimmunity. The Treg population is enriched in T cells expressing high-avidity self-reactive T cell receptors, and thymic epithelial cells expressing self-antigens (Ag) have been implicated in their induction and/or selection. However, the thymic selection events leading to Treg lineage commitment remain unclear. We followed the thymic development of self-Ag-specific Tregs in double-transgenic mice coexpressing a neo-self-Ag, hemagglutinin (HA) under the control of a neural tissue-specific promoter, and a transgenic class II-restricted T cell antigen receptor specific for HA111-119. Our data show that the promiscuous expression of the HA transgene in thymic epithelial cells is involved in the selective induction and/or expansion of HA-specific Foxp3+ Treg thymic precursors as early as the double-positive stage.

Cabarrocas, Julie; Cassan, Cecile; Magnusson, Fay; Piaggio, Eliane; Mars, Lennart; Derbinski, Jens; Kyewski, Bruno; Gross, David-Alexandre; Salomon, Benoit L.; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Liblau, Roland S.

2006-01-01

345

The sockeye salmon neo-Y chromosome is a fusion between linkage groups orthologous to the coho Y chromosome and the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 2.  

PubMed

Unlike other Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) have an X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system, with females having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 58 and males 2n = 57 in all populations examined. To determine the origin of the sockeye Y chromosome, we mapped microsatellite loci from the rainbow trout (O. mykiss; OMY) genetic map, including those found on the Y chromosomes of related species, in kokanee (i.e. non-anadromous sockeye) crosses. Results showed that 3 microsatellite loci from the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 8 (OMY8q), linked to SEX (the sex-determining locus) in coho salmon (O. kisutch), are also closely linked to SEX in the kokanee crosses. We also found that 3 microsatellite loci from OMY2q are linked to those markers from OMY8q and SEX in kokanee, with both linkage groups fused to form the neo-Y. These results were confirmed by physical mapping of BAC clones containing microsatellite loci from OMY8q and OMY2q to kokanee chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The fusion of OMY2q to the ancestral Y may have resolved sexual conflict and, in turn, may have played a large role in the divergence of sockeye from a shared ancestor with coho. PMID:22188666

Faber-Hammond, J; Phillips, R B; Park, L K

2012-01-01

346

Human Services Goals and Objectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Goals and objectives for human services are described which may serve as criteria for the implementation of a more efficient and effective human service delivery system in McLean County, Illinois. The socioeconomic composition of the population in McLean ...

1976-01-01

347

NeoCASS: An integrated tool for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and MDO at conceptual design level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design framework called NeoCASS (Next generation Conceptual Aero-Structural Sizing Suite), developed at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Politecnico di Milano in the frame of SimSAC (Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design) project, funded by EU in the context of 6th Framework Program. It enables the creation of efficient low-order, medium

Luca Cavagna; Sergio Ricci; Lorenzo Travaglini

348

Purification, properties and cDNA cloning of neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), a hemolytic lethal factor from the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa venom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proteinaceous toxin with hemolytic and lethal activities, named neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), was purified from the venom fluid of stonefish Synanceia verrucosa and its primary structure was elucidated by a cDNA cloning technique. NeoVTX is a dimeric 166 kDa protein composed of ?-subunit (702 amino acid residues) and ?-subunit (699 amino acid residues) and lacks carbohydrate moieties. Its hemolytic activity is inhibited

Atsushi Ueda; Mika Suzuki; Tomohiro Honma; Hiroshi Nagai; Yuji Nagashima; Kazuo Shiomi

2006-01-01

349

Put' against Logos : The critique of Kant and neo-Kantianism by Russian religious philosophers in the beginning of the twentieth century  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the turn of the 20th century Russian philosophical thought acquired new vitality through a polemical encounter with German neo-Kantianism. The central issue of the polemic concemed the nature of philosophy. The group of Russian thinkers gathered around Put' publishing house developed a new realist approach, while contesting the reduction of philosophy to methodology actually effected by German neo-Kantians. Confronting

Michael A. Meerson

1995-01-01

350

Nonlinear dynamics and neo-piagetian theories in problem solving: perspectives on a new epistemology and theory development.  

PubMed

In this study, an attempt is made to integrate Nonlinear Dynamical Systems theory and neo-Piagetian theories applied to creative mental processes, such as problem solving. A catastrophe theory model is proposed, which implements three neo-Piagetian constructs as controls: the functional M-capacity as asymmetry and logical thinking and the degree of field dependence independence as bifurcation. Data from achievement scores of students in tenth grade physics were analyzed using dynamic difference equations and statistical regression techniques. The cusp catastrophe model proved superior comparing to the pre-post linear counterpart and demonstrated nonlinearity at the behavioral level. The nonlinear phenomenology, such as hysteresis effects and bifurcation, is explained by an analysis, which provides a causal interpretation via the mathematical theory of self-organization and thus building bridges between NDS-theory concepts and neo-Piagetian theories. The contribution to theory building is made, by also addressing the emerging philosophical, - ontological and epistemological- questions about the processes of problem solving and creativity. PMID:21382259

Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

2011-04-01

351

Identification of an Effective Early Signaling Signature during Neo-Vasculogenesis In Vivo by Ex Vivo Proteomic Profiling  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic neo-vasculogenesis in vivo can be achieved by the co-transplantation of human endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs). The underlying mechanism is not completely understood thus hampering the development of novel stem cell therapies. We hypothesized that proteomic profiling could be used to retrieve the in vivo signaling signature during the initial phase of human neo-vasculogenesis. ECFCs and MSPCs were therefore either transplanted alone or co-transplanted subcutaneously into immune deficient mice. Early cell signaling, occurring within the first 24 hours in vivo, was analyzed using antibody microarray proteomic profiling. Vessel formation and persistence were verified in parallel transplants for up to 24 weeks. Proteomic analysis revealed significant alteration of regulatory components including caspases, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, DNA protein kinase, human ErbB2 receptor-tyrosine kinase as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases. Caspase-4 was selected from array results as one therapeutic candidate for targeting vascular network formation in vitro as well as modulating therapeutic vasculogenesis in vivo. As a proof-of-principle, caspase-4 and general caspase-blocking led to diminished endothelial network formation in vitro and significantly decreased vasculogenesis in vivo. Proteomic profiling ex vivo thus unraveled a signaling signature which can be used for target selection to modulate neo-vasculogenesis in vivo.

Rohban, Rokhsareh; Reinisch, Andreas; Etchart, Nathalie; Schallmoser, Katharina; Hofmann, Nicole A.; Szoke, Krisztina; Brinchmann, Jan E.; Rad, Ehsan Bonyadi; Rohde, Eva; Strunk, Dirk

2013-01-01

352

Supplementation of methionine enhanced the ergothioneine accumulation in the Ganoderma neo-japonicum mycelia.  

