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Sample records for object neo population

  1. The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; Volk, Christopher P.; Koontz, Steven L.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Swenson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (<0.3 AU) to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

  2. The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30 to 420 days in duration and assuming chemical propulsion. Similar studies have been reported assuming high power electric propulsion for manned NEO rendezvous missions (11). The delta V requirement breakdown and mission profile data from references 10 and 11 are used as a basis for sizing the NEO Scout spacecraft and for conducting preliminary feasibility assessments using the Tsiokolvsky rocket equation, a (worst-case) delta V requirement of 10 km/sec, and a maximum spacecraft dry mass of 20 kg. Using chemical propellant for a 10 km/sec delta V drives spacecraft wet mass well above 300 kg so that chemical propulsion is a non-starter for the proposed mission profile and spacecraft wet mass limits. In contrast, a solar electric propulsion system needs only 8 kg of Xe propellant to accelerate the spacecraft to 10 km/sec in 163 days with 0.02 N of thrust and 500 W of power from1.6 sq m of 29% efficient solar panels. In a second example, accelerating a 4 kg payload to 7 km/sec over 180 days requires about 6.7 kg of propellant and 1.2 kg of solar panels (12 kg total spacecraft wet mass).

  3. Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

  4. A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

    One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as optical or radar sensors and simulate observation campaigns. The tool outputs field-of-view crossings and actual detections of the selected NEO population objects. Using the Observation Analysis users are able to process and plot the results of the Observation Simulation. In order to enable end-users to handle the tool in a user-intuitive and comfortable way, a GUI has been created based on the modular Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) technology. Through the GUI users can easily enter input data for the tool, execute it and view its output data in a clear way. Additionally, the GUI runs gnuplot to create plot pictures and presents them to the user. Furthermore, users can create projects to organise executions of the tool.

  5. Inverse problems of NEO photometry: Imaging the NEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaasalainen1, Mikko; Durech, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Photometry is the main source of information on NEOs (and other asteroids) en masse. Surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST will produce colossal photometric databases that can readily be used for mapping the physical characteristics of the whole asteroid population. These datasets are efficiently enriched by any additional dense photometric or other observations. Due to their quickly changing geometries with respect to the Earth, NEOs are the subpopulation that can be mapped the fastest. I review the state of the art in the construction of physical asteroid models from sparse and/or dense photometric data (that can also be combined with other data modes). The models describe the shapes, spin states, scattering properties and surface structure of the targets, and are the solutions of inverse problems necessarily involving comprehensive mathematical analysis. I sum up what we can and cannot get from photometric data, and how all this is done in practice. I also discuss the new freely available software package for solving photometric inverse problems (soon to be released). The analysis of photometric datasets will very soon become an automated industry, resulting in tens of thousands of asteroid models, a large portion of them NEOs. The computational effort in this is considerable in both computer and human time, which means that a large portion of the targets is likely to be analyzed only once. This, again, means that we have to have a good understanding of the reliability of our models, and this is impossible without a thorough understanding of the mathematical nature of the inverse problem(s) involved. Very important concepts are the uniqueness and stability of the solution, the parameter spaces, the so-called inverse crimes in simulations and error prediction, and the domination of systematic errors over random ones.

  6. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  7. Post-Chelyabinsk Risk Assessment for Near Earth Objects (NEOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M.; Harris, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The widely-accepted NEO risk assessments published in the 1990s concluded that the largest asteroids (> 1 km) dominated the hazard. Even though large NEOs represent only a tiny fraction of the population because of a power-law size distribution, the potential for global catastrophe means that the contribution from these low-probability, high-consequence events is large. This conclusion led to the Spaceguard survey, which has now catalogued about 90% of these objects, none of which is on a collision course. The survey has reduced the assessed risk from this size range by more than an order of magnitude because completion is highest for the largest and most dangerous. The relative risk from objects tens of meters in diameter is therefore increasing.The absolute assessed risk from airbursts caused by objects of this size is also higher for two reasons. First, they may be more frequent than previously thought because of an underestimated population. Second, they are significantly more damaging than assumed in the original assessment because (in most cases) they more efficiently couple energy to the surface than nuclear explosions. Last year's half-megaton airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia, appears to challenge the notion that such events are extremely rare—especially when also considering the 1908 Tunguska event along with decades of infrasound bolide data showing higher-than-expected numbers of large airbursts.We will present a new analysis of the risk based on updated estimates for the population of undiscovered NEOs, taking into account the enhanced damage potential of collisional airbursts. Merging the survey population estimates with the bolide frequency estimates suggests a population of tens-of-meters sized bodies that may be a factor of three or so greater than estimated from surveys alone. Uncertainty in the population of airburst-class NEOs remains quite large, and can only be unambiguously reduced by expanded surveys focused on objects in the tens-of-meters size range. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Far from random: dynamical groupings among the NEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2016-03-01

