Sample records for object neo population

  1. Inverse problems of NEO photometry: Imaging the NEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen1, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Photometry is the main source of information on NEOs (and other asteroids) en masse. Surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST will produce colossal photometric databases that can readily be used for mapping the physical characteristics of the whole asteroid population. These datasets are efficiently enriched by any additional dense photometric or other observations. Due to their quickly changing geometries with respect to the Earth, NEOs are the subpopulation that can be mapped the fastest. I review the state of the art in the construction of physical asteroid models from sparse and/or dense photometric data (that can also be combined with other data modes). The models describe the shapes, spin states, scattering properties and surface structure of the targets, and are the solutions of inverse problems necessarily involving comprehensive mathematical analysis. I sum up what we can and cannot get from photometric data, and how all this is done in practice. I also discuss the new freely available software package for solving photometric inverse problems (soon to be released). The analysis of photometric datasets will very soon become an automated industry, resulting in tens of thousands of asteroid models, a large portion of them NEOs. The computational effort in this is considerable in both computer and human time, which means that a large portion of the targets is likely to be analyzed only once. This, again, means that we have to have a good understanding of the reliability of our models, and this is impossible without a thorough understanding of the mathematical nature of the inverse problem(s) involved. Very important concepts are the uniqueness and stability of the solution, the parameter spaces, the so-called inverse crimes in simulations and error prediction, and the domination of systematic errors over random ones.

  2. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  3. NeoDys: Near Earth Objects: Dynamic Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Milani, Andrea

    NeoDys, a project developed at the University of Pisa in Italy, supplies data and services for all Near Earth Asteroids. Updated daily, researchers can find links to all NeoDys objects and observatories as well as data on Earth Impact Possibilities. Educators and students will find instructive explanations of Near-Earth Asteroids and three dimensional visualizations of the objects' orbits. Although at first glance some of the data may appear difficult to interpret, each page has a Help icon that thoroughly and clearly describes the information presented.

  4. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

  5. ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [Joint Sciences Department, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: cristina.thomas@nau.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

  6. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  7. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  8. NEO-SURFACE: Near Earth Objects - SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; Brucato, J. R.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Rossi, A.

    2014-04-01

    NEO-SURFACE (Near Earth Objects - SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth) is a survey we carry out in order to increase the present knowledge of the physical properties of NEOs. It includes V+NIR spectroscopy and photometry of i) the so-called Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) which make threatening close approaches to the Earth, and ii) the suitable targets for future rendez-vous space missions

  9. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

  10. Interactive Simulation of Burning Objects melekzek@neo.tamu.edu

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    the combustion process to- gether with the decomposition of burning solids. The com- bustion and decomposition to model the motion of fuel, air, and exhaust gasses in a unified system. The heat produced by combustion new particles as the front expands. Stam and Fiume [10] use a map cover- ing the object defining

  11. Optical Observations of Near Earth Objects in Support of the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope NEO Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Hagen, A.; Penprase, B.; Jones, T.; Trilling, D.; Warm Spitzer NEO Survey Team

    2009-09-01

    As part of the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer project, a 14-in telescope located in Almagordo, NM has been robotized and is being used to carry out optical observations of Near Earth Objects in multiple filters. From the V-filter images, the H-magnitude can be found, which is non-trivial as the reported H-magnitudes from NEO discovery programs have very large (0.5 mag) error bars. This improved H-magnitude also constrains the albedo in the models the team is using. The V-R color of the NEO is also found and is used to coarsely assign a spectral type to the object. Finally, this telescope is also being used to collect light curves on these objects to find rotation rates and contribute to shape modeling. The Pomona College 1-m telescope at Table Mountain is also participating in this observing effort and is collecting similar data as the telescope in New Mexico on fainter targets. This research is funded by NASA as part of the Spitzer Warm Mission.

  12. An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

  13. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

  14. Prevention sequence mechanisms (PSM) for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) based on a three parameter scheme based classification framework

    E-print Network

    Sahani, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant amount of space debris from previous space endeavors left over by the Russians and the US, leave alone the possibility of collisions with Near Earth Objects (NEOs) like asteroids and comets. Currently, ...

  15. Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Bottke Jr; Alessandro Morbidelli; Robert Jedicke; Jean-Marc Petit; Harold F. Levison; Patrick Michel; Travis S. Metcalfe

    2002-01-01

    The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the near-Earth objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far, but also because the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs

  16. The population of tiny near-Earth objects observed by NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Nugent, C. R.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Cukrov, G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cutri, R. M.; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Only a very small fraction of the asteroid population at size scales comparable to the object that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia has been discovered to date, and physical properties are poorly characterized. We present previously unreported detections of 105 close approaching near-Earth objects (NEOs) by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission's NEOWISE project. These infrared observations constrain physical properties such as diameter and albedo for these objects, many of which are found to be smaller than 100 m. Because these objects are intrinsically faint, they were detected by WISE during very close approaches to the Earth, often at large apparent on-sky velocities. We observe a trend of increasing albedo with decreasing size, but as this sample of NEOs was discovered by visible light surveys, it is likely that selection biases against finding small, dark NEOs influence this finding.

  17. Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    Many pieces of the puzzle must be brought together in order to have a clear picture of the near-Earth object (NEO) population. Four of the pieces that can be described include: i) the taxonomic distribution of the population as measured by observational sampling, ii) the determination of albedos that can be associated with the taxonomic distribution, iii) discovery statistics for the NE0 population, and iv) the debiasing of the discovery statistics using the taxonomic and albedo information. Support from this grant enables us to address three of these four pieces. Binzel et al. (2004, submitted) presents the first piece, detailing the observations and observed characteristics of the NE0 and Mars-crossing (MC) population. For the second piece, a complementary program of albedo measurements is pursued at the Keck Observatory (Binzel, P. I.) with first results published in Delbo et al. (2003). For the third piece, the most extensive NE0 discovery statistics are provided by the LINEAR survey. Binzel has supervised the MIT Ph. D. thesis work of Stuart (2003) to bring the fourth piece, submitted for publication by Stuart and Binzel (2004). Our results provide new constraints for the NE0 population and progress for the Spaceguard Survey, illuminate asteroid and comet source regions for the NEOs, and provide new evidence for space weathering processes linking asteroids and meteorites. Further, we are identifying top priority near-Earth spacecraft mission candidates based on their spectral properties and inferred compositions.

  18. Exploring the Near Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W.

    2013-09-01

    This is a golden age for NEA research. We have discovered some 95% of the most threatening NEAs (those larger than 1 km, Mainzer et al. 2012), while ongoing surveys (e.g., Catalina Sky Survey) are finding many sub-km NEAs as well. NEA physical characterization studies by missions (e.g., NEARShoemaker), space-based telescopes (e.g., WISE), and ground-based observatories (e.g., Arecibo, IRTF), are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEAs are actually like. The OSIRIS-REx mission will return a sample from Bennu, a carbonaceous chondrite-like NEO in 2020, while President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025. The Feb. 15 explosion of an NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEAs. In my talk, I will discuss several recent advances in our understanding of the NEO population (e.g, how they go from their source regions to their observed orbits; what we know about the size and nature of the population). I will give particular attention to candidates for robotic and human missions, namely those NEOs on near-Earth like orbits. Recent work has shown that a population of asteroids exists that have been temporarily captured in orbit around Earth ("minimoons"). They offer an innovative, but heretofore uninvestigated, population of targets for human exploration because of their proximity to the Earth and their low geocentric velocities. By better understanding them, we can test theories of the creation, internal structure, and transport of small asteroids. The largest minimoons in the steady state population are 1 to 2 meters in diameter, sizable enough to be both scientifically interesting and potentially suitable as destinations.

  19. Near-Earth Object Survey Simulations with a Revised Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Byun, Yong-Ik; Yim, Hong-Suh; Raymond, Sean N.

    2008-02-01

    We carried out a set of simulations to reproduce the performance of wide-field NEO surveys based on the revised population model of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) constructed by Morbidelli (2006). This is the first time where the new model is carefully compared with discovery statistics, and with the exception of population model, the simulation is identical to the procedure described in Moon et al. (2008). Our simulations show rather large discrepancy between the number of NEO discoveries made by the actual and the simulated surveys. First of all, unlike Bottke et al. (2002)'s, Morbidelli (2006)'s population model overestimates the number of NEOs. However, the latter reproduces orbit distributions of the actual population better. Our analysis suggests that both models significantly underestimate Amors, while overestimating the number of Apollos. Our simulation result implies that substantial modifications of both models are needed for more accurate reproduction of survey observations. We also identify Hungaria region (HU) to be one of the most convincing candidates that supply a large fraction of asteroids to the inner Solar System.

  20. Analysis of Association between Norepinephrine Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Personality Traits of NEO-FFI in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Shin; Nagahori, Kenta; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Norepinephrine is an important chemical messenger that is involved in mood and stress in humans, and is reabsorbed by the norepinephrine transporter (NET). According to Cloninger's theory, the noradrenergic system mediates the personality trait of reward dependence. Thus far, although association studies on NET gene polymorphisms and Cloninger's personality traits have been reported, they yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether or not the 1287G/A, -182T/C and -3081A/T polymorphisms of the NET gene (SLC6A2) are associated with reward dependence-related traits, as assessed by the five-factor model. Methods After written informed consent was obtained from participants, the three NET gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and personality was assessed by the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in 270 Japanese university students. Results A significant relation was found between the -3081A/T functional promoter polymorphism and NEO-FFI scores: those with the T allele exhibited a lower extraversion (E) score than those without the T allele (Mann-Whitney U-test: z=-3.861, p<0.001). However, there was no correlation between the other NET gene polymorphisms and E score, and no association with other dimensions and these three polymorphisms. Conclusion We conclude that the -3081A/T functional polymorphism in the NET gene may affect the extraversion of reward dependence-related traits, as measured by NEO-FFI. However, we used only the shortened version of NEO-PI-R in this study. Further investigations are necessary using the full version of self-rating personality questionnaires.

  1. ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/?M > 60,000 up to m/z =400 u). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cm3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space, allowing to distinguish isomass compounds and to measure isotopomer abundances. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

  2. Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

  3. NEO-LISP: Deflecting near-Earth objects using high average power, repetitively pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, C. R.; Michaelis, M. M.

    Several kinds of Near-Earth objects exist for which one would like to cause modest orbit perturbations, but which are inaccessible to normal means of interception because of their number, distance or the lack of early warning. For these objects, LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) is an appropriate technique for rapidly applying the required mechanical impulse from a ground-based station. In order of increasing laser energy required, examples are: (1) repositioning specially prepared geosynchronous satellites for an enhanced lifetime; (2) causing selected items of space junk to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory; and (3) safely deflecting Earth-directed comet nuclei and earth-crossing asteroids (ECA's) a few tens of meters in size (the most hazardous size). They will discuss each of these problems in turn and show that each application is best matched by its own matrix of LISP laser pulse width, pulse repetition rate, wavelength and average power. The latter ranges from 100W to 3GW for the cases considered. They will also discuss means of achieving the active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and very large exit pupil in the optical system which are required in each of these cases.

  4. NEO-LISP: Deflecting near-earth objects using high average power, repetitively pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.; Michaelis, M.M. [Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa). Physics Dept.

    1994-10-01

    Several kinds of Near-Earth objects exist for which one would like to cause modest orbit perturbations, but which are inaccessible to normal means of interception because of their number, distance or the lack of early warning. For these objects, LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) is an appropriate technique for rapidly applying the required mechanical impulse from a ground-based station. In order of increasing laser energy required, examples are: (1) repositioning specially prepared geosynchronous satellites for an enhanced lifetime, (2) causing selected items of space junk to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory, and (3) safely deflecting Earth-directed comet nuclei and earth-crossing asteroids (ECA`s) a few tens of meters in size (the most hazardous size). They will discuss each of these problems in turn and show that each application is best matched by its own matrix of LISP laser pulse width, pulse repetition rate, wavelength and average power. The latter ranges from 100W to 3GW for the cases considered. They will also discuss means of achieving the active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and very large exit pupil in the optical system which are required in each of these cases.

  5. The contribution of comets in Near-Earth Object and Main Belt populations and the role of collisions in the physical properties of members of these populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    The population of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is composed of small bodies of various origins. Groundbased observational programs have been developed to perform their inventory and to determine their physical properties. However, these observations contain many biases and the total population of NEOs with diameters down to a few hundreds of meters has not been identified yet. In recent years, the main sources of NEOs have been characterized [1]. Most of these bodies come from the asteroid main belt and the Jupiter-family comets and their source regions are linked to transport mechanisms (mean motion and secular resonances, slow diffusion mechanisms) to the NEO-space. It has then been possible to construct a complete model of the steady-state orbital, size and albedo distribution of NEOs and to determine the level of contribution of each of their sources, including the contribution of Jupiter-family comets. However, nothing is known regarding the contribution of longperiod comets. Physical observations have been conducted in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among small bodies in the NEO population and to determine the fraction of "comet candidates within the total NEO population. Combining the results of these observations with our model of NEO population to evaluate source region probabilities [1], it was found that 8 +/- 5% of the total asteroid-like NEO population may have originated as comets from the outer Solar System [2]. In the population of Main Belt (MB) asteroids, three members are known to display transient comet-like physical characteristics, including prolonged periods of dust emission leading to the formation of radiation pressure-swept tails [3]. These physical properties are most naturally explained as the result of sub-limation of near-surface ice from what are, dynamically, mainbelt asteroids (hence the name "main-belt comets" (MBCs) or, equivalently "icy asteroids"). No pausible dynamical path to the asteroid belt from the cometary reservoirs in the Oort cloud or Kuiper belt has been established. Thus, we may have an unsuspected icy region closer to the Sun than expected. However, it has also been suggested that numerous comets may have been captured during a violent period of planetary orbital evolution in the early stages of our Solar System [4]. Most of these bodies experience collisions during their lifetime, which can either disrupt them or modify their physical properties. In particular, collisions are suspected to be the triggering mechanism for the activation of MBCs. Thus the collisional process needs a good understanding in order to determine its contribution in the evolution of these small bodies, as a function of their physical properties. We have recently made a major improvement in the simulations of a small body disruption by introducing a model of fragmentation of porous material which will allows us to study the impact process on cometary bodies [5]. Moreover, for bodies dominated by gravity, our simulations includes the explicit computation of the formation of aggregates during the gravitational reaccumulation of small fragments, allowing us to obtain information on their spin, the number of boulders composing them or lying on their surface, and their shape. We will present the first and preliminary results of this process taking as examples some asteroid families that we reproduced successfully with our previous simulations [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], and their possible implications on the properties of small bodies generated by a disruption. Such information can for instance be compared with data provided by the Japanese space mission Hayabusa of the asteroid Itokawa, a body now understood to be a fragment of a larger parent body. For the population of comets, improving our understanding of their collisional response can then allow us to better characterize their collisional evolution, lifetime and other properties [11] which can have some implications on their contribution in "asteroidal" populations. It is also clear that future s

  6. Earth’s Nearest Neighbors: Dynamical integrations of NEO-Earth approaches in support of MANOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, Thomas; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David; Burt, Brian

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). In support of this telescopic survey, we are performing a suite of orbital integrations to investigate the dynamical evolution of the near-Earth asteroid population.Using orbital information from the Lowell Observatory AstOrb database and the swift orbital integration package, we compute the orbital history of every known NEO from present day to five hundred thousand years in the past. This orbital history is used to identify the temporal evolution of each NEO's minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) value, quantifying the physical distance between the orbits of a given NEO and that of a terrestrial planet. Due to the non-deterministic behavior of many NEO orbits beyond a few hundred years, these integrated MOIDs do not uniquely determine whether an NEO and a planet will actually encounter one another, bur rather provide a probabilistic metric for the proximity in which two objects can encounter one another. Integrated MOIDs can be a useful tool for correlating measured physical properties with high probabilities of planetary encounters (e.g. Binzel et al. 2010, Nature 463, 331).We will present the status of these orbital integrations. These integrations show a variety of dynamical histories, from objects that are stable over the integration limits to those that show chaotic behavior after approximately fifty to one hundred thousand years. These orbital integrations are being used to track the potentially hazardous object (PHA) population over time, to evaluate dynamical history for both specific objects and NEO sub-populations, and to estimate the evolution of NEO surface temperatures due to changing perihelion distances.

  7. A sensitive search for NEOs with the Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Lori; Trilling, D.; Burt, B.; Valdes, F.; Fuentes, C.; James, D.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Earle, A.; Herrera, D.; Brown, M.; Axelrod, T.

    2013-10-01

    We report on preliminary results from the DECam NEO Survey. DECam (Dark Energy Camera) is a 520 Megapixel optical imager with a 3 square degree field of view on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The combination of large field of view and 4 meter aperture yield an étendue that far surpasses those of previous NEO searches. Our goals are to obtain a census of NEOs down to a detection limit of V=23, to measure the size distribution of small NEOs, and to characterize the population of earth-crossing objects (ECOs). In this contribution we describe our 30-night survey, scheduled to begin in the 2014A semester and to extend over three "A" (northern hemisphere Spring) semesters. We present preliminary results based on our pilot project conducted in January and April of this year and which resulted in our submitting approximately 100,000 astrometric measurements to the Minor Planet Center (observatory code W84), approximately 1% of which are NEOs. Details of extensive simulations and data processing performed with the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) can be found in a separate contribution (Burt et al.) at this meeting.

  8. Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/DM > 60,000 up to m/z =400 amu). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (metricconverterProductID2 kg2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cmˆ3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

  9. Cognitive Development Neo-Piagetian Accounts

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    1 Cognitive Development · Neo-Piagetian Accounts ­ Object Permanence ­ Baby Physics · Neonate and Infant Memory · Infantile Amnesia ­ Potential Explanations Neo-Piagetians · Agree w/Basic Stages ­ Faster · Believe Piaget Underestimated Child's Capacities ­ Inter-sensory Relations ­ Object Permanence A not

  10. Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Mission concept is to assess the feasibility of using solar sail propulsion to enable a robotic precursor that would survey multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for potential future human visits. Single spacecraft will rendezvous with and image 3 NEOs within 6 years of launch

  11. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  12. Strategy for NEO follow-up observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Milos; Honkova, Michaela; Ticha, Jana; Kocer, Michal

    2015-03-01

    The Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) belong to the most important small bodies in the solar system, having the capability of close approaches to the Earth and even possibility to collide with the Earth. In fact, it is impossible to calculate reliable orbit of an object from a single night observations. Therefore it is necessary to extend astrometry dataset by early follow-up astrometry. Follow-up observations of the newly discovered NEO candidate should be done over an arc of several hours after the discovery and should be repeated over several following nights. The basic service used for planning of the follow-up observations is the NEO Confirmation Page (NEOCP) maintained by the Minor Planet Center of the IAU. This service provides on-line tool for calculating geocentric and topocentic ephemerides and sky-plane uncertainty maps of these objects at the specific date and time. Uncertainty map is one of the most important information used for planning of follow-up observation strategy for given time, indicating also the estimated distance of the newly discovered object and including possibility of the impact. Moreover, observatories dealing with NEO follow-up regularly have prepared their special tools and systems for follow-up work. The system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used at the Klet Observatory are described here. Methods and techniques used at the Klet NEO follow-up CCD astrometric programme, using 1.06-m and 0.57-m telescopes, are also discussed.

  13. ExploreNEOs III: Size, Albedo, And Thermal History Of 58+ Low-deltaV NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Harris, A. W.; Hora, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Mommert, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-10-01

    Space missions to NEOs are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently President Obama announced the goal of a manned mission to an NEO. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge on the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor primitive low-albedo objects. For the vast majority of NEOs the albedo is unknown. We report new constraints on the size and albedo of NEOs with rendezvous deltaV < 7 km/s. Our results are based on thermal flux data obtained in the framework of our ongoing ExploreNEOs survey (Trilling et al., 2010) using NASA's "Warm Spitzer" space telescope. As of this writing, we have results for 253 objects in hand (including the 58 low-deltaV NEOs presented here); before the end of 2011 we expect to have measured the size and albedo of 700 NEOs (including probably 160 low-deltaV NEOs). Due to the nature of our observations, our results are generally more accurate for low-albedo objects than for their high-albedo counterparts. While there are reasons to believe that primitive volatile-rich materials are universally low in albedo, the converse need not be true: The orbital evolution of some objects caused them to lose their volatiles by coming too close to the Sun. For all our targets, we give the closest perihelion distance they are likely to have reached (using orbital integrations from Marchi et al., 2009) and corresponding upper limits on the past surface temperature. Low-deltaV objects for which both albedo and thermal history suggest a primitive composision include (162998) 2001 SK162, (68372) 2001 PM9, and (100085) 1992 UY4. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL, Caltech under a contract with NASA.

  14. Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

  15. From Magnitudes to Diameters: The Albedo Distribution of Near Earth Objects and the Earth Collision Hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Morbidelli; R. Jedicke; W. F. Bottke; P. Michel; E. F. Tedesco

    2002-01-01

    A recently published model of the Near Earth Object (NEO) orbital–magnitude distribution (Bottke et al., 2002, Icarus156, 399–433.) relies on five intermediate sources for the NEO population: the ?6 resonance, the 3:1 resonance, the outer portion of the main belt (i.e., 2.8–3.5 AU), the Mars-crossing population adjacent to the main belt, and the Jupiter family comet population. The model establishes

  16. Neo: learning conceptual knowledge by sensorimotor interaction with an environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Cohen; Marc S. Atkin; Tim Oates; Carole R. Beal

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in philosophy, linguistics, developmentalpsychology and artificial intelligence make itpossible to envision a developmental path for an artificialagent, grounded in activity-based sensorimotorrepresentations. This paper describes how Neo, an artificialagent, learns concepts by interacting with itssimulated environment. Relatively little prior structureis required to learn fairly accurate representationsof objects, activities, locations and other aspects ofNeo's...

  17. The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

  18. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population always grows faster than the means of subsistence. The neo-Malthusian message would lead to immortality and with the introduction of very small families finally to the extinction of the Swedish population. Wicksell held on to his view that continuing population growth would be dangerous. Fahlbeck, one of the critics of neo-Malthusianism, did not consider the differences between Malthus and the neo-Malthusians to be of any importance. He accepted birth control but thought that through the introduction of the 2-child system neo-Malthusians would only recognize private interests and neglect the public interest, which demanded population increase. At the turn of the century emigration was considered a threat to Swedish population development. In 1910, when emigration was relatively low, attention turned to the declining birth rates. Birth control and contraceptives were condemned for moral, religious, and demographic reasons by the Conservatives in particular. A law was passed against contraceptives and stayed in force until 1938. Neo-Malthusianism was thus publicly condemned, but its adherents continued their work to promote birth control. PMID:12177840

  19. Population characteristics for natural Earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, M.; Vaubaillon, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2011-10-01

    We provide estimates for various population charakteristics such as the steady-state sizefrequeny distribution (SFD) and residene-time distributions for natural Earth satellites (NES). These objects are temporarily captured from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population due to purely gravitational interactions between mainly three massive bodies, that is, the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon, and an NEO with negligible mass. We carry out orbital integrations to estimate the capture probability of NESs from the near-Earth space as a function of orbital elements, and combine it with the current best estimates for the SFD and orbital distribution of NEOs. The resulting NES model predicts that there is, on average, one one-meter-diameter NEO temporarily orbiting the Earth at any given time.

  20. The Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets with orbits that intersect or pass near that of our planet. About 400 NEOs are currently known, but the entire population contains perhaps 3000 objects with diameters larger than 1 km. These objects, thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets, are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research. They carry records of the solar system's birth and the geologic evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary region. Because collisions of NEOs with Earth pose a finite hazard to life, the exploration of these objects is particularly urgent. Devising appropriate risk-avoidance strategies requires quantitative characterization of NEOS. They may also serve as resources for use by future human exploration missions. The scientific goals of a focused NEO exploration program are to determine their orbital distribution, physical characteristics, composition, and origin. Physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and spin properties, have been measured for approximately 80 NEOs using observations at infrared, radar, and visible wavelengths. Mineralogical compositions of a comparable number of NEOs have been inferred from visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. The formation and geologic histories of NEOs and related main-belt asteroids are currently inferred from studies of meteorites and from Galileo and Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft flybys of three main-belt asteroids. Some progress has also been made in associating specific types of meteorites with main-belt asteroids, which probably are the parent bodies of most NEOs. The levels of discovery of NEOs in the future will certainly increase because of the application of new detection systems. The rate of discovery may increase by an order of magnitude, allowing the majority of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets with diameters greater than 1 km to he discovered in the next decade. A small fraction of NEOs are particularly accessible for exploration by spacecraft. To identify the exploration targets of highest scientific interest, the orbits and classification of a large number of NEOs should be determined by telescopic observations. Desired characterization would also include measurements of size, mass, shape, surface composition and heterogeneity, gas and dust emission, and rotation. Laboratory studies of meteorites can focus NEO exploration objectives and quantify the information obtained from telescopes. Once high-priority targets have been identified, various kinds of spacecraft missions (flyby, rendezvous, and sample return) can be designed. Some currently operational (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous [NEAR]) or planned (Deep Space 1) U.S. missions are of the first two types, and other planned U.S. and Japanese spacecraft missions will return samples. Rendezvous missions with sample return are particularly desirable from a scientific perspective because of the very great differences in the analytical capabilities that can be brought to bear in orbit and in the laboratory setting. Although it would be difficult to justify human exploration of NEOs on the basis of cost-benefit analysis of scientific results alone, a strong case can be made for starting with NEOs if the decision to carry out human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is made for other reasons. Some NEOs are especially attractive targets for astronaut missions because of their orbital accessibility and short flight duration. Because they represent deep space exploration at an intermediate level of technical challenge, these missions would also serve as stepping stones for human missions to Mars. Human exploration of NEOs would provide significant advances in observational and sampling capabilities. With respect to ground based telescopic studies, the recommended baseline is that NASA and other appropriate agencies suupport research programs for interpreting the spectra of near-Earth objects (NEOs), continue and coordinate currently supported surveys to discover and determine th

  1. What is neo-liberalism?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Lee Mudge

    2008-01-01

    Neo-liberalism is an oft-invoked but ill-defined concept in the social sciences. This article conceptualizes neo-liberalism as a sui generis ideological system born of struggle and collaboration in three worlds: intellectual, bureaucratic and political. Emphasizing neo-liberalism's third ‘face’, it argues that a failure to grasp neo-liberalism as a political form imposes two limitations on understanding its effects: (i) fostering an implicit

  2. The taxonomic abundances, albedos, sizes, impact hazards and cratering record of the near-Earth objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Stuart

    2003-01-01

    I present a model for the bias-corrected population of near-Earth objects (NEOs). Discovery observations and physical measurements are naturally biased toward objects having the highest albedos - as generally these objects have brighter apparent magnitudes. Thus, they are more likely to be discovered and observed. The population model presented here is based on a bias correction method applied to albedo

  3. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2002-01-01

    responded warmly to it?one went out of her NEO-LATIN NEWS 357 way to say how much she liked the translation. None of them would have been reading Weston if it had not been for Cheney and Hosington. Jane Stevenson and Peter Davidson draw...

  4. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2002-01-01

    to the French text? To focus on the original title, to discuss its NEO-LATIN NEWS 169 complexities and implications?it is a real conundrum?would al- low for more analysis of an essential feature of the Apologie, namely Henri Estienne?s concern with belief...

  5. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et al

    2006-01-01

    , moestus, ocia). Although the editor here departs from the convention of editing neo- Latin texts by adopting the conventions of classical Latin orthography, his decision is reasonable as the orthography of the text is witnessed by the author?s corrections...

  6. Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

    2012-10-01

    Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

  7. Maximizing the detection of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, T.; Albrecht, S.; Koschny, D.; Drolshagen, G.

    2014-07-01

    Planetary bodies with a perihelion equal or less than 1.3 astronomical units (au) are called near-Earth objects (NEOs). These objects are divided into 4 sub-families, two of them cross Earth's orbit and may be a potential hazard for the planet. The Tunguska event and the incident in Chelyabinsk last year have shown the devastating destructiveness of NEOs with a size of only approximately 40 and 20 meters, respectively. To predict and identify further threats, telescopic NEO surveys currently extend our knowledge of the population of these objects. Today (March 2014) approximately 10,700 NEOs are known. Based on an extrapolation of the current population, Bottke et al. (2002) predict a total number of N?(1.0±0.5)×10^{8} NEOs up to an absolute magnitude of H = 30.5 mag. Additionally, Bottke et al. (2002) computed a de-biased model of the expected orbital elements distribution of the NEOs. They have investigated the theoretical distribution of NEOs by a dynamical simulation, following the orbital evolution of these objects from several source regions. Based on both models we performed simulations of the detectability of the theoretical NEO population for certain telescopes with certain properties. The goal of these simulations is to optimize the search strategies of NEO surveys. Our simulation models the optical telescope attributes (main and secondary mirror size, optical throughput, field-of-view), the electronics (CCD Camera, pixel size, quantum efficiency, gain, exposure time, pixel binning, dark / bias noise, Signal-to-Noise ratio), atmospheric effects (seeing, sky background illumination) and the brightness and angular velocity of the NEOs. We present exemplarily results for two telescopes, currently developed by the European Space Agency for a future NEO survey: the so-called Fly-Eye Telescope, a 1-m effective aperture telescope with a field of view of 6.5×6.5 deg^2 and the Test-Bed Telescope, with an aperture of 56 cm and a field of view of 2.2×2.2 deg^2. The results of both telescopes can be easily adapted to other telescopes with similar properties. We show different observation strategies to maximize the detection rate of undiscovered NEOs depending on different telescope operation modes (exposure time, pixel binning) and different sky conditions (seeing, sky background brightness).

  8. Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Sykes, M. V.

    2005-12-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within a specified dynamical range having requisite composition and frequency. A minimum size requirement is estimated assuming CONOPs has an NEO harvester on station at L1. When the NEO launch window opens, the vehicle departs, rendezvousing within 30 days. Mining and processing operations ( 60 days) produces dirty water for the return trip ( 30 days) to L1 for final refinement into propellants. A market for propellant at L1 is estimated to be 700 mT /year: 250 mT for Mars missions, 100 mT for GTO services (Blair et al. 2002), 50 mT for L1 to lunar surface services, and 300 mT for bringing NEO-derived propellants to L1. Assuming an appropriate NEO has 5% recoverable water, exploited with 50% efficiency, 23000 mT/year must be processed. At 1500 kg/m3, this corresponds to one object per year with a radius of 15 meters, or two 5 m radius objects per month, of which it is estimated there are 10000 having delta-v < 4.2 km/s and 200/year of these available for short roundtrip missions to meet resource requirements (Jones et al. 2002). The importance of these potential resource objects should drive a requirement that next generation NEO detection systems (e.g., Pan-STARRS/LSST) be capable by 2010 of detecting dark NEOs fainter than V=24, allowing for identification 3 months before closest approach. Blair et al. 2002. Final Report to NASA Exploration Team, December 20, 2002. Jones et al. 2002. ASP Conf. Series Vol. 202 (M. Sykes, Ed.), pp. 141-154.

  9. SIMONE: Interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

    2006-10-01

    The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (smallsat intercept missions to objects near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of near Earth objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120 kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other on-board systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

  10. SIMONE: interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (Smallsat Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other onboard systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

  11. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et. al

    2010-01-01

    ?opera di Francesco Filelfo,? in Storia di Milano, vol. 7: L?et? sforzesca dal 1450 al 1500, Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1956, 545). Yet a neo-latin news 233 careful reading of Book 4 of the Odes reveals more than a simple hack.... The Valla that emerges from this perspective is different from the one commonly found in today?s scholarship: he is farther away from both Ockham?s nominalism and Academic skepticism than previously thought, and while Nauta acknowledges some interesting...

  12. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et all

    2010-01-01

    a neo-latin news 101 prominent place in Synesius?s Peri enupnion. Although No?l Aujoulat translates the Greek word eidolon as either ?fant?me? or ?image? in the 2004 Belles Lettres edition and French translation of Synesius?s work, Boriaud... of autobiographical texts and their interpretation, from Francesco Pe- trarca (chs. 2, 4-5) in the mid-fourteenth century to Justus Lipsius (ch. 26) at the beginning of the seventeenth. This spectrum includes other familiar names, as well as some that are less...

  13. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    of the encounter: Mehmed II died soon afterward and the Turkish expeditionary forces were forced to withdraw. Philippides ends his volume here, adding in appendices a French text of the Tetaldi document, a Greek and Italian version of the aman-name granted... Oregon University, and J. Max Patrick, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Graduate School, New York University. NEO-LATIN NEWS ? A Lexicon to the Latin Text of the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772). Edited by John Chadwick...

  14. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2004-01-01

    the major texts of Greek antiq- uity: Venetiae ? Athenae alterae ? dici possunt, propter litteras graecas (vi), as one of Aldus?s associates put it. The essays in this volume grew from a conference devoted to this theme. After a brief preface... that there are problems in the extensive citations of Latin texts in NEO-LATIN NEWS 315 the endnotes: there are passages in which the Latin given cannot be made sense of as is, and at times the notes do not seem to cor- respond to the assertions made in the text. Still...

  15. Justification of NEO impact mitigation activities by risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritzner, C.; Fasoulas, S.

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of impacts of near-Earth objects (NEOs) on Earth is a typical high-consequence and low-probability risk. The relevance of this threat is often unrecognised by governments and therefore proposals for activities on NEO impact mitigation are frequently rejected. The Risk Management approach clearly categorises this risk as a "high-consequence - low-probability" risk, which requires at least "moderate" attention. The result of this analysis is that current world wide expenditures to prepare for the NEO impact threat (i.e. NEO search, orbit tracking, analysis of mitigation methods, etc.) are comparably low and should be increased significantly. The maximum expenditure estimates as defined by the Risk Management approach are given.

  16. SIMONE: A fleet of Near-Earth Object rendezvous microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. F.; Wells, N. S.; Ball, A. J.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Perozzi, E.; Townend, M.; Walker, R. G.; Zarnecki, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    The SIMONE (Spacecraft Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth) concept has recently been developed as part of an ESA-funded study (Near Earth Objects Space Mission Preparation). The SIMONE study, led by QinetiQ, with scientific aspects led by the Open University's Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, is to help understand the diversity of the NEO population using a fleet of microsatellite-class (~120 kg) interplanetary spacecraft with solar electric propulsion. The low cost approach (<50 MEuro for the first and 30 MEuro for subsequent spacecraft) allows a fleet of spacecraft to be deployed for the budget of a typical interplanetary mission. Each spacecraft will rendezvous with a different Near-Earth Object to perform key physical, morphological and compositional measurements relevant to NEO risk assessment as well as scientific investigation. We present the main features of the spacecraft design, measurement objectives, payload, target NEOs and mission operations.