PubMed

The methods for increasing the production of ergothioneine (ERG) were investigated by using the mycelial culture of several mushroom species, primarily Ganoderma neo-japonicum. We first found that ERG was accumulated at the different levels in mycelia and fruiting bodies, respectively, depending on the mushroom species. As a result of adding various amino acids to the mycelial culture medium, methionine (Met) was shown to be the most effective additive. The most preferable condition of the additive was the combination of 4 mM Met and 1 g/l of yeast extract, and the maximum ERG production reached approximately 1.7 mg/l, which corresponds to 2.4 times (0.7 mg/l) that in the basal medium without Met. Although the supplementation of Met enhanced the ERG production, the mycelial growth was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the analysis of amino acids in the culture medium revealed that the Met additive reduced the consumption rates of most amino acids tested, probably due to the decrease in mycelial growth. Taking these results into consideration, we suggest that the addition of Met to the mycelial culture medium is an efficient way to enhance the ERG production in economically important mushroom species. PMID:18688580

Lee, Wi Young; Park, Eung-Jun; Ahn, Jin Kwon

2009-07-01

353

Inferring compositional style in the neo-plastic paintings of Piet Mondrian by machine learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We trained generative models and decision tree classifiers with positive and negative examples of the neo-plastic works of Piet Mondrian to infer his compositional principles, to generate "faux" works, and to explore the possibility of computer-based aids in authentication and attribution studies. Unlike previous computer work on this and other artists, we used "earlier state" works-intermediate versions of works created by Mondrian revealed through x-radiography and infra-red reflectography-when training our classifiers. Such intermediate state works provide a great deal of information to a classifier as they differ only slightly from the final works. We used methods from machine learning such as leave-one-out cross validation. Our decision tree classifier had accuracy of roughly 70% in recognizing the genuine works of Mondrian versus computer-generated replicas with similar statistical properties. Our trained classifier reveals implicit compositional principles underlying Mondrian's works, for instance the relative visual "weights" of the four colors (red, yellow, blue and black) he used in his rectangles. We used our trained generative model to generate "faux" Mondrians, which informally possess some of the compositional attributes of genuine works by this artist.

Andrzejewski, David; Stork, David G.; Zhu, Xiaojin; Spronk, Ron

2010-02-01

354

Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 ? y ~3 ? por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

355

Crustal deformation in eastern Betics from CuaTeNeo GPS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Betic Cordillera, Spain, is the most seismically active area within the Iberian Peninsula. We present a Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived horizontal crustal deformation obtained from five occupations of the CuaTeNeo GPS network (1997, 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2011) that clearly shows continuing tectonic activity in the SE Betics. The most prominent feature of the GPS velocity field is the NW oriented motion of the majority of the stations at rates ranging from 2 mm/yr near the coast to 0.5 mm/yr inland. This type of deformation indicates that the main driving force responsible for the observed velocities is related to the on-going convergence between Nubia and Eurasia plates. The calculated deformation field shows evidence for localized deformation related to active faults within the area. Most of the deformation is concentrated on the Alhama de Murcia fault, the source of the 2011 Lorca earthquake (Mw 5.2). We estimate a reverse-sinistral geodetic slip rate of 1.5 ± 0.3 mm/yr for this fault. Our crustal deformation field and analyses are important contributions to estimating seismic hazard for the eastern Betics, since it is the first time crustal deformation rates at this scale are presented.

Echeverria, Anna; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva; Gárate, Jorge; Dávila, José Martín; Suriñach, Emma

2013-11-01

356

Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing ?-Aminobutyric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

Shiraki, Yoshiya

357

Oligomeric Dop1p is part of the endosomal Neo1p-Ysl2p-Arl1p membrane remodeling complex.  

PubMed

Yeast Dop1p is an essential protein that is highly conserved in evolution and whose function is largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Dop1p localizes to endosomes and exists in a complex with two other conserved proteins: Neo1p, a P(4)-ATPase and putative flippase, and the scaffolding protein Ysl2p/Mon2p. The latter operates during membrane budding at the tubular endosomal network/trans-Golgi network (TEN/TGN) in a process that includes clathrin recruitment via adaptor proteins. Consistent with a role for Dop1p during this process, temperature-sensitive dop1-3 cells accumulate multivesicular, elongated tubular and ring-like structures similar to those displayed by neo1 and ysl2 mutants. In further agreement with the concept of Dop1p-Neo1p-Ysl2p complex formation and co-operation, we show that dop1-3 cells exhibit reduced levels of Neo1p and Ysl2p at steady state. Conversely, mutations or deletions in NEO1 and YSL2 lead to a decrease in Dop1p levels. In addition to binding to Neo1p and Ysl2p, Dop1p can form dimers or multimers. A critical region for dimerization resides in the C-terminus with leucine zipper-like domains. Dop1p's membrane association is largely mediated by its internal region, but Ysl2p might not be crucial for membrane recruitment. PMID:20477991

Barbosa, Sónia; Pratte, Dagmar; Schwarz, Heinz; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Singer-Krüger, Birgit

2010-08-01

358

Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY 2002 a team of engineers and scientists at MSFC conducted a preliminary investigation of the options for deflecting a Near Earth Object (NEO) fiom a collision course with the earth. A general discussion of the current threat facing the earth from NEO s is outlined. A suite of tools were developed to model inbound and outbound trajectories, propulsive options, and assessment of threat. Propulsive options considered included; staged chemical, nuclear ablation and deflagration, mass driver and solar sail concepts. Trajectory tools plotted the outbound course to intercept the NE0 and the deflection requirements to cause the inbound NE0 to miss the earth. Threat assessment tools estimated the number of lives saved over a given time frame by deploying a system capable of deflecting an NE0 of a certain size and velocity. All of these tools were integrated into a routine to find the most effective vehicle for a given mission mass and mission time. Discussion of desired future efforts is given. This work was funded under the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts activity from NASA HQ.

Adams, Robert B.; Alexander, Reginald; Bonometti, Joseph; Chapman, Jack; Fincher, Sharon; Hopkins, Randall; Kalkstein, Matthew; Philips, Al; Polsgrove, Tara; Statham, Geoffrey

2002-01-01

359

MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small hoppers (MINERVA type, JAXA) and SIFNOS. The latter, if added, will perform a soft landing, anchor to the target surface, and make various in situ measurements of surface/subsurface materials near the sampling site. Two surface samples will be collected by the MSC using “touch and go” manoeuvres. Two complementary sample collection devices will be used in this phase: one developed by ESA and another provided by JAXA, mounted on a retractable extension arm. After the completion of the sampling and ascent of the MSC, the arm will be retracted to transfer the sample containers into the MSC. The MSC will then make its journey back to Earth and release the re-entry capsule into the Earth’s atmosphere.

Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

2009-03-01

360

Learning Object Repositories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

Lehman, Rosemary

2007-01-01

361

Objects of attention, objects of perception.  

PubMed

Four experiments were conducted, to explore the notion of objects in perception. Taking as a starting point the effects of display content on rapid attention transfer and manipulating curvature, closure, and processing time, a link between objects of attention and objects of perception is proposed. In Experiment 1, a number of parallel, equally spaced, straight lines facilitated attention transfer along the lines, relative to transfer across the lines. In Experiment 2, with curved, closed-contour shapes, no "same-object" facilitation was observed. However, when a longer time interval was provided, in Experiment 3, a same-object advantage started to emerge. In Experiment 4, using the same curved shapes but in a non-speeded distance estimation task, a strong effect of objects was observed. It is argued that attention transfer is facilitated by line tracing but that line tracing is encouraged by objects. PMID:10598473

Avrahami, J

1999-11-01

362

Object locating system  

DOEpatents

A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

1998-06-09

363

Replacement of Imu-Cmu intron by NeoR gene alters Imu germ-line expression but has no effect on V(D)J recombination.  

PubMed

The NeoR gene has often been used to unravel the mechanisms underlying long-range interactions between promoters and enhancers during V(D)J assembly and class switch recombination (CSR) in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. This approach led to the notion that CSR is regulated through competition of germ-line (GL) promoters for activities displayed by the 3' regulatory region (3'RR). This polarized long-range effect of the 3'RR is disturbed upon insertion of NeoR gene in the IgH constant (C(H)) region, where only GL transcription derived from upstream GL promoters is impaired. In the context of V(D)J recombination, replacement of Emu enhancer or Emu core enhancer (cEmu) by NeoR gene fully blocked V(D)J recombination and mu0 GL transcription which originates 5' of DQ52 and severely diminished Imu GL transcription derived from Emu/Imu promoter, suggesting a critical role for cEmu in the regulation of V(D)J recombination and of mu0 and Imu expression. Here we focus on the effect of NeoR gene on mu0 and Imu GL transcription in a mouse line in which the Imu-Cmu intron was replaced by a NeoR gene in the sense-orientation. B cell development was characterized by a marked but incomplete block at the pro-B cell stage. However, V(D)J recombination was unaffected in sorted pro-B and pre-B cells excluding an interference with the accessibility control function of Emu. mu0 GL transcription initiation was relatively normal but the maturation step seemed to be affected most likely through premature termination at NeoR polyadenylation sites. In contrast, Imu transcription initiation was impaired suggesting an interference of NeoR gene with the IgH enhancers that control Imu expression. Surprisingly, in stark contrast with the NeoR effect in the C(H) region, LPS-induced NeoR expression restored Imu transcript levels to normal. The data suggest that Emu enhancer may be the master control element that counteracts the down-regulatory "Neo effect" on Imu expression upon LPS stimulation. More importantly, they reveal a complex and developmentally regulated interplay between IgH enhancers in the control of Imu expression. PMID:20036775

Haddad, Dania; Dougier, Hei-Lanne; Laviolette, Nathalie; Puget, Nadine; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

2010-02-01

364

Object locating system  

DOEpatents

A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Petterson, Ben (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-06-09

365

Eo-Ulrichian to Neo-Ulrichian views: The renaissance of "layer-cake stratigraphy"  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Classical notions of "layer-cake stratigraphy" have been denigrated as representing an antiquated "Neptunian" view of the geologic record with the American paleontologist-stratigrapher E.O. Ulrich vilified as its quintessential advocate. Some of the extreme "layer-cake" interpretations of E.O. Ulrich are demonstrably incorrect, especially where applied in marginal marine and terrestrial settings. However, close scrutiny of Ulrich's work suggests that the bulk was correct and demonstrated considerable insight for the time. Subsequent development of facies concepts revolutionized geologists' view of time-space relationships in stratigraphy, but rather than focusing on facies patterns within the established stratigraphic (layer-cake) frameworks many geologists in North America came to view strata as parts of diachronous facies mosaics. Recent advances in the development of event and sequence stratigraphic paradigms are beginning to swing the pendulum back the other way. Possible causes of "layer-cake" patterns are numerous and varied, including: (1) parallelism of depositional strike and outcrop belts, especially in foreland basins, (2) very widespread environmental belts developed in low-relief cratonic areas, (3) time-averaging homogenizes facies to a limited extent, resulting in a very subtle signature of lateral change, (4) condensed beds (hardgrounds, bone beds, ironstones, etc.) often form in responses to extrabasinal forces, thus they cross-cut facies, and (5) large events (i.e. hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, eruptions, etc.) are "over represented" in the rock record. A revised ("Neo-Ulrichian") layer-cake paradigm carries many of the original correct empirical observations of pattern, noted by Ulrich, recast in terms of event and sequence stratigraphy.

Brett, C. E.; McLaughlin, P. I.; Baird, G. C.

2007-01-01

366

Protective effect and mechanism of stronger neo-minophagen C against fulminant hepatic failure  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of stronger neo-minophafen C (SNMC) on fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: A mouse model of FHF was established by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (D-Gal N) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The survival rate, liver function, inflammatory factor and liver pathological change were obtained with and without SNMC treatment. Hepatocyte survival was estimated by observing the stained mitochondria structure with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate fluorescence nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and antibodies against cytochrome C (Cyt-C) and caspase-3. RESULTS: The levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO), ET-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the degree of hepatic tissue injury were decreased in the SNMC-treated groups compared with those in the model group (P < 0.01). However, there were no differences after different dosages administered at different time points. There was a significant difference in survival rates between the SNMC-treated groups and the model group (P < 0.01). The apoptosis index was 32.3% at 6 h after a low dose of SNMC, which was considerably decreased from 32.3% ± 4.7% vs 5% ± 2.83% (P < 0.05) to 5% on d 7. The expression of Cyt-C and caspase-3 decreased with the prolongation of therapeutic time. Typical hepatocyte apoptosis was obviously ameliorated under electron microscope with the prolongation of therapeutic time. CONCLUSION: SNMC can effectively protect liver against FHF induced by LPS/D-Gal N. SNMC can prevent hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting inflammatory reaction and stabilizing mitochondria membrane to suppress the release of Cyt-C and sequent activation of caspase-3.