    Among the near-Earth object (NEO) population, there are comets and active asteroids which are sources of fragments that initially move together; in addition, some NEOs follow orbits temporarily trapped in a web of secular resonances. These facts contribute to increasing the risk of meteoroid strikes on Earth, making its proper quantification difficult. The identification and subsequent study of groups of small NEOs that appear to move in similar trajectories are necessary steps in improving our understanding of the impact risk associated with meteoroids. Here, we present results of a search for statistically significant dynamical groupings among the NEO population. Our Monte Carlo-based methodology recovers well-documented groupings like the Taurid Complex or the one resulting from the split comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, and new ones that may have been the source of past impacts. Among the most conspicuous are the Mjolnir and Ptah groups, perhaps the source of recent impact events like Almahata Sitta and Chelyabinsk, respectively. Meteoroid 2014 AA, that hit the Earth on 2014 January 2, could have its origin in a marginally significant grouping associated with Bennu. We find that most of the substructure present within the orbital domain of the NEOs is of resonant nature, probably induced by secular resonances and the Kozai mechanism that confine these objects into specific paths with well-defined perihelia.

  9. The NEO population and impact frequency (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    Telescopic surveys over the last decade have discovered ~80% of Earth-crossing asteroids larger than 1 km diameter, and a substantial number of much smaller ones. Two important results of this are (1) since none of the discovered objects has a significant probability of collision, the short-term (< 50 years) risk of cosmic Armageddon is reduced by about 90%; and (2) we now know the population well enough, down to the size limit of objects that can cause ground damage upon entering the atmosphere, to define the impact hazard quantitatively over the entire size range of possible impacts. The intrinsic and current remaining short term risks over the full range of size, in terms of impact frequency and consequence, will be described. "Impact showers" with brief periods of enhanced impact flux have been invoked to explain anomalous events at various times in the Holocene. While one can imagine mechanisms (e.g., star passages through the Oort comet cloud, collisional or tidal breakup of an asteroid or comet) that might trigger an abrupt short-term increase in impact flux, these scenarios overlook the long time (from tens of thousands to millions of years) required by planets to clear out the debris. While a narrow stream of debris, like a giant meteor stream, could produce an enhanced impact flux on the Earth for a short time (hundreds to thousands of years), most of the debris would still inhabit the inner solar system in non-intersecting orbits for tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Our present telescopic surveys would see most such pieces as large as half a km in diameter. Thus, what we see now in the inner solar system is what we've had, for at least the last 20,000 years or more. If a "shower" occurred any time that recently it would still be with us, and in particular would be evident by a cluster in the distribution of NEO orbital elements.

  10. The LCOGT Near Earth Object (NEO) Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), NEOWISE and PanSTARRS (PS1). Over 600 NEO candidates have been targeted so far this year with 250+ objects reported to the MPC, including 70 confirmed NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

  11. NEO-SURFACE: Near-Earth Objects --- SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; Brucato, J.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Rossi, A.

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) form a continuously replenished population of asteroids and dead comets that cross the Earth's orbit while orbiting the Sun. Our present knowledge of their physical properties is rather limited, especially for what concerns faint and newly-discovered objects, of which we have physical information for less than 10 % of the population. The most frequent technique to obtain physical characterizations of NEOs is the optical/NIR spectroscopy: by analyzing the object's spectral features, it is possible to detect minerals and compounds (e.g., silicates, organics, and products of aqueous-alteration processes) present on its surface, to put constraints on the thermal evolution (maximum temperature reached, aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism), as well as to establish possible links with objects belonging to other populations of small bodies (e.g., main-belt asteroids, and comets) and with meteorites. In order to increase the present knowledge of the physical properties of NEOs, we are carrying out a survey called NEO-SURFACE: Near Earth Objects --- SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth (http://www.oa-roma.inaf.it/planet/NEOSurface.html). We perform V+NIR spectroscopy and photometry focusing our effort, first, on NEOs with possible close approaches with the Earth (PHAs, the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids), and, second, on NEOs easily accessible for future rendezvous space missions. In cases of NEOs causing an impact hazard, physical parameters are fundamental in order to estimate their response to non-gravitational forces (mainly to the Yarkovsky effect) and therefore model their future dynamical evolution. For suitable targets for space missions, the physical characterization is needed to guarantee both the technical feasibility and the high scientific return of the mission. The results collected until now will be presented and discussed.