  17. Neo-Lamarckian medicine.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Root

    2004-01-01

    Darwinian medicine is the treatment of disease based on evolution. The underlying assumption of Darwinian medicine is that traits are coded by genes, which are often assumed to be sequences of DNA nucleotides. The quantitative genetic ramification of this perspective is that traits, including disease susceptibility, are either caused by genes or by the environment, with genotype-by-environment interactions usually considered statistical artefacts. I emphasize also examining those epigenetic signals that can be altered by environmental perturbations and then transmitted to subsequent generations. Although seldom studied, environmentally-alterable meiotically-heritable epigenetic signals exist and provide a mechanism underlying genotype-by-environment interactions. Environment of a parent can affect its descendants by heritably altering epigenetic signals. Neo-Lamarckian medicine is the application of these evolutionary epigenetic notions to diseases and could have enormous public health and environmental policy implications. If industrial contaminants adversely affect organisms by meiotically-heritably altering their epigenetic signals, then cleaning up these contaminants will not remedy the problem. Once contaminants have adversely altered an individual's epigenetic signals, this harm will be transmitted to future generations even if they are not exposed to the contaminant. Exposure to environmental shocks such as free radicals or other carcinogens can alter cytosine methylation patterns on regulatory genes. This can cause cancer by up-regulating genes for cell division or by down-regulating tumour suppressor genes. Environmentally-alterable meiotically-heritable epigenetic signals could also underlie other diseases, such as diabetes, Prader-Willi syndrome, and many complex diseases. If environmentally-altered meiotically-heritable epigenetic effects are widespread - which is an important open empirical question - they have the potential to alter paradigmatic views of evolutionary medicine and the putative dichotomy of nature versus nurture. Neo-Lamarckian medicine would thereby shift emphasis from cure to prevention of diseases. PMID:14962644

  18. The Undiscovered Country: How Many Low-Delta-V Near-Earth Objects Remain to be Found?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis

    2014-11-01

    Low delta-v near-Earth objects (NEOs) are of great interest as targets for science and human missions, for possible retrieval to cis-lunar space and as potential resource targets for both exploration and commercial uses. This interest stems from the exponential nature of the rocket equation that imposes a harsh mass penalty on any mission to a higher delta-v. We have compared the known NEO population from the IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC) with the NEOSSat-1 model residence times for the NEO population (Greenstreet & Gladman, 2012) to assess how many undiscovered NEOs there are as a function of H magnitude and delta-v. We find that the median of known NEOs is at lower delta-v (7.3 km/s) than the model population (9.8 km/s), suggesting a bias toward detecting lower delta-v NEOs. To the precision of our data, which is as low as 40% for the 300-500 m diameter (D) objects, the bulk of the larger D>300 m NEOs have been found from delta-v<10.3 km/s. However in the 50 < D < 300 m range there are tens of thousands of delta-v < 10.3 km/s to be found. We examine the total number of undiscovered NEOs as a function of delta-v and find that to find at least 100 now unknown NEOs requires a threshold delta-v of 5.7 km/s, while to find at least 1000 of them requires a threshold delta-v of 6.2 km/s. These numbers can be used to determine mission delta-v requirements for a given number of suitable targets, that will likely be restricted by other criteria (size, composition, spin state) to a few percent of the total population.

  19. Secondary Star Formation in a Population III Object

    E-print Network

    Hajime Susa; Masayuki Umemura

    2006-04-20

    We explore the possibility of subsequent star formation after a first star forms in a Pop III object, by focusing on the radiation hydrodynamic (RHD) feedback brought by ionizing photons as well as H2 dissociating photons. For the purpose, we perform three-dimensional RHD simulations, where the radiative transfer of ionizing photons and H2 dissociating photons from a first star is self-consistently coupled with hydrodynamics based on a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. As a result, it is shown that density peaks above a threshold density can keep collapsing owing to the shielding of H2 dissociating radiation by an H2 shell formed ahead of a D-type ionization front. But, below the threshold density, an M-type ionization front accompanied by a shock propagates, and density peaks are radiation hydrodynamically evaporated by the shock. The threshold density is dependent on the distance from a source star, which is $\\approx 10^2 cm^{-3}$ for the source distance of 30pc. Taking into consideration that the extent of a Pop III object is $\\approx 100$pc and density peaks within it have the density of $10^{2-4}$cm$^{-3}$, it is concluded that the secondary star formation is allowed in the broad regions in a Pop III object.

  20. Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.

    PubMed

    Remo, John L

    2004-05-01

    Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

  1. Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  2. Optimization of deflection of a big NEO through impact with a small one.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  3. Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

  4. Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic…

  5. Searching for Astroids: Modifying the LSST MOPS Pipeline to Find NEOs in DECam/Blanco Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Trilling, D. E.; Fuentes, C.; Allen, L.; Axelrod, T. S.; Larson, S. M.; Christensen, E.; DECam NEO Survey Team

    2013-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs), Solar System bodies that pass close to the Earth, are of great interest to both the scientific and impact hazard communities. The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) pipeline was designed to find NEOs in Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-STARRS 1 data. However, by modifying several of the settings in MOPS it is possible to use it on NEO survey data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope. We tested MOPS’ capabilities on synthetic data sets that contain implanted NEOs and noise and determined the limits of MOPS’ effectiveness in terms of noise, NEO sky velocity, and so on. MOPS will not only be a valuable tool for the DECam and Spitzer surveys but these projects will also serve as an opportunity to test MOPS on real data before construction of LSST begins. Funded by the NSF through grant number AST-1004107

  6. Infrared Detection and Characterization of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, M. P.; Price, S. D.; Tedesco, E. F.

    1998-09-01

    Infrared detection from space offers an invaluable adjunct to ground based visible searches for the discovery and characterization of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The known Near Earth Objects are predominately highly reflective, presumably due to a discovery bias against dark objects inherent in visual surveys. For a given diameter, dark objects are at least a factor of four fainter in the visual than those with high albedo. Various analyses argue that the population of dark objects among the NEOs should be at least as great as the highly reflective objects. In the mid-infrared (defined to be between 5 and 35 mu m) the flux difference between high and low albedo objects is relatively small, with slightly more flux coming from the dark object. Passive emission from objects located in the inner solar system peaks in the mid-infrared as the natural consequence of the object being in thermal equilibrium with the incident sunlight An infrared NEO survey compensates for the bias of visible searches to preferentially discover high albedo objects. Additionally, visual to infrared colors of NEOs are markedly different from those of most stars. This provides a basis for a bulk filter that significantly reduces the onboard signal processing requirements for a space-based system. Infrared observations also reduce the uncertainty in estimating the size, and subsequently the mass, of an NEO. A geometric albedo must be assumed in order to calculate a diameter from the single band visual photometry obtained during discovery or follow-up astrometry. The estimated size is thus quite uncertain owing to the order of magnitude range in NEO geometric albedos. The modeling assumptions needed to convert an infrared observation into a diameter are more tightly constrained. An infrared observation combined with visual photometry provides the requisite information to accurately determine both the albedo and size. Since the estimate of the NEO mass depends on volume, the determinations of NEO mass from infrared derived diameters are about an order of magnitude more certain than that estimated from visible photometry.

  7. Covariance-based maneuver optimization for NEO threats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Object (NEO) conjunction analysis and mitigation problem is fundamentally the same as Earth-centered space traffic control, albeit on a larger scale and in different temporal and spatial frames. The Aerospace Corporation has been conducting conjunction detection and collision avoidance analysis for a variety of satellite systems in the Earth environment for over 3 years. As part of

  8. The population of natural Earth satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Jedicke, Robert

    2012-03-01

    We have for the first time calculated the population characteristics of the Earth’s irregular natural satellites (NESs) that are temporarily captured from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. The steady-state NES size-frequency and residence-time distributions were determined under the dynamical influence of all the massive bodies in the Solar System (but mainly the Sun, Earth, and Moon) for NEOs of negligible mass. To this end, we compute the NES capture probability from the NEO population as a function of the latter’s heliocentric orbital elements and combine those results with the current best estimates for the NEO size-frequency and orbital distribution. At any given time there should be at least one NES of 1-m diameter orbiting the Earth. The average temporarily-captured orbiter (TCO; an object that makes at least one revolution around the Earth in a co-rotating coordinate system) completes (2.88 ± 0.82) rev around the Earth during a capture event that lasts (286 ± 18) d. We find a small preference for capture events starting in either January or July. Our results are consistent with the single known natural TCO, 2006 RH120, a few-meter diameter object that was captured for about a year starting in June 2006. We estimate that about 0.1% of all meteors impacting the Earth were TCOs.

  9. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

  10. Compliance with the European and national nutritional objectives in a Mediterranean population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Bondia-Pons; Ll Serra-Majem; A I Castellote; M C López-Sabater

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To analyze compliance with the current European and Spanish nutritional objectives in a representative sample from Catalonia, a Spanish Mediterranean region; and to examine relationships between diet and plasma fatty acid composition.Design:Cross-sectional nutritional survey.Setting:Population based random sample derived from the Catalan Nutrition Survey.Subjects:A total of 516 healthy adult men (n=203) and women (n=313).Methods:Dietary habits were assessed by means of a

  11. Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations.

    PubMed

    Schlottfeldt, S; Walter, M E M T; L F Carvalho, A C P; Soares, T N; Telles, M P C; Loyola, R D; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis. PMID:26125883

  12. The NEO-FFI in Multiple Sclerosis: Internal Consistency, Factorial Validity and Correspondence Between Self and Informant Reports

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Eben S.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H. B.

    2010-01-01

    Personality assessment is a potentially important component of clinical and empirical work with neurological patients because (1) individual differences in personality may be associated with different neurological outcomes and (2) central nervous system changes may give rise to alteration in personality. In order for personality assessment to be useful to clinicians and researchers, the tests must be reliable and valid, as self-report measures require certain baseline levels of comprehension and insight, both of which can be compromised by cerebral disease. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the widely used NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a group of 419 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to determine if the NEO-FFI is reliable and valid in this population. Results showed adequate estimates of internal consistency, factorial validity and self-informant correlation that support its use with MS patients. Implications, limitations of the current study and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20484711

  13. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  14. Near Earth Object Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) offers this Webpage (for another similar page from JPL, see the March 13, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) containing relevant information on Near Earth Objects (NEO). The site includes current tables with tracking data for potentially hazardous asteroids and their approaches towards earth, detailed information of recent NEO discoveries, and images of the objects themselves. An FAQ section and a variety of related links are also available here.

  15. The orbital distribution of Near-Earth Objects inside Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Ngo, Henry; Gladman, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Canada's Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat), set to launch in early 2012, will search for and track Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), tuning its search to best detect objects with a < 1.0 AU. In order to construct an optimal pointing strategy for NEOSSat, we needed more detailed information in the a < 1.0 AU region than the best current model (Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S. [2002]. Icarus 156, 399-433) provides. We present here the NEOSSat-1.0 NEO orbital distribution model with larger statistics that permit finer resolution and less uncertainty, especially in the a < 1.0 AU region. We find that Amors = 30.1 ± 0.8%, Apollos = 63.3 ± 0.4%, Atens = 5.0 ± 0.3%, Atiras (0.718 < Q < 0.983 AU) = 1.38 ± 0.04%, and Vatiras (0.307 < Q < 0.718 AU) = 0.22 ± 0.03% of the steady-state NEO population. Vatiras are a previously undiscussed NEO population clearly defined in our integrations, whose orbits lie completely interior to that of Venus. Our integrations also uncovered the unexpected production of retrograde orbits from main-belt asteroid sources; this retrograde NEA population makes up ?0.1% of the steady-state NEO population. The relative NEO impact rate onto Mercury, Venus, and Earth, as well as the normalized distribution of impact speeds, was calculated from the NEOSSat-1.0 orbital model under the assumption of a steady-state. The new model predicts a slightly higher Mercury impact flux.

  16. ExploreNEOs III: Size, Albedo, And Thermal History Of 58+ Low-deltaV NEOs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Mueller; M. Delbo; D. E. Trilling; B. Bhattacharya; W. F. Bottke; S. Chesley; J. P. Emery; G. G. Fazio; A. W. Harris; J. L. Hora; A. Mainzer; M. Mommert; B. Penprase; H. A. Smith; T. B. Spahr; J. A. Stansberry; C. A. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Space missions to NEOs are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently President Obama announced the goal of a manned mission to an NEO. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge on the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor

  17. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  18. The Size Distribution of Very Small Near Earth Objects As Measured by Warm Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Hora, J.; Burt, B.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Fuentes, C.; Harris, A.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Smith, H.

    2013-10-01

    We have carried out a pilot search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with 84 hours of Warm Spitzer time in April, 2013. Results are obtained through a multi-step process: implanting synthetic objects in the Spitzer data stream; processing the Spitzer data; linking non-sidereal sources to form plausible orbits; validating candidates; determining orbits; and determining diameters through thermal modeling. Each of these steps is well-tested on both synthetic populations and real data. Through these steps, we expect to be able to constrain the NEO size distribution down to ~10 meters (at present, through ExploreNEOs and NEOWISE, the size distribution is well-known only to 100 meters). We will present results from this preliminary data and prospects for a large or very large survey that could be carried out in future cycles.

  19. Multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering of microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-objective optimization (MOO) involves optimization problems with multiple objectives. Generally, theose objectives is used to estimate very different aspects of the solutions, and these aspects are often in conflict with each other. MOO first gets a Pareto set, and then looks for both commonality and systematic variations across the set. For the large-scale data sets, heuristic search algorithms such as EA combined with MOO techniques are ideal. Newly DNA microarray technology may study the transcriptional response of a complete genome to different experimental conditions and yield a lot of large-scale datasets. Biclustering technique can simultaneously cluster rows and columns of a dataset, and hlep to extract more accurate information from those datasets. Biclustering need optimize several conflicting objectives, and can be solved with MOO methods. As a heuristics-based optimization approach, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulate the movements of a bird flock finding food. The shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFL) is a population-based cooperative search metaphor combining the benefits of the local search of PSO and the global shuffled of information of the complex evolution technique. SFL is used to solve the optimization problems of the large-scale datasets. Results This paper integrates dynamic population strategy and shuffled frog-leaping algorithm into biclustering of microarray data, and proposes a novel multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering (MODPSFLB) algorithm to mine maximum bicluesters from microarray data. Experimental results show that the proposed MODPSFLB algorithm can effectively find significant biological structures in terms of related biological processes, components and molecular functions. Conclusions The proposed MODPSFLB algorithm has good diversity and fast convergence of Pareto solutions and will become a powerful systematic functional analysis in genome research. PMID:22759615

  20. De-biased populations of Kuiper belt objects from the deep ecliptic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gulbis, A. A. S. [The Southern African Large Telescope and South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town, 7935 (South Africa); Elliot, J. L. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Buie, M. W. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, S San Francisco Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Wasserman, L. H. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF {sub 32} to a minimum of 1.5 × 10{sup –7} for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU {sub 185}. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of ? = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 ? H ? 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power law with ? = 0.42 ± 0.02. This is consistent with a knee in the H-distribution around H = 7.2 as reported elsewhere. Based on the Classical-derived magnitude distribution, the total number of objects (H ? 7) in each class is: Classical (2100 ± 300 objects), Scattered (2800 ± 400), 3:2 (570 ± 80), 2:1 (400 ± 50), 5:2 (270 ± 40), 7:4 (69 ± 9), 5:3 (60 ± 8). The independent estimate for the number of Centaurs in the same H range is 13 ± 5. If instead all objects are divided by inclination into 'Hot' and 'Cold' populations, following Fraser et al., we find that ?{sub Hot} = 0.90 ± 0.02, while ?{sub Cold} = 1.32 ± 0.02, in good agreement with that work.

  1. Dust-tolerant mechanism design for lunar & NEO surface systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Herman; Shazad Sadick; Michael Maksymuk; Philip Chu; Lee Carlson

    2011-01-01

    NASA has grand goals including exploring extraterrestrial bodies such as near-earth objects (NEOs) in order to better understand our origins as well as protect Earth from space-based threats. 1 Robotic precursor missions and eventually manned exploration will require advanced dust-tolerant mechanisms if long-life and low-risk missions are to be attained. Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation (Honeybee) has spent the past

  2. The ISHTAR Mission: Probing the Internal Structure of NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. Antonietta; D'Arrigo, Paolo; Ball, P.; Doressoundiram, Alain; Dotto, Elisabetta; Kofman, W.; Orosei, Roberto; Patzold, Martin; Perozzi, Ettore

    2005-01-01

    ISHTAR (Internal Structure High-resolution Tomography by Asteroid Rendezvous) is a mission developed through ESA General Studies programme. The study led by Astrium in cooperation with several scientific institutes throughout Europe has produced a spacecraft design capable of performing multiple asteroid rendezvous and to characterize them with a focussed set of instruments. The ISHTAR concept is centred around a Radar Tomography payload able to probe the internal structure of a small asteroid to depths of 300-1000m. This instrument uses low-frequency radio waves that can penetrate deep inside solid rock and records the reflected echoes caused by changes in the internal structure (permittivity). By combining these echo signals it is possible to reconstruct a 3D image of the asteroid interior. The radar payload is combined with a multispectral imager for measurement of the surface properties & surface geology an IR spectrometer for mineralogical characterization and a radio science experiment for accurate mass and density determination. The ISHTAR mission is designed to visit at least 2 NEOs one stony and one carbonaceous in composition the most common among the NEO population. This unique combination of instruments and multiple rendezvous will allow the first detailed physical characterization of the NEO population.

  3. The Ishtar Mission: Probing the Internal Structure of Neos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, Paolo; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Ball, Andrew; Doressoundiram, Alain; Dotto, Elisabetta; Kofman, Wlodek; Orosei, Roberto; Pätzold, Martin; Perozzi, Ettore

    ISHTAR (Internal Structure High-resolution Tomography by Asteroid Rendezvous) is a mission developed through ESA General Studies programme. The study led by Astrium in cooperation with several scientific institutes throughout Europe has produced a spacecraft design capable of performing multiple asteroid rendezvous and to characterize them with a focussed set of instruments. The ISHTAR concept is centred around a Radar Tomography payload able to probe the internal structure of a small asteroid to depths of 300-1000m. This instrument uses low-frequency radio waves that can penetrate deep inside solid rock and records the reflected echoes caused by changes in the internal structure (permittivity). By combining these echo signals it is possible to reconstruct a 3D image of the asteroid interior. The radar payload is combined with a multispectral imager for measurement of the surface properties & surface geology an IR spectrometer for mineralogical characterization and a radio science experiment for accurate mass and density determination. The ISHTAR mission is designed to visit at least 2 NEOs one stony and one carbonaceous in composition the most common among the NEO population. This unique combination of instruments and multiple rendezvous will allow the first detailed physical characterization of the NEO population.

  4. Neo-Lamarckian medicine Root Gorelick*

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    Neo-Lamarckian medicine Root Gorelick* School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA Received 18 August 2003; accepted 4 November 2003 Summary Darwinian medicine. Neo-Lamarckian medicine would thereby shift emphasis from cure to prevention of diseases. c 2003

  5. NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

  6. Discovery of M class objects among the near-earth asteroid population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, E. F.; Gradie, J.

    1987-03-01

    The Earth-approaching asteroids 1986 DA and 1986 EB are found to belong to the M class of asteroids. These are the first of this class to be identified among the Aten, Apollo, and Amor populations. The inferred composition of the M class asteroids is primary metallic iron. If this is indeed the case, then current models for meteorite production based on strength-related collisional processes on asteroidal surfaces predict that these two objects alone should produce about 1% of all meteorite falls. The relative abundances of classes C, S, M, and "other" among the near-Earth asteroid population are remarkably similar to those found in the inner asteroid belt between the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances, i.e., between 2.50 and 2.82 AU. This dominating presence of the three major asteroid taxonomic classes among the Earth-approaching population argues strongly in favor of an asteroidal source for most such objects. This conclusion leads to the suggestion that "extinct" comet nuclei, if of a composition other than that found in the asteroid belt, are rare, if they exist at all.

  7. INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  8. Intermediate-age Stellar Populations in Classical Quasi-stellar Object Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canalizo, Gabriela; Stockton, Alan

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z ~ 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  9. The utilization of neural nets in populating an object-oriented database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms (i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

  10. LSST: Comprehensive NEO Detection, Characterization, and Orbits

    E-print Network

    Z. Ivezic; J. A. Tyson; M. Juric; J. Kubica; A. Connolly; F. Pierfederici; A. W. Harris; E. Bowell; the LSST Collaboration

    2007-01-17

    (Abridged) The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. Solar System mapping is one of the four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. In a continuous observing campaign of pairs of 15 second exposures of its 3,200 megapixel camera, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be visited about 1000 times. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Equally important, due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. Detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from LSST site at Cerro Pachon, shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, by optimizing sky coverage, the ongoing simulations suggest that the LSST system, with its first light in 2013, can reach the Congressional mandate of cataloging 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by 2020.

  11. Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office performed an assessment of the feasibility of using a near-term solar sail propulsion system to enable a single spacecraft to perform serial rendezvous operations at multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) within six years of launch on a small-to-moderate launch vehicle. The study baselined the use of the sail technology demonstrated in the mid-2000 s by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project and is scheduled to be demonstrated in space by 2014 as part of the NASA Technology Demonstration Mission Program. The study ground rules required that the solar sail be the only new technology on the flight; all other spacecraft systems and instruments must have had previous space test and qualification. The resulting mission concept uses an 80-m X 80-m 3-axis stabilized solar sail launched by an Athena-II rocket in 2017 to rendezvous with 1999 AO10, Apophis and 2001 QJ142. In each rendezvous, the spacecraft will perform proximity operations for approximately 30 days. The spacecraft science payload is simple and lightweight; it will consist of only the multispectral imager flown on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission to 433 Eros and 253 Mathilde. Most non-sail spacecraft systems are based on the Messenger mission spacecraft. This paper will describe the objectives of the proposed mission, the solar sail technology to be employed, the spacecraft system and subsystems, as well as the overall mission profile.

  12. LSST: Comprehensive NEO detection, characterization, and orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne

    2014-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has Solar System mapping as one of its four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. We will describe detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from Cerro Pachon in Chile, the LSST site, which shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, simulations also show that LSST can reach the completeness of 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by optimizing observing cadence andextending the survey lifetime to 12 years. In addition to detecting and determining orbits for these PHAs, LSST will also provide valuable data on their physical characteristics through accurate color and variability measurements, which can be used to determine approximate taxonomical types, better size estimates by constraining albedos, rotation periods, and shape characteristics; thus constraining PHA properties relevant for risk mitigation strategies.

  13. NEOShield - A global approach to NEO Impact Threat Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    NEOShield is a European-Union funded project coordinated by the German Aero-space Center, DLR, to address near-Earth object (NEO) impact hazard mitigation issues. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The project is funded for a period of 3.5 years from January 2012 with a total of 5.8 million euros. The primary aim of the project is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. The NEOShield work plan consists of scientific investigations into the nature of the impact hazard and the physical properties of NEOs, and technical and engineering studies of practical means of deflecting NEOs. There exist many ideas for asteroid deflection techniques, many of which would require considerable scientific and technological development. The emphasis of NEOShield is on techniques that are feasible with current technology, requiring a minimum of research and development work. NEOShield aims to provide detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions, targeting NEOs of the kind most likely to trigger the first space-based mitigation action. Most of the asteroid deflection techniques proposed to date require physical contact with the threatening object, an example being the kinetic impactor. NEOShield includes research into the mitigation-relevant physical properties of NEOs on the basis of remotely-sensed astronomical data and the results of rendezvous missions, the observational techniques required to efficiently gather mitigation-relevant data on the dynamical state and physical properties of a threatening NEO, and laboratory investigations using gas guns to fire projectiles into asteroid regolith analog materials. The gas-gun investigations enable state-of-the-art numerical models to be verified at small scales. Computer simulations at realistic NEO scales are used to investigate how NEOs with a range of properties would respond to a pulse of energy applied in a deflection attempt. The technical work includes the development of crucial technologies, such as the autonomous guidance of a kinetic impactor to a precise point on the surface of the target, and the detailed design of realistic missions for the purpose of demonstrating the applicability and feasibility of one or more of the techniques investigated. Theoretical work on the blast deflection method of mitigation is designed to probe the circumstances in which this last line of defense may be the only viable option and the issues relating to its deployment. A global response campaign roadmap will be developed based on realistic scenarios presented, for example, by the discovery of an object such as 99942 Apophis or 2011 AG5 on a threatening orbit. The work will include considerations of the timeline of orbit knowledge and impact probability development, reconnaissance observations and fly-by or rendezvous missions, the political decision to mount a mitigation attempt, and the design, development, and launch of the mitigation mission. Collaboration with colleagues outside the NEOShield Consortium involved in complementary activities (e.g. under the auspices of the UN, NASA, or ESA) is being sought in order to establish a broad international strategy. We present a brief overview of the history and planned scope of the project, and progress made to date. The NEOShield project (http://www.neoshield.net) has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 282703.

  14. Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria galericulata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Rodríguez; María C. de la Torre; Benjamín Rodríguez; Pilar Gómez-Serranillos

    1996-01-01

    Two new neo-clerodane diterpenoids, scutegalin C and D, have been isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria galericulata. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic means as (13S, 19R)-6?-acetoxy-4?,18-epoxy-7?-tigloyloxy-neo-cleroda-(19-O-tigloyl)-19,2?; 16,15-dihemiacetal (scutegalin C) and (13S,19R)-6?-acetoxy-4?,18-epoxy-neo-cleroda-(19-O-tigloyl)-19,2?, 16,15-dihemiacetal (scutegalin D). The absolute stereochemistry of scutegallin C was determined by chemical correlation with the already

  15. Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) – objectives and protocol

    PubMed Central

    Odili, Augustine N.; Ogedengbe, John O.; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O.; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

  16. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. ? v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow us to obtain rotational light curves for objects down to V˜22, visible spectra down to V˜21, and near-IR spectra down to V˜19. MANOS primarily focuses on targets that are recently discovered. We employ a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable follow-up characterization within days or weeks after a target of interest is discovered. We will present a MANOS status report with an emphasis on noteworthy observations and ongoing efforts to achieve fully transparency by making target lists and data products publicly available online.

  17. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  18. NEOWISE: Proposed Discovery of Near-Earth Objects in the Infrared by the WISE Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Mainzer, A. K.; Walker, R. G.; Wright, E. L.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; WISE Science Team

    2009-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer will make hundreds of thousands of incidental detections of asteroids. Main belt asteroids as small as 3 km in diameter and hundreds of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) as small as a few hundred meters in diameter will be above WISE's detection thresholds at 12 and 23 microns wavelength. Standard data products will include accurate positions and photometry for previously known solar system objects. NEOWISE is a proposal to identify previously unknown moving object candidates and report them promptly enough to the Minor Planet Center that they can be recovered with ground-based telescopes during their discovery apparitions. The resulting consolidation of orbital elements and measurement of visual-band apparent magnitudes will enhance knowledge of asteroid diameters and enable albedos to be determined. The sampling of the NEO population by WISE will be relatively insensitive to albedo, and therefore can be used to describe the distribution of sizes of NEOs without albedo bias. WISE's discovery tracklets of asteroids will contain 8-12 positions spanning 36 hours near the ecliptic, with better coverage at higher ecliptic latitudes. The 12 samples over 36 hours will be good for determining approximate rotation periods and IR lightcurve amplitudes. WISE will survey on great circles at 90 deg from the sun vector, coincidentally including the "sweet spots" for discovering Potentially Hazardous Asteroids. The apparent magnitudes of NEOs when detected by WISE will run to V=21 for albedos typical of NEOs. Recovery of NEOs within 10-14 days of WISE's discoveries should not require searching more than 3 square degrees. Another NEOWISE enhancement will enable access to the images and lists of extracted sources from the single-epoch WISE exposures. This will provide pre-discovery astrometry and physical data for solar system objects that are discovered after WISE's standard data processing is complete.

  19. EROs found behind lensing clusters. I. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schaerer; A. Hempel; E. Egami; R. Pelló; J. Richard; J.-F. Le Borgne; J.-P. Kneib; M. Wise; F. Boone

    2007-01-01

    Context: On the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects. Aims: Determining the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected, extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114 (Richard et al. 2006, A&A, 456, 861). Comparison with properties of related

  20. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    PubMed

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects. PMID:26036022

  1. Nasa s near earth object program office

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Yeomans; A. Chamberlin; S. Chesley; P. Chodas; J. Giorgini; M. Keesey

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, NASA formed the Near-Earth Object Program Office at JPL to provide a focal point for NASA's efforts to discover and monitor the motions of asteroids and comets that can approach the Earth. This office was charged with 1.) facilitating communication between the near-Earth object (NEO) community and the public, 2.) helping coordinate the search efforts for NEOs, 3.)

  2. The near-Earth objects segment of the european space situational awareness program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Drolshagen; D. Koschny; N. Bobrinsky

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the SSA-NEO segment and presents its content, capabilities, and basic features. The SSA-NEO\\u000a segment is intended to estimate risks of collision of the known NEO objects with the Earth, to observe these objects, and\\u000a to support appropriate programs of international cooperation and measures of reducing this hazard.

  3. Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids

    E-print Network

    Elvis, Martin

    Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ...

  4. Near-Earth objects: Origins and need of physical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellino, A.; Zappala, V.; Tedesco, E. F.

    2002-12-01

    Important improvements have been made in recent years in understanding the likely origins of near-Earth objects (NEOs), and extensive observational campaigns are ongoing in order to assess their current inventory. From these studies we can hope to obtain a much better understanding of the different populations of minor bodies, their relationship with meteorites, and the overall history of the solar system. At the same time, NEOs are important also in terms of impact hazard. Both the purely scientific issues, and the more pragmatic point of view focused on the need of developing credible strategies of impact mitigation, require a major effort in order to improve the current knowledge of the physical properties of these objects.

  5. Low solar elongation searches for NEO: a deep sky test and its implications for survey strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Boattini; A. Milani; G. F. Gronchi; T. Spahr; G. B. Valsecchi

    2007-01-01

    A survey for NEOs aiming at 90% completeness for a given size range cannot ignore that a significant fraction of the population passes in the neighborhood of opposition either never or very rarely or only in very poor observing conditions. Thus, a fraction of the available telescope time needs to be used at low solar elongations in the so called

  6. Neo-materialist theory and the temporal relationship between income inequality and longevity change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Clarkwest

    2008-01-01

    This study uses a neo-materialist perspective to develop theoretical predictions regarding temporal ties between income inequality and change in population health. The argument focuses on the relationship between income inequality and adoption of longevity-enhancing innovations. It asserts that longevity change should be influenced by preexisting levels of income inequality and that, consequently, income inequality can cause differential longevity improvement across

  7. Marco Polo, a JAXA-ESA sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.

    2009-04-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). It is proposed to be performed in collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA). Both JAXA and ESA are currently performing Phase-A studies for this mission; within ESA, the mission is studied as part of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. The main objective of the mission is to return unmodified material from a primitive NEO to the Earth to allow its accurate analysis in ground-based laboratories. These primitive NEOs are part of the small body population that represents the leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago and carry records both of the Solar System's birth and early phases. In addition, the mission will allow studying the geological evolution and physical properties of small bodies. Marco Polo will provide the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the terrestrial planets and advance our understanding of some of the fundamental issues in the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, the Earth and possibly life itself. Determining the physical properties of a NEO will also help assessing mitigation strategies for the impact risk of such an object on the Earth. This presentation will focus on the ESA side of the assessment study. The technical development status in Europe will be presented.

  8. Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2014-11-01

    NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

  9. Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

    NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express) and VIR (on DAWN).

  10. The double helix of cultural assimilationism and neo-liberalism: citizenship in contemporary governmentality.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Willem; Van Houdt, Friso

    2010-12-01

    In this article the recent transformations of citizenship in the Netherlands are analysed in relation to a developing form of governmentality. We regard citizenship as a state regulated technique of in- and exclusion and a crucial instrument in the management of populations. Taking the Dutch contexts of immigration and integration as our case, we argue that cultural assimilationism and neo-liberalism appear in a double helix: they combine to form a new governmental strategy we call neo-liberal communitarianism. Neo-liberal communitarianism is the underlying rationale of a population management that operates both in an individualizing (citizenship as individual participation and responsibility) and a de-individualizing way ('community' at various aggregate and localized levels as frame of 'integration'). It thus combines a communitarian care of a Dutch culturally grounded national community - conceived as traditionally'enlightened' and 'liberal'- with a neo-liberal emphasis on the individual's responsibility to achieve membership of that community. 'Community' is thereby selectively seen as mobilized and present (when immigrant integration is concerned) or as latently present and still in need of mobilization (when indigenous Dutch are concerned). Concomitantly, a repressive responsibilization and a facilitative responsibilization are aimed at these two governmentally differentiated populations. PMID:21138428

  11. Neo-clerodane diterpenes from Teucrium fruticans.

    PubMed

    Coll, Josep; Tandrón, Yudelsy

    2004-02-01

    In addition to three out of the four previously reported neo-clerodanes already found in Teucrium fruticans (fruticolone, isofruticolone and 8 beta-hydroxyfruticolone), and 6-acetylteucjaponin B (isolated from T. scordium and T. grisebachii), four new neo-clerodanes, namely 7 beta-hydroxyfruticolone, 11-hydroxyfruticolone, deacetylfruticolone and 6-acetyl-10-hydroxyteucjaponin B were also isolated. The structures were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive NMR spectral studies (one- and two-dimensional experiments). Semi-prep-HPLC proved to be a convenient purification procedure, occasionally being followed by TLC. The new compounds were assayed against Spodoptera littoralis and two of them were shown to have potent antifeedant activity. PMID:14759529

  12. A concept of cost-saving space system designed for the detection of NEO's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugarov, Andrey; Shustov, Boris M.; Savanov, Igor

    A concept of space system designed for the detection of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) down to size of 100 m not later than 15-25 days before the possible collision with the Earth is described. The space system consists of one or two spacecrafts at low orbit. The main instrument is a wide-field survey telescope (0.75 m) with 7 deg field of view and mosaic detector. The survey speed of the system is one complete sky per day. In addition to the detection of NEOs the system will be capable to detect space debris and to carry out scientific research programs.

  13. The MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Tokunaga, A.; Bus, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. All spectroscopic observations obtained in this campaign are being made publicly available in near-real time.

  14. Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Smith, D. B.; Cook, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two spacecraft rendezvous with multiple NEOs. A two spacecraft mission mimics architecture for human explorers to use a mother ship to get from Earth to the NEO and a small body lander for in situ investigation on or close to the NEO.

  15. Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

  16. Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

  17. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  18. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

  19. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  20. NEO hazards : NEOShield and PoDET perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.; Bancelin, D.

    2014-04-01

    The Chelyabinsk event in 2013 has shown that asteroids - even of moderate size - must be considered as natural disasters that do present a non negligible risk to people and property. At an international level, several actions have been undertaken for developing awareness and warning strategies. The PoDET hub at IMCCE, for instance, encompasses research activities for orbit propagation and ephemerides of space debris, meteorite streams, and NEOs (asteroids, comets, meteoroids). For objects with diameters larger than approximately 100m the potential damage caused by an impact may warrant additional emergency measures, such as the implementation of a mitigation plan. Investigating such a scenario is the aim of the NEOShield FP7 project. In this contribution we present NEO related aspects of the PoDET and NEOShield programs. More specifically, we will discuss issues related to the target selection for an asteroid deflection demonstration mission as well as the post-mitigation orbit propagation for estimating possible changes in the impact risk of such target asteroids.

  1. Deflection of large near-earth objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1999-01-11

    The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

  2. Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria galericulata.