Yang, Bao-Shan; Ma, Ying-Ji; Wang, Yan; Chen, Li-Yan; Bi, Man-Ru; Yan, Bing-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Fu-Xiang

2007-01-01

367

Rapid turnover of the W chromosome in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed

Our previous studies revealed a considerably high level of chromosomal polymorphism in wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Geographical populations of this species complex differ in chromosome numbers and show derived sex chromosome systems including Z0/ZZ in S. cynthia ricini (2n?=?27/28; Vietnam), neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z in S. cynthia walkeri (2n?=?26/26; Sapporo, Hokkaido) and neo-WZ1Z2/Z1Z1Z2Z2 in S. cynthia subsp. indet. (2n?=?25/26; Nagano, Honshu). In this study, we collected specimens of S. cynthia pryeri in Japanese islands Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, with an ancestral-like karyotype of 2n?=?28 in both sexes and a WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, except for one population, in which females have lost the W chromosome. However, the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome showed a very unusual morphology: It was composed of a highly heterochromatic body, which remained condensed throughout the whole cell cycle and of a euchromatin-like "tail." We examined molecular composition of the W and neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia subspecies by comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with W chromosome painting probes prepared from laser-microdissected W chromatin of S. cynthia pryeri. These methods revealed that the molecular composition of highly heterochromatic part of the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome is very different and lacks homology in the genomes of other subspecies, whereas the euchromatin-like part of the W chromosome corresponds to a heterochromatic part of the neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia walkeri and S. cynthia subsp. indet. Our findings suggest that the curious WZ system of S. cynthia pryeri may represent an ancestral state of the Samia species complex but do not exclude an alternative hypothesis of its derived origin. PMID:23515983

Yoshido, Atsuo; Síchová, Jindra; Kubí?ková, Svatava; Marec, František; Sahara, Ken

2013-04-01

368

The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

Poetter, Thomas S.

2006-01-01

369

Selecting a Reference Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

2011-01-01

370

How Is Lower Crust Modified As A Neo-Rift Becomes A Paleo-Rift and Part Of The Craton?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (SOA), at the southern end of Laurentia (present coordinates), if behaving as neo-rifts, such as the Rio Grande Rift, presumably possessed a rift structure in the Cambrian with a continental thickness of about 28km. Seismic data, though sparse, suggest a present thickness of the SOA is about 45km, indistinguishable from adjacent rifted Proterozoic crust. By what process do we add 15km to the original SOA crust: underplating, eclogite-gabbro transformation, or deformation? This question has bearing on how we understand and interpret all paleo-rifts now a part of continental cores. Geology of the southern Midcontinent of North America does not show evidence of significant thermal events in the Phanerozoic. This effectively rules out underplating and phase transformation as a cause of change in M-discontinuity depth. Present SOA outcrops are in the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma, part of the easternmost Ancestral Rockies. These outcrops are in the Wichita-Amarillo crustal block uplifted about 7km in the Pennsylvanian. The Anadarko Basin to the north went down about 7km. Large Pennsylvanian thrust faults in the upper brittle crust are documented. Thus it appears that compressive deformation may be able to account for the change in crustal thickness from neo-rift type to paleo-rift and craton type. However, the accommodation made in the lower crust may be more dramatic than deformation in the upper crust because shortening, and thickening of the order of 2X, is probably required. Comparisons with other paleo-rifts in North America, such as the Middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift and the NeoProterozoic Reelfoot Rift, show that their crustal thicknesses now also match their previously rifted margins. Can the same sequence, as seems to be the case with the SOA, apply to other paleo-rifts?

Gilbert, M. C.

2004-12-01

371

Herbig-Haro Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) spectra of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and their relation to the very detailed optical spectra available for these objects are studied. Useful information about the physics of HH objects in general and especially ...

K. H. Boehm

1990-01-01

372

Shared Object Hierarchy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the design and proposed implementation of a shared object hierarchy. The object hierarchy is stored in a relational database and objects referenced by an application program are cached in the program's address space. The paper describ...

L. A. Rowe

1987-01-01

373

Expression profiling of osteosarcoma cells transfected with MDR1 and NEO genes: regulation of cell adhesion, apoptosis, and tumor suppression-related genes.  

PubMed

The expression patterns of the osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS, and three derived subclones containing stably transfected MDR1, NEO and MDR1/NEO genes were compared using cDNA microarrays comprising 8976 known genes and expressed sequenced tags. Data provided new insights into three critical issues. First, MDR1 overexpression was associated with altered expression of genes related to several cellular pathways, including (a). drug influx/efflux (eg, dynamin 3), (b). metabolic enzymes (eg, monoamine oxidase A), (c). cell adhesion (eg, EPCAM), (d). apoptotic signaling (eg, I-TRAF), (e). senescence (eg, telomerase RNA binding protein staufen), (f). tumor suppression-related genes (eg, KISS-1 and ephrin B3), and (g). immune system receptors (eg, LENG2). MDR1, EPCAM, and ephrin B3 expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Second, MDR1 transfected cells selected with either doxorubicin or neomycin showed distinct expression profiles that could be related to differential selection. Moreover, hierarchical clustering indicated that cells transfected with MDR1 alone, or cotransfected with NEO, displayed more closely related expression profiles than cells transfected only with NEO. Third, transfection with NEO and selection with neomycin produced a considerable number of expression changes within the cell. This study further elucidates the genetic events associated with MDR1 expression and identifies novel targets associated with multidrug resistance. PMID:12695554

Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Belbin, Thomas J; Scotlandi, Katia; Prystowsky, Michael; Baldini, Nicola; Childs, Geoffrey; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

2003-04-01

374

SIV infection of rhesus macaques results in dysfunctional T- and B-cell responses to neo and recall Leishmania major vaccination  

PubMed Central

HIV infection is characterized by immune system dysregulation, including depletion of CD4+ T cells, immune activation, and abnormal B- and T-cell responses. However, the immunologic mechanisms underlying lymphocytic dysfunctionality and whether it is restricted to immune responses against neo antigens, recall antigens, or both is unclear. Here, we immunized SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques to induce immune responses against neo and recall antigens using a Leishmania major polyprotein (MML) vaccine given with poly-ICLC adjuvant. We found that vaccinated SIVuninfected animals induced high frequencies of polyfunctional MML-specific CD4+ T cells. However, in SIV-infected animals, CD4+ T-cell functionality decreased after both neo (P = .0025) and recall (P = .0080) MML vaccination. Furthermore, after SIV infection, the frequency of MML-specific antibody-secreting classic memory B cells was decreased compared with vaccinated, SIV-uninfected animals. Specifically, antibody-secreting classic memory B cells that produced IgA in response to either neo (P = .0221) or recall (P = .0356) MML vaccinations were decreased. Furthermore, we found that T-follicular helper cells, which are essential for priming B cells, are preferentially infected with SIV. These data indicate that SIV infection results in dysfunctional T-cell responses to neo and recall vaccinations, and direct SIV infection of T-follicular helper cells, both of which probably contribute to deficient B-cell responses and, presumably, susceptibility to certain opportunistic infections.