    PubMed

    Bozov, Petko I; Penchev, Plamen N; Coll, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Four neo-clerodane diterpenoids, neoajugapyrin A, scutegalerins A and B and scutecolumnin C have been isolated from the acetone extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria galericulata. Neoajugapyrin A and scutecolumnin C are reported in this species for the first time, whereas scutegalerins A and B are new compounds. NMR data of neoajugapyrin A ar e discussed i n detail t o support t he proposed revised structure of ajugapyrin A. PMID:24689211

  3. A Neo-Sex Chromosome That Drives Postzygotic Sex Determination in the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)

    PubMed Central

    Benatti, Thiago R.; Valicente, Fernando H.; Aggarwal, Rajat; Zhao, Chaoyang; Walling, Jason G.; Chen, Ming-Shun; Cambron, Sue E.; Schemerhorn, Brandon J.; Stuart, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual properties originated from the anomalous Hessian fly sex determination system in which postzygotic chromosome elimination is used to establish the sex-determining karyotypes. This system permitted the evolution of a master switch (Chromosome maintenance, Cm) that acts maternally. All of the offspring of females that carry Cm-associated neo-sex chromosomes attain a female-determining somatic karyotype and develop as females. Thus, the chromosomes act as maternal effect neo-W's, or W-prime (W?) chromosomes, where ZW? females mate with ZZ males to engender female-producing (ZW?) and male-producing (ZZ) females in equal numbers. Genetic mapping and physical mapping identified the inversions. Their distribution was determined in nine populations. Experimental matings established the association of the inversions with Cm and measured their recombination suppression. The inversions are the functional equivalent of the sciarid X-prime chromosomes. We speculate that W? chromosomes exist in a variety of species that produce unisexual broods. PMID:20026681

  4. EUCLIDEAN SHIFT-TWIST SYMMETRY IN POPULATION MODELS OF SELF-ALIGNING OBJECTS

    E-print Network

    Bressloff, Paul C

    words. cell alignment, actin cytoskeleton, animal aggregation, Euclidean symmetry, self- organization. Examples at the cellular and molecular levels are the alignment of mammalian fibroblast cells within a cell [22]. In order to investigate the important role of alignment in population survival

  5. On the non-uniform distribution of the angular elements of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-02-01

    We examine the angular distributions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which are often regarded as uniform. The apparent distribution of the longitude of ascending node, ?, is strongly affected by well-known seasonal effects in the discovery rate of NEOs. The deviation from the expected ?-periodicity in the apparent distribution of ? indicates that its intrinsic distribution is slightly enhanced along a mean direction, ??=111°; approximately 53% of NEOs have ? values within ±90° of ??. We also find that each subgroup of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects which cause different non-uniformities in the apparent distributions of their arguments of perihelion ?, and longitudes of perihelion ?. For their intrinsic distributions, our analysis reveals that the Apollo asteroids have non-uniform ? due to secular dynamics associated with inclination-eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors’ ? distribution is peaked towards the secularly forced eccentricity vector. The Apollos’ ? distribution is axial, favoring values near 0° and 180°; the two quadrants centered at 0° and 180° account for 55% of the Apollos’ ? values. The Amors’ ? distribution peaks near ??=4°; 61% of Amors have ? within ±90° of this peak. We show that these modest but statistically significant deviations from uniform random distributions of angular elements are owed to planetary perturbations, primarily Jupiter’s. It is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

  6. Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonemetti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Right Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, post-deflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  7. Efficiency tests for estimating the gas and stellar population parameters in Type 2 objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, N.; Popovi?, L. ?.; Bon, E.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the efficiency of estimating characteristics of stellar populations (SP) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission using ULySS code. To analyze simultaneously AGN and SP components in the integrated spectrum of Type 2 active galaxies, we modeled the featureless continuum (FC) and emission lines, and we used PEGASE.HR stellar population models provided by ULySS. In order to validate the method, we simulated over 7000 integrated spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Spectra were generated using different characteristics of the featureless AGN continuum, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spectral ranges, properties of emission lines and single stellar population (SSP) model whose initial mass function (IMF) and abundance pattern is similar to the solar neighborhood. Simulated spectra were fitted with ULySS to evaluate the ability of the method to extract SP and AGN properties. We found that the analysis with ULySS can efficiently restore the characteristics of SP in spectra of Seyfert 2 AGNs, where signal-to-noise ratio is higher than 20, and where SP contributes with more than 10% to the total flux. Degeneracies between AGN and SP parameters increase with increasing the AGN continuum fraction, which points out the importance of simultaneous fitting of the FC and SP contributions.

  8. Meteorite source regions as revealed by the near-Earth object population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, R.; DeMeo, F.; Burt, B.; Polishook, D.; Burbine, T.; Bus, S.; Tokunaga, A.; Birlan, M.

    2014-07-01

    Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1--3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We first evaluate these results within the framework of taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5,6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral and mineralogical analysis (e.g. [7,8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. The source regions evaluated are Mars Crossers, ?_6 resonance, 3:1 resonance, the Outer Belt, and Jupiter Family Comets. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the innermost main-belt regions. V-types are relatively equally balanced between ?_6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. Asteroid taxonomy classes interpreted as analogous to meteorites with primitive compositions, B- and C-types, show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. Most strongly indicated is a Jupiter family comet source for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying a pronounced likelihood that these ''asteroidal'' bodies are extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless ''X-type'' category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference; even though they lack albedo measurements, they may be interpreted as originating from among ''P-type'' primitive objects common in the outer belt. Finally the Xe-class of near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites, show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin (confirming [11]) by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and ?_6 resonance pathways.

  9. Deep Interior: Spacecraft Initiatives for Near-Earth Object Geophysical Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Huebner, W.; Kakuda, R.; Yeomans, D.

    2002-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a superlative sampling of protoplanetary materials from throughout the solar system. They also have come to focus in recent years as potential natural disasters in need of careful assessment - not only the determination of NEO populations and detailed orbits, but also an understanding of how they are put together, and how they will behave during the course of energetic surface operations (from penetrometry to human visitation to diversion). We describe a concept for a robust multiple-rendezvous science mission to three representative near-Earth objects including a dormant or extinct comet nucleus. Key features include solar electric propulsion, autonomous navigation, stereogrammetric imaging, plus dual-wavelength radio tomography from orbit and small cratering science experiments for material and dynamical studies. The cratering experiments (conducted by instrumented blast payloads) will serve as precursors to future landed seismic investigations, and will enable the construction of realistic simulation environments for lowering the risk of future landed NEO missions. Mission science goals include: (1) definitive test of the rubble pile hypothesis for asteroids, (2) definitive test of the mantling hypothesis for comets, and whether primitive materials inhabit their interior, and (3) definitive study of the depth and mobility of regolith. This mission can be delivered for under the NASA Discovery cost cap. Significant payload margins allow for the addition of auxiliary landed instruments (penetrometer/seismometer) at each NEO visited, in which case the existing cratering experiments would serve as seismic signals. This combination of multiple wavelength radar tomography and seismic analysis would be an especially powerful probe of NEO interiors.

  10. Intergalactic H_2 Photodissociation and the Soft UV Background Produced by Population III Objects

    E-print Network

    Benedetta Ciardi; Andrea Ferrara; Tom Abel

    1999-04-09

    We study the effects of the ionizing and dissociating photons produced by PopIII objects on the surrounding intergalactic medium. We find that the typical size of a H_2 photodissociated region, R_d ~ 1-5 kpc, is smaller than the mean distance between sources at z ~ 20-30, but larger than the ionized region by a factor depending on the detailed properties of the emission spectrum. This implies that clearing of intergalactic H_2 occurs before reionization of the universe is complete. In the same redshift range, the soft-UV background in the Lyman-Werner bands, when the intergalactic H and H_2 opacity is included, is found to be J_LW ~ 1d-30 - 1d-27 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} Hz^{-1}. This value is well below the threshold required for the negative feedback of PopIII objects on the subsequent galaxy formation to be effective in that redshift range.

  11. Coma cluster object populations down to M_R~-9.5

    E-print Network

    C. Adami; J. P. Picat; F. Durret; A. Mazure; R. Pello; M. West

    2007-07-04

    This study follows a recent analysis of the galaxy luminosity functions and colour-magnitude red sequences in the Coma cluster (Adami et al. 2007). We analyze here the distribution of very faint galaxies and globular clusters in an east-west strip of $\\sim 42 \\times 7$ arcmin$^2$ crossing the Coma cluster center (hereafter the CS strip) down to the unprecedented faint absolute magnitude of M$_R \\sim -9.5$. This work is based on deep images obtained at the CFHT with the CFH12K camera in the B, R, and I bands. The analysis shows that the observed properties strongly depend on the environment, and thus on the cluster history. When the CS is divided into four regions, the westernmost region appears poorly populated, while the regions around the brightest galaxies NGC 4874 and NGC 4889 (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889 being masked) are dominated by faint blue galaxies. They show a faint luminosity function slope of -2, very significantly different from the field estimates. Results are discussed in the framework of galaxy destruction (which can explain part of the very faint galaxy population) and of structures infalling on to Coma.

  12. The Population of Natural Earth Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2010-10-01

    We present the first debiased size-frequency and orbit distributions for a steady-state population of temporary-captured, natural Earth satellites (NES) excluding the Moon. We use orbital integrations to estimate the capture probability as a function of orbital elements and utilize the steady-state near-Earth-object (NEO) model by Bottke et al. (2002) to estimate the steady-state population of NESs. For much of the 20th century NESs other than the Moon were not discussed in their own right but mentioned in the published literature only as a population producing meteors that travel far in the Earth's atmosphere or as a population explaining shallow meteorite impacts. Only during the last two decades has a couple of these objects been detected in space; 1991 VG and 2006 RH120. The origin and evolution of 1991 VG, e.g., whether it is a man-made or a natural object, can be debated, but 2006 RH120 is certainly natural with an absolute magnitude H of about 29.9. To gain understanding of this little studied and barely detected population's origin and evolution, we try to answer questions such as: At any instant, how many objects are in temporary capture as a function of their size? What are the characteristics of their pre- capture geocentric trajectories and heliocentric orbits? What is the typical duration of the temporary capture? How many orbits do NESs typically complete around the Earth? What are the characteristics of their geocentric orbits? We anticipate that the interest in this small and nearby population will increase in the future as NESs are easily accessible targets for proposed NEO sample-return missions. Their typically small sizes could allow us to bring back an entire asteroid with the benefit that, e.g., microscopic surface or near-surface effects such as space weathering and lightscattering could be studied on a pristine body in ground-based laboratories.

  13. Compositional Trends within the NEA Population: Results from a Spectroscopic Survey of 54 Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fevig, R. A.; Fink, U.

    2001-11-01

    We report the results of our visible to near-infrared observations from 0.55 to 1.00 microns of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) in our ongoing survey. All observations were made with the University of Arizona Steward Observatory Catalina Site 154 cm telescope using the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Spectrograph designed by Uwe Fink. These 40 moderate-resolution spectra, along with 14 previously published spectra from this survey (Hicks, M. D., U. Fink and W. M. Grundy 1998. Icarus 133, 69-78), show that there are a number of NEAs with spectral signatures consistent with the most common type of meteorite fall, the ordinary chondrites (OCs), with a slight trend toward increasing numbers of such objects with diminishing size in our sample. We also see evidence for orbit dependent trends in our data. The majority of objects with OC-like spectra are in highly eccentric orbits which encounter asteroids (meteoroids) in the main belt and experience multiple terrestrial planet crossings during each of their dynamically unstable orbits. S-type NEAs reside primarily in more dynamically stable orbits which cross only Mars and either never encounter main-belt objects or do so at relatively low energies due to low eccentricity orbits. While these findings should be considered preliminary since our current sample size is relatively small, they might help to explain how the surfaces of asteroids composed of OC material are modified to exhibit S-type spectra. This research has been funded in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant NAG 53937 and NASA Training Grant NGT 550243.

  14. Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC) VIII: Substellar population in Lupus 3

    E-print Network

    Muzic, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent C; Jayawardhana, Ray; Marti, Belen Lopez

    2014-01-01

    SONYC -- Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters -- is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO-4m telescope, covering ~1.4 sqdeg on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 MSun, for Av \\leq 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and Teff \\leq 3000K, i.e. are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Halp...

  15. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on-orbit assembly also becomes apparent, as availability of a HLV alone does not provide sufficient payload capabilities for any manned mission targeting NEOs.

  16. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Teo

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psy- chologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the de- velopment of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on

  17. Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

  18. Can tidal disruption enhance the population of small Earth-approaching objects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Richardson, D. C.; Love, S. G.

    1997-03-01

    Asteroids or comets making close approaches to the Earth (or Venus) may undergo tidal disruption, producing numerous fragments which can be tens of meters in diameter or larger. To quantify this mass loss, we simulated encounters between rotating, strengthless, elongated, particulate bodies ('rabblepiles') and the Earth using an N-body code. By folding these results into a second code which models the evolution of Earth-crossing objects (ECOs) statistically, we found that the amount of mass removed by tidal forces per year was comparable to the main-belt injection rate of 50 m sized bodies into the 3:1 and nu6 resonances. Thus, our results suggest that tidal disruption plays an important role in maintaining the steady-state fraction of small ECOs.

  19. Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar Population in Lupus 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muži?, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; López Martí, Belén

    2014-04-01

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ~1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ?, for AV <= 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff <= 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H? or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) - (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 087.C-0386 and 089.C-0432, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's programs 2010A-0054 and 2011A-0144.

  20. What Future for Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The paper first examines the context that has given student engagement a very strong profile in higher education. It identifies neo-liberalism as the driving force in the present higher education context and argues that student engagement enjoys an elective affinity with it. While neo-liberalism is dominant, student engagement will be strong. But…

  1. Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

  2. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ? 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. PMID:23278771

  3. Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; Hopkins, R.; Chapman, J.; White, S.; Bonometti, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Kalkstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This document reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of Near Earth Objects (NEO's) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are then given of an MSFC-led study, intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. An existing program, used to model the NE0 threat, was extensively modified and is presented here. Details of various analytical tools, developed to evaluate the performance of proposed technologies for protection against the NEO threat, are also presented. Trajectory tools, developed to model the outbound path a vehicle would take to intercept or rendezvous with a target asteroid or comet, are described. Also, details are given of a tool that was created to model both the un-deflected inbound path of an NE0 as well as the modified, post-deflection, path. The number of possible options available for protection against the NE0 threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. The major output from this work was a novel process by which the relative effectiveness of different threat mitigation concepts can be evaluated during future, more detailed, studies. In addition, several new or modified mathematical models were developed to analyze various proposed protection systems. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work. It is hoped that this study will serve to raise the level attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  4. Population perspectives and sustainable development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonnalagadda Rajeswar

    2000-01-01

    Neo-Malthusianism advocates 'population control' as the solution to all major global problems. While overpopulation is a serious problem, blaming the population growth in the South as the prime cause for the destruction of the environment is hypocritical. Rather than the 'bottom billion', it is the 'top billion' population from the 'affluent' West - and their 'effluence' - that is inflicting

  5. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  6. Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

  7. NEOview: Near Earth Object Data Discovery and Query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, M.; Elvis, M.; Galache, J. L.; Harbo, P.; McDowell, J. C.; Rudenko, M.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

    2013-10-01

    Missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) figure prominently in NASA's Flexible Path approach to human space exploration. NEOs offer insight into both the origins of the Solar System and of life, as well as a source of materials for future missions. With NEOview scientists can locate NEO datasets, explore metadata provided by the archives, and query or combine disparate NEO datasets in the search for NEO candidates for exploration. NEOview is a software system that illustrates how standards-based interfaces facilitate NEO data discovery and research. NEOview software follows a client-server architecture. The server is a configurable implementation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Table Access Protocol (TAP), a general interface for tabular data access, that can be deployed as a front end to existing NEO datasets. The TAP client, seleste, is a graphical interface that provides intuitive means of discovering NEO providers, exploring dataset metadata to identify fields of interest, and constructing queries to retrieve or combine data. It features a powerful, graphical query builder capable of easing the user's introduction to table searches. Through science use cases, NEOview demonstrates how potential targets for NEO rendezvous could be identified by combining data from complementary sources. Through deployment and operations, it has been shown that the software components are data independent and configurable to many different data servers. As such, NEOview's TAP server and seleste TAP client can be used to create a seamless environment for data discovery and exploration for tabular data in any astronomical archive.

  8. Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects of the population genomics of humans. This 1000 genomes project is devoted to the exciting project, where the genomes of a 1000 individuals are to be sequenced in the next

  9. Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine M Hay; E Thomas; B Pal; Ali Hajeer; H Chambers; A J Silman

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo determine associations between symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective evidence of lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction in a population based sample. To determine associations between these elements and the presence of autoantibodies.METHODSA cross sectional population based survey. Subjects were interviewed and examined (Schirmer-1 test and unstimulated salivary flow) for the presence of dry eyes and mouth.

  10. Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer

    E-print Network

    German, Carl Duane

    1992-01-01

    /or captured by a predator. The effects of predation on the population dynamics of the deer were investigated by varying the percentage of the deer population controlling the number of predators. The birthing habitat is randomized 19 for the run, each type...INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELING OP ANIMAL POPULATIONS USING OBJECT ORIENTED SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OP BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Submitted to the Office...

  11. Database of Nordic Neo-Latin Literature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Originating from a research project that involved latinists from all five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden), this database is currently maintained and edited by professors Lars Boje Mortensen and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen, Department of Greek and Latin, University of Bergen, Norway, and Peter Zeeberg, Institut for Graesk og Latin, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lists selected Latin texts, written between the reformation (c. 1530) and 1800, that pertain to Nordic people or locations. Scholars can search the database by keyword or by author, place of publication, language, and dedicatee. Visitors can also browse a list of current Neo-Latin scholars, consult a bibliography, view an historical map of Scandanavia, and read a brief note on the historical background of the region.

  12. Characterizing Subpopulations within the near-Earth Objects with NEOWISE: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Giorgini, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are ~4700 ± 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

  13. CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Nugent, C. R., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

  14. NEO Orbits and Nonlinear Dynamics: A Brief Overview and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, John L.

    1997-05-01

    The development of nonlinear dynamics is outlined with emphasis on the concepts leading to the development of a numerical technique known as 'fuzzy boundary theory' or FBT. Origins of this methodology are a direct outgrowth of concepts derived from the Hamiltonian formulation, KAM theory, and 'Mather regions.' The significance of FBT as a computational methodology for NEO studies includes the weak capture and fast resonance shifting applied to NEO orbits and spacecraft rendezvous as described by a paper by Belbruno in this volume. Further implications of the FBT methodology suggest that some NEO capture cross-sections with planetary bodies may have to be recomputed.

  15. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including ?-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. ?-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for ?-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed the strongest activity. Moderate ligninase activity was only observed in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. In contrast, pectinase, amylase, protease, and cellulase were not present in Ganoderma. The results show that the degree of activity of the tested enzymes varied depending on the Ganoderma species tested. PMID:22783088

  16. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  17. An Item-Level Examination of the Factorial Validity of NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Darrell M.; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Verdisco, Aimee E.

    2010-01-01

    The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) is often used in field-based research and clinical studies as it is designed to measure the same personality dimensions as the longer NEO Personality Inventory in a shorter time frame. In this study, the authors examined the reliability and structural validity of the NEO-FFI scores at the item level in a…

  18. A New Standardized Stimulus Set for Studying Need-of-Help Recognition (NeoHelp)

    PubMed Central

    Brielmann, Aenne A.; Stolarova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open-access standardized visual stimuli set for investigation of need-of-help recognition and invite researchers to use and extend it. PMID:24409294

  19. Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    of Stirling, Stirling, UK Two of the main forms of anti-scepticism in the contemporary literature--namely, neo (1971) and Robert Nozick (1981), who reject the second premise via a rejection of the so-called `closure

  20. STAR FORMATION IN THE CENTRAL 400 PC OF THE MILKY WAY: EVIDENCE FOR A POPULATION OF MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Hewitt, J. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Arendt, R. G. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Baltimore County, GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Whitney, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rieke, G.; Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stolovy, S.; Ramirez, S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lang, C. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Burton, M. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)], E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu

    2009-09-01

    The central kpc of the Milky Way might be expected to differ significantly from the rest of the Galaxy with regard to gasdynamics and the formation of young stellar objects (YSOs). We probe this possibility with mid-infrared observations obtained with Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer and with Midcourse Space Experiment. We use color-color diagrams and spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to explore the nature of YSO candidates (including objects with 4.5 {mu}m excesses possibly due to molecular emission). There is an asymmetry in the distribution of the candidate YSOs, which tend to be found at negative Galactic longitudes; this behavior contrasts with that of the molecular gas, approximately 2/3 of which is at positive longitudes. The small-scale height of these objects suggests that they are within the Galactic center region and are dynamically young. They lie between two layers of infrared dark clouds and may have originated from these clouds. We identify new sites for this recent star formation by comparing the mid-IR, radio, submillimeter, and methanol maser data. The methanol masers appear to be associated with young, embedded YSOs characterized by 4.5 {mu}m excesses. We use the SEDs of these sources to estimate their physical characteristics; their masses appear to range from {approx}10 to {approx}20 M{sub sun}. Within the central 400 x 50 pc (|l| < 1.{sup 0}3 and |b| < 10') the star formation rate (SFR) based on the identification of Stage I evolutionary phase of YSO candidates is about 0.14 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Given that the majority of the sources in the population of YSOs are classified as Stage I objects, we suggest that a recent burst of star formation took place within the last 10{sup 5} yr. This suggestion is also consistent with estimates of SFRs within the last {approx}10{sup 7} yr showing a peak around 10{sup 5} yr ago. Lastly, we find that the Schmidt-Kennicutt Law applies well in the central 400 pc of the Galaxy. This implies that star formation does not appear to be dramatically affected by the extreme physical conditions in the Galactic center region.

  1. Car tracking and vibration test rig using Neo-Freerunner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sriranjan Rasakatla; Kashyap Kompella; Krishna Koundinya

    2010-01-01

    Here we present our idea of using a cell-phone (the Neo Freerunner) for tracking a Car's location using GPS and measuring the road's quality using the accelerometer in the cell-phone. Neo-Freerunner is an open source Linux phone by Open Moko Inc. The phone can run many flavors of linux like Android, Qt, SHR etc. Here the implementation was done in

  2. Front national economic policy: From neo?liberalism to protectionism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Bastow

    1997-01-01

    This article focuses on the changes in the economic policy of the Front National (FN) which have taken place in the last 3–4 years. It argues that the apparent switch from neo?liberalism to protectionism by the FN must be treated with caution: protectionism per se is not new to the FN, nor can one state that neo?liberal policies have disappeared

  3. Discrepancy between subjectively reported symptoms and objectively measured clinical findings in dry eye: a population based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui; Yao, Kai; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the discrepancy between patient-reported symptoms and measured clinical findings and influencing factors in dry eye (DE). Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in July–August 2007 in northeast China. The study was performed on populations originating from two rural districts that are respectively located approximately 377 and 177?km from our hospital. Participants 2600 eligible residents from 1300 households were identified; valid responses were obtained from 2262 residents (mean age 48 (range 12–88) years; 926 men and 1336 women; response rate 87%). Primary outcome measures Patient-reported symptoms of DE, tear film break up time (BUT) and Schirmer scores (Schirmer II). Results Subjects with normal BUT and Schirmer scores without any DE symptoms were defined as the control group. Those with abnormal BUT and Schirmer scores and symptoms of DE were defined as the DE group. Subjects with disparities between the occurrence of DE symptoms and measured clinical findings were regarded as the discrepancy. Out of 2262 subjects, the discrepant group contained 960 subjects (42.44%) with significant difference (?2=4.027, p=0.045<0.05). Factors that influenced the subjective reporting of DE symptoms included gender, smoking status, environment and age. Schirmer II test and tear film BUT values were remarkably different among control, DE and discrepant groups. Conclusions Development of DE can be related to many factors. It is of great importance to put forward the preclinical phase concept (patients who are symptomatic for DE and yet show no aqueous deficiency or evaporative signs) and to screen outpatients with DE-inducing features. Future interventions should focus on patients demonstrating a discrepancy between self-reported symptomology and measured clinical findings. PMID:25168038

  4. Orbital Analysis for Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    For recently discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO) two body computations can be used to determine the minimum distance between the object's orbit and that of the Earth. Determinations can then be made for potential near-term threats to the Earth. This preliminary orbit analysis must be followed with planetary perturbation computations of the object's future motion to predict actual close Earth approaches.

  5. Physical Characterization Studies of Near-Earth Object Spacecraft Mission Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2012-09-01

    Periodic asteroids and comets that come within a perihelion distance of 1.3 AU or less are defined as Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). These small bodies are in dynamically favorable positions as potential spacecraft mission targets. As a consequence, space missions to NEOs are underway or in development by several major agencies (e.g., NASA, ESA, JAXA), and recently, a manned mission to an NEO was announced as a NASA goal to be accomplished by the year 2025. Further, NASA has selected the OSIRIS-Rex unmanned spacecraft mission for launch in 2016. The spacecraft will rendezvous with and collect samples from the near-Earth asteroid 1999 RQ36. Ground-based monitoring efforts to find and characterize suitable targets for planned and existing spacecraft missions are in progress and require moderate to large-sized telescopes. Good candidate asteroids must have a well-defined orbit and be of a known spectral type. Knowledge of physical properties such as size, shape, internal structure, rotation rate (and whether the asteroid is tumbling) must also be derived. Acquiring more information about the physical nature of NEOs not only contributes to general scientific pursuits and preparation for spacecraft missions, but is important to better address the threat from dangerous NEOs having Earth-crossing orbits. Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility have an ongoing, comprehensive program to determine orbital and physical characterization information of newly discovered objects in the near-Earth population. The approach of the program is to leverage nightly astrometric follow-up work to obtain physical data (primarily rotation rates) on the most interesting, recently discovered NEOs, including promising spacecraft targets. This strategy allows one-of-a-kind, real-time access to the study of unique asteroids and comets before they leave the near-Earth vicinity. We will present new data obtained by photometric, spectroscopic, and other techniques on the physical properties of several Earth-approaching asteroids that are potential mission candidates. We will discuss collaborative efforts with researchers using radar to characterize prospective targets, and outline the synergy and increased science return of such an endeavor. In addition, we will present characterization results of the photometric properties of asteroid 1999 RQ36 at visible wavelengths including its rotation rate and phase function. These data were collected during the 2011-2012 apparition of the asteroid, which is the last opportunity for ground-based studies before OSIRIS-Rex is launched.

  6. Optical colors of 56 near-Earth objects: trends with size and orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L Dandy; A Fitzsimmons; S. J Collander-Brown

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of BVRIZ photometry of 56 near-Earth objects (NEOs) obtained with the 1-m Jacobus Kapteyn telescope on La Palma during 2000 and 2001. Our sample includes many NEOs with particularly deep 1-?m pyroxene\\/olivine absorption bands, similar to Q-type asteroids. We also classify three NEOs with particularly blue colors. No D-type asteroids were found, placing an upper limit

  7. Optical colors of 56 near-Earth objects: trends with size and orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Dandy; A. Fitzsimmons; S. J. Collander-Brown

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of BVRIZ photometry of 56 near-Earth objects (NEOs) obtained with the 1-m Jacobus Kapteyn telescope on La Palma during 2000 and 2001. Our sample includes many NEOs with particularly deep 1-mum pyroxene\\/olivine absorption bands, similar to Q-type asteroids. We also classify three NEOs with particularly blue colors. No D-type asteroids were found, placing an upper limit

  8. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Barucci; Makoto Yoshikawa; Detlef Koschny; Hermann Boehnhardt; J. Robert Brucato; Marcello Coradini; Elisabetta Dotto; Ian A. Franchi; Simon F. Green; Jean-Luc Josset; Patrick Michel; Jun Kawagushi; Karri Muinonen; Juergen Oberst; Hajime Yano; Richard P. Binzel

    2008-01-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are

  9. Deep Interior: Multiple-Rendezvous Prospecting of NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuda, R. Y.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Gulkis, S.; Huebner, W. F.

    2000-10-01

    This is an international multiple-rendezvous mission designed to prospect the deep interior and subsurface geophysical properties of diverse near-Earth objects, using reflection radar tomography, imaging, gravity, and explosions. What we learn will greatly influence future missions and guide strategies for the diversion, disruption, or utilization of potentially hazardous objects. Deep Interior. Low-frequency radar to determine internal variations of complex permittivity at resolutions approaching 20 m. Map inclusions or voids, fracture geometries, and compositional or structural boundaries. Subsurface. High-frequency radar to determine depth of regolith, existence and nature of cometary mantle, geology beneath and around craters, and subsurface expressions to surface geology. Topography and Geodesy. Stereogrammetric imaging with 1 m/pixel spatial resolution, supplemented by radar altimetry in shadowed regions, to determine detailed shape, volume, and spin state. Compare with radar sounding to learn how internal structure is manifested on the surface. Mass and Density. Total mass and lower moments of the internal mass distribution by mapping the exterior gravitational field. Look for mass concentrations. Surface microphysics and composition. Map color, albedo, and scattering properties of the surface over sunlit regions in six optical filters. Material properties. Deploy grenades to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of surface materials. Record 8 frame/sec, 20 cm/pixel videos of crater formation and ejecta dynamics, to enable simple and direct laboratory constraints on material density, cohesion and porosity. Dust. Look for dust lofted by surface waves propagating from the explosions, to constrain elastic properties and attenuation. Observe longer-term dynamics and optical properties of dust "atmosphere" generated by human activity. Cometary Activity. At comet 107P/Wilson-Harrington, look for expressions of past cometary activity, and for possible awakening from dormancy by explosions. NEO Diversity. Assess the diversity of the interior structures in two classes of near-Earth objects. New Technology. SEP, first multiple rendezvous, autonav, first grenades. Precursor to geoseismic investigations.

  10. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Antonieta Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; E. Dotto; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawagushi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

    2008-01-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back

  11. Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2011-10-01

    Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous as a target selection criterion, as this choice can greatly increase the payload to the NEO. Few such ultra-low delta-v NEOs are currently known; only 65 of the 6699 known NEOs (March 2010) have delta-v <4.5 km/s, 2/3 of typical LEO-NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - short transit times, long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of accessible objects. Potentially there is at least an order of magnitude more ultra-low delta-v NEOs, but finding them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in that orbit, plus long arc determination of their orbits.

  12. Acylated neo-clerodanes and 19-nor-neo-clerodanes from the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-08-01

    Scutefolides A1 and A2, two acylated neo-clerodanes with a 19,18-?-lactone, scutefolides B1, B2 and C, three 19-nor-neo-clerodanes, together with scutefolides D, E1, E2 and F, four neo-clerodanes, were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of four of these compounds were elucidated by the CD exciton chirality method. Cytotoxic activities of scutefolides D-F against four cancer cell lines (KB, A549, HeLa, and MCF7) were also evaluated, but they were inactive. PMID:26026223

  13. NASA Space Missions to Asteroids: Protecting the Earth from NEO Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Berry, William E. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is now a general recognition of the hazard of impacts on Earth by comets and asteroids, but there is yet no consensus concerning international actions that should be taken to protect the planet from such impacts. An essential step in the analysis of the situation involves estimating the relative hazard posed by comets and asteroids of different sizes and orbits. All recent studies agree that the larger impacts pose the greater danger, and that our primary concern from the perspective of total risk should be on impacts that are large enough to cause global ecological catastrophe. These global catastrophes are also of special interest, since they (alone among natural disasters) have the potential to destroy civilization. Studies of the sensitivity of the Earth's environment suggest that the energy threshold energy for causing a global catastrophe is at about 1 million megatons, corresponding to impactor diameters of 1.5 to 2 km. This information leads naturally to a strategy of concentrating on the larger NEOs, say those 1 km or more in diameter. This is the rationale for the Spaceguard Survey, which must be the highest priority in mitigation efforts. The second question concerns the value of developing standing defensive systems that could deflect or destroy an incoming NEO. In the case of the asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, no such system is needed, since there will be ample time (at least several decades) between the discovery of the threatening object by Spaceguard and the requirement to take action against it. In the case of objects smaller than 1 km diameter, development of defensive systems is not cost-effective; there are many greater dangers to persons and property that are much more urgent. Only in the case of large long-period comets is there a rationale for standing defense systems. The question is also raised whether the risks inherent in developing and maintaining a defense system might be greater than the impact risks it is intended to guard against. These and related issues are the focus of much current international debate on defense of the planet against NEO impacts. Meanwhile, the most critical issue remains the expansion of the telescopic search for NEOs.

  14. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  15. Incipient Adult Personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle-School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…

  16. NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Clark R.

    -the-ground disaster management procedures. An integrated international framework for responding to the NEO threat hasNEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense on Asteroid Threat Mitigation, which constitutes a first step of engagement between NEO scientists

  17. Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

  18. Measuring Moral Thinking from a Neo-Kohlbergian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The neo-Kohlbergian model revises and extends Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development to better reflect advances in research and theory. In moving from Kohlberg's global stage model to a multi-process description of moral functioning, these modifications are most evident in the ways in which moral thinking is described,…

  19. Out of Control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Melanie

    scientists are finding that biology is a rich source of inspiration for building "adaptive" computer programsOut of Control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization By Kevin Kelly. Addison-Wesley, 1994. $28; economists are using biological evolution as a source of metaphors for how economic change and innovation

  20. Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

  1. High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herchenroeder, J.; Miller, D.; Sheth, N. K.; Foo, M. C.; Nagarathnam, K.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring magnet is presented and compared with the seat motor performance with both commercial isotropic bonded Neo and anisotropic NdFeB rings of the same geometry. The comparisons are made at both room and elevated temperatures. The airgap flux for the magnet produced by the proposed method is 6% more compared to the commercial isotropic bonded Neo magnet. After exposure to high temperature due to the superior thermal aging stability of isotropic NdFeB powders the motor performance with this material is comparable to the motor performance with an anisotropic NdFeB magnet.

  2. Política Industrial: Uma Visão Neo-Schumpeteriana Sistêmica e Estrutural

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARLOS AUGUSTO; GRABOIS GADELHA

    2001-01-01

    This article develops a neo-schumpeterian vision of industrial policy, trying to overcome the focuses worked by the conventional economic theory. It shows the in- adequacy of the distinction suggested by the approaches that privilege the horizontal dimension and the ones that plead a selective conception of the industrial politics. The state intervention in the innovations dynamics of the industry should

  3. Experimental acute myocardial infarction: telocytes involvement in neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manole, C G; Cisma?iu, V; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used rat experimental myocardial infarction to study the ultrastructural recovery, especially neo-angiogenesis in the infarction border zone. We were interested in the possible role(s) of telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cell very recently discovered in myocardim (see http://www.telocytes.com). Electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and analysis of several proangiogenic microRNAs provided evidence for TC involvement in neo-angiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy showed the close spatial association of TCs with neoangiogenetic elements. Higher resolution images provided the following information: (a) the intercellular space between the abluminal face of endothelium and its surrounding TCs is frequently less than 50 nm; (b) TCs establish multiple direct nanocontacts with endothelial cells, where the extracellular space seems obliterated; such nanocontacts have a length of 0.4–1.5 ?m; (c) the absence of basal membrane on the abluminal face of endothelial cell. Besides the physical contacts (either nanoscopic or microscopic) TCs presumably contribute to neo-angiognesis via paracrine secretion (as shown by immunocytochemistry for VEGF or NOS2). Last but not least, TCs contain measurable quantities of angiogenic microRNAs (e.g. let-7e, 10a, 21, 27b, 100, 126-3p, 130a, 143, 155, 503). Taken together, the direct (physical) contact of TCs with endothelial tubes, as well as the indirect (chemical) positive influence within the ‘angiogenic zones’, suggests an important participation of TCs in neo-angiogenesis during the late stage of myocardial infarction. PMID:21895968

  4. Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Don; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a "pilot personality" does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

  5. neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Ajuga macrosperma var. breviflora.

    PubMed

    Castro, Amaya; Coll, Josep; Pant, Anil K; Pakrash, Om

    2015-06-01

    Six new naturally occurring ajugarin-like neo-clerodane diterpenoids, ajugaflorins A-F, along with six known compounds [the parent ajugarin I, ajugalides B and C, ajugamarin F4, ajugamacrin E, and ajugatakasin B] were isolated from A. macrosperma var. breviflora. The structures were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and MS analyses and comparison with data previously reported. PMID:26197499

  6. Neo: Learning Conceptual Knowledge by Sensorimotor Interaction with an Environment

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    verywellbe acquired by infants. Thus, in contrast with Piaget's theory of developmental stages (Ginsberg fcohen,atkin,oatesg@cs.umass.edu Abstract Recent developments in philosophy, linguistics, devel- opmental, including emotion and consciousness. As Neo develops, we expect to learn much about the nature of accessi

  7. The Rise and Fall of the Neo-Liberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Bronwyn; Gottsche, Michael; Bansel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The rise of neo-liberal universities over the last 15-20 years has been characterised as an inevitable effect both of globalisation and the associated dominance of capital. In this article we will analyse that rise, seeking to understand how it has come about and its impact on intellectual work. In the final pages of the article we turn towards…

  8. Inhomogeneous deformation of a cone of Neo-Hookean material

    E-print Network

    Hariharakumar, Pradeep

    2001-01-01

    In this work we investigate, the nonlinear, elastic deformation of a cone made of a Neo-Hookean material. We use a semi-inverse method and assume a specific form of the displacement and the corresponding structure of the pressure field inside...

  9. Inside "The Turner Diaries": neo-Nazi Scripture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes the content of the fictional "Turner Diaries." Points out the antisemitic, racist, and antidemocratic aspects of the novel. Brings attention to the role of the "Diaries" to white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups in the United States. Also links the "Diaries" to Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing. (DSK)

  10. An Innovative Solution to NASA's NEO Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (< 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results. Detailed technical descriptions of the study results are provided in a separate final technical report, which can be downloaded from the ADRC website (www.adrc.iastate.edu).

  11. The OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS)—population screening for undiagnosed valvular heart disease in the elderly: study design and objectives

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sean; d'Arcy, Joanna L; Loudon, Margaret A; Mant, David; Farmer, Andrew J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an increasingly important cardiac condition, driven by an ageing population and lack of progress in the development of medical therapies. There is a dearth of accurate information to guide decision-makers in the development of strategies to combat VHD, and no population-based study has been performed specifically to investigate its contemporary epidemiology. This document describes the design and methodology of the OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS), which was conceived to address this need. Methods and analysis Participants aged 65?years and older attending a participating general practice in Oxfordshire, UK, are invited to attend a screening examination. Exclusion criteria include previously diagnosed VHD, inability to provide consent, terminal illness or excessive frailty. Demographics, a focused cardiovascular history and vital signs are recorded at the initial screening examination, accompanied by an echocardiogram. Any finding of significant VHD triggers a separate, more formal echocardiographic assessment (including acquisition of a three-dimensional dataset) and collection of blood samples for future genetic and biomarker analysis. Participants provide consent for longitudinal follow-up and enrolment in future cohort substudies. We also assess the acceptability of community-based echocardiographic examination and compare self-assessed quality of life between those with and without VHD. Conclusions OxVALVE-PCS will provide contemporary epidemiological data concerning the community prevalence of undiagnosed VHD, facilitate accurate deployment of scarce resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand for VHD-associated healthcare and create a series of subcohorts with carefully defined genotypes and echocardiographic phenotypes for long overdue clinical studies. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Southampton, UK; REC Ref: 09/H0502/58). Results Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:25332795

  12. Neo-sex chromosome inheritance across species in Silene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, L A; Delph, L F

    2014-07-01

    Neo-sex chromosomes, which form through the major restructuring of ancestral sex chromosome systems, have evolved in various taxa. Such restructuring often consists of the fusion of an autosome to an existing sex chromosome, resulting in novel sex chromosome formations (e.g. X1X2Y or XY1Y2.). Comparative studies are often made between restructured sex chromosome systems of closely related species, and here we evaluate the consequences of variable sex chromosome systems to hybrids. If neo-sex chromosomes are improperly inherited across species, this could lead to aberrant development and reproductive isolation. In this study, we examine the fate of neo-sex chromosomes in hybrids of the flowering plants Silene diclinis and Silene latifolia. Silene diclinis has a neo-sex chromosome system (XY1Y2) that is thought to have evolved from an ancestral XY system that is still present in S. latifolia. These species do not hybridize naturally, and improper sex chromosome inheritance could contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated whether this major restructuring of sex chromosomes prevents their proper inheritance in a variety of hybrid crosses, including some F2 - and later-generation hybrids, with sex chromosome-linked, species-specific, polymorphic markers and chromosome squashes. We discovered that despite the differences in sex chromosomes that exist between these two species, proper segregation had occurred in hybrids that made it to flowering, including later-generation hybrids, indicating that neo-sex chromosome formation alone does not result in complete reproductive isolation between these two species. Additionally, hybrids with aberrant sex expression (e.g. neuter, hermaphrodite) also inherited the restructured sex chromosomes properly, highlighting that issues with sexual development in hybrids can be caused by intrinsic genetic incompatibility rather than improper sex chromosome inheritance. PMID:24739043

  13. Investigating the viability of photo-identification as an objective tool to study endangered sea turtle populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Schofield; Kostas A. Katselidis; Panayotis Dimopoulos; John D. Pantis

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the potential of using natural facial markings to identify individuals in an endangered breeding population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). We divided individual turtles into ten groups based on facial (post-ocular) scale patterns to facilitate rapid comparison of new images in a large photographic catalogue of known turtles (exceeding 400 unique individuals). The matching process was validated

  14. Ideology and population theory.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D

    1974-01-01

    The ideological and ethical foundations of population theory are examined in the light of the supposed eithical neutrality of scientific enquiry. The works of Malthus, Ricardo, and Marx are contrasted and it is shown that their theories of population resulted in each case from the adoption of a particular kind of method--empiricism in Malthus, normative analytic "model building" in Ricardo, and dialectical materialism in Marx. It is shown that a Malthusian or neo-Malthusian view of the population problem is inevitable if enquiry is founded in empiricism or in normative analytics. The well-known disagreement between Malthusian and Marxian viewpoints therefore has its foundation in method. Most modern enquiry into the population-resources problem is dominated by empirical and analytic (including systems theory) approaches and consequently arrives at neo-Malthusian conclusions. The final section analyses the consequences of adopting a neo-Malthusian view, and it is shown that in a world dominated by an elite, this can frequently bring about the political, social, and economic repression of a non-elite. It is concluded that the choice of scientific method does not produce unbiased results and that the dominance of a certain conception of scientific method leads to the scientific support of a viewpoint used to justify repression of the underprivileged in society. PMID:4448574

  15. Assessing the Five Factors of Personality in Adolescents: The Junior Version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortet, Generos; Ibanez, Manuel I.; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor…

  16. An Examination of Shared Variance in Self-Report and Objective Measures of Attention in the Incarcerated Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Jones, Lise O.; Munkvold, Linda H.; Obrzut, John E.; Manger, Terje

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test some assumptions about screening procedures for ADHD in adults. Method: Twenty-eight incarcerated male adults completed a self report scale of attention deficits as a part of an examination of attention and reading skills. Further assessment of attention included a battery of tests that assessed…

  17. Frege, Neo-Logicism and Applied Mathematics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Clark

    \\u000a I myself was long reluctant to recognize ranges of values and hence classes; but I saw no other possibility of placing arithmetic\\u000a on a logical foundation. But the question is how do we apprehend logical objects? And I have found no other answer to it than\\u000a this, We apprehend them as extensions of concepts, or more generally, as ranges of

  18. NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

  19. Neo-Latin News, Volume 62, Numbers 1 & 2 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig

    2014-01-01

    by Eric Jorink and Dirk van Miert. Brill’s Studies in Intel- lectual History, 214. Leiden: Brill, 2012. xiii + 352 pp. 133 euros. Eight chapters by eminent scholars of humanism and Dutch science, alongside two excellent bibliographical studies, as well...84 seventeenth-century news Vol. 62, Nos. 1 & 2. Jointly with SCN. NLN is the official publica- tion of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western European Editor: Gilbert Tournoy...

  20. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  1. Effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-earth objects

    E-print Network

    Siu, Ho Chit

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been shown to be significant factors in their evolution. Previous studies have examined the effects of these encounters on ...

  2. Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all known extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) have argument of perihelion close to 0°. An existing observational bias strongly favours the detection of ETNOs with arguments of perihelion close to 0° and 180° yet no objects have been found at 180°. No plausible explanation has been offered so far to account for this unusual pattern. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of comet 96P/Machholz 1, a bizarre near-Earth object (NEO) that may provide the key to explain the puzzling clustering of orbits around argument of perihelion close to 0° recently found for the population of ETNOs. Comet 96P/Machholz 1 is currently locked in a Kozai resonance with Jupiter such that the value of its argument of perihelion is always close to 0° at its shortest possible perihelion (highest eccentricity and lowest inclination) and about 180° near its shortest aphelion (longest perihelion distance, lowest eccentricity and highest inclination). If this object is a dynamical analogue (albeit limited) of the known ETNOs, this implies that massive perturbers must keep them confined in orbital parameter space. Besides, its future dynamical evolution displays orbital flips when its eccentricity is excited to a high value and its orbit turns over by nearly 180°, rolling over its major axis. This unusual behaviour, that is preserved when post-Newtonian terms are included in the numerical integrations, may also help understand the production of NEOs on retrograde orbits.

  3. The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

  4. Associations between objectively assessed and questionnaire-based sedentary behaviour with BMI-defined obesity among general population children and adolescents living in England

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an emerging candidate risk factor for obesity in young people. Evidence to date is conflicting and it is unclear how different SB types are associated with obesity independently of physical activity. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a range of objectively measured and questionnaire-based SB indicators with obesity and body mass index (BMI) to assess whether these associations were independent of physical activity. Participants 4469 (705 with accelerometer data) children aged 5–15?years from the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes The outcome was adiposity, classified using age-specific and sex-specific BMI SD scores (continuous) and obesity cut-offs (binary). Questionnaire-based measures comprised TV time, non-TV sitting time (such as homework, drawing, time at a computer or playing video games), total sitting time (TV time+non-TV sitting time) and average daily MVPA time. Objective SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were measured using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, with cut-offs of 100 and 200 counts per minute for SB, and 2802 counts per minute for MVPA. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models examined associations between each indicator of sedentary time with obesity and BMI SD scores. Results TV time (but not non-TV sitting or objectively-measured SB) was consistently associated with higher levels of obesity and BMI SD score, even after adjusting for MVPA and other potential confounders. Weaker associations were observed for total sitting time. Conclusions TV viewing (but not other forms of objectively-measured or questionnaire-based sedentary time) was associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, TV time may be a reasonable target for obesity prevention in young populations. PMID:26088807

  5. The Utility of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in an Outpatient, Drug Rehabilitation Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph L. Piedmont; Joseph W. Ciarrocchi

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO–PI–R) in a mostly African American clinical sample and determined if these qualities provided useful information about their motivational characteristics that were germane to treatment. Eighty-two men and 50 women entered a 6-week outpatient drug rehabilitation program, completed the NEO–PI–R, and received counselor ratings of personality at admission.

  6. Marco Polo: Near Earth Object sample return mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Dotto; M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawaguchi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

    2008-01-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object. The Marco Polo proposal was submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context, and on October 2007 passed the first evaluation process. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class

  7. Neo-Latin News, Volume 60, Numbers 3 & 4 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig

    2012-01-01

    volume in what has clearly been designed as a new series for Neo-Latin texts. I look forward to seeing the volumes that will follow. (Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University) ? Das lateinische Gedicht des Franz Xaver Trips ?ber den G..., polemically treating the civil uprising in the free imperial city of Cologne in the years from 1680-86 under the lead of the merchant Nikolaus G?lich. Schmidt- Clausen examines the work both as historiographical document and as elegiac composition in order...

  8. Efficacy of 7-day treatment with metronidazole+miconazole (Neo-Penotran®) — a triple-active pessary for the treatment of single and mixed vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ozyurt; M. B. Toykuliyeva; I. L. Danilyans; O. Morton; G. Baktir

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Neo-Penotran® pessaries (metronidazole 500 mg+miconazole nitrate 100 mg) in candidal, bacterial and trichomonal vaginitis and in mixed vaginal infections. Method: Ninety-seven patients with clinical diagnosis of vaginitis entered this open, non-comparative study. Each patient inserted one pessary twice daily for 7 days. Gynecological and microbiological assessments were carried out before, and 8–10\\/21–23 days after

  9. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

  10. Mathematics in Mind, Brain, and Education: A Neo-Piagetian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Because of their focus on psychological structures and operations, neo-Piagetian approaches to learning lend themselves to neurological hypotheses. Recent advances in neural imaging and educational technology now make it possible to test some of these claims. Here, we take a neo-Piagetian approach to mathematical learning in order to frame two…

  11. Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.…

  12. Education Policy as Proto-Fascism: The Aesthetics of Racial Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that neo-liberal educational policy has emerged as a proto-fascist governmentality. This contemporary technology relies on State racisms and racial orderings manifested from earlier liberal and neo-liberal practices of biopower. As a proto-fascist technology, education policy, and school choice policies in particular, operate within a…

  13. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  14. Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Toshio

    Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials Oscar of cavitation in elastomeric solids based on the sudden growth of pre-existing defects. In this article, the theory is used to determine onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean solids where the defects

  15. Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials Oscar a fairly general theory of cavitation in elastomeric solids based on the sudden growth of pre-existing defects. In this article, the theory is used to determine onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo

  16. A neo-sex-chromosome that drives post-zygotic sex determiniation in the Hessian fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual propert...

  17. Neo-glycopeptides: the importance of sugar core conformation in oxime-linked glycoprobes

    E-print Network

    Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

    Neo-glycopeptides: the importance of sugar core conformation in oxime-linked glycoprobes-bound monosaccharide in the resulting neo- glycopeptide probe is forced into the ring-form. Resulting structures were with distinct binding specificities. Keywords Oxime-linked glycopeptides . Carbohydrate-lectin interaction . SPR

  18. The Dark Circle: Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian Fiction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Good

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation offers critical and theoretical approaches for understanding depictions of Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian fiction. Spiritualism has fascinated and repelled writers since the movement's inception in Hydesville, New York, in 1848, and continues to haunt writers even today. The conclusion of this dissertation follows Spiritualist fiction as it carries over into the Neo-Victorian genre, by discussing how themes

  19. A neo-institutionalist model of the diffusion of IFRS accounting standards

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A neo-institutionalist model of the diffusion of IFRS accounting standards Dominique Dufour standards known as the IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards). This model fits within the neo the diffusion processes of the IFRS. To this end, we implement a multi-agent simulation. The various simulation

  20. Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Keumjoong

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as…

  1. The joint NEO Spiral 1 program: Lessons learned operational concepts and technical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Comitz; A. Pinto; D. E. Sweet; J. Mazurkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the joint network enabled operations (NEO) program is to promote interagency communication and collaboration through the use of modern network enabled tools, technologies, and operational procedures for the next generation air transportation system (NextGen). The NEO environment features a modern service bus based enterprise architecture. To evaluate the utility of this architecture and the resulting network enabled

  2. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower "Conscientiousness" and lower…

  3. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  4. Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

    2014-02-01

    Recently-discovered Virtual Impactors (VIs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs up to 90 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observable in the range 21objects where the longest arcs can be created, but we will observe other, more recently discovered NEOs as well. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of the most dangerous NEOs that accumulate large errors, enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

  5. Identifying Potentially Hazardous Co-orbiting Material of Known NEOs Using Magnetic Signatures Produced in Destructive Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hairong; Russell, Christopher; Jia, Yingdong; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It is estimated that over 99% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with diameters of about tens of meters are undiscovered. However, simulations show that they result in the most damage per year. Many of these bodies, produced in non-destructive collisions with larger well-characterized NEOs, are co-orbiting with their parent objects. Thereafter, scattering will occur due to gravitational perturbations when the co-orbiters have close encounters to any planets. Such gravitational scattering may not affect the orbits of the parent body. Therefore "safe" NEOs which have negligible impact probability with the Earth may be accompanied by potentially hazardous co-orbiting material. Those co-orbitals do reveal their existence in collisions with meteoroids, which are numerous and can be as small as tens of centimeters in diameter. Clouds of fine dust/gas particles released in such collisions become charged after generation and interact coherently with the solar wind electromagnetically. The interplanetary magnetic field is then perturbed. The resultant structures have been called interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs). They are readily identified when they pass spacecraft equipped with magnetometers. Although the co-orbitals responsible for the IFEs were disrupted in collisions, they are valid samples of the remaining co-orbiting material. Therefore, we can use IFEs to identify the spatial and mass distribution of such co-orbitals. With statistical studies of IFE occurrence, we identified asteroid 2201 Oljato and asteroid 138175 to have such co-orbiting material. The mass of the co-orbitals can be inferred by combining the results from observations and MHD simulations. Multi-spacecraft simultaneous observations measure the dimensions of the magnetic perturbations and the forces lifting them away from the Sun, while multi-fluid simulations give the accelerations of the perturbations. In summary, our technique not only helps us to identify which NEOs are accompanied by hazardous co-orbitals, but also gives their mass distributions. Although our technique provides only the statistical properties, it indicates where high resolution optical surveys should be obtained in order to identify and track specific hazardous bodies.

  6. Japan's Ministry of Education "Becoming the Right": Neo-Liberal Restructuring and the Ministry's Struggles for Political Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita

    2008-01-01

    This article first examines the controversial revision of the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) by situating it in the larger global context of neo-liberal and neo-conservative state-restructuring and education reform. It then focuses on the domestic politics behind what seems to be the global convergence of education policy along neo-liberal and…

  7. Neo-intuitive proposal for Kaluza-Klein unification

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.M.

    1988-11-01

    This paper addresses a central question of contemporary theoretical physics: Can a unified account be provided for the known forces of nature. The issue is brought into focus by considering the recently revived Kaluza-Klein approach to unification, a program entailing dimensional transformation through cosmogony. First it is demonstrated that, in a certain sense, revitalized Kaluza-Klein theory appears to undermine the intuitive foundations of mathematical physics, but that this implicit consequence has been repressed at a substantial cost. A fundamental reformation of the Kaluza-Klein strategy is then undertaken, one that casts it within a new intuitive context. This is followed by a provisional application of the suggested approach to the specific problem of cosmological change. The paper concludes by exploring the far-reaching epistemological implications of the neo-intuitive proposal set forth.

  8. Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer 

    E-print Network

    German, Carl Duane

    1992-01-01

    years old. This was what was found in wild populations that were not hunted or subject to other non-natural causes of mortality. Pawns and deer in poor condition were most susceptible to predation. The model did not reach a stable age distribution...), and (4) variation in the quality of birthing cover on the population dynamics of white-tailed deer. Emergent population behavior arose from the interaction of the individual deer. The population size decreased as predation pressure increased. The fawn...

  9. Object extraction Object extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    (is a grass-roof a vegetation area?) · object ontologies are hierarchical (tree / forrest / vegetation · buildings · vegetation · roads #12;Interactive object extraction #12;Interactive object extraction angles in man-made structures · measurement accuracy of human operator is lower than that of automatic

  10. The Application of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Ideas to Further and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Outlines theoretical perspectives of neo-Piagetians (Kohlberg, Peel, Labouvie-Vief), synthesizers (Kolb, Biggs, Pascual-Leone), and alternative theorists (Perry, Gilligan). Considers their applicability to adults and the implications for adult and higher education. (SK)

  11. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  12. Approaching cognitive-behavioral and existential therapy through Neo-Confucianism 

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Joffre Denis

    1984-01-01

    APPROACHING COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL AND EXISTENTIAL THERAPY THROUGH NEO-CONFUCIANISM A Thesis by JOFFRE DENIS MEYER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Educational Psychology APPROACHING COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL AND EXISTENTIAL THERAPY THROUGH NEO-CONFUCIANISM A Thesis by JOFFRE DENIS MEYER Approved as to style and content by: (C axrman o ommxttee) William R...

  13. NEO PI-R Normative Personality Data That Distinguish U.S. Air Force Female Pilots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne L. Chappelle; Major Pamela L. Novy; Colonel Timothy W. Sowin; William T. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Female U.S. Air Force (USAF) pilots represent a unique group of women in a challenging, high-risk, and male-dominated profession. Aside from ability and motivation, personality characteristics are considered to play a key role in succeeding as a military pilot (Paullin, Katz, Bruskiewicz, Houston, & Damos, 2006). This study evaluated psychological baseline test scores from the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised (NEO PI-R)

  14. Issues That Drive Near-Earth Object Mitigation Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; Chamberlin, A.; Chesley, S.; Chodas, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Find them early: The most important aspect for the mitigation of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs) is to find them early enough so that an appropriate and timely response can be carried out. Although about 84% of the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) larger than one kilometer had been found by mid-2009, only about 5% of the NEAs 140 meters and larger that could cause regional devastation had been found. Because of their fewer numbers, comets represent only ~1% of the asteroid threat in the Earth’s neighborhood. Improve impact predictions: The vast majority of true impactors will reach very high probabilities of impact after their second apparition and that is usually within a few years of discovery. Simulations suggest that radar astrometry increases the average Earth encounter predictability from 80 to 400 years and increases the impact warning time an average of up to 4 years. In addition, radar imaging can often resolve the shapes of NEOs down to the few meter level. For NEOs that have been identified as potential threats, the radiometric tracking of a rendezvous spacecraft, coupled with spacecraft imaging of the NEO, could be used to dramatically improve the asteroid’s ephemeris. Ongoing activities to improve the orbit determination and ephemeris prediction process for NEOs include efforts to de-bias reference star positions and the modeling of the small asteroid accelerations introduced by the asymmetric re-radiation of sunlight (i.e., Yarkovsky effect). Study risk mitigation responses: For the deflection of hazardous NEOs on direct impacting trajectories, relatively mature techniques include the kinetic energy impacts by spacecraft for relatively small (< 300 meters) NEOs and either stand-off or surface nuclear explosions for the larger, but far less numerous, NEO impactors. For both cases, the ejecta blown back as a result of the collision or explosion would introduce a momentum enhancement that would be expected to augment the momentum delivered by the crater forming mechanism itself. Studies need to be carried out to understand this momentum enhancement factor since it can vary by more than an order of magnitude depending upon the NEO’s structure and composition. For the few percent of simulated Earth impactors that pass closely by the Earth prior to impact, the gravitational attraction between the threatening NEO and a nearby thrusting spacecraft (gravity tractor) could be used to drag the NEO out of harms way. For example, near-Earth asteroid Apophis has a small chance of passing through a 610-meter “keyhole” during its dramatic Earth close approach to within 0.1 lunar distances on April 13, 2029 - a keyhole passage that would then allow it to return seven years later for an Earth impact on April 13, 2036. A gravity tractor could be employed in the early 2020’s to ensure that Apophis would not enter this tiny keyhole. However, the Apophis situation, where a very close Earth approach a few years prior to a potential impact offers a tremendous amount of leverage for a deflection, is not typical. In the near term, the most likely scenarios would include impacts by relatively small NEOs with little or no warning so that plans for rapid evacuations also need to be considered.

  15. The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

    2014-07-01

    The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

  16. Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  17. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

  18. Optimal detection of short-warning near-earth object threats

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Detection of near-Earth Objects (NEOs) has concentrated on long-warning threats. LPCs (long period comets) and smaller objects do not offer such warning. Their detection on final approach is a more demanding search problem. Improvements in ground- and space-based search sensors and strategies could provide adequate search capability.

  19. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; P. Michel; J. Kawagushi; H. Yano; J. R. Brucato; I. A. Franchi; E. Dotto; M. Fulchignoni; S. Ulamec

    2009-01-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European–Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a\\u000a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue,\\u000a scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation.\\u000a Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of

  20. NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Moving Data Access Forward for Outreach and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.; Herring, D.

    2006-12-01

    NASA Earth Observations (NEO) dramatically simplifies public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the unsophisticated, non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. NEO currently serves imagery from 10 different datasets with daily, weekly, and monthly temporal resolutions (including 3 datasets that also have 5-minute regional resolutions). There will be an additional 13 datasets added by the end of 2006. Users are able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery within the NEO interface itself (e.g., applying color palettes, subsetting, and importing to NASA's Earth Observatory's Image Composite Editor), open NEO imagery directly using third party software (e.g., Google Earth, any GeoTIFF or WMS capable application), and, if they desire, download or order the source HDF data directly from the data provider via a single, integrated interface.

  1. Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Coburn, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health. PMID:14572920

  2. Nonrandom Gene Loss from the Drosophila miranda Neo-Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Vera B.; Zhou, Qi; Bachtrog, Doris

    2011-01-01

    A lack of recombination leads to the degeneration of an evolving Y chromosome. However, it is not known whether gene loss is largely a random process and primarily driven by the order in which mutations occur or whether certain categories of genes are lost less quickly than others; the latter would imply that selection counteracts the degeneration of Y chromosomes to some extent. In this study, we investigate the relationship between putative ancestral expression levels of neo-Y–linked genes in Drosophila miranda and their rates of degeneration. We use RNA-Seq data from its close relative Drosophila pseudoobscura to show that genes that have become nonfunctional on the D. miranda neo-Y had, on average, lower ancestral transcript levels and were expressed in fewer tissues compared with genes with intact reading frames. We also show that genes with male-biased expression are retained for longer on the neo-Y compared with female-biased genes. Our results imply that gene loss on the neo-Y is not a purely random, mutation-driven process. Instead, selection is—at least to some extent—preserving the function of genes that are more costly to lose, despite the strongly reduced efficacy of selection on the neo-Y chromosome. PMID:21987387

  3. European near-Earth object radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Alexander L.

    2002-11-01

    Radar astronomy paradox (RAP): practically everybody agree with essential contributions of active radar observations to Solar System and especially to near-Earth object (NEO) explorations, but despite everything prefer to develop new and new passive telescopes and disposable space missions, only, and nobody want to build at least one dedicated multipurpose radar telescope (neither Arecibo nor Goldstone and Evpatoria radars were created as dedicated radar astronomy instruments). Also, as of June 2002, among of 188 radar detected asteroids and comets there are only 3 NEOs, which were investigated in Europe, with single European radar facility, sited in Evpatoria. The main reason of such deep gap is a low sensitivity of Evpatoria radar, which is in 10 and 300 times less powerful than Goldstone and Arecibo. Therefore, I guess the first dedicated European NEO Radar (ENEOR) is earnestly needful now. From time to time we discuss this problem, but it is not solve for the present moment, perhaps because of above formulated RAP. Origin and concept of the ENEOR, as well as the ENEOR project, based on the being under construction 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope, will be presented below.

  4. Physical modeling and high-performance GPU computing for characterization, interception, and disruption of hazardous near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinger, Brian Douglas

    For the past few decades, both the scientific community and the general public have been becoming more aware that the Earth lives in a shooting gallery of small objects. We classify all of these asteroids and comets, known or unknown, that cross Earth's orbit as near-Earth objects (NEOs). A look at our geologic history tells us that NEOs have collided with Earth in the past, and we expect that they will continue to do so. With thousands of known NEOs crossing the orbit of Earth, there has been significant scientific interest in developing the capability to deflect an NEO from an impacting trajectory. This thesis applies the ideas of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) theory to the NEO disruption problem. A simulation package was designed that allows efficacy simulation to be integrated into the mission planning and design process. This is done by applying ideas in high-performance computing (HPC) on the computer graphics processing unit (GPU). Rather than prove a concept through large standalone simulations on a supercomputer, a highly parallel structure allows for flexible, target dependent questions to be resolved. Built around nonclassified data and analysis, this computer package will allow academic institutions to better tackle the issue of NEO mitigation effectiveness.

  5. In vitro neo-cartilage formation on a three-dimensional composite polymeric cryogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sumrita; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-07-01

    Limited blood supply and the avascular nature of articular cartilage restricts its self repair capacity, frequently leading to osteoarthritis. This work focuses on scaffolds for tissue repair from natural polymers, for example gelatin, chitosan, and agarose in the form of composite. A novel way of fabrication, known as cryogelation, is presented, in which matrices are synthesized at sub-zero temperature. Cell seeded scaffolds incubated under appropriate conditions result in the accumulation of matrix components on the surface of the gel in the form of neo-cartilage. Neo-cartilage exhibits similarity to native cartilage with respect to its physical, mechanical and biochemical properties. Based on the similarities of neo-cartilage to the native cartilage, it can provide a new approach for the treatment of localised joint injuries. PMID:23619817

  6. Neo-tectonic fracturing after emplacement of quaternary granitic pluton in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, N.; Kato, O. [JMC Goethermal Eng. Co., Ltd., Iwate-ken (Japan); Kanisawa, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The fracture which occurs in the Kakkonda geothermal system was formed by neo-tectonic stress after the emplacement of the neo-granite (Quaternary Kakkonda Granite) at middle Pleistocene to recent. The characteristic contrast in permeability at ca.1.5 km is strongly controlled by the contact metamorphic zone, especially cordierite and higher grade metamorphic zones, in which the high temperature (320{degrees}C<) and low permeable deep reservoir was created. The five geothermal wells 2.5-3.0 km deep have clarified that a microearthquake zone below -1.0 km shows high permeability especially at the margin of the Kakkonda Granite, and low permeability outside of a microearthquake zone. The Kakkonda Granite is a composite pluton which has very few fractures inside of it. Thus, neo-tectonic fracturing has developed in the non-metamorphosed Tertiary formations and the margin of the Kakkonda Granite.

  7. Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panza, G. F.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Cioflan, C. O.; Romanelli, F.; Paskaleva, I.; Radulian, M.; Gribovszki, K.; Herak, M.; Zaichenco, A.; Marmureanu, G.; Varga, P.; Zivcic, M.

    2008-07-01

    A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales—regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

  8. Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region

    SciTech Connect

    Panza, G. F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Kouteva, M. [ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F. [DST--University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G. [NIEP-Magurele-Bucharest, 12 Calugareni str., Ilfov (Romania); Paskaleva, I. [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P. [Geodetic and Geophysical Research, Institute of HAS, Sopron (Hungary); Herak, M. [Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zaichenco, A. [IGG, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zivcic, M. [ARSO-Seismology and Geology Office, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-07-08

    A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

  9. Detecting NEO Impacts using the International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Dube, Kimberlee; Silber, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    As part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty an International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies has been globally deployed beginning in the late 1990s. The infrasound network sub-component of the IMS consists of 47 active stations as of mid-2014. These microbarograph arrays detect coherent infrasonic signals from a range of sources including volcanoes, man-made explosions and bolides. Bolide detections from IMS stations have been reported since ~2000, but with the maturation of the network over the last several years the rate of detections has increased substantially. Presently the IMS performs semi-automated near real-time global event identification on timescales of 6-12 hours as well as analyst verified event identification having time lags of several weeks. Here we report on infrasound events identified by the IMS between 2010-2014 which are likely bolide impacts. Identification in this context refers to an event being included in one of the event bulletins issued by the IMS. In this untargeted study we find that the IMS globally identifies approximately 16 events per year which are likely bolide impacts. Using data released since the beginning of 2014 of US Government sensor detections (as given at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/ ) of fireballs we find in a complementary targeted survey that the current IMS system is able to identify ~25% of fireballs with E > 0.1 kT energy. Using all 16 US Government sensor fireballs listed as of July 31, 2014 we are able to detect infrasound from 75% of these events on at least one IMS station. The high ratio of detection/identification is a product of the stricter criteria adopted by the IMS for inclusion in an event bulletin as compared to simple station detection.We discuss energy comparisons between infrasound-estimated energies based on amplitudes and periods and estimates provided by US Government sensors. Specific impact events of interest will be discussed as well as the utility of the global IMS infrasound system for location and timing of future NEAs detected prior to impact.

  10. Specific Research Objectives and Scope by Institute - Intervention Research to Improve Native American Health (R01) Research Project Grant - National Cancer Institute - Cancer Control and Population Sciences

    Cancer.gov

    Native American populations have the lowest 5-year cancer survival rate and highest percentage of disseminated and ill-defined cancers of any subpopulation in the U.S. Poorer cancer survival rates have been attributed to many factors, among them inadequate access to health care, geographic isolation, later stage of detection, underutilization of treatment, poverty, and social and cultural barriers.

  11. Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,…

  12. The Validity and Utility of the Positive Presentation Management and Negative Presentation Management Scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer developed "validity" scales for the "Revised NEO Personality Inventory" (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae) to detect underreporting--the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) Scale and overreporting--the Negative Presentation Management (NPM) Scale. In this investigation, the clinical utility of these scales was examined using…

  13. "Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people…

  14. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  15. Using NASA NEO and ImageJ to Explore the Role of Snow Cover in Shaping Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    B. Youngman

    In this activity students download satellite images displaying land surface temperature, snow cover, and reflected short wave radiation data from the NASA Earth Observation (NEO) Web site. They then explore and animate these images using the free tool ImageJ and utilize the Web-based analysis tools built into NEO to observe, graph, and analyze the relationships among these three variables.

  16. Effect of Slip Time in Forming Neo-Esophageal Stenosis After Replacement of a Thoracic Esophagus With Nitinol Artificial Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xian-Liang; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Attempts have been made to investigate the effect of slip time of nitinol artificial esophagus for forming neo-esophageal stenosis after replacement of a thoracic esophagus with nitinol artificial esophagus in 20 experimental pigs. The pigs whose slip time was less than 90 days postoperatively had severe dysphagia (Bown's III) immediately after they were fed, and the dysphagia aggravated gradually later on (Bown's III-IV). The pigs whose slip time was more than 90 days postoperatively had mild/moderate dysphagia (Bown's I-II) immediately after they were fed, and the dysphagia relieved gradually later on (Bown's II-I-0). The ratios between the diameter of neo-esophagus in different slip time and normal esophagus were 25% (at 2 months postoperatively), 58% (at 4 months postoperatively), and 93% (at 6 months postoperatively), respectively. The relationship between nitinol artificial esophagus slip time and neo-esophageal stenosis showed a positive correlation. After replacement of a thoracic esophagus with nitinol artificial esophagus, the artificial esophageal slip time not only affected the original diameter of the neo-esophagus immediately, but also affected the neo-esophageal scar stricture forming process later on. The narrowing of neo-esophagus is caused by overgrowth of scar tissue. But there is the positive correlation between artificial esophagus slip time and neo-esophageal stenosis, so this can be a way of overcoming neo-esophageal stenosis by delaying slip time of artificial esophagus. PMID:25809956

  17. ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN A thesis (or dissertation) submitted to the faculty of

    E-print Network

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    i ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA A thesis (or dissertation Francisco, California December 2010 #12;ii CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read Electronic Realization of Human Brain's Neo-Cortex Column Using FPGA by Padmavalli Vadali, and that in my opinion

  18. Comparison between neo-deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the Italian territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccolo, E.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2009-04-01

    Seismic hazard assessment can be performed in various ways, following probabilistic or deterministic approaches. The probabilistic analysis, on which is based the new Italian seismic code, is formally inaccurate, since it relies on convolutive techniques and approximations in the calculation process, which cannot be rigorously applied and that may lead to unrealistic results. These basic formal pitfalls of the probabilistic approach are overcome when resorting to the neo-deterministic approach, which is based on the calculation of synthetic seismograms and hence does not require the mentioned, often not valid, approximations. From a factual point of view, probabilistic hazard assessment performances proved to be very unsatisfactory by recent destructive earthquakes. On the other side, neo-deterministic hazard maps have been satisfactorily compared with observations available so far. Moreover recent earthquakes occurred in the areas where neo-deterministic maps were available, successfully confirmed the (neo-deterministically) predicted ground shaking. We compare the hazard maps obtained in Italy with the probabilistic and neo-deterministic approaches, focussing on the probabilistic map on which is based the seismic code in force, and different neo-deterministic maps. The neo-deterministic maps are computed using at first just the same elements as the probabilistic map (i.e. an earthquake catalogue and a set of seismogenic zones). Then also the information on the areas prone to strong earthquakes is incorporated. Two kinds of comparison have been performed. The first one is in terms of Intensity scale. Acceleration values have been converted in intensity-like scale, i.e. grouping peak ground motion parameters in doubling intervals (power law in base 2), consistently with the MCS scale. The use of intensity-like scale simplifies the problem of estimating the uncertainty of the neo-deterministic results, since this quantity will correspond to about one degree intensity (i.e. the sensitivity of the macroseismic scale), that is about doubling of ground motion parameters. The second comparison is performed in terms of seismic zones, since the probabilistic map is used to assign every municipality to one of the four seismic zones for the Italian territory, to which correspond specific building criteria.

  19. The Dilemma for the History of Modern Maps Based on Neo-Cartographic Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Jobst; Georg Gartner; Jürgen Döllner

    \\u000a Nowadays map repertoire expands the outcome of traditional mapping technologies by digital-, multimedia- and neo-cartographic\\u000a aspects. Especially neo-cartographic characteristics (ubiquitous cartography, user participation and geo-communication) are\\u000a new paradigms in modern cartography. This new expansion of digital-, multimedia- and Internet-cartography combines the latest\\u000a Web developments with traditional cartography and psychological imagery research. In terms of a prospective cartographic heritage\\u000a these modern

  20. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  1. Physical properties of Near-Earth Objects that inform mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2013-09-01

    Various methods have been proposed to avoid the collision of a Near-Earth Object (NEO) with the Earth. Each of these methods relies on a mitigation concept (deflection or fragmentation), an energy source (e.g. kinetic, gravitational, solar, thermal, etc.) and a mode of approach (e.g. remote station and interaction). The efficiency of each method depends on the physical properties of the considered NEO that influence the way the body will respond to the considered energy source. While the knowledge of properties such as the mass, spin rate and obliquity as well as the shape is generally required for all mitigation methods, there are other properties that are important to know for some methods and that have no great influence for other ones. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of main physical properties of NEOs and their importance for the most usual mitigation strategies that have been proposed, i.e. the kinetic impactor, the gravity tractor, strategies based on anchoring or depositing material on the surface, and strategies aimed at modifying the thermal properties of the NEO in order to either modify or cancel the Yarkovsky effect, or cause surface vaporization.