Klatt, Nichole R.; Vinton, Carol L.; Lynch, Rebecca M.; Canary, Lauren A.; Ho, Jason; Darrah, Patricia A.; Estes, Jacob D.; Seder, Robert A.; Moir, Susan L.

2011-01-01

375

SIV infection of rhesus macaques results in dysfunctional T- and B-cell responses to neo and recall Leishmania major vaccination.  

PubMed

HIV infection is characterized by immune system dysregulation, including depletion of CD4+ T cells, immune activation, and abnormal B- and T-cell responses. However, the immunologic mechanisms underlying lymphocytic dysfunctionality and whether it is restricted to immune responses against neo antigens, recall antigens, or both is unclear. Here, we immunized SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques to induce immune responses against neo and recall antigens using a Leishmania major polyprotein (MML) vaccine given with poly-ICLC adjuvant. We found that vaccinated SIVuninfected animals induced high frequencies of polyfunctional MML-specific CD4+ T cells. However, in SIV-infected animals, CD4+ T-cell functionality decreased after both neo (P = .0025) and recall (P = .0080) MML vaccination. Furthermore, after SIV infection, the frequency of MML-specific antibody-secreting classic memory B cells was decreased compared with vaccinated, SIV-uninfected animals. Specifically, antibody-secreting classic memory B cells that produced IgA in response to either neo (P = .0221) or recall (P = .0356) MML vaccinations were decreased. Furthermore, we found that T-follicular helper cells, which are essential for priming B cells, are preferentially infected with SIV. These data indicate that SIV infection results in dysfunctional T-cell responses to neo and recall vaccinations, and direct SIV infection of T-follicular helper cells, both of which probably contribute to deficient B-cell responses and, presumably, susceptibility to certain opportunistic infections. PMID:21960586

Klatt, Nichole R; Vinton, Carol L; Lynch, Rebecca M; Canary, Lauren A; Ho, Jason; Darrah, Patricia A; Estes, Jacob D; Seder, Robert A; Moir, Susan L; Brenchley, Jason M

2011-11-24

376

On Multiple Moving Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the motion-planning problem for multiple moving objects. The approach taken consists of assigning priorities\\u000a to the objects, then planning motions one object at a time. For each moving object, the planner constructs a configuration\\u000a space-time that represents the time-varying constraints imposed on the moving object by the other moving and stationary objects.\\u000a The planner represents this space-time

Michael Erdmann; Tomás Lozano-pérez

1987-01-01

377

Object Location Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

378

Reinterpretation of evidence advanced for neo-oogenesis in mammals, in terms of a finite oocyte reserve  

PubMed Central

The central tenet of ovarian biology, that the oocyte reserve in adult female mammals is finite, has been challenged over recent years by proponents of neo-oogenesis, who claim that germline stem cells exist in the ovarian surface epithelium or the bone marrow. Currently opinion is divided over these claims, and further scrutiny of the evidence advanced in support of the neo-oogenesis hypothesis is warranted - especially in view of the enormous implications for female fertility and health. This article contributes arguments against the hypothesis, providing alternative explanations for key observations, based on published data. Specifically, DNA synthesis in germ cells in the postnatal mouse ovary is attributed to mitochondrial genome replication, and to DNA repair in oocytes lagging in meiotic progression. Lines purported to consist of germline stem cells are identified as ovarian epithelium or as oogonia, from which cultures have been derived previously. Effects of ovotoxic treatments are found to negate claims for the existence of germline stem cells. And arguments are presented for the misidentification of ovarian somatic cells as de novo oocytes. These clarifications, if correct, undermine the concept that germline stem cells supplement the oocyte quota in the postnatal ovary; and instead comply with the theory of a fixed, unregenerated reserve. It is proposed that acceptance of the neo-oogenesis hypothesis is erroneous, and may effectively impede research in areas of ovarian biology. To illustrate, a novel explanation that is consistent with orthodox theory is provided for the observed restoration of fertility in chemotherapy-treated female mice following bone marrow transplantation, otherwise interpreted by proponents of neo-oogenesis as involving stimulation of endogenous germline stem cells. Instead, it is proposed that the chemotherapeutic regimens induce autoimmunity to ovarian antigens, and that the haematopoietic chimaerism produced by bone marrow transplantation circumvents activation of an autoreactive response, thereby rescuing ovarian function. The suggested mechanism draws from animal models of autoimmune ovarian disease, which implicate dysregulation of T cell regulatory function; and from a surmised role for follicular apoptosis in the provision of ovarian autoantigens, to sustain self-tolerance during homeostasis. This interpretation has direct implications for fertility preservation in women undergoing chemotherapy.

2011-01-01

379

Working Group: Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following its meeting in May, 2010, the IAU Executive Committee requested that a Working Group on NEOs within Div. III be re-activated and carry out the following activities:a)investigate and formulate requirements for an international ground- and/or space-based NEO survey, to detect, track and characterize (optical/IR, radar) 90% of all NEOs with D >40 m and to establish as such a permanent International NEO Early Warning System; to submit to the President, Vice-President and OC of Division III by March 31, 2011, a progress report and by March 31, 2012, a final report on this matter, to be forwarded to the President and General Secretary of the IAU;b)assemble a SOC in order to write and submit to the IAU Assistant General Secretary before December 1, 2010, a proposal for a GA IAU Symposium or a GA Special Session, to be held during the IAU XXVIII General Assembly, August 20-31, 2012 in Beijing, on theoretical and observational aspects of NEO research in general, and on requirements and other aspects of a permanent International NEO Early Warning System in particular;c)prepare and submit to the IAU General Secretary by January 31, 2012, a Resolution for consideration by the IAU XXVIII General Assembly in Beijing, August 2012, asking for international action and support to establish an International NEO Early Warning System; such a Resolution, if accepted by the IAU XXVIII General Assembly, to be addressed to the IAU National Members, to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS), and to the International Council for Science (ICSU).