  2. Political economy and population health: is Australia exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Anne-marie; Short, Stephanie D

    2006-01-01

    Background It is accepted knowledge that social and economic conditions – like education and income – affect population health. What remains uncertain is whether the degree of inequality in these conditions influences population health and if so, how. Some researchers who argue that inequalities are important, say there is a relationship between political economy, inequality and population health. Their evidence comes from comparative studies showing that countries with neo-liberal political economies generally have poorer population health outcomes than those with social or Christian democratic political economies. According to these researchers, neo-liberal political economies adopt labour market and welfare state policies that lead to greater levels of inequality and poorer population health outcomes for us all. Discussion Australia has experienced considerable social and economic reforms over the last 20 years, with both major political parties increasingly adopting neo-liberal policies. Despite these reforms, population health outcomes are amongst the best in the world. Summary Australia appears to contest theories suggesting a link between political economy and population health. To progress our understanding, researchers need to concentrate on policy areas outside health – such as welfare, economics and industrial relations. We need to do longitudinal studies on how reforms in these areas affect levels of social and economic inequality, as well population health. We need to draw on social scientific methods, especially concerning case selection, to advance our understanding of casual relationships in policy studies. It is important to find out if, and why, Australia has resisted the affects of neo-liberalism on population health so we ensure our high standards are maintained in the future. PMID:16737549

  3. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution. PMID:25917417

  4. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K

    2015-05-01

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution. PMID:25917417

  5. The non-uniform distribution of the perihelia of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

    2013-10-01

    We show that each sub-group of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects that cause distinctive features in the apparent distribution of their angular elements. We also reveal that the NEOs' perihelia (argument of perihelion ? and longitude of perihelion ?) have intrinsically non-uniform distributions caused by secular planetary perturbations: ? is non-uniform for the Apollo asteroids because of secular dynamics associated with eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors' ? distribution is peaked along the secularly forced eccentricity vector. These secular effects are dominated by Jupiter's perturbations, and it is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

  6. A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Rob R.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

  7. Transnational pharmaceutical corporations and neo-liberal business ethics in India.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    The author critiques the expedient application of market valuation principles by the transnational corporations and other large firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry on a number of issues like patents, pricing, irrational drugs, clinical trials, etc. He contends that ethics in business is chiseled and etched within the confines of particular social structures of accumulation. An ascendant neo-liberal social structure of accumulation has basically shaped these firms' sharp opposition to the Indian Patents Act, 1970, government administered pricing, etc. The author contents that the practice of neo-liberal economics is strongly associated with a "one-dimensional" ethics that privileges market valuation principles over all others. This seems to inevitably generate a social counter-movement that struggles for social protections. He critiques neo-liberal business practices from a perspective that derives from the work of the economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Before the present phase of liberalization in India, markets were "managed", but without a "welfare state" in place. Moving toward deregulation of the markets without a welfare state in place is unethical. Keeping the debilities of the institutional framework of public policy in mind, the author adopts a Polanyian perspective that places its trust and hope in the growing social legitimacy of the counter-movement in opposition to both neo-liberal business practices and the degenerate behavior of state agencies. PMID:12625343

  8. Why Interculturalisation? A Neo-Marxist Approach to Accommodate Cultural Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The paper offers a neo-Marxist framework of interculturalisation to accommodate the increasing cultural diversity in the internationalisation of higher education with specific reference to Chinese students in New Zealand. At present, there are few official strategies in place to provide for the needs of international students in New Zealand…

  9. Neo-Liberalism and Practices of Selection in Arab Education in Israel: Between Control and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Halleli; Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other national contexts, in Israel since the 1980s we have witnessed the emergence of neo-liberal policies in education. However, very little attention has been given to the ways in which they affect the school level and even less attention has been given to the impact of these policy changes on Arab schools in Israel. This article…

  10. The Neo-Liberal Education Policies of "Epimeleia Heautou": Caring for the Self in School Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo; Pitton, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that neo-liberal education policy has capitalized on a historical concern to care for the self, or the Greek "epimeleia heautou". We discuss "epimeleia heautou" in relation to education policies that emphasize greater choice in curriculum offerings, and in relation to school choice policies more generally.…

  11. Finite stretching of a circular plate of neo-Hookean material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biricikoglu, V.

    1971-01-01

    The analytical solution presented is based on the assumption that the deformed thickness of the plate is approximately constant. The nonlinear equations governing finite axisymmetric deformations of a circular plate made of neo-Hookean material are used in the analysis. The variation of circumferential extension ratio and the variation of deformed thickness are shown in graphs.

  12. Monte Carlo Analyses of the NEO Beam Electron Beam Facility for Space Solar Cell Radiation Qualification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Messenger; Jeffrey H. Warner; Roberto Uribe; Robert J. Walters

    2010-01-01

    MCNPX Monte Carlo electron transport analyses are used to characterize the electron beam facility at NEO Beam. The electron flux and energy profiles are quantified along the beam path leading to a better understanding of solar cell damage. Experimental results are compared to the MCNPX simulations.

  13. NeoGeography and Web 2.0: concepts, tools and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Hudson-Smith; Andrew Crooks; Maurizio Gibin; Richard Milton; Michael Batty

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we explore the concepts and applications of Web 2.0 through the new media of NeoGeography and its impact on how we collect, interact and search for spatial information. We argue that location and space are becoming increasingly important in the information technology revolution. To this end, we present a series of software tools which we have designed

  14. A Theory of Collective Competence: Challenging The Neo-Liberal Individualisation of Performance at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary work-related education and training policy represents occupational competence as the outcome of individual performance at work. This paper presents a critique of this neo-liberal assumption, arguing that in many cases competence should be regarded as an attribute of groups, teams and communities. It proposes a theory of collective…

  15. Indigenous entrepreneurship in Samoa in the face of neo-colonialism and globalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Morrison

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe an in-depth study of indigenous Samoan economic systems, to ascertain what aspects of the systems enable community values and innovation; what are the effects of neo-colonial globalisation on the functionality of the systems, and what can be deduced about the best ways to ensure sustainable economic development of Samoan villages

  16. Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing…

  17. HUMMINGBIRDsCHARM (HsC)/ NEO-NEA Characterization Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheld, D. L.; Dreyer, C. B.; Gamber, T. R.; Hayden, J. L.; Knowles, L.; Hall, D.

    2015-01-01

    The HUMMINGBIRDsCHARM (HsC) concept has been described as a set of multiple missions that will intercept and “interview” target NEOs/NEAs. The “charming” aspect of this concept is the requirement that we send multiple vehicles to each target.

  18. NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    markets. Farmers became rather workers of a growing agro-industry. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) a highlyNEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA CONSERVATION OF QUINOA: A LESSON FOR STRENGTHENING AND DEVELOPING NEW PARTNERSHIPS Enrique A. MARTÍNEZ*, Didier

  19. Reforming the World Bank: from social?liberalism to neo?liberalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Girdwood

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo?liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions of power, governance and liberal government in

  20. Re-Interpretation in Historiography: John Dewey and the Neo-Humanist Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmann, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Did John Dewey's "new philosophy of education" really try to dissolve the whole block of tradition or is his debt namely to educational core-concepts of neo-humanism deeper than he was prepared to acknowledge? After some general remarks on the process of reception as productive re-adaptation and its implication for historiography I will deal with…

  1. Observation of NEOs Having High Apparent Rates with Mobitel Telescope Shulga, O.1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Observation of NEOs Having High Apparent Rates with Mobitel Telescope Shulga, O.1 , Kozyryev, Y.1 for the small telescopes, but after going away it may become unobservable for the most of telescopes rate causes limitation of exposure time in case if telescope observe in star tracking mode. So

  2. Neo-Liberal Reforms in Israel's Education System: The Dialectics of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonah, Yossi; Dahan, Yossi; Markovich, Dalya

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a reading of the Dovrat Report with the aim of assessing the convoluted and dialectical manifestations of the state--"the weak and the strong state"--in the era of global neo-liberalism. The Dovrat Report (Ministry Of Education 2005) includes a set of recommendations aiming to bring about structural and comprehensive changes in…

  3. A Neo-Aristotelian Account of Education, Justice, and the Human Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This article sketches the contours of a neo-Aristotelian account of education, justice, and the human good, organized around a sequence of three increasingly distinctive features of the Aristotelian understanding of respect for persons as rational beings. The first and second of these features bear on important aspects of educational justice,…

  4. The Measurement of Mental Attentional Capacity: A Neo-Piagetian Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennings, Alber H.; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Whether mental attentional capacity increases as a linear function of age during normal childhood development, as predicted by the neo-Piagetian developmental theory of J. Pascual-Leone (1970 and later), was studied with 215 children aged 5 to 12 years. Results provide only partial support for the Pascual-Leone theory. (SLD)

  5. Making Art Invisible: Visual Education and the Cultural Stagnation of Neo-Liberal Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of visual literacy may have resulted, in part, from some school authorities rushing the process of determining school curriculum. This article argues that the haste is reflective of pressure placed on educational discourse to conform to neo-liberal reforms of the sector, and is not the result of a careful and complex debate within…

  6. Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of…

  7. Neopoints, and Neo Economies: Emergent Regimes of Value in Kids Peer-to-Peer Networks

    E-print Network

    Ito, Mimi

    Neopoints, and Neo Economies: Emergent Regimes of Value in Kids Peer-to-Peer Networks Mimi Ito' of childhood in such contexts involves kids gradually and receptively absorbing the culture and values, and one that we expect is shared by many people who spend time with kids is that they have never been

  8. An Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sutton, Dana F.

    Created and maintained by Dana F. Sutton, Professor of Classics at the University of California, this straightforward metasite currently links to 549 free Neo-Latin electronic texts written during the Renaissance and later. The list is browsed alphabetically. Each entry includes author, title, URL, source site, and notes (usually download formats).

  9. Is Global Neo-Liberalism Shaping the Future of Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune

    2014-01-01

    With claims that neo-liberalism is the "specific defining political/economic paradigm of the age in which we live?…?" [Apple, Michael. 2006. "Educating the 'Right' Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality." New York: Taylor & Francis, 14.], an invited symposium at the 2012 International Convention on Science,…

  10. Robotic and Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  11. Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic. Methods We used the Neo-Socratic Dialogue (NSD) method which promotes philosophical discussion based on a case-study to address a question and formulate a consensus and answer in a group. The question chosen for the dialogue was: “What is a life-prolonging treatment?” A series of dialogues took place over a period of one and a half days. It was carried out by three groups in 2010 and 2011. Seven participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited per group. We analyzed the content of the discussion. Results Based on three case studies concerning different opinions about treatment options for an older dementia patient, a patient demanding chemotherapy, and a severely ill neonate, conditions for futile life-prolonging treatment were elucidated through NSD. Such treatments are those carried out for the sole purpose of prolonging life and are detrimental to the patient, and should be decided based foremost on the patient’s lack of desire for treatment, the consensus of those involved, and through social acceptance. These arguments are essentially consistent with ones on medical futility in the United States. By expressing the objective of healthcare and the requirement of social acceptance, participants were also able to elucidate issues related to the awareness of those involved and the medical environment. Compared to the end-of-life guidelines in Japan, the objective of treatment, its effects, and benefits were more specifically discussed with the patient’s intentions as the foremost consideration, rather than being limited to the terminal stage. Conclusions This small study contributed to elucidating the conditions and current problems of futile life-prolonging treatment through NSD. They would suggest more substantial guidelines and improvements on the administration of the treatment. PMID:24321531

  12. Deep Interior: Multiple-Rendezvous Prospecting of NEOs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Kakuda; E. Asphaug; M. J. S. Belton; S. Gulkis; W. F. Huebner

    2000-01-01

    This is an international multiple-rendezvous mission designed to prospect the deep interior and subsurface geophysical properties of diverse near-Earth objects, using reflection radar tomography, imaging, gravity, and explosions. What we learn will greatly influence future missions and guide strategies for the diversion, disruption, or utilization of potentially hazardous objects. Deep Interior. Low-frequency radar to determine internal variations of complex permittivity

  13. Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  14. Dynamics of asteroids and near-Earth objects from Gaia Astrometry D. Bancelina, D. Hestroffera, W. Thuillota

    E-print Network

    Dynamics of asteroids and near-Earth objects from Gaia Astrometry D. Bancelina, D. Hestroffera, W asteroids (MBAs) and near-Earth objects (NEOs) down to magnitude 20. The high precision astrometry (0 in the prediction and ephemerides of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). We give in this paper some simulation

  15. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission in the ESA program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Dotto; M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawaguchi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

    2009-01-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near Earth Object. In October 2007 this mission passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will

  16. On The Distribution Of Angular Orbital Elements Of Near-earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

    2012-05-01

    The longitude of ascending node ? and the argument of periapsis ? are expected to be randomly distributed for near-Earth objects (NEOs). However, the distribution of these angles for the Apollo, Amor and Aten subclasses, considered separately, shows some striking non-random features. We explain how these features arise due to observational biases. The distribution of ? has maxima near 0 and 180° and is affected by observational difficulty due to the galactic plane at the opposition and other seasonal effects. The ? distributions of Aten and Amor subclasses have minima at 90° and 270° while Apollos have minima at 0 and 180°. This is explained by the greater detectability of NEOs at close approach to Earth. The longitude of perihelion ?+? also has a strongly non-random distribution that may be owed to actual dynamical effects. Understanding the distribution of unobserved NEOs will help to improve planning for the next generation of NEO surveys. A better understanding of the intrinsic distribution of NEOs is important for estimating the impact hazard at Earth; it is also important for understanding the impact history of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  17. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  18. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  19. Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Abell; D. J. Korsmeyer; Rob R. Landis; T. D. Jones; D. R. Adamo; David D. Morrison; L. G. Lemke; Andrew A. Gonzales; Robert Gershman; T. H. Sweetser; Lindley L. Johnson; E. Lu

    2009-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for

  20. An ‘entry level’ mission to a near Earth object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

    2006-10-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects’ mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An ‘entry level’ mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10 kg science ‘reference’ payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of €20million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

  1. An "entry level" mission to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

    2003-11-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects' mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An 'entry level' mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10kg science 'reference' payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of Euro 20 million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

  2. Precision Astrometry of Near Earth Objects at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Andrew; Ries, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The McDonald astrometry group has been observing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) since 1998 with a 0.76m telescope. The main goal is to confirm newly discovered objects and follow-up known, but under-observed objects. NASA's mission to discover and catalogue 90 percent of NEOs larger than 1 km as soon as possible has been extended down to 140 m. The number of objects in the 140 m size range is much larger than the number of 1 km sized asteroids and thus, a collision is more likely to involve a smaller one. These objects are faint with absolute magnitudes 21.5 or larger. We are resuming the program concentrating on faint/small NEOs on the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope with the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow-up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams as it provides detectable images of a 19th magnitude source with a 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.7’ by 4.7’, with 0.276 ‘’/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the PSF for precision astrometry. Our first task is to characterize the plate solution, the transformation between the standard and pixel coordinates with the least number of coefficients, but removing all systematic errors from the residuals. We obtained images of M71 at three different airmasses during two nights in September. We also took exposures of asteroids with well-known orbits to test our astrometry. The results and the evaluation will be presented at the meeting. This research is funded by NASA NEO Program grant NNX12AG09G. Park, W.K., et al.,(2012), PASP, Vol. 124.

  3. Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

    2009-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA’s Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  4. Cumulative exposure to air pollution and long term outcomes after first acute myocardial infarction: A population-based cohort study. Objectives and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increased risk for cardiovascular events in relation to exposure to air pollution. The Israel Study of First Acute Myocardial Infarction was designed to longitudinally assess clinical outcomes, psychosocial adjustment and quality of life in patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction. The current study, by introducing retrospective air pollution data, will examine the association between exposure to air pollution and outcome in myocardial infarction survivors. This report will describe the methods implemented and measures employed. The study specifically aims to examine the relationship between residential exposure to air pollution and long-term risk of recurrent coronary event, heart failure, stroke, cardiac and all-cause death in a geographically defined cohort of patients with myocardial infarction. Methods/Design All 1521 patients aged ?65 years, admitted with first myocardial infarction between February 1992 and February 1993 to the 8 hospitals serving the population of central Israel, were followed for a median of 13 years. Data were collected on sociodemographic, clinical and environmental factors. Data from air quality monitoring stations will be incorporated retrospectively. Daily measures of air pollution will be summarised, allowing detailed maps to be developed in order to reflect chronic exposure for each participant. Discussion This study addresses some of the gaps in understanding of the prognostic importance of air pollution exposure after myocardial infarction, by allowing a sufficient follow-up period, using a well-defined community cohort, adequately controlling for multiple and multilevel confounding factors and providing extensive data on various outcomes. PMID:20576121

  5. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  6. The Self-Expansiveness Level Form: examination of its validity and relation to the Neo Personality Inventory--Revised.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, D A; Gagnier, J J; Friedman, H L

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the validity of the Self-expansiveness Level Form of Friedman with particular emphasis on the Transpersonal subscale, a measure of transpersonal self-concept, in terms of its basic psychometric properties and its relation to the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised. Support for the basic psychometric properties of the scale in terms of reliability, factorial validity, and concurrent validity was obtained; however, support was limited for convergent validity as correlations between scores on the Transpersonal subscale and measures of theoretically related constructs were low. Correlational analyses involving the Self-expansiveness Level Form and NEO Personality Inventory--Revised indicated that Transpersonal scores were not appreciably associated with the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised domains. Moreover, factor analysis of NEO Personality Inventory--Revised facets and Self-expansiveness Level Form items generated a solution in which the two measures contributed to separate factors. Discussion of the implications and limitations of the findings is included. PMID:10876319

  7. Privatisation and deregulation of public utilities: contesting the neo-classical paradigm from a business strategy perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas Skoufa; George Lafferty

    2001-01-01

    The neo-classical economics paradigm postulates a hypothetical model of perfe ct competition as the ideal environment for business success. Yet this model has had great difficulty in apprehending the day-to-day operations of actual business organisations. This paper explores some of the apparent inadequacies of the neo-classical paradigm, drawing on business strategy theory to suggest a potentially more fruitful mode of

  8. Isolation and structure elucidation of three neo-clerodane diterpenes from Teucrium fruticans L. (LABIATAE).

    PubMed

    Coll, Josep; Tandrón, Yudelsy

    2005-10-01

    Recently, the isolation from Teucrium fruticans of neo-clerodanes, namely 7beta-hydroxyfruticolone, 11-hydroxyfruticolone, deacetylfruticolone and 6-acetyl-10-hydroxyteucjaponin B, in addition to fruticolone, isofruticolone and 8beta-hydroxyfruticolone (three out of the four previously reported ones), and 6-acetylteucjaponin B (isolated from T. scordium and T. grisebachii) was reported. Minor compounds presumably of neo-clerodane nature were shown by HPLC analysis on a new extract. Three new compounds, difuranofruticol, deoxyfruticolone and 10-hydroxyteucjaponin B, and the known 7,8-didehydrofruticolone were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive NMR spectral studies (one- and two-dimensional experiments). The compounds were assayed for their antifeedant activity against Spodoptera littoralis and for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Compounds 9-11 showed low antifeedant activity and the feeding ratio of 12 was moderate-low. None of the tested compounds displayed significant activity against R. solani. PMID:16122769

  9. Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  10. Near Earth Object Observations Presentation to

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    ) Catalina Sky NEO Program Office @ JPL · Program coordination · Automated SENTRY www.neo.jpl.nasa.gov Minor.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/mpc.html Pan-STARRS NEO-WISE JPL Sun-synch LEO LINEAR MIT/LL Soccoro, NM Catalina Sky Survey UofAZ Arizona

  11. Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

    2012-02-01

    Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 50-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21 < V < 23 on any night during 2012A. We will place the highest priority on Virtual Impactors (VIs) and on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) where long arcs can be created. We will also attempt to recover VI and PHA candidates on a 2- night run. Among the 109 NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non-zero risk of Earth impact, all but 26 are unobservable using conventional (non-survey) telescopes. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

  12. Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

    2013-02-01

    We will use the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to recover Near Earth Objects (NEOs) by adding astrometric observations at one or more orbits since discovery. Recovery observations place the strongest constraints on the orbital solution and can be expected to improve the impact risk assessment for Virtual Impactors (VIs). Many NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non- zero risk of Earth impact, all but 21 are classified as "Lost" until rediscovered by the surveys. Through this on-going work, we seek to minimize the number of new discoveries that are "lost", improve the characterization of VI/PHA orbits and to further the assessment of impact risk.

  13. Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Mark; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

    2013-08-01

    Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 20-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) on the NEODyS risk list, 92 are classified as ``Lost'' by NEODyS until rediscovered by the surveys. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

  14. No evidence for neo-oogenesis may link to ovarian senescence in adult monkey.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jihong; Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mengyuan; Mao, Jian; Yin, Yu; Ye, Xiaoying; Liu, Na; Han, Jihong; Gao, Yingdai; Cheng, Tao; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Female germline or oogonial stem cells transiently residing in fetal ovaries are analogous to the spermatogonial stem cells or germline stem cells (GSCs) in adult testes where GSCs and meiosis continuously renew. Oocytes can be generated in vitro from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but the existence of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in adult mammalian ovaries is less clear. Preliminary findings of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in mice and humans have not been consistently reproducible. Monkeys provide the most relevant model of human ovarian biology. We searched for GSCs and neo-meiosis in ovaries of adult monkeys at various ages, and compared them with GSCs from adult monkey testis, which are characterized by cytoplasmic staining for the germ cell marker DAZL and nuclear expression of the proliferative markers PCNA and KI67, and pluripotency-associated genes LIN28 and SOX2, and lack of nuclear LAMIN A, a marker for cell differentiation. Early meiocytes undergo homologous pairing at prophase I distinguished by synaptonemal complex lateral filaments with telomere perinuclear distribution. By exhaustive searching using comprehensive experimental approaches, we show that proliferative GSCs and neo-meiocytes by these specific criteria were undetectable in adult mouse and monkey ovaries. However, we found proliferative nongermline somatic stem cells that do not express LAMIN A and germ cell markers in the adult ovaries, notably in the cortex and granulosa cells of growing follicles. These data support the paradigm that adult ovaries do not undergo germ cell renewal, which may contribute significantly to ovarian senescence that occurs with age. PMID:23897655

  15. Skills as tribute: Phoenician sailors and shipwrights in the service of Neo-Assyria 

    E-print Network

    Trakadas, Athena Lynn

    1999-01-01

    borders to the shores of the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. The Neo-Assyrian kings quickly recognized that the Phoenicians were adept at the construction of seagoing and small coastal vessels, and navigation in the open sea, and therefore possessed... campaigns resulted in the incorporation of Babylon into the ever-expanding kingdom. In essence, the Assyrian kingdom now included more territory than ever before, spanning from the coast of the eastern Mediterranean to the ancient shores of the Persian...

  16. Progressive Planning Ideals in a Neo-liberal Context, the Case of Ørestad Copenhagen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Majoor

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale development projects have frequently been interpreted as products of neo-liberal policies. Many of them have been fiercely criticized because of their closed governance settings and their negative local spatial impacts. What space is left in them for a more progressive planning agenda? This article presents an empirical investigation of a major mixed-use large-scale development, the Ørestad project in Copenhagen.

  17. Skills as tribute: Phoenician sailors and shipwrights in the service of Neo-Assyria

    E-print Network

    Trakadas, Athena Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Assyrian period, Ashurnarsipal also had dear economic designs. is Military conquests extended west to the Euphrates River, then north to Syria, where Ashurnarsipal's army first came into contact with the new Neo-Hittite and Aramaean states that had... on the Euphrates River), Karkemesh, and Arpad (capital of the Bit Agusi, near the modern city of Aleppo) lay in his path. 2 South of Karkemesh, Ashurnarsipal and his army ruthlessly succeeded in destroying several of the allied eastern Aramaean cities' armies...

  18. Neo-structuralist analysis of green-marketing discourse: interpreting hybrid car manufacturers and consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djavlonbek Kadirov; Richard J. Varey

    2012-01-01

    To explain inconsistent behaviour that is well documented in green-marketing and consumption, the authors develop the (neo)structuralist model of meaning cocreation that is based on the signifying practices of hybrid car manufacturers and consumers. The model reveals that market agents are recruited into a symbolic order that requires the perpetual reinforcement of self-opposing meanings as a condition for signification. The

  19. Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the George E. Brown, Jr. NEO Survey Program are to detect, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristics of NEOs equal to or larger than 140 meters in diameter with a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, achieving 90 percent completion of the survey within 15 years after enactment of the NASA Authorization Act of 2005. The Act was signed into law by President Bush on December 30, 2005. A study team, led by NASAs Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E), conducted the analysis of alternatives with inputs from several other U.S. government agencies, international organizations, and representatives of private organizations. The team developed a range of possible options from public and private sources and then analyzed their capabilities and levels of performance including development schedules and technical risks.

  20. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will directly support the investigation of open questions and operational concepts that will enable NASA to continue its plan for planetary exploration.

  1. Neo-adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma before liver transplantation: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico; Choi, Minsig; Kim, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria is a widely accepted optimal therapy. Neo-adjuvant therapy before transplantation has been used as a bridging therapy to prevent dropout during the waiting period and as a down-staging method for the patient with intermediate HCC to qualify for liver transplantation. Transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation are the most commonly used method for locoregional therapy. The data associated with newer modalities including drug-eluting beads, radioembolization with Y90, stereotactic radiation therapy and sorafenib will be discussed as a tool for converting advanced HCC to LT candidates. The concept “ablate and wait” has gained the popularity where mandated observation period after neo-adjuvant therapy allows for tumor biology to become apparent, thus has been recommended after down-staging. The role of neo-adjuvant therapy with conjunction of “ablate and wait” in living donor liver transplantation for intermediate stage HCC is also discussed in the paper. PMID:24833861

  2. NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kevin; Herring, David

    2005-01-01

    The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, nontraditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NE0 will accomplish this goal by anticipating users expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

  3. Relationship between XBP1 genotype and personality traits assessed by TCI and NEO-FFI.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Ichiro; Masui, Takuya; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Katsuji; Akimoto, Tatsuyuki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Kato, Tadafumi; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2005-12-31

    There have been several researches on the role of personality in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Recently, a polymorphism of XBP1, a pivotal gene in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, was shown to contribute to the genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder. Therefore, in this study, we examined the relationship between the XBP1 gene polymorphism and the personality traits assessed by two self-rating scales, a shortened version of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in healthy subjects. The present results suggested that the XBP1 gene polymorphism was associated with the NEO-FFI score of neuroticism in female subjects. However, no significant differences in the other personality scale scores of both assessments were observed among normal subjects with -116C/C, C/G and G/G genotypes. Further investigations are necessary to examine the relationship in patients with bipolar disorder, or use full version of various self-rating personality assessments. PMID:16154272

  4. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  5. Racism against the Mayan Population in Yucatan, Mexico: How Current Education Contradicts the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The discriminatory situation suffered by the Maya population in the Mexican state of Yucatan is discussed using the concept of neo-racism. Statistical evidence about the school system is presented, along with testimonies of Mayan speakers which uncover a phenomena frequently denied or obliterated by politically correct speeches that actually serve…

  6. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the Japanese Hyabusa Mission to Itokawa. Also due to their close proximity to Earth, NEOs constitute the most likely set of celestial objects that will impact us in the relatively near future.

  7. The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five factor model of personality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham

    1996-01-01

    This study sets out examine the relationship between two personality measures—most popularly used measure in the consultancy and training world (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and one of the most heavily used measures in the academic research area on personality (the five factor NEO-PI). One hundred and sixty adults completed the NEO-PI and the MBTI. The NEO-PI Agreeableness score was correlated

  8. Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Cristina Ana

    2009-01-01

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, give the best representation of meteorite source bodies. ...

  9. Continued Astrometric Follow-up Of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahr, Timothy; Johnson, Lindley (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    As the grant periods overlapped, some of this information below will also be present on the previous final report. During the period May 1 2004 to April 30 2005, approximately 100 NEOs fainter than V = 20 were observed on separate nights from the 1.2-m telescope at Mt. Hopkins. Additionally, a few comets were targeted, including astrometric support of the Deep Impact mission by observing comet P/Tempel 1. Kyle Smalley was again employed as an independent contractor, and he was trained in use of the telescope, performed several remote observing runs on his own, and has now begun critical software support of the observing program. Code to automatically operate the telescope, given a target list, is approximately 90% done. During the first observing run scheduled in late September or early October, this code will be tested at on the telescope. It is probable that the 1.2m telescope will be run automatically all night without any interruption from the observer for anything during this time. Additional work on selecting which NEO targets to observe is progressing, with a beta-release of a simple target selection web page. Additionally, two-night objects with the potential of being NEOs have been extracted on a routine basis during this last grant cycle. These will also be added to a web page to facilitate additional astrometric follow-up.

  10. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  11. Object identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setrag N. Khoshafian; George P. Copeland

    1986-01-01

    Identity is that property of an object which distinguishes each object from all others. Identity has been investigated almost independently in general-purpose programming languages and database languages. Its importance is growing as these two environments evolve and merge.We describe a continuum between weak and strong support of identity, and argue for the incorporation of the strong notion of identity at

  12. 1.5-year AOD observations at the Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), in Messinia-S. Greece (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Gratsea, Myrto; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos; Andreae, Meinrat

    2013-04-01

    Ground-based observations of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at the newly operated Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), in Messinia-S. Greece (Eastern Mediterranean), are analysed in this work. NEO is a cooperation between Stockholm University, the Academy of Athens and TEMES S.A., dedicated to research and education on the climate and environment of the Mediterranean region. Measurements were acquired with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer at five wavelengths. The temporal variability characteristics of the AOD and the Angstroem exponent will be investigated in order to retrieve the major sources of aerosols over the area in conjunction with back-trajectory analyses. The relation between columnar properties of aerosols and in-situ measurements, will be additionally studied during the intensive campaign ARGON (Aerosol and TRace Gases Observational Campaign at NEO). The ARGON campaign took place in the period 7 June - 12 July 2012 at NEO premises in Costa Navarino, Messinia. In addition to the routine aerosol, trace gases and radiometric measurements at NEO, extra instrumentation was operated for the monitoring of NOx (NO and NO2), CO and PM10, for the first time in the area. A PM10 sampler was used for the collection of 24h atmospheric samples on quartz filters for further in vitro chemical analyses. Finally, a LIDAR system on board of the new van type mobile lab of the Academy of Athens was deployed for the scanning of the vertical profile of aerosol in the atmosphere during the period of measurements.

  13. Semantic response consistency and protocol validity in structured personality assessment: the case of the NEO-PI-R.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J E; Parrish, C L

    2001-04-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that groups of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992a) protocols identified as potentially invalid by an inconsistency scale (INC; Schinka, Kinder, & Kremer, 1997) would show reduced reliability and validity according to a series of psychometric tests. Data were obtained from 2 undergraduate student samples, a self-report group (n = 132) who provided NEO-PI-R self-ratings on 2 occasions separated by a 7- to 14-day interval and an informant group (n = 109) who provided ratings of well-known friends or relatives on 2 occasions separated by a 6 month interval. INC scores from the Time 1 protocols were used to divide these samples into low, moderate, and elevated inconsistency groups. In both samples, these 3 groups showed equivalent levels of reliability and validity as measured by: contingency coefficients for the 20 INC item responses across occasions; test-retest intraclass correlations of NEO-PI-R domain scores; convergent correlations with Goldberg's (1992) Bipolar Adjective Scale scores; and discriminant correlations between the 5 NEO-PI-R domain scores. The similarity of results across self-report and informant assessment contexts provides additional evidence that semantic consistency approaches to assessing protocol validity may overestimate the prevalence of random or careless response behavior in standard administration conditions. Several theories are discussed that accommodate the existence of valid inconsistency in structured personality assessment. PMID:11393463

  14. Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2001-10-01

    Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.

  15. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  16. Piloted Missions to Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D.; Landis, R.; Jones, T.; Morrison, D.; Adamo, D.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.; Lu, E.

    2007-10-01

    A recent study has examined the feasibility of sending the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration and Exploration Systems Architecture Study in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade ( 2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program's Orion CEV capsule and Ares launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the Earth-Moon system and would help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting crewed exploration missions outside of low-Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years. Such a mission would not only provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration, but would also provide the capability to conduct an in-depth scientific investigation of a NEO. Essential physical and geochemical properties of these objects can best be determined from dedicated spacecraft. In addition, a crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques, and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) much more capably than a robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance any scientific return from this type of mission. Missions to NEOs would also have practical applications for resource utilization and planetary defense, two issues that will be relevant in the not-too-distant future as humanity begins to explore, understand, and utilize the solar system. These scientific and practical aspects, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture into deep space, make a mission to a NEO using Constellation systems a compelling prospect. This work is sponsored by NASA's Constellation Advanced Programs Office.

  17. Development of a handbook and an on-line tool on defending Earth against Potentially Hazardous Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melamed, Nahum

    2013-09-01

    A credible Potentially Hazardous Object (PHO) threat may be identified sometime in the future, requiring actions to be taken to prevent an impact disaster. To negate that threat, mitigation techniques are being proposed where the potential for collision is unacceptably high. The Aerospace Corporation is developing a handbook for Near Earth Object (NEO) deflection and a complementary web-based NEO deflection interactive tool. The purpose of the tool is to aid in the design and understanding of the deflection impulses necessary for defending Earth against threatening objects and in the analysis and comparison of various techniques that might be used to provide those impulses. The handbook and the associated web-based resource center will provide first-order requirements for effective NEO deflection missions using a variety of deflection concepts. The resources will include educational materials on NEO threats and deflection concepts, as well as examples demonstrating the use of the handbook and web-based tool. A project overview and status are presented.

  18. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  19. Determination of neo- and d-chiro-Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soils by Solution 31P NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and d-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and d-chiro-IP6 and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable 31P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP6) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of d-chiro-IP6) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46–54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (d-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and d-chiro-IP6 occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and d-chiro-IP6 in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP6 stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

  20. Determination of neo- and D-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cheesman, Alexander W; Godage, H Yasmin; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-05-01

    The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and D-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable (31)P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP(6)) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of D-chiro-IP(6)) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46-54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (D-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP(6) stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

  1. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  2. Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramberg, Magnus Rye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on…

  3. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships with Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of "DSM-IV" anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder…

  4. The Neo-Liberalisation Policy Agenda and Its Consequences for Education in England: A Focus on Resistance Now and Possibilities for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisuria, Alpesh

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the way that neo-liberalism is becoming more entrenched in the fabric of the education system in England. The article begins by setting out a very brief historical trajectory of neo-liberalism to provide a working definition of a complex and disarticulated socio-political and economic system. In part two, this…

  5. Neo-Liberal Transformation in Turkish Higher Education System: A New Story of a Turning Point: Draft Proposition on the Higher Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Neo-liberal policies have been affecting in waves all public services in Turkey since 1980s. The most affected institutions in this process were education in general and the higher education institutions in particular. This article consists of two dimensions. In the first dimension, the process, in which the neo-liberal policies started with a…

  6. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

  7. Purification, properties and cDNA cloning of neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), a hemolytic lethal factor from the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa venom.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Mika; Honma, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2006-11-01

    A proteinaceous toxin with hemolytic and lethal activities, named neoverrucotoxin (neoVTX), was purified from the venom fluid of stonefish Synanceia verrucosa and its primary structure was elucidated by a cDNA cloning technique. NeoVTX is a dimeric 166 kDa protein composed of alpha-subunit (702 amino acid residues) and beta-subunit (699 amino acid residues) and lacks carbohydrate moieties. Its hemolytic activity is inhibited by anionic lipids, especially potently by cardiolipin. These properties are comparable to those of stonustoxin (SNTX) previously purified from S. horrida. Alignment of the amino acid sequences also reveals that the neoVTX alpha- and beta-subunits share as high as 87 and 95% sequence identity with the SNTX alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively. The distinct differences between neoVTX and SNTX are recognized only in the numbers of Cys residues (18 for neoVTX and 15 for SNTX) and free thiol groups (10 for neoVTX and 5 for SNTX). In contrast, neoVTX considerably differs from verrucotoxin (VTX), a tetrameric 322 kDa glycoprotein, previously purified from S. verrucosa. In addition, the sequence identity of the neoVTX beta-subunit with the reported VTX beta-subunit is 90%, being lower than that with the SNTX beta-subunit. PMID:17023116

  8. Acantholactam and pre-neo-kauluamine, manzamine-related alkaloids from the Indonesian marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Eguchi, Keisuke; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Takeya, Motohiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2014-06-27

    Two new manzamine alkaloids, acantholactam (3) and pre-neo-kauluamine (4), were isolated from the marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens along with manzamine A (1) and neo-kauluamine (2). Acantholactam contains a ?-lactam ring N-substituted with a (Z)-2-hexenoic acid moiety and is proposed to be biosynthetically derived from manzamine A by oxidative cleavage of the eight-membered ring. Compound 4 was converted to the dimer 2 during storage, suggesting nonenzymatic dimer formation. Among the four isolated compounds, 1, 2, and 4 showed proteasome inhibitory activity. PMID:24902064

  9. Infinitesimals as an issue in neo-Kantian philosophy of science

    E-print Network

    Thomas Mormann; Mikhail G. Katz

    2013-04-09

    We seek to elucidate the philosophical context in which one of the most important conceptual transformations of modern mathematics took place, namely the so-called revolution in rigor in infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis. Some of the protagonists of the said revolution were Cauchy, Cantor, Dedekind, and Weierstrass. The dominant current of philosophy in Germany at the time was neo-Kantianism. Among its various currents, the Marburg school (Cohen, Natorp, Cassirer, and others) was the one most interested in matters scientific and mathematical. Our main thesis is that Marburg neo-Kantian philosophy formulated a sophisticated position towards the problems raised by the concepts of limits and infinitesimals. The Marburg school neither clung to the traditional approach of logically and metaphysically dubious infinitesimals, nor whiggishly subscribed to the new orthodoxy of the "great triumvirate" of Cantor, Dedekind, and Weierstrass that declared infinitesimals conceptus nongrati in mathematical discourse. Rather, following Cohen's lead, the Marburg philosophers sought to clarify Leibniz's principle of continuity, and to exploit it in making sense of infinitesimals and related concepts.

  10. Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument. PMID:22452759

  11. Oxygen Sensing Mesenchymal Progenitors Promote Neo-Vasculogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole A.; Ortner, Anna; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Reinisch, Andreas; Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohban, Rokhsareh; Etchart, Nathalie; Fruehwirth, Margareta; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Andreeff, Michael; Strunk, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Despite insights into the molecular pathways regulating hypoxia-induced gene expression, it is not known which cell types accomplish oxygen sensing during neo-vasculogenesis. We have developed a humanized mouse model of endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor co-transplantation to delineate the cellular compartments responsible for hypoxia response during vasculogenesis. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) accumulated nuclear hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? earlier and more sensitively than endothelial colony forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxic ECFCs showed reduced function in vitro and underwent apoptosis within 24h in vivo when used without MSPCs. Surprisingly, only in MSPCs did pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HIF-1? abrogate neo-vasculogenesis. HIF deletion in ECFCs caused no effect. ECFCs could be rescued from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by HIF-competent MSPCs resulting in the formation of patent perfused human vessels. Several angiogenic factors need to act in concert to partially substitute mesenchymal HIF-deficiency. Results demonstrate that ECFCs require HIF-competent vessel wall progenitors to initiate vasculogenesis in vivo and to bypass hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We describe a novel mechanistic role of MSPCs as oxygen sensors promoting vasculogenesis thus underscoring their importance for the development of advanced cellular therapies. PMID:22970226

  12. A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

    2013-08-15

    Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

  13. Neo-adjuvant (pre-emptive) cisplatin therapy in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D M; Raghavan, D; Kelly, K A; Sandeman, T F; Conn, I G; Teriana, N; Dunn, J; Boulas, J; Latief, T

    1991-06-01

    Following 2 pilot studies which showed 57 and 61% response rates to intravenous cisplatin for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder prior to definitive treatment, the West Midlands Urological Research Group (WMURG) and the Australian Bladder Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) independently began randomised trials to test the survival benefit of neo-adjuvant intravenous cisplatin prior to radiotherapy in T2-T4 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Both trials failed to recruit their target numbers of 250 patients in the West Midlands and 320 in Australia. Since they had similar treatment protocols and eligibility criteria, they were combined in an overview analysis, achieving a total number of 255 patients. Each treatment group was compared with its own control group and the differences were pooled to give an overall result. There was no difference in survival between treated and control patients. The odds ratio was 1.13 with the control groups faring marginally better than the chemotherapy groups. Even with 255 patients the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio was wide (0.80-1.57). Although there is no clear evidence of a clinically worthwhile benefit from neo-adjuvant cisplatin, this approach must be tested in a larger study using combination treatments with greater activity in metastatic disease. PMID:2070206

  14. Insertion of Phosphoglycerine Kinase (Pgk)-Neo 5? of J?1 Dramatically Enhances Vj?1 Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tianhe; Storb, Ursula

    2001-01-01

    Gene-targeted mice were generated with a loxP-neomycin resistance gene (neor) cassette inserted upstream of the J?1 region and replacement of the glycine 154 codon in the C?1 gene with a serine codon. This insertion dramatically increases V?1-J?1 recombination. J?1 germline transcription levels in pre-B cells and thymus cells are also greatly increased, apparently due to the strong housekeeping phosphoglycerine kinase (PGK) promoter driving the neo gene. In contrast, deletion of the neo gene causes a significant decrease in VJ?1 recombination to levels below those in normal mice. This reduction is due to the loxP site left on the chromosome which reduces the J?1 germline transcription in cis. Thus, the correlation between germline transcription and variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) recombination is not just an all or none phenomenon. Rather, the transcription efficiency is directly associated with the recombination efficiency. Furthermore, J?1 and V?1 germline transcription itself is not sufficient to lead to VJ recombination in T cells or early pre-B cells. The findings may suggest that in vivo: (a) locus and cell type–specific transactivators direct the immunoglobulin or T cell receptor loci, respectively, to a “recombination factory” in the nucleus, and (b) transcription complexes deliver V(D)J recombinase to the recombination signal sequences. PMID:11257137

  15. Objectively Speaking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brent, Rebecca, 1956-

    This resources is a column on how to write learning objectives for a course and why they make everything you do thereafter (e.g. planning syllabi and class sessions, making up assignments and exams, and reviewing departmental curricula) easier and more effective. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

  16. Inactivation of Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water by Ultraviolet Light Technology: NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.; Ultraviolet Water Treatment System, NeoTech D438? (Report and VS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc. D438? UV Water Treatment System was tested to validate the UV dose delivered by the system using biodosimetry and a set line approach. The set line for 40 mJ/cm2 measured Reduction Equivalent Dose (RED) was based on validation testing at three (3)...

  17. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  18. Power and Propulsion System Design for Near-Earth Object Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Landau, Damon F.; Bury, Kristen M.; Malone, Shane P.; Hickman, Tyler A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are exciting targets for exploration; they are relatively easy to reach but relatively little is known about them. With solar electric propulsion, a vast number of interesting NEOs can be reached within a few years and with extensive flexibility in launch date. An additional advantage of electric propulsion for these missions is that a spacecraft can be small, enabling a fleet of explorers launched on a single vehicle or as secondary payloads. Commercial, flight-proven Hall thruster systems have great appeal based on their performance and low cost risk, but one issue with these systems is that the power processing units (PPUs) are designed for regulated spacecraft power architectures which are not attractive for small NEO missions. In this study we consider the integrated design of power and propulsion systems that utilize the capabilities of existing PPUs in an unregulated power architecture. Models for solar array and engine performance are combined with low-thrust trajectory analyses to bound spacecraft design parameters for a large class of NEO missions, then detailed array performance models are used to examine the array output voltage and current over a bounded mission set. Operational relationships between the power and electric propulsion systems are discussed, and it is shown that both the SPT-100 and BPT-4000 PPUs can perform missions over a solar range of 0.7 AU to 1.5 AU - encompassing NEOs, Venus, and Mars - within their operable input voltage ranges. A number of design trades to control the array voltage are available, including cell string layout, array offpointing during mission operations, and power draw by the Hall thruster system.

  19. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    This dissertation explores the role of ideas and ideology in the mental policy design maps of regulators in the US and in India. The research approach is to describe the regulatory design process in the history of the US electric industry from a neo-institutional and developmental perspective. And then to use the insights of such a study to suggest policy options to a sample of Indian experts. A regulatory process model explores the interactions among normative values, regulatory instruments and historical phases in policy design. A spectrum of seven regulatory instruments--subsidized rates, average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, time-of-use pricing, ramsey pricing, incentive regulation and spot pricing is examined. A neo-institutional perspective characterizes the process of institutionalizing these regulatory instruments as a design process that infuses them with values beyond mere technical requirements. The process model includes normative values such as efficiency, fairness, free choice and political feasibility. These values arise from an analytical classification of various market metaphors debated in the history of economic thought. The theory of development and co-evolution applied to the history of electricity regulation yields a typology of evolutionary phases in the US. The typology describes hierarchically emergent relationships between supply and demand and among the normative values. The theory hypothesizes technologically contingent relationships between pricing policies and normative values in the historical phases of dependence (or rural), independence (or urban) and interdependence (or informational). The contents of this model are represented as related elements in a policy design map that simplifies the process of designing regulatory instruments in the US. This neo-institutional, developmental policy design map was used to design a survey instrument. The survey was conducted among electricity experts in India to test the hypothesized inter-relationships among various elements at different levels of the policy design map in a cross-national context. The study adds value with a comprehensive design map that helps to organize and give coherence to the policy prescriptions made by Indian experts as they converge on one institutional model. Thus the dissertation contributes to the transfer of knowledge about regulatory practice from the US to India.

  20. Teachers' Reflections on the Perceptions of Oppression and Liberation in Neo-Marxist Critical Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaakoby, Tova

    2013-01-01

    Critical pedagogy speaks of teachers as liberating and transformative intellectuals. Yet their voice is absent from its discourse.The emancipatory action research, described in this article, created a dialogue between teachers and the ideas concerning oppression and liberation found in Neo-Marxist pedagogies. It strongly suggests that teachers can…

  1. The Single Andigenum Origin of Neo-Tuberosum Potato Materials is not Supported by Microsatellite and Plastid Marker Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neo-Tuberosum refers to cultivated potato adapted to long-day tuberization and a syndrome of related morphological and physiological traits, developed by intercrossing and selection of short-day adapted potatoes of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum Group, native from the Andes of western Venezuela to ...

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Traits: A Comparison of SCID-II BPD and NEO-PI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkin, John F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Hospitalized female patients with borderline personality disorder were assessed for Axis II disorders by the Structured Clinical Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID-II) and for personality traits with the NEO Personality Inventory. The relationship of results to social adjustment and the utility of…

  3. The Development of Pre-Linguistic Communication Skills: A Neo-Piagetian Analysis Based on Levels of Cognitive Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Jeffrey M.

    This paper describes an assessment instrument being developed to trace the emergence of social-communication skills leading to language and the neo-Piagetian model that is directing the assessment construction efforts. The model is a structural stage model, based on the writings and research of Uzgiris (1976), McCall, Eichorn & Hogarty (1977), and…

  4. A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Corporate Political Strategy: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Levy; Daniel Egan

    2003-01-01

    A neo-Gramscian theoretical framework for corporate political strategy is developed drawing from Gramsci's analysis of the relations among capital, social forces, and the state, and from more contemporary theories. Gramsci's political theory recognizes the centrality of organizations and strategy, directs attention to the organizational, economic, and ideological pillars of power, while illuminating the processes of coalition building, conflict, and accommodation

  5. Recent results from a nested multi-static HF radar network for the NorthEast Observing System (NEOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Kohut; S. M. Glenn; H. J. Roarty

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. Anested HF radar network has been deployed along the New Jersey coast as part of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System (NJSOS) and the larger regional NorthEast Observing System (NEOS). A 25 MHz standard system (range about 50 km) setup for continuous operation since 1999 includes two sites in Brant Beach and Brigantine, New Jersey. A

  6. FResHU F3 Green Symposia Series #6 Acquisition of neo-sex chromosomes and sex-determining system

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hitoshi

    FResHU F3 Green Symposia Series #6 Acquisition of neo-sex chromosomes and sex-determining system Sex chromosome turnover contributed to speciation in three-spine sticklebacks Early evolution from autosomes to sex chromosomes in eutherian mammal - a case of Tokduaia muenninki - The molecular mechanism

  7. Germany's National Socialism and America's "New Left": A Comparative Study of Two-Neo-Romantic Political Movements and Their Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casmir, Fred L.

    Neo-Romantic aspects of Hitler's National Socialism Movement in Germany and the New Left movement in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s are detailed in this paper. Following a discussion of fundamental concepts, the paper analyzes the Romantic bases of the two movements, including their use of nonverbal symbols; their views on morality,…

  8. Marco Polo, a JAXA-ESA sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vernazza

    2009-01-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). It is proposed to be performed in collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA). Both JAXA and ESA are currently performing Phase-A studies for this mission; within ESA, the mission is studied as part of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. The main

  9. Newtonian-Machian analysis of the neo-Tychonian model of planetary motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Luka

    2013-03-01

    The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system is performed using two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. The first model is the well-known Copernican system, which assumes that the Sun is at rest and that all the planets orbit around it. The second is a less well-known model, developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and the other planets orbit around the Sun. The term ‘neo-Tychonian system’ refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

  10. Newton-Machian analysis of Neo-tychonian model of planetary motions

    E-print Network

    Popov, Luka

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system will be performed in two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. First model is well-known Copernican system, which assumes the Sun is at rest and all the planets orbit around it. Second one is less-known model developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and other planets orbit around the Sun. The term "Neo-tychonian system" refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

  11. Vulnerable women and neo-liberal globalization: debt burdens undermine women's health in the global South.

    PubMed

    Jaggar, Alison M

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary processes of globalization have been accompanied by a serious deterioration in the health of many women across the world. Particularly disturbing is the drastic decline in the health status of many women in the global South, as well as some women in the global North. This paper argues that the health vulnerability of women in the global South is inseparable from their political and economic vulnerability. More specifically, it links the deteriorating health of many Southern women with the neo-liberal economic policies that characterize contemporary economic globalization and argues that this structure is sustained by the heavy burden of debt repayments imposed on many Southern countries. In conclusion, it argues that many Southern debt obligations are not morally binding because they are not democratically legitimate. PMID:12546163

  12. A BASIC STUDY OF EVALUATION STRUCTURE TO VISUAL DESIGN OF NEO-FUNCTIONALISM BRIDGES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Teppei; Sasaki, Yoh

    This research's final goal is to clarify how people focus on the external appearance of neo-functionalism bridges which are characterized by their distinguishing morphological features, and also determine whether people evaluate these bridges and how they do it. As a first step, the research focuses on the Through-type Arch Bridge and attempts to make clear the evaluation structure by means of an experimental psychology approach. Upon this, the dynamic image will be defined by the vitality flow and motion impression that characterize this kind of bridge. The sensibility evaluation experiment is carried out by using CG that reflects the changes of related feature shapes. Thus, the relationship between the assortments of the bridge's morphological characteristic and its impression are analyzed by using Rough Set Theory. As a result, it was possible to find out a variety of evaluation trends related to the intellectual background of the bridge observer and also establish the distinct characteristics of various evaluation trends.

  13. Neo-Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments: a Comparison over the Italian Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccolo, E.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of seismic hazard obtained using the neo-deterministic approach (NDSHA) and the probabilistic approach (PSHA) are compared for the Italian territory. The NDSHA provides values larger than those given by the PSHA in areas where large earthquakes are observed and in areas identified as prone to large earthquakes, but lower values in low-seismicity areas. These differences suggest the adoption of the flexible, robust and physically sound NDSHA approach to overcome the proven shortcomings of PSHA, thus allowing for a reliable seismic hazard estimation, especially for those areas characterized by a prolonged quiescence, i.e. in tectonically active sites where events of only moderate size have occurred in historical times.

  14. Comet\\/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS): a Space-Based System Concept for Revolutionizing Earth Protection and Utilization of Near Earth-Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Mazanek; Carlos M. Roithmayr; Jeffrey Antol

    2002-01-01

    There exists an infrequent, but significant hazard to life and property due to impacting asteroids and comets. Earth approaching asteroids and comets are collectively termed NEOs (near-Earth objects). The goal of current search efforts is to catalog and characterize by 2008 the orbits of 90% of the estimated 1200 near-Earth asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter. Impacts can also

  15. Spins, shapes, and orbits for near-Earth objects by Nordic NEON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, Karri; Torppa, Johanna; Virtanen, Jenni; Näränen, Jyri; Niemel, Jarkko; Granvik, Mikael; Laakso, Teemu; Parviainen, Hannu; Aksnes, Kaare; Dai, Zhang; Ingvar Lagerkvist, Claes; Rickman, Hans; Karlsson, Ola; Hahn, Gerhard; Michelsen, René; Grav, Tommy; Pravec, Petr; Jørgensen, Uffe Grâe

    2007-05-01

    The Nordic Near-Earth Object Network (Nordic NEON) observing program was established to obtain knowledge of the physical and dynamical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs). Photometric and astrometric observations have been carried out at the Nordic Optical Telescope since June 2004. By collaborating with other observing programs and applying for observing time from other telescopes (e.g. European Southern Observatory), we aim at significantly increasing the knowledge of the physical and dynamical properties of NEOs by using novel inverse methods. For many targets with previously published spin solutions we cannot, in reality, get a single solution based on existing data, but there exist a large number of possible solutions none of which can be given priority over the others. Currently, distributions of possible pole directions and shapes have been derived for four new asteroids (2002 FF12, 2003 MS2, 2003 RX7, 2004 HW) as well as for 1685 Toro and 1981 Midas. For 1862 Apollo, we have obtained an unambiguous spin and shape solution. Following the so-called statistical inversion theory and focussing on 2004 AS1 that once posed an imminent impact hazard some 48 hours after discovery, we illustrate the challenges in assessing the collision probabilities of NEOs with exiguous observational data. Finally, we describe an orbit computation method utilizing the full six-dimensional phase-space volume of variation for objects with moderate observational data, underscoring its future prospects in collision probability computations.

  16. Keynes on population and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Toye, J

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of Keynes's thinking on population based on an unpublished paper from 1914, "Is the Problem of Population a Pressing and Important One Now?" The paper is reported to have 39 pages, but in fact there are many missing page numbers. Keynes's "Essays in Biography" (1933) follows the basic structure and much of the verbal detail of the first 16 pages of "Population." Chapter 2 of the "Economic Consequences of the Peace" discusses the key ideas of "Population." The passages in "Population" and Chapter 2 were probably the sources of a fierce controversy in 1923-24 between Keynes and W.H. Beveridge over Keynes' neo-Malthusianism. "Population" was the basis for the three themes that were central to Keynes's writing on population. Keynes's framework shifted from a global perspective in "Population" to a progressively narrower focus in the 1930s on England and Wales. Keynes was stronger in his advocacy of birth control in "Population" compared to later writings. Keynes was concerned about the quality of population but disagreed on the methods of achieving this. Keynes argued that 75% of the world was not subject to Malthusian dynamics, and the other 25% had developed technology to relieve population pressure. "Population" sketches out the rudiments of the welfare implications of the great divide between North and South population growth rates. Keynes assumes that overpopulation in the South will be compensated for by the international market without consideration of income deficits. Keynes argues against pronatalism. The 1933 essay shows Keynes shift away from Malthus as population expert to Malthus as political economist. By 1937, Keynes had recanted and was very aware of the uncertainty of the economy. The author believes that it is unfortunate that this 1913-14 manuscript remains unknown and, if known, misunderstood. PMID:12293644

  17. AECHL-1, a novel triterpenoid, targets tumor neo-vasculature and impairs the endothelial cell cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sawant, Mithila A; Lavhale, Manish S; Krishnapati, Lakshmi-Surekha; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Sitasawad, Sandhya L

    2015-07-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is characterized by abnormal vessel morphology leading to erratic and insufficient delivery of chemotherapeutics and oxygen, making the tumor core not only highly hypoxic but also unresponsive toward treatment. Such hypoxic conditions promote tumor aggressiveness, leading to the establishment of metastatic disease. Most anti-angiogenic treatments aim toward the destruction of tumor vasculature, which proves countereffective by further increasing its aggressive nature. Hence, developing drugs which target or regulate these processes might lead to a better delivery of chemotherapeutics resulting in tumor shrinkage. Plant-derived natural compounds having a bioactive ingredient, especially triterpenoids, have been known to possess anticancer properties. AECHL-1, a recently isolated novel triterpenoid with proven anticancer potential, is seemingly noncytotoxic toward HEK 293 and HUVECs. Also, cytotoxicity was absent during in vivo studies involving intraperitoneal injections with 5 µg/kg body weight AECHL-1 on SCID mice. When used at subtoxic doses, it was found to be effective in suppression of neo-vessel formation as demonstrated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane, rat aortic rings, Matrigel plugs and xenograft tumors implanted in SCID mice. Tumor vasculature from AECHL-1-treated mice showed greater mural cell coverage and relatively normalized architecture. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for these observations revealed an effect on the actin cytoskeleton of stimulated HUVECs as well as the VEGFR2-mediated MAPK pathway. AECHL-1 could effectively distinguish between stimulated and nonstimulated endothelial cells. AECHL-1 could also downregulate HIF-1? expression and VEGF secretion under hypoxic conditions, thus reducing the fears of unnecessarily aggravating tumor metastasis as a result of anti-angiogenic therapy. Results obtained from the aforementioned studies make it clear that though AECHL-1 shows promise in discouraging and pruning neo-vasculature, it may not affect existing vasculature as the doses used for the assays are significantly lower than the ones causing endothelial cell death and has potential to be considered as a candidate for therapeutic drug development. PMID:25952529

  18. Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yoshido; K Sahara; F Marec; Y Matsuda

    2011-01-01

    Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin

  19. Examination of the relations of the Myers-Briggs type indicator and the NEO-4 Personality Inventory in a Polish sample.

    PubMed

    Klinkosz, Waldemar; Iskra, Justyna

    2010-10-01

    The present study was designed to replicate McCrae and Costa's research findings on the relation of NEO-4 domains with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scales in a Polish sample of 300 psychology student volunteers (175 women, 125 men). Their mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.5). Correlations for scores on the MBTI scales with NEO-4 domains ranged from .72 to .02 for Extraversion, from -.60 to -.16 for Openness to experience, from -.56 to -.04 for Agreeableness, and from .55 to -.07 for Conscientiousness. Two domains assessed with the NEO-4 correspond to preferences measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. PMID:21117485

  20. The five and seven factors personality models: differences and similitude between the TCI-R, NEO-FFI-R and ZKPQ-50-CC.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2011-11-01

    The present study tests the relationships between the three frequently used personality models evaluated by the Temperament Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five Factor Inventory - Revised (NEO-FFI-R) and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-50- Cross-Cultural (ZKPQ-50-CC). The results were obtained with a sample of 928 volunteer subjects from the general population aged between 17 and 28 years old. Frequency distributions and alpha reliabilities with the three instruments were acceptable. Correlational and factorial analyses showed that several scales in the three instruments share an appreciable amount of common variance. Five factors emerged from principal components analysis. The first factor was integrated by A (Agreeableness), Co (Cooperativeness) and Agg-Host (Aggressiveness-Hostility), with secondary loadings in C (Conscientiousness) and SD (Self-directiveness) from other factors. The second factor was composed by N (Neuroticism), N-Anx (Neuroticism-Anxiety), HA (Harm Avoidance) and SD (Self-directiveness). The third factor was integrated by Sy (Sociability), E (Extraversion), RD (Reward Dependence), ImpSS (Impulsive Sensation Seeking) and NS (novelty Seeking). The fourth factor was integrated by Ps (Persistence), Act (Activity), and C, whereas the fifth and last factor was composed by O (Openness) and ST (Self- Transcendence). Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the scales in each model are highly interrelated and define the specified latent dimension well. Similarities and differences between these three instruments are further discussed. PMID:22059312

  1. [On illnesses and treatments of scholar officials in the Qing Dynasty from the perspective of Dou Ke-qin, a neo-confucianist philosopher].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-11-01

    Illnesses and treatments are an inevitable part of life in the daily life of the neo-confucianist Dou Ke-qin whose life outlook on the treatment and recognition of diseases was influenced by his neo-confucianist conception. He claimed that diseases can be conquered by spiritual force formed on the basis of Neo-Confucianism and can be recovered by peace of the heart and moral merits and can be seen as an approach of self-accomplishment. He opposed Taoist and Buddhist ideas of life preservation and keeping fit by taking the advantages of external mystic force, and stressed that his own diseases and that of his relatives can be cured by the filial affection advocated by the Neo-Confucianism. PMID:24524634

  2. The Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer: An Imaging Mid-IR Spectrometer for the Marco Polo NEO Sample Return Cosmic Vision Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S.; Reininger, F.; Green, S. F.; Mortimer, H.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer (ATMS) instrument, a compact imaging mid-IR Fourier transform spectrometer currently being developed at the University of Oxford for NEO remote sensing applications.

  3. Cognition, action, and object manipulation.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A; Chapman, Kate M; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-09-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, little attention has been paid to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain in which links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including 1-hand grasps, 2-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in which the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. The tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' law, naturalistic observation, and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  4. Population 1: Global Population and Carrying Capacity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Vanasupa

    This video looks at the global population and trends. It also explains the concept of carrying capacity and how a person's behavior influences carrying capacity. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

  5. Are oxygen and neon enriched in PNe and is the current solar Ne/O abundance ratio underestimated?

    E-print Network

    W. Wang; X. -W. Liu

    2008-06-13

    A thorough critical literature survey has been carried out for reliable measurements of oxygen and neon abundances of planetary nebulae (PNe) and HII regions. By contrasting the results of PNe and of HII regions, we aim to address the issues of the evolution of oxygen and neon in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in the late evolutionary phases of low- and intermediate-mass stars (LIMS), as well as the currently hotly disputed solar Ne/O abundance ratio. Through the comparisons, we find that neon abundance and Ne/O ratio increase with increasing oxygen abundance in both types of nebulae, with positive correlation coefficients larger than 0.75. The correlations suggest different enrichment mechanisms for oxygen and neon in the ISM, in the sense that the growth of neon is delayed compared to oxygen. The differences of abundances between PNe and HII regions, are mainly attributed to the results of nucleosynthesis and dredge-up processes that occurred in the progenitor stars of PNe. We find that both these alpha-elements are significantly enriched at low metallicity (initial oxygen abundance <= 8.0) but not at metallicity higher than the SMC. The fact that Ne/O ratios measured in PNe are almost the same as those in HII regions, regardless of the metallicity, suggests a very similar production mechanism of neon and oxygen in intermediate mass stars (IMS) of low initial metallicities and in more massive stars, a conjecture that requires verification by further theoretical studies. This result also strongly suggests that both the solar neon abundance and the Ne/O ratio should be revised upwards by ~0.22 dex from the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval values or by ~0.14 dex from the Grevesse & Sauval values.

  6. Factorial structure and internal consistency of the German TEMPS-A scale: validation against the NEO-FFI questionnaire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaela Blöink; Peter Brieger; Hagop S. Akiskal; Andreas Marneros

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version of the TEMPS-A questionnaire. Besides the reliability of the temperament scales, validity was the focus of interest. Therefore, the relationship between the TEMPS-A and the well-established personality questionnaire NEO-FFI, whose factors show theoretical overlap with temperaments, was investigated. Method: A total of 227 students

  7. 'The birth of bio-politics': Michel Foucault's lecture at the Collège de France on neo-liberal governmentality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lemke

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on Foucault's analysis of two forms of neo-liberalism in his lecture of 1979 at the Collège de France: German post-War liberalism and the liberalism of the Chicago School. Since the course is available only on audio-tapes at the Foucault archive in Paris, the larger part of the text presents a comprehensive reconstruction of the main line of

  8. Boom! Headshot! (Building Neo-Tactics on Network-Level Anomalies in Online Tactical First-Person Shooters)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Bond

    This paper tries to de-mystify the urban legends and expose the secrets of success of those who excel at online tactical first-person shooters. It focuses specifically on the evolution of winning tactics, and postulates the existence of a special sort of tactic - the neo-tactic - which exploits the underlying low-level physics properties of the virtual environment. Such tactics may

  9. People vs. Malthus: Population Pressure, Environmental Degradation, and Armed Conflict Revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Urdal

    2005-01-01

    Demographic and environmental factors have claimed a dominant position in the post-Cold War security discourse. A main proponent of what can be called a neo-Malthusian conflict scenario, Thomas Homer-Dixon, has argued that population pressure on natural renewable resources make societies more prone to armed conflict and civil war. While previous empirical work in this field mostly count case studies, this

  10. Validity of personality measurement in adults with anxiety disorders: psychometric properties of the Spanish NEO-FFI-R using Rasch analyses.

    PubMed

    Inchausti, Felix; Mole, Joe; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Spanish NEO Five Factor Inventory-Revised (NEO-FFI-R) using Rasch analyses, in order to test its rating scale functioning, the reliability of scores, internal structure, and differential item functioning (DIF) by gender in a psychiatric sample. The NEO-FFI-R responses of 433 Spanish adults (154 males) with an anxiety disorder as primary diagnosis were analysed using the Rasch model for rating scales. Two intermediate categories of response ('neutral' and 'agree') malfunctioned in the Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scales. In addition, model reliabilities were lower than expected in Agreeableness and Neuroticism, and the item fit values indicated each scale had items that did not achieve moderate to high discrimination on its dimension, particularly in the Agreeableness scale. Concerning unidimensionality, the five NEO-FFI-R scales showed large first components of unexplained variance. Finally, DIF by gender was detected in many items. The results suggest that the scores of the Spanish NEO-FFI-R are unreliable in psychiatric samples and cannot be generalized between males and females, especially in the Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness scales. Future directions for testing and refinement should be developed before the NEO-FFI-R can be used reliably in clinical samples. PMID:25954224

  11. The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised: factor structure and gender invariance from exploratory structural equation modeling analyses in a high-stakes setting.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) technique, the authors show that model fits improve markedly over conventional confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the same data set, but that (a) factor interpretations do not change under ESEM analyses, (b) ESEM factor scores, just like CFA factors scores, correlate at near unity with sums of observed scores, (c) NEO-PI-R facets under ESEM analyses are invariant across gender, and (d) ESEM highlights the inappropriateness of alpha and beta as a higher order representation of NEO-PI-R facets, whereas a CFA approach might lead researchers to believe in the appropriateness of these higher order factors. These results, coupled with the existing validity evidence for the NEO-PI-R, suggest that the five-factor structure is the most parsimonious structure for summarizing NEO-PI-R responses from high-stakes settings in the United Kingdom. PMID:22837539

  12. Planet Population Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Benz, W; Alibert, Y; Lin, D N C; Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of exoplanets discovered, statistical properties of the population as a whole become unique constraints on planet formation models provided a link between the description of the detailed processes playing a role in this formation and the observed population can be established. Planet population synthesis provides such a link. The approach allows to study how different physical models of individual processes (e.g., proto-planetary disc structure and evolution, planetesimal formation, gas accretion, migration, etc.) affect the overall properties of the population of emerging planets. By necessity, planet population synthesis relies on simplified descriptions of complex processes. These descriptions can be obtained from more detailed specialised simulations of these processes. The objective of this chapter is twofold: 1) provide an overview of the physics entering in the two main approaches to planet population synthesis and 2) present some of the results achieved as well as illustrate...

  13. Blood Pressure-Lowering Peptides from Neo-Fermented Buckwheat Sprouts: A New Approach to Estimating ACE-Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Masahiro; Hattori, Seiji; Amano, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Masanori; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts (neo-FBS) contain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and vasodilators with blood pressure-lowering (BPL) properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In this study, we investigated antihypertensive mechanisms of six BPL peptides isolated from neo-FBS (FBPs) by a vasorelaxation assay and conventional in vitro, in vivo, and a new ex vivo ACE inhibitory assays. Some FBPs demonstrated moderate endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in SHR thoracic aorta and all FBPs mildly inhibited ACE in vitro. Orally administered FBPs strongly inhibited ACE in SHR tissues. To investigate detailed ACE-inhibitory mechanism of FBPs in living body tissues, we performed the ex vivo assay by using endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta rings isolated from SHRs, which demonstrated that FBPs at low concentration effectively inhibited ACE in thoracic aorta tissue and suppressed angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction directly associated with BPL. These results indicate that the main BPL mechanism of FBP was ACE inhibition in living body tissues, suggesting that high FBP's bioavailability including absorption, tissue affinity, and tissue accumulation was responsible for the superior ACE inhibition in vivo. We propose that our ex vivo assay is an efficient and reliable method for evaluating ACE-inhibitory mechanism responsible for BPL activity in vivo. PMID:25222748

  14. Identification of an Effective Early Signaling Signature during Neo-Vasculogenesis In Vivo by Ex Vivo Proteomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Rohban, Rokhsareh; Reinisch, Andreas; Etchart, Nathalie; Schallmoser, Katharina; Hofmann, Nicole A.; Szoke, Krisztina; Brinchmann, Jan E.; Rad, Ehsan Bonyadi; Rohde, Eva; Strunk, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic neo-vasculogenesis in vivo can be achieved by the co-transplantation of human endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs). The underlying mechanism is not completely understood thus hampering the development of novel stem cell therapies. We hypothesized that proteomic profiling could be used to retrieve the in vivo signaling signature during the initial phase of human neo-vasculogenesis. ECFCs and MSPCs were therefore either transplanted alone or co-transplanted subcutaneously into immune deficient mice. Early cell signaling, occurring within the first 24 hours in vivo, was analyzed using antibody microarray proteomic profiling. Vessel formation and persistence were verified in parallel transplants for up to 24 weeks. Proteomic analysis revealed significant alteration of regulatory components including caspases, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, DNA protein kinase, human ErbB2 receptor-tyrosine kinase as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases. Caspase-4 was selected from array results as one therapeutic candidate for targeting vascular network formation in vitro as well as modulating therapeutic vasculogenesis in vivo. As a proof-of-principle, caspase-4 and general caspase-blocking led to diminished endothelial network formation in vitro and significantly decreased vasculogenesis in vivo. Proteomic profiling ex vivo thus unraveled a signaling signature which can be used for target selection to modulate neo-vasculogenesis in vivo. PMID:23826172

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Spatial Variability of Neo-tectonic Indices along the Sabzpushan Fault Zone within the Zagros Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezamzadeh, I.; Faghih, A.; Oveisi, B.

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of geomorphic indices of active tectonics using remote sensing and GIS offer an appropriate method to obtain quantitative data, which is crucial for determining the seismic potential of a fault zone in semiarid areas where tectonic rates are low-to-moderate and quaternary dating is limited. In this study, we investigate poorly understood Sabzpushan Fault Zone (SFZ) within the central part of the Zagros Mountains for spatial variability of neo-tectonic indices. This fault zone is characterized by differential uplift, high neo-tectonic signature and seismic activities in recent past. Field studies have revealed that the SFZ is dividable into three morpho-tectonic segments (northern, middle and southern) with en-echelon array. The neo-tectonic activity of each segment is obtained through DEM analysis using geomorphic indices including the mountain front sinuosity, hypsometric integral, asymmetry factor, stream length-gradient index and valley floor width to valley height ratio. The results illustrate differentiation in the states of activity between those segments at which the middle segment show the highest value. For instance, the mean value of stream-gradient index (SL) of the middle segment is 597.7, whereas this index is 387.5 and 535.4 for the northern and southern segments respectively. This pattern of variation is consistent with recent seismicity, preserved fault scarps, triangular facets and deeply incised valleys along the middle segment of the SFZ.