Harris, Alan W.; Valsecchi, Giovanni; Morrison, David

2012-04-01

380

Functional results and visceral perception after ileo neo-rectal anastomosis in patients: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION—To reduce pouch related complications after restorative proctocolectomy, an alternative procedure was developed, the ileo neo-rectal anastomosis (INRA). This technique consists of rectal mucosa replacement by ileal mucosa and straight ileorectal anastomosis. Our study provides a detailed description of the functional results after INRA.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Eleven patients underwent an INRA procedure with a temporary ileostomy. Anorectal function tests were performed two months prior to and six and 12 months after closure of the ileostomy and comprised: anal manometry, ultrasound examination, rectal balloon distension, and transmucosal electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Function was subsequently related to the histopathology of rectal biopsy samples.?RESULTS—Median stool frequency decreased from 15/24 hours (10-25) to 6/24 hours (4-11) at one year. All patients reported full continence. Anal sensibility, and resting and squeeze pressures did not change after INRA. Rectal compliance decreased (2.1 (0.7-2.8) v 1.5 (0.4-2.2) and 1.4 (0.8-3.7) ml/mm Hg (p=0.03)) but the maximum tolerated volume increased (70 (50-118) v 96 (39-176) (NS) and 122 (56-185) ml (p=0.03)). Decreasing rectal sensitivity was found: the maximum tolerated pressure increased (14 (8-24) v 22 (8-34) (NS) and 26 (14-40) (p=0.02)) and the rectal threshold for TENS displayed a similar tendency. All patients displayed a low grade chronic inflammatory infiltrate in neorectal biopsy samples before closure of the ileostomy, with no change during follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—The technique of INRA provides a safe alternative for restorative surgery. Stool frequency after INRA improves with time and seems to be related to decreasing sensitivity and not to histopathological changes in the neorectum. Furthermore, after the INRA procedure, all patients reported full continence.???Keywords: restorative proctocolectomy; anorectal physiology; surgery; neorectum; intestinal mucosa transposition; recto-anal inhibition reflex

Andriesse, G; Gooszen, H; Schipper, M; Akkermans, L; van Vroonhoven, T J M V; van Laarhoven, C J H M

2001-01-01

381

LIGHT CURVES OF 32 LARGE TRANSNEPTUNIAN OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of 32 primarily bright, newly discovered Transneptunian objects (TNOs) observable from the Southern Hemisphere during 39 nights of observation with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Our dataset includes objects in all dynamical classes, but is weighted toward scattered objects. We find 15 objects for which we can fit periods and amplitudes to the data, and place light curve amplitude upper limits on the other 17 objects. Combining our sample with the larger light curve sample in the literature, we find a 3{sigma} correlation between light curve amplitude and absolute magnitude with fainter objects having larger light curve amplitudes. We looked for correlations between light curve and individual orbital properties, but did not find any statistically significant results. However, if we consider light curve properties with respect to object dynamical classification, we find statistically different distributions between the classical-scattered and classical-resonant populations at the 95.60% and 94.64% level, respectively, with the classical objects having larger amplitude light curves. The significance is 97.05% if the scattered and resonant populations are combined. The properties of binary light curves are largely consistent with the greater TNO population except in the case of tidally locked systems. All the Haumea family objects measured so far have light curve amplitudes and rotation periods {<=}10 hr, suggesting that they are not significantly different from the larger TNO population. We expect multiple factors are influencing object rotations: object size dominates light curve properties except in the case of tidal, or proportionally large collisional interactions with other TNOs, the influence of the latter being different for each TNO sub-population. We also present phase curves and colors for some of our objects.

Benecchi, Susan D.; Sheppard, Scott S., E-mail: sbenecchi@dtm.ciw.edu [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

2013-05-15

382

Automatic object recognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

1988-01-01

383

Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts.  

PubMed

The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs. PMID:18649494

Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart

2008-07-01

384

Low polarization microscope objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low polarization, high numerical aperture microscope objectives ideal for polarization sensitive applications are designed, fabricated, and measured. A microscope objective is designed to meet the application requirements using Code V. Performance of typical AR coatings is examined and determined to be insufficient to meet the polarization performance desired. Custom AR coatings are optimized using an in house polarization ray tracing program to reduce the objectives diattenuation. The resulting microscope objectives perform about 5 times better than our low polarization Nikon objectives.

Daugherty, Brian; Chipman, Russell

2010-07-01

385

The trajectory of India towards Eurasia recorded by subducted slabs: implications for the fate of NeoTethys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neo-Tethys Ocean progressively closed after India separated from Gondwana at 130 Ma and converged towards Eurasia. In this study subducted slabs were mapped over a large region of the MITP08 global seismic tomography data (Li et al., 2008) including southern Asia and the Indian Ocean. A distinct swath of deep lower mantle slabs were mapped between 20°N to 20°S in a region bounded by present-day Madagascar and the Cocos Basin at 1000 to 2500 km depths. Other slabs were mapped below Present Day India and Eurasia at shallower 700 to 1500 km depths. These slabs closely correspond to the well-known path that India has taken northward towards Eurasia in the Indo-Atlantic moving hotspot reference. The slabs account for a large proportion of predicted lost and subducted Neotethyan lithosphere since 130 Ma. Here we present a plate tectonic reconstruction that incorporates these mapped slab constraints with the implication that a large portion of the Neo-Tethys Ocean was subducted below a northward-moving India and not Eurasia. 3D slab geometries were mapped using GoCad software. Slabs were structurally unfolded in GoCad to a spherical earth model. GPlates software was used to build plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs.

Lin, C. D.; Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.

2012-12-01

386

Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8  

SciTech Connect

The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

Ivanka, Paskaleva [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mihaela, Kouteva [CLSMEE-BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Franco, Vaccari [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Panza, Giuliano F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

387

Grasping trapezoidal objects  

PubMed Central

When grasping rectangular or circular objects with a precision grip the digits close in on the object in opposite directions. In doing so the digits move perpendicular to the local surface orientation as they approach opposite sides of the object. This perpendicular approach is advantageous for accurately placing the digits. Trapezoidal objects have non-parallel surfaces so that moving the digits in opposite directions would make the digits approach the contact surfaces at an angle that is not 90°. In this study we examined whether this happens, or whether subjects tend to approach trapezoidal objects’ surfaces perpendicularly. We used objects of different sizes and with different surface slants. Subjects tended to approach the object’s surfaces orthogonally, suggesting that they aim for an optimal precision of digit placement rather than simply closing their hand as it reaches the object.

Kleinholdermann, Urs; Brenner, Eli; Franz, Volker H.

2007-01-01

388

Improving the Detection of Near Earth Objects for Ground Based Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congress has mandated the detection of 90 percent of 140 meter diameter and larger Near Earth Objects (NEOs). While a dedicated satellite would be the preferred method of detection, ground-based telescopes are the current detection technology available. With current detection techniques, 140 meter diameter NEOs at 1 astronomical unit or more away from Earth are difficult to detect. In order to increase their detection, the methods of data collection and data analysis must be addressed. Detection of NEOs, to include but not limited to asteroids, comets, and satellites, using ground-based telescopes with Nyquist sampling and a matched filter for point source objects are investigated as a image processing method to increase detection rates. Computer simulations for a 1 meter diameter telescope with a 128-by-128 charge coupled device (CCD), one second integration, and a 20.7 visual magnitude point source object within the CCD field of view (FOV) were computed using MatLab code. The simulation results for Nyquist sampling with cross-correlation of a point spread function (PSF) and a threshold detector are compared to Rayleigh sampling with a threshold detector. For accurate PSF calculations, atmospheric seeing measurements at the time of data collection are necessary, so various atmosphere seeing values, from 10 cm to 20 cm, are simulated and compared. Nyquist sampling with PSF cross-correlation and a threshold detector is found to be an improvement over Rayleigh sampling with a threshold detector for atmospheric seeing parameters of 10 cm to 20 cm for all simulations. The improvement over Rayleigh sampling is increased as the atmospheric seeing becomes worse. The affects of incorrect measurement of the seeing parameter are also simulated and analyzed. Simulations for the NEO in varying locations within the CCD pixel FOV are computed and analyzed. Nyquist sampling with PSF cross-correlation is an improvement over Rayleigh sampling for all locations with the improvement increasing as distance from the CCD FOV center is increased. Computer simulations show that Nyquist sampling with PSF cross-correlation outperforms Rayleigh sampling regardless of position within the CCD pixel FOV and for all atmospheric seeing parameters between 10 and 20 cm in detection of point source objects at a telescopes limiting visual magnitude.

O'Dell, A.

389

Lensless object scanning holography for diffuse objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently proposed, Lensless Object Scanning Holography (LOSH) is a fully lensless method, capable of improving image quality in digital Fourier holography applied to reflective objects, and involving a very simplified experimental setup. LOSH is based on the recording and digital post-processing of a set of digital lensless Fourier transform holograms which finally results in a synthetic image with improved resolution, field of view (FOV), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and depth of field (DOF). In this paper, LOSH is expanded to the case of diffuse-based objects. Now, the speckle can affect the resolution and it will not be a function of only the size of the aperture. The fact of increasing the aperture can produce the decrease of the size of the speckle. Moreover, there is an overlapping of speckles of the successive images. Different kinds of digital processing can be applied to obtain the final synthetic image. Among them, partial coherent processing, arising from the incoherent sum of several sets of images coherently added, provides the best improvement in the resolution and also in the SNR due to partial averaging of the speckles. Experimental results for a diffuse object are presented for different kinds of digital processing.

García, Javier; Ferreira, Carlos; Micó, Vicente

2013-04-01

390

Neo-deterministic definition of earthquake hazard scenarios: a multiscale application to India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of effective mitigation strategies requires scientifically consistent estimates of seismic ground motion; recent analysis, however, showed that the performances of the classical probabilistic approach to seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) are very unsatisfactory in anticipating ground shaking from future large earthquakes. Moreover, due to their basic heuristic limitations, the standard PSHA estimates are by far unsuitable when dealing with the protection of critical structures (e.g. nuclear power plants) and cultural heritage, where it is necessary to consider extremely long time intervals. Nonetheless, the persistence in resorting to PSHA is often explained by the need to deal with uncertainties related with ground shaking and earthquakes recurrence. We show that current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic waves generation and propagation processes, along with the improving quantity and quality of geophysical data, allow nowadays for viable numerical and analytical alternatives to the use of PSHA. The advanced approach considered in this study, namely the NDSHA (neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment), is based on the physically sound definition of a wide set of credible scenario events and accounts for uncertainties and earthquakes recurrence in a substantially different way. The expected ground shaking due to a wide set of potential earthquakes is defined by means of full waveforms modelling, based on the possibility to efficiently compute synthetic seismograms in complex laterally heterogeneous anelastic media. In this way a set of scenarios of ground motion can be defined, either at national and local scale, the latter considering the 2D and 3D heterogeneities of the medium travelled by the seismic waves. The efficiency of the NDSHA computational codes allows for the fast generation of hazard maps at the regional scale even on a modern laptop computer. At the scenario scale, quick parametric studies can be easily performed to understand the influence of the model characteristics on the computed ground shaking scenarios. For massive parametric tests, or for the repeated generation of large scale hazard maps, the methodology can take advantage of more advanced computational platforms, ranging from GRID computing infrastructures to HPC dedicated clusters up to Cloud computing. In such a way, scientists can deal efficiently with the variety and complexity of the potential earthquake sources, and perform parametric studies to characterize the related uncertainties. NDSHA provides realistic time series of expected ground motion readily applicable for seismic engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The methodology has been successfully applied to strategic buildings, lifelines and cultural heritage sites, and for the purpose of seismic microzoning in several urban areas worldwide. A web application is currently being developed that facilitates the access to the NDSHA methodology and the related outputs by end-users, who are interested in reliable territorial planning and in the design and construction of buildings and infrastructures in seismic areas. At the same, the web application is also shaping up as an advanced educational tool to explore interactively how seismic waves are generated at the source, propagate inside structural models, and build up ground shaking scenarios. We illustrate the preliminary results obtained from a multiscale application of NDSHA approach to the territory of India, zooming from large scale hazard maps of ground shaking at bedrock, to the definition of local scale earthquake scenarios for selected sites in the Gujarat state (NW India). The study aims to provide the community (e.g. authorities and engineers) with advanced information for earthquake risk mitigation, which is particularly relevant to Gujarat in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the region.

Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rastogi, Bal K.; Vaccari, Franco; Cozzini, Stefano; Bisignano, Davide; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.; Ashish, Mr; Mir, Ramees R.