  16. Non-association between Neo-5 personality tests and multiple mini-interview.

    PubMed

    Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Reiter, Harold I; Wiesner, Willi; Hackett, Richard D; Norman, Geoffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Most medical schools attempt to select applicants on the basis of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Typically, interpersonal skills are assessed by interview, though relatively few applicants make it to interview. Thus, an efficient paper and pencil test of non-cognitive skills is needed. One possibility is personality tests. Tests of the five factor model of personality, and in particular the factor of conscientiousness, has proven effective in predicting future job performance. Can it serve as a screen for admissions interviews? In particular, correlation with the multiple mini-interviews (MMI) is of interest since the latter is a well validated test of non-cognitive skills. A total of 152 applicants to Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster completed the Neo-5 personality test voluntarily in advance of their admissions interviews. Correlations were calculated between personality factors and grade point average (GPA), medical college admissions test (MCAT) and MMI. No statistically significant correlation was found between personality factors and cognitive (GPA, MCAT) measures. More surprisingly, no statistically significant correlation was found between personality factors, including conscientiousness, and the MMI. Personality testing is not a useful screening test for the MMI. PMID:20013153

  17. [Two cases of advanced gastric cancer with postoperative severe complications after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Keiji; Wada, Hideo; Mochinaga, Hiroshi; Shigemasa, Yu; Sasaki, Nobufumi; Ikari, Hideki; Shimizu, Teruhisa; Kunizaki, Tadaomi; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa

    2008-11-01

    We report two cases of advanced gastric cancer with severe postoperative complications after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The first case is a 60-year-old man who was diagnosed as a type 2 advanced gastric cancer with paraaortic lymph node metastases and the elevation of serum CA19-9 level. NAC was started, but no reductions were noted after 3 courses. Palliative total gastrectomy with distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, cholecystectomy, and partial hepatectomy for T4 gastric cancer exhibiting obstruction were performed in June 2007. On postoperative day 10, abdominal CT scan revealed left subphrenic abscess, then CT-guided percutaneous drainage was performed. A culture of the abscess yielded Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The second case is a 58-year-old man who was diagnosed as a type 2 advanced gastric cancer with multiple lymph node metastases and the elevation of serum CA19-9 level. NAC were performed, but no reductions were noted. A distal gastrectomy was performed in January 2008. On the first postoperative day, a severe abdominal distension was appeared suddenly and increasingly. An emergency laparotomy was undergone, but no findings of the bowel obstruction were observed. On postoperative day 2, a rise of serum beta-D-glucan level was recognized. Both cases were improved by an antifungal drug therapy. PMID:19106528

  18. On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Clay C

    2011-01-01

    The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion. PMID:21902508

  19. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma tumor growth without morphological evidence of neo-angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pezzella, F.; Pastorino, U.; Tagliabue, E.; Andreola, S.; Sozzi, G.; Gasparini, G.; Menard, S.; Gatter, K. C.; Harris, A. L.; Fox, S.; Buyse, M.; Pilotti, S.; Pierotti, M.; Rilke, F.

    1997-01-01

    Neoplastic growth is usually dependent on blood supply, and it is commonly accepted that this is provided by the formation of new vessels. However, tumors may be able to grow without neovascularization if they find a suitable vascular bed available. We have investigated the pattern of vascularization in a series of 500 primary stage I non-small-cell lung carcinomas. Immunostaining of endothelial cells has highlighted four distinct patterns of vascularization. Three patterns (which we called basal, papillary, and diffuse) have in common the destruction of normal lung and the production of newly formed vessels and stroma. The fourth pattern, which we called alveolar or putative nonangiogenic, was observed in 16% (80/500) of the cases and is characterized by lack of parenchymal destruction and absence of both tumor associated stroma and new vessels. The only vessels present were the ones in the alveolar septa, and their presence highlighted, through the whole tumor, the lung alveoli filled up by the neoplastic cells. This observation suggests that, if an appropriate vascular bed is available, a tumor can exploit it and grows without inducing neo-angiogenesis. This could have implications for strategies aimed at inhibiting tumor growth by vascular targeting or inhibition of angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9358768

  20. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing ?-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  1. Object Oriented Data Analysis J. S. Marron

    E-print Network

    Jin, Jiashun

    Object Oriented Data Analysis by J. S. Marron Department of Statistics and Operations Research Data Analysis is the statistical analysis of populations of complex objects. In the special case of Functional Data Analysis, these data objects are curves, where standard Euclidean approaches

  2. Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Concept Simulation of Operations in Proximity to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper details a project to simulate the dynamics of a proposed Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and modeling the control of this spacecraft. A potential mission of the MMSEV would be to collect samples from a Near-Earth Object (NEO), a mission which would require the spacecraft to be able to navigate to an orbit keeping it stationary over an area of a spinning asteroid while a robotic arm interacts with the surface.

  3. Relationships between Myers-Briggs type indicator measure of psychological type and neo measure of big five personality factors in Polish University students: a preliminary cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Tobacyk, Jerome J; Livingston, Mary M; Robbins, James E

    2008-10-01

    English-language versions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Form G) measure of psychological type and the NEO-FFI measure of the Big Five personality factors were completed by 57 Polish university students fluent in the English language. The pattern of correlations between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales for the Polish sample was compared to the pattern of correlations for measures of these same constructs reported for Americans. Four of the five significant relationships between MBTI and NEO-FFI scales reported in the American sample were also recorded in the Polish sample: MBTI Extraversion-Introversion with NEO Extraversion, MBTI Sensing-Intuition and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO-Openness, and MBTI Judging-Perceiving with NEO Conscientiousness. Pending replication with a larger, more representative sample, this preliminary study supports the validity of psychological type in Polish society. PMID:19102483

  4. Marco Polo: Near Earth Object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object. The Marco Polo proposal was submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context, and on October 2007 passed the first evaluation process. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth.

  5. [Population census in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Altvall, H E

    1981-01-01

    This article is based on the author's experience as a population census expert in Tanzania during the years preceding and following the August 1978 census. Information is included on the census objectives, time schedule, organizational structure, questionnaire work, pilot tests, preparatory geographical work, sample selection for the detailed version of the questionnaire, training of enumerators and supervisors, execution of the census, and analysis of the data. Summary results concerning population size and growth are also presented. (summary in ENG) PMID:12177841

  6. Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Alexander, Reginald; Bonometti, Joseph; Chapman, Jack; Fincher, Sharon; Hopkins, Randall; Kalkstein, Matthew; Philips, Al; Polsgrove, Tara; Statham, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    In FY 2002 a team of engineers and scientists at MSFC conducted a preliminary investigation of the options for deflecting a Near Earth Object (NEO) fiom a collision course with the earth. A general discussion of the current threat facing the earth from NEO s is outlined. A suite of tools were developed to model inbound and outbound trajectories, propulsive options, and assessment of threat. Propulsive options considered included; staged chemical, nuclear ablation and deflagration, mass driver and solar sail concepts. Trajectory tools plotted the outbound course to intercept the NE0 and the deflection requirements to cause the inbound NE0 to miss the earth. Threat assessment tools estimated the number of lives saved over a given time frame by deploying a system capable of deflecting an NE0 of a certain size and velocity. All of these tools were integrated into a routine to find the most effective vehicle for a given mission mass and mission time. Discussion of desired future efforts is given. This work was funded under the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts activity from NASA HQ.

  7. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

    2009-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small hoppers (MINERVA type, JAXA) and SIFNOS. The latter, if added, will perform a soft landing, anchor to the target surface, and make various in situ measurements of surface/subsurface materials near the sampling site. Two surface samples will be collected by the MSC using “touch and go” manoeuvres. Two complementary sample collection devices will be used in this phase: one developed by ESA and another provided by JAXA, mounted on a retractable extension arm. After the completion of the sampling and ascent of the MSC, the arm will be retracted to transfer the sample containers into the MSC. The MSC will then make its journey back to Earth and release the re-entry capsule into the Earth’s atmosphere.

  8. Population crises and population cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Russell; W. M. S. Russell

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co?operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of

  9. A Survey of Near-Earth Objects in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    The search for NEOs has been concentrated up to now in the northern hemisphere. Six dedicated NEO surveys programmes are already in place: 4 located in the SouthWest of USA, one in Hawaii and one in Japan. None of the surveys mentioned above reach most of the southern sky, therefore more than 25% of the celestial sphere is not covered by any project. The National Research Council of Uruguay (CONICYT) granted the Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" - OALM (Minister of Education and Culture) a small project to install a telescope to search for NEOs. The money was used to buy a 46cm (f/2.8) telescope (Centurion 18" by Astroworks). With further support from our home institutions (Universidad de Uruguay and the Minister of Education and Culture) and from the Planetary Society NEO grant we bought the CCD, a PC and the control software. The telescope will be located in a dark area of the countryside, 200 km from Montevideo. We have support from the Local Government of the Province of Maldonado for the buildings. The construction will start in May. In the mean time we have installed the telescope at the actual site of the OALM where we are testing the software, the hardware and starting the survey observations. An asteroid has been already discovered in this testing phase (K02H09A). The telescope will be fully controlled from our home institute in Montevideo through Internet. All the operations will be performed in a remote way. Follow-up observations of the discovered objects will be done from other telescopes of our institute as well through collaboration with colleagues of the SouthAmerican Spacegaurd Association, with telescopes in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  10. Eo-Ulrichian to Neo-Ulrichian views: The renaissance of "layer-cake stratigraphy"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, Carlton E.; McLaughlin, P.I.; Baird, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Classical notions of "layer-cake stratigraphy" have been denigrated as representing an antiquated "Neptunian" view of the geologic record with the American paleontologist-stratigrapher E.O. Ulrich vilified as its quintessential advocate. Some of the extreme "layer-cake" interpretations of E.O. Ulrich are demonstrably incorrect, especially where applied in marginal marine and terrestrial settings. However, close scrutiny of Ulrich's work suggests that the bulk was correct and demonstrated considerable insight for the time. Subsequent development of facies concepts revolutionized geologists' view of time-space relationships in stratigraphy, but rather than focusing on facies patterns within the established stratigraphic (layer-cake) frameworks many geologists in North America came to view strata as parts of diachronous facies mosaics. Recent advances in the development of event and sequence stratigraphic paradigms are beginning to swing the pendulum back the other way. Possible causes of "layer-cake" patterns are numerous and varied, including: (1) parallelism of depositional strike and outcrop belts, especially in foreland basins, (2) very widespread environmental belts developed in low-relief cratonic areas, (3) time-averaging homogenizes facies to a limited extent, resulting in a very subtle signature of lateral change, (4) condensed beds (hardgrounds, bone beds, ironstones, etc.) often form in responses to extrabasinal forces, thus they cross-cut facies, and (5) large events (i.e. hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, eruptions, etc.) are "over represented" in the rock record. A revised ("Neo-Ulrichian") layer-cake paradigm carries many of the original correct empirical observations of pattern, noted by Ulrich, recast in terms of event and sequence stratigraphy.

  11. Neo-seismotectonic Evolution in the Far-eastern Eurasian Plate around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, T.; Choi, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula and its neighboring regions are intraplate regions that comprise the far-eastern Eurasia plate. These regions have experienced complex tectonic evolutions including continental collisions and a rifting. The ambient stress fields around the Korean Peninsula are induced from nearby plate boundaries against to the Pacific, Philippine Sea, and Indian plates. Historically dozens of devastating earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 6 occurred around the Korean Peninsula. Strike-slip faulting is typically expected in such intraplate regions. Unusual major thrustal earthquakes occur in the East Sea, and normal-faulting earthquakes in the Yellow Sea. We investigate the neo-seismotectonics from geological features, seismicity, fault-plane solutions and seismic tomography. The compressional-axis directions in the East Sea rapidly change from NE to SE in the East Sea. High seismicity of reverse-faulting events is observed in the marginal regions of the East Sea. The regions correspond to rigid continental margins associated with the paleo-rifting. We suggest that the current compressional stress field causes reverse activation of the paleo-normal faults in the East Sea. East-west directional normal-faulting earthquakes are observed in central Yellow Sea between the Shandong Peninsula and the central Korean Peninsula. The E-W directional zoning and striking suggest a N-S directional collision and post-collisional delamination. This normal-faulting region is interpreted to be the northern margin of collision belt and the eastern extent of the Dabie-Sulu belt in the Yellow Sea. The observation suggests that the Dabie-Sulu belt is connected to the Korean Peninsula crossing the Yellow Sea.

  12. Physical Characterization of Near-Earth Object 3988 (1986 LA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Thien-Tin; Hicks, M.; Strojia, C.; Teague, S.; Gerhart, C.; McCormack, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Near-Earth Object (NEO) 3988 (1986 LA) was discovered photographically by Glo Helin and colleagues with the 1.2-m Schmidt at Palomar (Helin et al. 1986: IAU Circ. 4228). With a perihelion distance q = 1.055 AU, 1986 LA is an Amor-type NEO. The spacecraft rendezvous potential of any small solar system body can be quantified, to first order, by the dV required to match the target's orbit. Using the method described by Shoemaker & Helin (1978; N7829022) and assuming a massless rendezvous target, a dV of 6.29 km/s is required to reach the orbit of Mars. Objects with dV < 6.29 km/s can therefor be considered low-dV targets: 1791 NEOs meet this criteria. 1986 LA has a dV of 5.84 km/s. With an absolute magnitude H = 17.7 (Lowell Astorb Database), the object is in the top 0.985 percentile in terms of expected size. We obtained four nights of Bessel BVRI on 2011 June 14, 15, 16, and 18 at the JPL Table Mountain 0.6-m telescope. Our analysis was hampered by the high density of background stars, the low lunar elongation, and an intermittent tracking error. The rotationally averaged colors were found most consistent with an Ld-type spectral classification (Bus taxonomy), an association obtained through a comparison of our colors with the 1341 asteroid spectra in the SMASS II database (Bus & Binzel 2002). Despite the large error bars in our photometry we are confident that 1986 LA belongs to the S-family of asteroids (Tholen Taxonomy). Assuming a phase parameter G=0.15 and our V-R color, we measured an absolute magnitude HV = 17.97 +/- 0.15 mag, intermediate between the HV = 17.7 mag (Lowell) and HV = 18.2 mag (JPL) database listings. We observed for 21 additional nights. The pole positions are currently unresolved based on the further observations.

  13. Population Pasta

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website is part of National Geographic's Xpeditions Hall and includes lesson plans and activities related to the topic of population statistics. It covers overpopulation problems, U.S. problems with population, how to interpret population statistics, and issues in India and China. These lesson plans were written by educators and have been tested in the classroom.

  14. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  15. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  16. US Populations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) Program of the National Cancer Institute has recently released this collection of US population data files. The collection includes data files for county level populations from 1973 to 1996 for every state in the US. Data files containing the total US population from 1973 to 1996 as well as files containing total populations for each state from 1973 to 1996 are also included. The data are available for downloading in ASCII format as self-extracting DOS executable files. Users should note that documentation for the population data files is in .pdf format.

  17. Population Growth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    These activities explore population growth rates and its consequences with regard to the distribution of natural resources. Population growth is perhaps the most important environmental issue of our time. As population increases and as people seek to raise their standard of living, more stress is put on our earth’s finite resources.One aspect of the population issue is the sheer magnitude of the numbers involved. World population did not reach 1 billion until the year 1800. Since then it has grown exponentially to reach our current 6.7 billion.

  18. Population Explosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2012-01-13

    Many factors influence the success and survival rate of a population of living things. Explore several factors that can determine the survival of a population of sheep in this NetLogo model. Start with a model of unlimited grass available to the sheep and watch what happens to the sheep population! Next try to keep the population under control by removing sheep periodically. Change the birthrate, grass regrowth rate, and the amount of energy rabbits get from the grass to keep a stable population.

  19. Experimental tall fescue population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to determine the stress tolerance, seed productivity and forage productivity of an endophyte free (non toxic), experimental tall fescue population generated by a gamete selection approach. This approach has successfully been applied in breeding of other crop specie...

  20. NeoCITIES: an experimental test-bed for quantifying the effects of cognitive aids on team performance in C2 situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellar, D. B.; Hall, David L.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and development of the NeoCITIES Simulation task environment. The enhanced NeoCITIES environment allows repeatable experiments in which artifacts are introduced to improve team performance and measure quantities such as inference accuracy as a function of crisis tempo, data rate, decision complexity and individual factors such as induced stress. NeoCITIES was developed to study the effectiveness of cognitive artifacts within a simulated command and control environment. This paper describes the initial results of a human in the loop experiment to quantify the effects of data overload on human analyst performance. The experiment involves the introduction of cognitive aids to support improved team coordination and understanding of team-member interactions in a simulated extreme events scenario.

  1. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  2. Population Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

  3. Multifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Boterberg, Veerle; Dubruel, Peter; Luyten, Frank P.; Schrooten, Jan; Geris, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds) becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells) in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial ‘design of experiments’ approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid) and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology. PMID:26076131

  4. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  5. Active Object an Object Behavioral Pattern for

    E-print Network

    Lavender, Greg

    Active Object an Object Behavioral Pattern for Concurrent Programming R. Greg Lavender Douglas C. Schmidt g.lavender@isode.com schmidt@cs.wustl.edu ISODE Consortium Inc. Department of Computer Science

  6. Active Object An Object Behavioral Pattern for

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    Active Object An Object Behavioral Pattern for Concurrent Programming R. Greg Lavender Douglas C. Schmidt G.Lavender@isode.com schmidt@cs.wustl.edu ISODE Consortium Inc. Department of Computer Science

  7. Neo-sternum reconstruction using costal cartilage approximation and small Permacol patch repair in the treatment of Cantrell pentalogy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Wan; Cho, Hyun Min; Son, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The ideal treatment for pentalogy of Cantrell is neo-sternum reconstruction by using autologous tissues. Although treatment timing varies depending on the degree of deformity and patient's condition, the principle is performing the procedure at the earliest, to prevent blunt or piercing trauma to the heart. However, the challenge is performing the procedure on a neonate, because feasibility of the procedure is affected by the size of the defect, and limitations in utilizable autologous tissues. We used a small biocompatible patch (Permacol) and lower costal cartilage to perform curative neo-sternum reconstruction, which is a simple and safe treatment method. PMID:25880424

  8. Divisions I & III WG: on Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David; Milani, Andrea; Binzel, Richard; Bowell, Ted; Carusi, Andrea; Chapman, Clark; Harris, Alan; Isobe, Syuzo; Marsden, Brian; Muinonen, Karri; Ostro, Steve; Shor, Victor; Steel, Duncan; Tancredi, Gonzalo; Ticha, Jana; Valsecchi, Giovanni; Yeomans, Don

    2007-03-01

    The WGNEO, a Working Group of Divisions I and III, was formed in the early 1990s to coordinate study of Earth-approaching asteroids and comets (NEOs) and provide timely advice to the General Secretary and officers of the IAU on discovery of any objects that threaten collision with the Earth. Since then, the WGNEO has steadily grown, reflecting increasing international interest and concern over impacts, especially from asteroids (which dominate over comets in their risk to Earth). In this triennium, the WGNEO had a membership of 49 (including the Organizing Committee of 17 members), plus 10 consultants. The Chair is David Morrison (USA), Vice-Chair Andrea Milani (Italy), Secretary Richard Binzel (USA), and Past-Chair Andrea Carusi (Italy).

  9. The trajectory of India towards Eurasia recorded by subducted slabs: implications for the fate of NeoTethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. D.; Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Neo-Tethys Ocean progressively closed after India separated from Gondwana at 130 Ma and converged towards Eurasia. In this study subducted slabs were mapped over a large region of the MITP08 global seismic tomography data (Li et al., 2008) including southern Asia and the Indian Ocean. A distinct swath of deep lower mantle slabs were mapped between 20°N to 20°S in a region bounded by present-day Madagascar and the Cocos Basin at 1000 to 2500 km depths. Other slabs were mapped below Present Day India and Eurasia at shallower 700 to 1500 km depths. These slabs closely correspond to the well-known path that India has taken northward towards Eurasia in the Indo-Atlantic moving hotspot reference. The slabs account for a large proportion of predicted lost and subducted Neotethyan lithosphere since 130 Ma. Here we present a plate tectonic reconstruction that incorporates these mapped slab constraints with the implication that a large portion of the Neo-Tethys Ocean was subducted below a northward-moving India and not Eurasia. 3D slab geometries were mapped using GoCad software. Slabs were structurally unfolded in GoCad to a spherical earth model. GPlates software was used to build plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs.

  10. Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanka, Paskaleva [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mihaela, Kouteva [CLSMEE-BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Franco, Vaccari [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Panza, Giuliano F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

  11. Development and psychometric properties of the Swedish ALPS-Neo pain and stress assessment scale for newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Lundqvist, Pia; Kleberg, Agneta; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Björn A; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Norman, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Aim To validate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the ALPS-Neo, a new pain assessment scale created for the continuous evaluation of pain and stress in preterm and sick term infants. Methods A unidimensional scale for continuous pain, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital Pain Scale (ALPS 1), was developed further to assess continuous pain and stress in infants treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The pain scale includes observations of five behaviours. A manual was created, clarifying the scoring criteria. An internal and an external panel assessed face validity. Psychometric properties were evaluated in three different steps. Inter-rater reliability was estimated from video-based assessments (n = 625) using weighted kappa statistics (test I). Inter-rater reliability was further evaluated in test II (n = 125) and test III (n = 96) by real-time assessments using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha. Results The final inter-rater reliability (test III) was assessed as good with ICC 0.91 for the total score and 0.62–0.81 for the five items. Cronbach's alpha showed 0.95 for the total score. Conclusion ALPS-Neo is a new assessment tool for optimising the management of pain and stress in newborn infants in the NICU. It has proved easy to implement and user-friendly, permitting fast, reliable observations with high inter-rater reliability. PMID:24813238

  12. Composite objects revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Kim; Elisa Bertino; Jorge F. Garza

    1989-01-01

    In object-oriented systems, an object may recursively reference any number of other objects. The references, however, do not capture any special relationships between objects. An important semantic relationship which may be superimposed on a reference is the IS-PART-OF relationship between a pair of objects. A set of objects related by the IS-PART-OF relationship is collectively called a composite object.An earlier

  13. The Magdalena Ridge Observatory's 2.4-meter Telescope: A New Facility for Follow-up and Characterization of Near-Earth Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen V. Ryan; William H. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) state-of-the-art 2.4-meter telescope is contributing to the Near-Earth Object (NEO) effort by working in partnership with existing NASA telescopic survey programs to provide the astrometric and physical characterization follow-up required to meet the congressional directive to identify bodies 140 meters in diameter or larger that have the potential to impact the Earth. The 2.4-meter's large

  14. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission in the ESA program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    2009-09-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near Earth Object. In October 2007 this mission passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge of the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of life on Earth.

  15. Prospective testing of neo-deterministic seismic hazard scenarios for the Italian territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Vaccari, Franco; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2013-04-01

    A reliable and comprehensive characterization of expected seismic ground shaking, eventually including the related time information, is essential in order to develop effective mitigation strategies and increase earthquake preparedness. Moreover, any effective tool for SHA must demonstrate its capability in anticipating the ground shaking related with large earthquake occurrences, a result that can be attained only through rigorous verification and validation process. So far, the major problems in classical probabilistic methods for seismic hazard assessment, PSHA, consisted in the adequate description of the earthquake recurrence, particularly for the largest and sporadic events, and of the attenuation models, which may be unable to account for the complexity of the medium and of the seismic sources and are often weekly constrained by the available observations. Current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic waves generation and propagation processes allow nowadays for viable numerical and analytical alternatives to the use of attenuation relations. Accordingly, a scenario-based neo-deterministic approach, NDSHA, to seismic hazard assessment has been proposed, which allows considering a wide range of possible seismic sources as the starting point for deriving scenarios by means of full waveforms modeling. The method does not make use of attenuation relations and naturally supplies realistic time series of ground shaking, including reliable estimates of ground displacement readily applicable to seismic isolation techniques. Based on NDSHA, an operational integrated procedure for seismic hazard assessment has been developed, that allows for the definition of time dependent scenarios of ground shaking, through the routine updating of formally defined earthquake predictions. The integrated NDSHA procedure for seismic input definition, which is currently applied to the Italian territory, combines different pattern recognition techniques, designed for the space-time identification of strong earthquakes, with algorithms for the realistic modeling of ground motion. Accordingly, a set of deterministic scenarios of ground motion at bedrock, which refers to the time interval when a strong event is likely to occur within the alerted area, can be defined by means of full waveform modeling, both at regional and local scale. CN and M8S predictions, as well as the related time-dependent ground motion scenarios associated with the alarmed areas, are regularly updated every two months since 2006. The routine application of the time-dependent NDSHA approach provides information that can be useful in assigning priorities for timely mitigation actions and, at the same time, allows for a rigorous prospective testing and validation of the proposed methodology. As an example, for sites where ground shaking values greater than 0.2 g are estimated at bedrock, further investigations can be performed taking into account the local soil conditions, to assess the performances of relevant structures, such as historical and strategic buildings. The issues related with prospective testing and validation of the time-dependent NDSHA scenarios will be discussed, illustrating the results obtained for the recent strong earthquakes in Italy, including the May 20, 2012 Emilia earthquake.

  16. Position Paper Object Mitosis

    E-print Network

    Position Paper Object Mitosis: A Systematic Approach To Splitting Objects Across Subsystems Stephen An experimental method, called object mitosis, is presented. Object mitosis is a systematic process for splitting between subsystems is discussed and object mitosis is shown to be a possible solution. 1. Introduction

  17. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  18. Working Group: Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.; Valsecchi, Giovanni; Morrison, David

    2012-04-01

    Following its meeting in May, 2010, the IAU Executive Committee requested that a Working Group on NEOs within Div. III be re-activated and carry out the following activities:a)investigate and formulate requirements for an international ground- and/or space-based NEO survey, to detect, track and characterize (optical/IR, radar) 90% of all NEOs with D >40 m and to establish as such a permanent International NEO Early Warning System; to submit to the President, Vice-President and OC of Division III by March 31, 2011, a progress report and by March 31, 2012, a final report on this matter, to be forwarded to the President and General Secretary of the IAU;b)assemble a SOC in order to write and submit to the IAU Assistant General Secretary before December 1, 2010, a proposal for a GA IAU Symposium or a GA Special Session, to be held during the IAU XXVIII General Assembly, August 20-31, 2012 in Beijing, on theoretical and observational aspects of NEO research in general, and on requirements and other aspects of a permanent International NEO Early Warning System in particular;c)prepare and submit to the IAU General Secretary by January 31, 2012, a Resolution for consideration by the IAU XXVIII General Assembly in Beijing, August 2012, asking for international action and support to establish an International NEO Early Warning System; such a Resolution, if accepted by the IAU XXVIII General Assembly, to be addressed to the IAU National Members, to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS), and to the International Council for Science (ICSU).

  19. Cohort Profile: A prospective cohort study of objective physical and cognitive capability and visual health in an ageing population of men and women in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk 3)

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shabina A; Luben, Robert; Keevil, Victoria L; Moore, Stephanie; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Khawaja, Anthony P; Foster, Paul; Brayne, Carol; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) is a 10-country collaborative study in which EPIC-Norfolk is one of the UK centres. EPIC-Norfolk examined 25 639 men and women resident in East Anglia (aged 40–79 years), between 1993 and 1997. The EPIC collaboration was set up to examine the dietary determinants of cancer, but the remit in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort was broadened from the outset to include determinants of other health conditions and chronic diseases. EPIC-Norfolk completed a third round of health examinations (EPIC-Norfolk 3 or 3HC) in December 2011, on 8623 participants in the age range 48–92 years. EPIC-Norfolk focused on objective measures of cognitive function, physical capability and visual health, adapting this existing mid-life cohort to the current need to investigate healthy and independent living for ageing societies. With a wealth of longitudinal data and a biobank (including DNA) collected at up to three separate time points, EPIC-Norfolk offers the unique opportunity to investigate the association of lifestyle and biological factors, including genetic exposures, with a range of health outcomes in middle and later life. Information for data access can be found on the study website, details as given in this cohort profile. PMID:23771720

  20. Population crises and population cycles.

    PubMed

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution made possible by Malthus's discovery that, unlike animals, we can choose to check population growth by reducing the birth-rate, instead of raising the death-rate, as in other mammals, by the population crisis response. PMID:11130632

  1. Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Time-Dependent Scenarios for North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, A.; Zuccolo, E.; Vaccari, F.; Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2011-03-01

    An integrated neo-deterministic approach to seismic hazard assessment has been developed that combines different pattern recognition techniques, designed for the space-time identification of impending strong earthquakes, with algorithms for the realistic modeling of seismic ground motion. The integrated approach allows for a time-dependent definition of the seismic input, through the routine updating of earthquake predictions. The scenarios of expected ground motion, associated with the alarmed areas, are defined by means of full waveform modeling. A set of neo-deterministic scenarios of ground motion is defined at regional and local scales, thus providing a prioritization tool for timely preparedness and mitigation actions. Constraints about the space and time of occurrence of the impending strong earthquakes are provided by three formally defined and globally tested algorithms, which have been developed according to a pattern recognition scheme. Two algorithms, namely CN and M8, are routinely used for intermediate-term middle-range earthquake predictions, while a third algorithm allows for the identification of the areas prone to large events. These independent procedures have been combined to better constrain the alarmed area. The pattern recognition of earthquake-prone areas does not belong to the family of earthquake prediction algorithms since it does not provide any information about the time of occurrence of the expected earthquakes. Nevertheless, it can be considered as the termless zero-approximation, which restrains the alerted areas (e.g. defined by CN or M8) to the more precise potential location of large events. Italy is the only region of moderate seismic activity where the two different prediction algorithms, CN and M8S (i.e. a spatially stabilized variant of M8), are applied simultaneously and a real-time test of predictions, for earthquakes with magnitude larger than a given threshold (namely 5.4 and 5.6 for CN algorithm, and 5.5 for M8S algorithm) has been ongoing since 2003. The application of the CN to the Adriatic region, which is relevant for seismic hazard assessment in the northeastern part of the Italian territory, is also discussed. Examples of neo-deterministic scenarios are provided, at regional and local scale and for the cities of Trieste and Nimis (Friuli Venezia Giulia region), where the knowledge of the local geological conditions permitted a detailed evaluation of the expected ground motion.

  2. Mapping the Contours of Neoliberal Educational Restructuring: A Review of Recent Neo-Marxist Studies of Education and Racial Capitalist Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In this article Clayton Pierce reviews three books representative of the recent neo-Marxist literature on education: David Blacker's "The Falling Rate of Learning and the Neoliberal Endgame," John Marsh's Class Dismissed: "Why We Cannot Teach or Learn Our Way out of Inequality," and Pauline Lipman's "The New Political…

  3. Early Elementary Class-Size Reduction: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the Social, Political, and Economic Influences on State-Level Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Ross E.

    This paper examines the social, political, and economic factors that influenced the adoption and diffusion of early-elementary school class-size-reduction policies at the state level. It applies a neo-institutional framework to explain the rapid spread of class-size reduction policies throughout many state legislatures and boards of education. It…

  4. Asian/Pacific Joint Production Programme of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas Planning Meeting (Tokyo, Japan, March 4-5, 1991). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    This document reports on the 1991 Planning Meeting on Asian/Pacific Joint Production (AJP) Program of Materials for Neo-Literates in Rural Areas, the purpose of which was to discuss Asian Cultural Center for Unesco (ACCU) literacy programs to be carried out under regional cooperation. Opening addresses focused on the success of the cooperative…

  5. Standardizing Chaos: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Andina, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Violent conflict and humanitarian disasters such as floods, famines, or tsunamis, have existed since the start of human history. However, it is only recently that education in these emergency situations has emerged as a visible organizational field. We aim to use a unique theoretical application of sociological neo-institutionalism to explain the…

  6. `We are Dealing with People Whose Origins One can Clearly Tell Just by Looking': Critical Discourse Analysis and the Study of Neo-Racism in Contemporary Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Wodak; Bernd Matouschek

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on the discourse of neo-racism towards foreigners in Austria between 1989 and 1991. It summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing interdisciplinary project, and offers illustrative examples of official discourse (politicians), newspaper texts and anonymous conversations on the street recorded during the Waldheim campaign of 1987 and the Viennese municipal election of 1991. The study suggests that

  7. Response Distortion in Normal Personality Assessment: Investigating Proposed Validity Scales for the NEO-PI-R in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Kerrie R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992b) is an assessment of normal personality composition that is used in clinical counseling contexts as well as for personnel selection. There has been some debate regarding the necessity and usefulness of validity scales to detect response distortion on this instrument. Because the authors of the instrument, Costa…

  8. Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegler, S. C.; Romanishin, W.

    1999-09-01

    The Kuiper belt represents an exciting, new frontier in solar system research. About 200 Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with diameters larger than 100 km are known to exist between 30 and 50 AU from the Sun. Surveys indicate that there may be as many as 100,000 KBOs larger than 100 km and perhaps billions of KBOs larger than 1 km between 30 and 50 AU. Although the total mass in these bodies is perhaps a few tenths of an Earth mass, accretion calculations indicate that the primordial Kuiper belt must have contained 10 to 30 Earth masses of material between 30 and 50 AU in order to explain the growth of large KBOs and the Pluto and Charon system in the 100 million years before the onset of the disruptive influence of Neptune. Once Neptune reached a fraction of its current mass, dynamical studies indicate that a combination of erosional collisions and mean motion and secular resonances sculpted the belt into its present day mass and structure. The influence of the resonances can be seen in the belt today as about one-third of the known KBOs are in a stable 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune, i.e. eccentric and inclined orbits, that approach or cross the orbit of Neptune, and semi-major axes, a, about 39.4 AU. Many KBOs with a > 42 AU are sufficiently far from Neptune that they are on stable, low inclination, low eccentricity, non-resonant orbits. A combination of resonances and disruptive collisions continue to deplete the Kuiper belt today as they inject KBOs or collision fragments inward into the solar system as Centaur objects and Jupiter family comets. Physical studies of KBOs are in their infancy. Perhaps one of the most surprising results is the observation that KBO colors and hence their surface compositions divide neatly into a grey and an extraordinarily red population. The red population suggests some surfaces are rich in complex carbon-bearing molecules. The colors exhibit no trend with resonant or non-resonant orbits or object size and suggest that something unexpected and important happened in the outer solar system. Visible and infrared spectra are available for only a few of the brightest KBOs and indicate the presence of frozen methane and water. Optical light curve studies suggest that the smallest KBOs are irregular in shape. Albedo measurements and searches for comae around KBOs are just beginning. Many fundamental questions remain unanswered about the Kuiper belt. For example, no KBO has been found beyond 50 AU. Does 50 AU represent an edge to the belt? On the other hand, is the region beyond 50 AU sufficiently far from the disruptive influence of Neptune that Pluto-sized or larger bodies await discovery?

  9. Population Bracketology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Census Bureau

    Test your knowledge of population data! Start by choosing your geographic level: metro areas or states. Click on the name in each match-up that you think has the larger population. Green shows a correct answer, red indicates an incorrect answer. When you have opposing names picked for the next round, pick again. See how close you can come to a perfect score of 63. When you are finished, play again or mouse-over results to view the most current population estimates for each pair.

  10. Object Location Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

  11. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  12. Deer Population

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The deer population activity allows students to experiment with the factors which influence population dynamics. In their exploration, they encounter both exponential and logistic growth curves. Students should be familiar with the concepts of birth and death rates, emigration and immigration, predation, limiting factors such as food supply and habitat size, and carrying capacity. The activity is self-paced with extensions provided for those who have extra time.