2014-05-01

391

Prospective testing of neo-deterministic seismic hazard scenarios for the Italian territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reliable and comprehensive characterization of expected seismic ground shaking, eventually including the related time information, is essential in order to develop effective mitigation strategies and increase earthquake preparedness. Moreover, any effective tool for SHA must demonstrate its capability in anticipating the ground shaking related with large earthquake occurrences, a result that can be attained only through rigorous verification and validation process. So far, the major problems in classical probabilistic methods for seismic hazard assessment, PSHA, consisted in the adequate description of the earthquake recurrence, particularly for the largest and sporadic events, and of the attenuation models, which may be unable to account for the complexity of the medium and of the seismic sources and are often weekly constrained by the available observations. Current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic waves generation and propagation processes allow nowadays for viable numerical and analytical alternatives to the use of attenuation relations. Accordingly, a scenario-based neo-deterministic approach, NDSHA, to seismic hazard assessment has been proposed, which allows considering a wide range of possible seismic sources as the starting point for deriving scenarios by means of full waveforms modeling. The method does not make use of attenuation relations and naturally supplies realistic time series of ground shaking, including reliable estimates of ground displacement readily applicable to seismic isolation techniques. Based on NDSHA, an operational integrated procedure for seismic hazard assessment has been developed, that allows for the definition of time dependent scenarios of ground shaking, through the routine updating of formally defined earthquake predictions. The integrated NDSHA procedure for seismic input definition, which is currently applied to the Italian territory, combines different pattern recognition techniques, designed for the space-time identification of strong earthquakes, with algorithms for the realistic modeling of ground motion. Accordingly, a set of deterministic scenarios of ground motion at bedrock, which refers to the time interval when a strong event is likely to occur within the alerted area, can be defined by means of full waveform modeling, both at regional and local scale. CN and M8S predictions, as well as the related time-dependent ground motion scenarios associated with the alarmed areas, are regularly updated every two months since 2006. The routine application of the time-dependent NDSHA approach provides information that can be useful in assigning priorities for timely mitigation actions and, at the same time, allows for a rigorous prospective testing and validation of the proposed methodology. As an example, for sites where ground shaking values greater than 0.2 g are estimated at bedrock, further investigations can be performed taking into account the local soil conditions, to assess the performances of relevant structures, such as historical and strategic buildings. The issues related with prospective testing and validation of the time-dependent NDSHA scenarios will be discussed, illustrating the results obtained for the recent strong earthquakes in Italy, including the May 20, 2012 Emilia earthquake.

Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Vaccari, Franco; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Panza, Giuliano F.

2013-04-01

392

Objectives and Preparing Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

1984-01-01

393

Wire Object Detection Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytic study and an experimental feasibility demonstration of the detection of wire objects has been completed. The techniques employed were based upon the geometric compatibility of the object to be detected and the sensor used, which in this instan...

R. Kleehammer

1978-01-01

394

CRCHD - Goals & Objectives  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - Goals & Objectives  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research PNP Project Listing Northwest Native American Patient Navigation Pilot Program (NW PNP) Goals & Objectives Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) Northwest Native American

395

Object Location Memory Explanation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

396

Complex Object Hashing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important characteristic of many new data models is the capability of constructing complex data objects. These complex data objects usually include set valued attributes. The efficiency of the implementation of sets heavily depends on the efficiency of...

H. Duchene V. Turau

1990-01-01

397

Survivability via Control Objectives  

SciTech Connect

Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

2000-08-11

398

Objects in Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

399

Performance Objectives Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Michigan Vocational Education Service, in September 1972, implemented a Performance Objectives Development Project to generate objectives for all vocational/technical education programs in the State. It was necessary that each school district adopt a set of minimum performance objectives for each program to retain the district's priority for…

Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Vocational Education and Career Development Service.

400

Temporal Probabilistic Object Bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous applications where we have to deal with temporal uncertainty associ- ated with objects. The ability to automatically store and manipulate time, probabilities, and objects is important. We propose a data model and algebra for temporal probabilistic object bases (TPOBs) which allows us to specify the probability with which an event occurs at a given time point. In

Veronica Biazzo; Rosalba Giugno; Thomas Lukasiewicz; V. S. Subrahmanian

2003-01-01

401

Music Objectives: Second Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes the development of objectives and presents objectives formulated by music educators, lay individuals, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) staff in 1973. Objectives from the first music assessment were reappraised, reviewed, and revised to include greater breadth of application, greater emphasis on the…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. National Assessment of Educational Progress.

402

Media Objectives for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to provide a compendium of instructional objectives concerning instructional media and materials. It is useful for either teacher training programs or college level media courses. Each objective is stated behaviorally, such as "list the important features of a tape recorder." Objectives are arranged by medium. The media…

Arrasjid, Harun, Ed.; Arrasjid, Dorine, Ed.

403

Understanding Object Motion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many types of common objects, such as tools and vehicles, usually move in simple ways when they are wielded or driven: The natural axes of the object tend to remain aligned with the local trihedron defined by the object's trajectory. Based on this observa...

Z. Duriel E. Rivlin A. Rosenfeld

1997-01-01

404

The Language of Objection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

Duffy, Francis M.

2010-01-01

405

Population 1: Global Population and Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video looks at the global population and trends. It also explains the concept of carrying capacity and how a person's behavior influences carrying capacity. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

406

Population growth and economic growth.  

PubMed

This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution. PMID:12314595

Narayana, D L

1984-01-01

407

Learning to recognize objects.  

PubMed

A theory of object recognition requires a theory of shape. Despite considerable empirical and theoretical research, however, a definition of object shape has proved elusive. Two experiments provide new insights by showing that children's object recognition changes dramatically during the period between 17 and 25 months. During this time, children develop the ability to recognize stylized three-dimensional caricatures of known and novel objects. This ability is linked to the number of object names in children's vocabularies, suggesting that category learning may be a driving force behind the developmental changes. PMID:12741748

Smith, Linda B

2003-05-01

408

Astrometric and Photometric Follow-Up of Faint Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year, the Near-Earth Object (NEO) follow-up program at Mt. Hopkins funded by the Near-Earth Object Observations (NEOO) program continued to improve. The Principal Investigator was again granted all the requested observing time. In addition to the requested time on the 4 8 in. telescope, 2 nights were also granted on the MMT for observations of extremely faint main-belt asteroids and NEOs. It is expected that the MMT can easily reach V = 25 over a 24 X 24 arcminute field of view. Improvements in the last year included more tweaks to the automatic astrometric routine for higher-quality astrometric fits. Use of the new USNO-B1.0 reference catalog has allowed the PI to push the average RMS of reference star solutions below 0.2 in.. Shift-and- stack techniques are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the target objects. The 48 in. telescope at Mt. Hopkins is completely automated, and can be run remotely from either the Principal Investigator's office at SAO, or even his study at home. Most observing runs are now done remotely.

Spahr, Timothy

2004-01-01

409

Shoreline Migration and Land Exposure of the SE Levant (Israel) During the Closure of the Neo-Tethys (Late Eocene and onward)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Late Eocene, along with the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, the paleogeography of the north Arabian Peninsula changed signifi