  13. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of NEO-PI-R Scales In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Brant, Larry J.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age trends in the five factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline up to age 80 in Neuroticism, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase up to age 70 in Conscientiousness. Some facets showed different curves from the factor they define. Birth cohort effects were modest, and there were no consistent Gender × Age interactions. Significant non-normative changes were found for all five factors; they were not explained by attrition but might be due to genetic factors, disease, or life experience. PMID:16248708

  14. Medical climatology in France: the persistence of Neo-Hippocratic ideas in the first half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Michael A; Fogarty, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    In interwar France the Lyonnais physician Marius Piéry undertook an ambitious Neo-Hippocratic research program to study how atmospheric and terrestrial environments influenced health. Lyon had a number of institutions linked to the colonies and was a center for the training of military physicians. Colonial physicians had a long tradition of contending with the diseases of tropical environments, and their ideas and many returned colonials circulated in Lyon and its region. Piéry was a physician during World War I and published on military medical topics. He also included colonial and military health concerns in his more mature works from the 1930s. An advocate of the close study of the physical sciences, he investigated the radioactive gases of health spas and the effects of altitude on pulmonary tuberculosis, and he directed a meteorological observatory. PMID:23263346

  15. Short-course radiotherapy followed by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer – the RAPIDO trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current standard for most of the locally advanced rectal cancers is preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and, variably per institution, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Short-course preoperative radiation with delayed surgery has been shown to induce tumour down-staging in both randomized and observational studies. The concept of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has been proven successful in gastric cancer, hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and is currently tested in primary colon cancer. Methods and design Patients with rectal cancer with high risk features for local or systemic failure on magnetic resonance imaging are randomized to either a standard arm or an experimental arm. The standard arm consists of chemoradiation (1.8 Gy x 25 or 2 Gy x 25 with capecitabine) preoperatively, followed by selective postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy is optional and may be omitted by participating institutions. The experimental arm includes short-course radiotherapy (5 Gy x 5) followed by full-dose chemotherapy (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) in 6 cycles before surgery. In the experimental arm, no postoperative chemotherapy is prescribed. Surgery is performed according to TME principles in both study arms. The hypothesis is that short-course radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy increases disease-free and overall survival without compromising local control. Primary end-point is disease-free survival at 3 years. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, local control, toxicity profile, and treatment completion rate, rate of pathological complete response and microscopically radical resection, and quality of life. Discussion Following the advances in rectal cancer management, increased focus on survival rather than only on local control is now justified. In an experimental arm, short-course radiotherapy is combined with full-dose chemotherapy preoperatively, an alternative that offers advantages compared to concomitant chemoradiotherapy with or without postoperative chemotherapy. In a multi-centre setting this regimen is compared to current standard with the aim of improving survival for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01558921 PMID:23742033

  16. Selective organ preservation with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hafeez, S; Horwich, A; Omar, O; Mohammed, K; Thompson, A; Kumar, P; Khoo, V; Van As, N; Eeles, R; Dearnaley, D; Huddart, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) aims to offer organ preservation without oncological compromise. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy provides survival advantage; response may guide patient selection for bladder preservation and identify those most likely to have favourable result with radiotherapy. Methods: Ninety-four successive patients with T2-T4aN0M0 bladder cancer treated between January 2000 and June 2011 were analysed at the Royal Marsden Hospital. Patients received platinum-based chemotherapy following transurethral resection of bladder tumour; repeat cystoscopy (±biopsy) was performed to guide subsequent management. Responders were treated with radiotherapy. Poor responders were recommended radical cystectomy. Progression-free survival (PFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan–Meier method; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Response assessment was performed in 89 patients. Seventy-eight (88%) demonstrated response; 53 (60%) achieved complete response (CR); 74 responders had radiotherapy; 4 opted for cystectomy. Eleven (12%) demonstrated poor response, 10 received cystectomy. Median survival for CR was 90 months (95% CI 64.7, 115.9) compared with 16 months (95% CI 5.4, 27.4; P<0.001) poor responders. On multivariate analysis, only response was associated with significantly improved PFS, OS and DSS. After a median follow-up of 39 months (range 4–127 months), 14 patients (16%) required salvage cystectomy (8 for non-muscle invasive disease, 5 for invasive recurrence, 1 for radiotherapy related toxicity). In all, 82% had an intact bladder at last follow-up after radiotherapy; 67% had an intact bladder at last follow-up or death. Our study is limited by its retrospective nature. Conclusions: Response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a favourable prognostic indicator and can be used to select patients for radiotherapy allowing bladder preservation in >80% of the selected patients. PMID:25897675

  17. Delivery of Trans-Neptunian Objects to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mardon, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    The mean value of a characteristic time elapsed up to a collision of an Earth-crossing object (ECO) with the Earth equals to 100 Myr. Considering that the number of all ECOs with diameter d>1 km is equal to 750, we have about 7.5 collisions per Myr. The number of all 100-m ECOs is estimated to be about 70,000-160,000, so such objects collide the Earth on average once in 600-1400 yr. For d>70 m the frequency of collisions is greater by a factor of 2 than that for d>100 m, and so Tunguska-size objects collide the Earth once in several hundreds (-500) years. Many scientists consider that the Tunguska event was caused by the explosion of an icy body which was a debris of a comet. Most of Jupiter-family comets come from the trans-Neptunian (Edgeworth-Kuiper) belt, and long-period and Halley-type comets usually come from the Oort cloud. Duncan et al. obtained that about 10-20% of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with a semimajor axis a<50 AU left the belt during last 4 Gyr and about 1/3 of Neptune-crossing objects reach Jupiter's orbit during their lifetimes. We showed that the mutual close encounters of TNOs can also play a role in their migration inside the solar system and during last 4 Gyr several percents of TNOs could change their semimajor axes by more than 1 AU due to the gravitational interactions with other TNOs. Even small variations in orbital elements of TNOs caused by their mutual gravitational influence and collisions can cause large variations in orbital elements due to the gravitational influence of planets. The results of our numerical investigations of orbital evolution of bodies under the gravitational influence of planets showed that the mean time interval, during which an object crosses Jupiter's orbit during its lifetime, is about 0.2 Myr, the portion of Jupiter crossers that reach the orbit of the Earth during their lifetimes is equal to 0.2, and the mean time, during which a Jupiter-crossing object crosses the orbit of the Earth, is about 5000 yr. It is considered that there are about 1010 TNOs with diameter d>1 km and a<50 AU. Basing on the above data, we obtained that the number of the present Jupiter-crossers with d>1 km, which came from the trans-Neptunian belt, is equal to 30,000 and there are about 170 former TNOs with d>1 km, which cross both the orbits of Earth and Jupiter (i.e., about 20% of all ECOs with d>1 km). The portion of such objects colliding with the Earth is smaller than their portion among all ECOs, because the characteristic time elapsed up to a collision with the Earth for a Jupiter-crossing body is larger by a factor of several than that for a typical Apollo object. The number of former Jupiter-crossers that move inside the orbit of Jupiter in Encke-type orbits can be of the same order (or even more) than the number of objects that cross both the orbits of Jupiter and Earth. The near-Earth objects (NEOs) that will be focused on for the understanding of potential Earth-impacting objects might have a source from the trans-Neptunian belt. The volatile-icy portion of the objects would have been ejected off due to being close to the inner solar system. The structural composition of the asteroid bodies might also be different when then the bodies formed inside of Jupiter. This might effect the type of deflection that might be used if they were a potential Earth-impacting object. The largest sample of Earth-impacting solid bodies is the Antarctic meteorites that have been recovered. It is only when robotic missions to the accessible NEOs have been done then we will get an accurate picture of sources of NEOs. Carbon based meteorites are a small sample size of the recovered antarctic and non-antarctic meteorite samples. There is a need to get more observation platforms available to search for NEOs and other potential ECOs. One solution is galvanizing amateur astronomers world-wide and also to encourage the developed world to use its telescopes that have smaller capabilities to search for ECOs.

  18. Aging population.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah; White, Danielle; Farrar, Francisca Cisneros

    2015-03-01

    Our aging population is rapidly growing and accounts for 46% of critical care patients and 60% of medical-surgical patients in the hospital. These acutely ill patients are challenging to frontline nurses because they frequently have multiple chronic conditions. This article provides a tool kit of resources and clinical skills to develop safe, quality, and accountable care plans for positive patient outcomes; it presents several resources to assist in individualized care, the complexity of care, and the issues of transitions of care. This article empowers frontline nurses to develop gerontological skills and meet the unique needs of our aging population. PMID:25680496

  19. The Relationship between the JobMatchTalent Test and the NEO PI-R: Construct Validation of an Instrument Designed for Recruitment of Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali Al; Rappe, Catrin; Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Archer, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background Personality measures in recruitment situations need to (1) cover the Big-Five model of personality and (2) focus on interpersonal requirements of jobs. We investigated the relationship between the JobMatchTalent test and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R). The JobMatchTalent consists of three areas (i.e., Stability Patterns, Action Patterns, and Relation Patterns) divided in 10 main scales providing a deeper picture of the employee (e.g., Work Structure, Tolerance). Method The participants (N?=?390) were recruited from the professional network LinkedIn and completed online versions of both instruments. We used correlation analysis to investigate the construct validity of the JobMatchTalent test by identifying significant correlation coefficients no lower than ±.30 (i.e., convergent validity) and those with nonsignificant correlations (i.e., discriminant validity). Regression analyses were used to investigate the variance of the NEO PI-R dimensions that was explained by the JobMatchTalent test. Results Four of the NEO PI-R dimensions showed considerable overlap with the following JobMatchTalent main scales: (1) Work structure and Decision Characteristics, which both are measures of thoughtfulness, planning, and order (i.e., Conscientiousness); (2) Inner drive, Activity, Drive, Acting, and Communication, which represent different aspects of being outgoing and extrovert (i.e., Extraversion); (3) Tolerance and Social interest, which measure a person's interest and ability to create social relations (i.e., Agreeableness); and (4) Stress Index, a measure of emotional stability (i.e., the opposite of Neuroticism). All 5 NEO PI-R dimensions overlapped with the JobMatchTalent sub-scales. Conclusions The study suggests that 4 of the NEO PI-R dimensions are logically categorized along the JobMatchTalent main scales: (1) Order and Thoughtfulness, (2) Energy and Extraversion, (3) Social Adaptation and Interest, and (4) Emotion Control. Hence, it suggests substantial overlap between the instruments, but also that the two instruments cannot be considered as equivalent to assess individual differences in recruitment situations. PMID:24594872

  20. Population success.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families. Access to contraceptives is, of course, a major influence on fertility decline. According to UNFPA some of the Latin American countries have the highest contraceptive use among developing countries. The countries of Asia come next and contraceptives are least used in sub-Saharan Africa where birth rates of 45/1000 are still common. The money for population programs, says the report, has come largely from developing countries themselves. A survey of 15 countries showed them to have contributed 67% out of their own budgets--the rest having come from external aid. And in programs aided by UNFPA the local input has been even higher. During 1979-1981 the developing countries themselves budgeted $4.6 for each dollar budgeted by UNFPA. The report also highlights some of the emerging problems for the next 2 decades--and which will be high on the agenda of the 1984 conference. These include "uncontrolled urban growth" in developing countries as well as an important change in overall population age structure as more and more old people survive. Aging populations are of particular concern to the developed countries but, as the report points out, even countries like China--which has achieved a steep drop in fertility and mortality--will face the problems of an aging population by the year 2000. PMID:12279227

  1. Object Location Memory Explanation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

  2. Visualizing object detection features

    E-print Network

    Vondrick, Carl (Carl Martin)

    2013-01-01

    We introduce algorithms to visualize feature spaces used by object detectors. The tools in this paper allow a human to put on 'HOG goggles' and perceive the visual world as a HOG based object detector sees it. We found ...

  3. Perspectives on the Near-Earth Object Impact Hazard After Chelyabinsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    Until this year, the NEO impact hazard had been regarded as a theoretical example of a very low probability high consequence natural disaster. There had been no confirmed examples of fatalities directly due to asteroid or meteoroid strikes. (There still aren't.) The several megaton Tunguska event in 1908 was in a remote, unpopulated place. So human beings have been witnessing only the tiniest analogs of asteroid strikes, the night-sky meteors and occasional bolides, which - on rare occasions - yield meteoritic fragments that puncture holes in roofs. Though the NEO impact hazard has occasionally been treated in the natural hazards literature, interest primarily remained in the planetary science and aerospace communities. The Chelyabinsk asteroid impact on 15 February 2013 was a real disaster, occurring near a city with a population exceeding a million. Well over a thousand people were injured, thousands of buildings suffered at least superficial damage (mainly to windows), schools and sports facilities were closed, and emergency responders swarmed across the city and surrounding rural areas. While the consequences were very small compared with larger natural disasters, which kill tens of thousands of people annually worldwide, this specific case - for the first time - has permitted a calibration of the consequences of the rare impacts asteroid astronomers have been predicting. There now are reasons to expect that impacts by bodies tens of meters in diameter are several times more frequent than had been thought and each impact is more damaging than previously estimated. The Chelyabinsk event, produced by a 20 meter diameter asteroid, specifically suggests that asteroids just 15 meters diameter, or even smaller, could be very dangerous and damaging; indeed, a more common steeper impact angle would have produced more consequential damage on the ground. This contrasts with estimates a decade earlier [NASA NEO Science Definition Team report, 2003] that asteroids smaller than 40 to 50 meters diameter would explode harmlessly in the upper atmosphere. Given the observed size-frequency relation for NEOs, this means that dangerous impacts could be many tens of times more frequent than had been thought. New observing campaigns (e.g. ATLAS) oriented towards finding roughly half of the frequent smaller impactors meters to tens of meters in size during their final days to weeks before impact will soon result in warnings every few years of a potentially dangerous impact, perhaps requiring evacuation or instructions to shelter-in-place, even though most will turn out to be essentially harmless events. Warnings may become even more frequent as prudent emergency managers take into account the large uncertainties in sizes and destructive potential of these 'final plungers.' So emergency management officials around the world should at least be aware of the potential for a NEO impact to produce a real, if generally minor and local, natural disaster. Fortunately, success of the Spaceguard search for civilization-threatening large NEOs (> 1 km diameter) over the last 15 years has nearly retired the risk of global calamity by impact. So attention turns to the much smaller impacts that are far less dangerous, but soon will be frequently predicted and so cannot be ignored.

  4. Voxel Based Object Simplification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taosong He; Lichan Hong; Arie E. Kaufman; Amitabh Varshney; Sidney W. Wang

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple, robust and practical method for object simplification for applications where gradual elimination of high-frequency details is desired. This is accomplished by sampling and low-pass filtering the object into multi-resolution volume buffers and applying the marching cubes algorithm to generate a multi-resolution triangle-mesh hierarchy. Our method simplifies the genus of objects and can also help existing object simplification

  5. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  6. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  7. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  8. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  9. OBJECT RECOGNITION: BEYOND VISION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weina Ge

    Object recognition, a difficult and long-lasting research topic about how machines can distinguish and identify different objects as we human beings do, has been extensively stud- ied in the computer vision community. Although a substan- tial amount of effort has been made through the decades, the ultimate goal of fully automatic recognition for general objects has not yet been accomplished

  10. The society of objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Tokoro

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, I will first review the notions of objects and concurrent objects and discuss their main roles. Then, I will introduce two observations on our current computer systems and explain why we need an evolved notion of objects, which we call uut0num014~ agents, to describe open and distributed systems. An autonomous agent is a software individual that reacts

  11. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  12. Income inequality, social cohesion, and class relations: a critique of Wilkinson's neo-Durkheimian research program.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, C; Lynch, J

    1999-01-01

    Wilkinson's "income inequality and social cohesion" model has emerged as a leading research program in social epidemiology. Public health scholars and activists working toward the elimination of social inequalities in health can find several appealing features in Wilkinson's research. In particular, it provides a sociological alternative to former models that emphasize poverty, health behaviors, or the cultural aspects of social relations as determinants of population health. Wilkinson's model calls for social explanations, avoids the subjectivist legacy of U.S. functionalist sociology that is evident in "status" approaches to understanding social inequalities in health, and calls for broad policies of income redistribution. Nevertheless, Wilkinson's research program has characteristics that limit its explanatory power and its ability to inform social policies directed toward reducing social inequalities in health. The model ignores class relations, an approach that might help explain how income inequalities are generated and account for both relative and absolute deprivation. Furthermore, Wilkinson's model implies that social cohesion rather than political change is the major determinant of population health. Historical evidence suggests that class formation could determine both reductions in social inequalities and increases in social cohesion. Drawing on recent examples, the authors argue that an emphasis on social cohesion can be used to render communities responsible for their mortality and morbidity rates: a community-level version of "blaming the victim." Such use of social cohesion is related to current policy initiatives in the United States and Britain under the New Democrat and New Labor governments. PMID:10079398

  13. Fluxes Derivation From a Given Space Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    X, K.; Pang, Baojun; Peng, Keke

    A particulate environment model is indispensable for describing a space debris environment. The purpose of a space debris environment engineering model is the realistic description of the man-made particulate environment surrounding the Earth and risk assessment via flux predictions for defined target orbits. This paper provides a method for deriving fluxes using data sources whose orbital elements are known (e.g., two-line elements (TLE) data). First, we present the definitions of the output parameters used in the Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Reference Model of the European Space Agency and summarize the concepts used in the modeling. Second, we convert the original data into a new data format that can be used in deriving fluxes; the new data are equivalent to the original ones. Third, we deriving fluxes regarding the TLEs as the only data source. Finally, we analyze the results for different years and consider the prospects of applying the technique to sources whose orbital elements are unknown.

  14. Lensless object scanning holography for diffuse objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Javier; Ferreira, Carlos; Micó, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Recently proposed, Lensless Object Scanning Holography (LOSH) is a fully lensless method, capable of improving image quality in digital Fourier holography applied to reflective objects, and involving a very simplified experimental setup. LOSH is based on the recording and digital post-processing of a set of digital lensless Fourier transform holograms which finally results in a synthetic image with improved resolution, field of view (FOV), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and depth of field (DOF). In this paper, LOSH is expanded to the case of diffuse-based objects. Now, the speckle can affect the resolution and it will not be a function of only the size of the aperture. The fact of increasing the aperture can produce the decrease of the size of the speckle. Moreover, there is an overlapping of speckles of the successive images. Different kinds of digital processing can be applied to obtain the final synthetic image. Among them, partial coherent processing, arising from the incoherent sum of several sets of images coherently added, provides the best improvement in the resolution and also in the SNR due to partial averaging of the speckles. Experimental results for a diffuse object are presented for different kinds of digital processing.

  15. CXCR4 AND VEGF-RECEPTOR ACTIVATION PROVIDE FOR PERMISSIVE CONDITIONS TO ACCELERATE LUMINAL INCORPORATION OF PRO-ANGIOGENIC HEMATOPOIETIC AND VASCULAR CELLS INTO THE NEO-ANGIOGENIC NICHE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahin Rafii

    In terms of contribution of endothelial progenitors to human neo-angiogenesis, three recent reports suggest that human marrow-derived endothelial precursors incorporate, although in low numbers, into regenerating organs (27) and tumor neo-vessels (28). Fleming WH group has shown that marrow-derived cells can incorporate in intestines and certain regenerating organs (27). In another study, patients transplanted with sex-mismatched marrow for the treatment

  16. Comparison of Neo-Sensitabs Tablet Diffusion Assay with CLSI Broth Microdilution M38-A and Disk Diffusion Methods for Testing Susceptibility of Filamentous Fungi with Amphotericin B, Caspofungin, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Espinel-Ingroff; E. Canton

    2008-01-01

    We compared the Neo-Sensitabs tablet assay to both reference M38-A broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods for testing the susceptibility of 183 filamentous isolates to amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Neo-Sensitabs and disk assay inhibition zone diameters, in millimeters, were obtained on nonsupplemented Mueller-Hinton agar at 16 to 48 h. The reproducibility of zone diameters (i.e., the percentage

  17. MCF-10A-NeoST: A New Cell System for Studying Cell-ECM and Cell-Cell Interactions in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zantek, Nicole Dodge; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Stewart, Jane; Hansen, Rhonda K.; Robinson, Daniel; Miao, Hui; Wang, Bingcheng; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bissell, Mina J.; Kinch, Michael S.

    2001-08-22

    There is a continuing need for genetically matched cell systems to model cellular behaviors that are frequently observed in aggressive breast cancers. We report here the isolation and initial characterization of a spontaneously arising variant of MCF-10A cells, NeoST, which provides a new model to study cell adhesion and signal transduction in breast cancer. NeoST cells recapitulate important biological and biochemical features of metastatic breast cancer, including anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness in threedimensional reconstituted membranes, loss of E-cadherin expression, and increased tyrosine kinase activity. A comprehensive analysis of tyrosine kinase expression revealed overexpression or functional activation of the Axl, FAK, and EphA2 tyrosine kinases in transformed MCF-10A cells. MCF-10A and these new derivatives provide a genetically matched model to study defects in cell adhesion and signaling that are relevant to cellular behaviors that often typify aggressive breast cancer cells.

  18. NeoCASS: An integrated tool for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and MDO at conceptual design level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Luca; Ricci, Sergio; Travaglini, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a design framework called NeoCASS (Next generation Conceptual Aero-Structural Sizing Suite), developed at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Politecnico di Milano in the frame of SimSAC (Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design) project, funded by EU in the context of 6th Framework Program. It enables the creation of efficient low-order, medium fidelity models particularly suitable for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and optimization at the conceptual design level. The whole methodology is based on the integration of geometry construction, aerodynamic and structural analysis codes that combine depictive, computational, analytical, and semi-empirical methods, validated in an aircraft design environment. The work here presented aims at including the airframe and its effect from the very beginning of the conceptual design. This aspect is usually not considered in this early phase. In most cases, very simplified formulas and datasheets are adopted, which implies a low level of detail and a poor accuracy. Through NeoCASS, a preliminar distribution of stiffness and inertias can be determined, given the initial layout. The adoption of empirical formulas is reduced to the minimum in favor of simple numerical methods. This allows to consider the aeroelastic behavior and performances, as well, improving the accuracy of the design tools during the iterative steps and lowering the development costs and reducing the time to market. The result achieved is a design tool based on computational methods for the aero-structural analysis and Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) of aircraft layouts at the conceptual design stage. A complete case study regarding the TransoniCRuiser aircraft, including validation of the results obtained using industrial standard tools like MSC/NASTRAN and a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, is reported. As it will be shown, it is possible to improve the degree of fidelity of the conceptual design process by including tailored numerical tools, overcoming the lacks of statistical methods. The result is a method minimally dependent on datasheets, featuring a good compromise between accuracy and costs.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 ?g/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by AgNPs have a significant role in apoptosis. The present findings suggest that AgNPs could contribute to the development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of a novel nanomedicine for the treatment of cancers. PMID:24265551

  20. The neo-epitope specific PRO-C3 ELISA measures true formation of type III collagen associated with liver and muscle parameters

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mette J; Nedergaard, Anders F; Sun, Shu; Veidal, Sanne S; Larsen, Lise; Zheng, Qinlong; Suetta, Charlotte; Henriksen, Kim; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Leeming, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The present study describes the assessment of true formation of type III collagen in different pathologies using a neo-epitope specific competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) towards the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3). Methods: The monoclonal antibody was raised against the N-protease mediated cleavage site of the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen and a competitive ELISA was developed using the selected antibody. The assay was evaluated in relation to neo-epitope specificity, technical performance, and as a marker for liver fibrosis and muscle mass using the rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model and a study of immobilization induced muscle loss in humans, respectively. Results: The ELISA was neo-epitope specific, technically stable and can be assessed in serum and plasma samples. In the CCl4 liver fibrosis model it was observed that serum PRO-C3 were significantly elevated in rats with liver fibrosis as seen by histology (56% elevated in the highest quartile of total hepatic collagen compared to control rats, p<0.001) and correlated significantly to total hepatic collagen in the diseased rats (r=0.46, p<0.01) and not in control rats, suggesting the pathological origin of the epitope. Human plasma PRO-C3 correlated significantly to muscle mass at baseline (R2=0.44, p=0.036). Conclusion: The developed neo-epitope specific serum ELISA for type III procollagen (PRO-C3) reflects true formation as it is specific for the propeptide cleaved off the intact collagen molecule. In a clinical and in a rodent study we showed that this marker was highly related to liver fibrosis and muscle mass. PMID:23634241

  1. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious. Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of the

  2. Rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Axelrod, Tim; Butler, Nat; Jedicke, Robert; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks later. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs. We will present results from our recently initiated program of rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. This technique is powerful and fast. We have written automated software that allows us to observe NEOs very soon after discovery. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques. We are on pace to characterize hundreds of NEOs per year.

  3. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    PubMed

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations, continuous evaluation of the population program, a greater spelling out of the responsibilities of the different national entities and state governments in population activities, and confirmation of the goal of 1% growth for the year 2000% were other achievements of the presentation meeting. Critics who argue that it places too much stress on increasing contraceptive use or neglects the rural population and other marginalized sectors ignore the program's significant achievement in recognizing the human right to determine freely the size and spacing of one's family and the relative modesty of investments in family planning compared to those for health, education, urban infrastructure, and other development areas. PMID:12284142

  4. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    PubMed Central

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003), a new self-report measure (the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin, & Levander, 2002), and a personality-based approach (the NEO Psychopathy Resemblance Index; Lynam & Widiger, 2007). Results indicate a modest overlap between the 3 measures (rs = .26–.36); however, youths were often identified as psychopathic by 1 measure but not by others. Measures were weakly correlated with reoffending during subsequent 6- and 12-month periods. Findings suggest that although such scores may be useful indicators of the need for heightened monitoring in the short term, care should be taken when making predictions about long-term recidivism among adolescents. Moreover, the lack of long-term predictive power for the PCL:YV and the inconsistent psychopathy designations obtained with different measures raise serious questions about the use of such measures as the basis for legal or clinical treatment decisions. PMID:19947787

  5. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of the Chemistry of Neo-formed Phases During the Dissolution of Phosphate Based Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Du Fou de Kerdaniel, Erwan; Clavier, Nicolas; Dacheux, Nicolas [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay, Orsay, 91406 (France); Podor, Renaud [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, Univ H. Poincare - Nancy I, BP 239, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, 54506 (France)

    2007-07-01

    Phosphate matrices are considered as potential candidates for the specific immobilization of tri- and tetravalent actinides. One of the main properties of interest of these matrices concerns their chemical durability. The chemical durability of the phosphate phases was studied with respect to the retention of actinides and developed using under- and over-saturation experiments. In this field, neo-formed phases were precipitated. Lanthanides were used as surrogates for trivalent actinides while uranium and thorium were used for tetravalent actinides. These phases were extensively characterized through several analytical and spectroscopic techniques (SEM, EPMA, XRD, micro - Raman, TRLFS). Secondary phosphate phases such as Nd{sub 1-2x}Ca{sub x}Th{sub x-y}U{sub y}(PO{sub 4},F) . 1/2 H{sub 2}O rhabdophane were identified during the dissolution of britholites. The precipitation of Nd{sub 1-2x}Ca{sub x}Th{sub x}PO{sub 4} . 1/2 H{sub 2}O rhabdophane was obtained and it appeared that there was a segregation between neodymium, calcium and thorium after a few days to several months depending on the thorium weight loadings and the precipitation time, thorium precipitating as TPHPH and neodymium as NdPO{sub 4} . 1/2 H{sub 2}O. Quantification of the solubility constants showed very low values that means that these phases exhibit some beneficial properties for the retention of radionuclides. (authors)

  6. Magnetotactic bacterial production in response to Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in the Neo-Tethys Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savian, J. F.; Jovane, L.; Frontalini, F.; Trindade, R. I. F.; Coccioni, R.; Bohaty, S. M.; Wilson, P. A.; Florindo, F.; Roberts, A. P.; Catanzariti, R.; Iacoviello, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) at ~40 Ma is a warming event characterized in the deep Southern, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans by a distinct negative ?18O excursion over 500 kyr. In this work we report results of high-resolution paleontological, geochemical, and environmental magnetic investigations of the Monte Cagnero (MCA) section (Central Italy), which can be correlated on the basis of magneto- and biostratigraphic results to the MECO event. In the MCA section, an interval with a relative increase in eutrophic nannofossil taxa spans the culmination of the MECO warming and its aftermath and coincides with a positive carbon isotope excursion, and a peak in magnetite and hematite/goethite concentration. Our results suggest that magnetite peak reflects the appearance of putative magnetofossils, while the hematite/goethite apex is attributed to an enhanced detrital mineral contribution, likely as aeolian dust transported from the continent adjacent to the Neo-Tethys Ocean during a drier, more seasonal climate during the peak MECO warming. Based on our new data record, the MECO warming peak and its immediate aftermath are interpreted as a period of high primary productivity. Sea-surface iron fertilization is inferred to have stimulated high phytoplankton productivity, increasing organic carbon export to the seafloor and promoting enhanced biomineralization of magnetotactic bacteria, which are preserved as putative magnetofossils during the warmest periods of the MECO event in the MCA section.

  7. Objects in the Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Saltsman

    2010-04-01

    What are objects that can be seen in the sky during the day? Alabama Course of Study Science Gr K Objective 10: Identify objects observed in the day sky with the unaided eye, including the sun, clouds, moon, and rainbows. What can you see during the day? clouds 1, clouds 2 writeInsertLink('projectBody','clouds 2'); Moon writeInsertLink('projectBody','Moon'); Rainbow writeInsertLink('projectBody','Rainbow'); sunrise writeInsertLink('projectBody','sunrise'); ...

  8. Object race detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph von Praun; Thomas R. Gross

    2001-01-01

    We present an on-the-fly mechanism that detects access conflicts in executions of multi-threaded Java programs. Access conflicts are a conservative approximation of data races. The checker tracks access information at the level of objects (object races) rather than at the level of individual variables. This viewpoint allows the checker to exploit specific properties of object-oriented programs for optimization by restricting

  9. Objective quality measures assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachtenauer, Jon C.

    2002-07-01

    A study was performed to assess the ability of five objective quality measures to predict perceptual quality difference ratings. The objective measures included peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), root-mean-square error (RMSE), maximum absolute difference (MAD), the Image Quality Metric (IQM), and the just-noticeable-difference (JND) metric. Perceptual difference ratings used the National Image Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS). NIIRS data from four previous studies of bandwidth compression and image processing were compared to values of the five objective measures to determine whether any of the objective metrics could be used as a substitute for the labor-intensive NIIRS ratings.

  10. Fast rotation of a subkilometer-sized near-Earth object 2011 XA{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Urakawa, Seitaro [Bisei Spaceguard Center, Japan Spaceguard Association, 1716-3 Okura, Bisei, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411 (Japan); Ohtsuka, Katsuhito [Tokyo Meteor Network, 1-27-5 Daisawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 155-0032 (Japan); Abe, Shinsuke [Department of Aerospace Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Ito, Takashi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nakamura, Tomoki, E-mail: urakawa@spaceguard.or.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Material Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    We present light curve observations and their multiband photometry for near-Earth object (NEO) 2011 XA{sub 3}. The light curve has shown a periodicity of 0.0304 ± 0.0003 days (= 43.8 ± 0.4 minutes). The fast rotation shows that 2011 XA{sub 3} is in a state of tension (i.e., a monolithic asteroid) and cannot be held together by self-gravitation. Moreover, the multiband photometric analysis indicates that the taxonomic class of 2011 XA{sub 3} is S-complex, or V-type. Its estimated effective diameter is 225 ± 97 m (S-complex) and 166 ± 63 m (V-type), respectively. Therefore, 2011 XA{sub 3} is a candidate for the second-largest, fast-rotating, monolithic asteroid. Moreover, the orbital parameters of 2011 XA{sub 3} are apparently similar to those of NEO (3200) Phaethon, but F/B-type. We computed the orbital evolutions of 2011 XA{sub 3} and Phaethon. However, the results of the computation and distinct taxonomy indicate that neither of the asteroids is of common origin.

  11. NEOShield: Working towards an international near-Earth object mitigation demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. W.; Barucci, M. A.; Cano, J. L.; Drube, L.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Green, S. F.; Hestroffer, D.; Lappas, V.; Michel, P.; Morrison, D.; Meshcheryakov, S. A.; Saks, N.; Schäfer, F.

    2012-09-01

    NEOShield is a European-Union funded project to address impact hazard mitigation issues, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, DLR. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The primary aim of the project is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. The motivation for NEOShield arose partly from consistent statements made in recent years by organizations such as The National Research Council of the US (2010) and the International Academy of Astronautics (2009), urging governments and relevant agencies to fund research and conduct experiments leading to a space mission to test our ability to deflect a threatening NEO. The NEOShield project is structured to enable the results of scientific investigations into the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to flow into a subsequent technical phase, in which mitigation demonstration missions will be designed in sufficient detail to facilitate rapid development and launch by international partners in a later phase of funding.

  12. [Population and family planning].

    PubMed

    Romero, H

    1977-12-01

    This work consists of a speech read before the Adacemy of Medicine of the Institute of Chile and a brief debate by members of the audience. Misinformed opponents of birth control who argue among other things that family planning is a US plot ignore the fact that the desire to avoid pregnancy dates from the remote past, as attested by evidence from early Egyptian papyruses. Recent sharp declines in human mortality have led to unprecedented population growth. Around the beginning of the modern era the world contained about 250 million people, a population which did not double until the mid 1600s. Today world population doubles in 30 to 35 years, and by the end of the century it may reach 7 billion. The impact of such growth on the food supply, housing, the economy, education, and the environment have been the object of many studies, predominant among them those presented at the World Population Conferences in Rome, Belgrade, and Bucharest. The family planning program in Chile was initiated around 1962 although some activities had been carried out earlier. The Chilean Association for the Protection of the Family, a private organization, grew out of these early efforts and enjoyed considerable success from its earliest days. The natality rate declined from 38/1000 in 1962 to 23.5/1000 in 1977, and infant and maternal mortality also declined. The decline has been concentrated in births after age 30 and in high parity births. The young age structure means that the population will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. PMID:397567

  13. Proceedings Engineering Distributed Objects

    E-print Network

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    27 Supporting Reliable Evolution of Distributed Objects Jonathan E. Cook and Jeffrey A. Dage 34 and Robert Godin 84 Protocol-Based Runtime Monitoring of Dynamic Distributed Systems Andreas Grünbacher Moss 141 A Software Architecture for A Real Time Data Distributed Objects System Neil Roodyn 142 #12

  14. Learning Objects for Electronics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site, hosted by Gateway Technical College, houses several learning objects and lectures using Flash animations and Camtasia videos in the following electronics topic areas: DC/AC ciruits, digital electronics, electronic devices, transistor fundamentals, op amp fundamentals, electronic workbench fundamentals, electronic circuit analysis and multi-simulation. This is a great fundamental source for learn objects in the field of electronics.

  15. Carpentry Performance Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Gerald F.; Tucker, John

    The guidelines for carpentry performance objectives were written for vocational educators in order to insure that their programs are fulfilling the training requirements of today's job market. The document outlines eight uses of performance objectives and provides sample employability profiles, training achievement records, and a carpentry…

  16. Anthropological objects and negation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Jeanne Borel

    1992-01-01

    Ever since Kant, the possibility of having objects of knowledge has been one of the most basic anthropological questions (“what can I know?”). For the logician, the linguist, or the semiologist who studies natural language, negation is one of these objects. However, as an operation and as a symbol, it has the paradoxical property of not being able to be

  17. Actions on Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Connell

    2001-01-01

    When thinking of reasoning, problem solving, communication, and connecting related ideas, the tool of choice in nearly every discipline is the microcomputer. Furthermore, unlike the traditional calculator, the modern classroom computer has an unparalleled ability to implement both graphical and procedural components of mathematics understanding in a single unified object. By students' creation and utilization of mathematically relevant computer-based objects,

  18. [Management By Objectives Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Pierre.

    This booklet is a compilation of management objectives for all units and professional staff members in the South Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Prepared by each professional employee in the department, the objectives seek to define priorities, to define key elements of each job, to establish limits on the employees total time and…

  19. T-cell activation by transitory neo-antigens derived from distinct microbial pathways.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Alexandra J; Eckle, Sidonia B G; Birkinshaw, Richard W; Liu, Ligong; Patel, Onisha; Mahony, Jennifer; Chen, Zhenjun; Reantragoon, Rangsima; Meehan, Bronwyn; Cao, Hanwei; Williamson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Richard A; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Mak, Jeffrey Y W; Fairlie, David P; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James

    2014-05-15

    T cells discriminate between foreign and host molecules by recognizing distinct microbial molecules, predominantly peptides and lipids. Riboflavin precursors found in many bacteria and yeast also selectively activate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, an abundant population of innate-like T cells in humans. However, the genesis of these small organic molecules and their mode of presentation to MAIT cells by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1 (ref. 8) are not well understood. Here we show that MAIT-cell activation requires key genes encoding enzymes that form 5-amino-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-A-RU), an early intermediate in bacterial riboflavin synthesis. Although 5-A-RU does not bind MR1 or activate MAIT cells directly, it does form potent MAIT-activating antigens via non-enzymatic reactions with small molecules, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, which are derived from other metabolic pathways. The MAIT antigens formed by the reactions between 5-A-RU and glyoxal/methylglyoxal were simple adducts, 5-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OE-RU) and 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), respectively, which bound to MR1 as shown by crystal structures of MAIT TCR ternary complexes. Although 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU are unstable intermediates, they became trapped by MR1 as reversible covalent Schiff base complexes. Mass spectra supported the capture by MR1 of 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU from bacterial cultures that activate MAIT cells, but not from non-activating bacteria, indicating that these MAIT antigens are present in a range of microbes. Thus, MR1 is able to capture, stabilize and present chemically unstable pyrimidine intermediates, which otherwise convert to lumazines, as potent antigens to MAIT cells. These pyrimidine adducts are microbial signatures for MAIT-cell immunosurveillance. PMID:24695216

  20. Population 2: The Ecological Footprint

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    This video describes the ecological footprint and its limitation. It goes into some depth on the computation on the footprint and what it means for the global population. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.