  12. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

  13. Active Asteroids in the NEO Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Some main-belt asteroids evolve into near-Earth objects. They can then experience the same meteoroid-producing phenomena as active asteroids in the main belt. If so, they would produce meteoroid streams, some of which evolve to intersect Earth's orbit and produce meteor showers at Earth. Only few of those are known. Meteoroid streams that move in orbits with Tisserand parameter well in excess of 3 are the Geminids and Daytime Sextantids of the Phaethon complex and the lesser known epsilon Pegasids. The observed activity appears to be related to nearly whole scale disintegrations, rather than dust ejection from volatile outgassing as observed in active comets. There is only a small population of asteroids with a main-belt origin that recently disintegrated into meteoroid streams.

  14. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  15. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  16. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  17. A Moving Object Detection System (MODS) for the DECam NEO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, F.; DECam NEO Survey

    2015-09-01

    The DECam NEO Survey (Allen, et al.) will characterize the size distribution of small near Earth objects by combining a large search area with a deep limiting magnitude. In order to search the roughly 30 Tb of imaging data for the rare faint objects requires a high performance Moving Object Detection System (MODS). This paper outlines the MODS algorithms, implementation, and performance during the first year of the NEO Survey.

  18. New population-level insights about near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in the true population-level characteristics of near-Earth objects (NEOs). This interest has, at least partly, been driven by ongoing and planned NEO surveys as well as the desire to better characterize the impact threat from small NEOs. I will review the latest advances in NEO population models with a particular emphasis on the latest model (Granvik et al., in preparation; hereafter the NEO model) which describes the debiased orbital and absolute-magnitude distributions.The parameters of the NEO model are calibrated by using about 4500 distinct NEOs detected by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) during 2005-2012. It accounts for the statistically-distinct orbital evolution of NEOs from six different source regions in the main asteroid belt in addition to Jupiter-family comets. An individual absolute-magnitude distribution is estimated for each source region and its functional form allows for a wavy shape but does not require it. The predicted number of large NEOs is in agreement with the results of other contemporary estimates and the overall shape of the absolute-magnitude distribution is very similar to predictions by other authors. For the first time ever, the NEO model predicts a rather complex variation of the orbital distribution with absolute magnitude.A particularly intriguing finding during the development of the NEO model was that there should be more objects on orbits with small perihelion distances than what is observed. This suggests that a significant fraction of all NEOs disrupt at small perihelion distances and can thus no longer be detected. The assumption that, on average, NEOs disrupt at perihelion distances less than about 20 solar radii leads to a virtually perfect agreement between observations and theory that increasingly complicated NEO population models otherwise fail to achieve. The physical mechanisms responsible for the disruptions are still unknown but I will discuss some alternatives.I will end my talk by speculating on near-future advances in NEO population models such as the inclusion of proxies for surface properties.

  19. Cooperative Russian Federation -United States Near-Earth Object (NEO) Observation Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnelzer, Garry; Marshall, James; Bottke, William; Andrews, John

    On February 15, 2013, an asteroid exploded in the atmosphere near Chelyabinsk, Russia, causing significant damage and concern. Following the Chelyabinsk event, scientists and government leaders in the Russian Federation and United States have highlighted the need for collaborative efforts to quantify and characterize the potential threat from a Near Earth Objects (NEO). This paper will explore the possibility of a collaborative Russian Federation - United States program to perform a survey mission and create mechanisms and protocols for sharing of data relating to NEO threats to our planet. The joint collaboration would focus on identifying capability improvements for NEO observations using current or future space-based and/or ground-based assets of the two countries. Another part of the effort would include improvements in Bolide reporting, to include the real-time characterization of a NEO entry.

  20. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

  1. High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1996-12-31

    The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

  2. ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-03-15

    We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

  3. Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population by NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy; Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James; Masiero, Joseph; Cutri, Roc Michael; Wright, Edward; Nugent, Carolyn; Kramer, Emily; Sonnett, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The solar system augmentation to NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), known as NEOWISE, has offered the opportunity to study large numbers of minor planets at four thermal infrared wavelengths between 3-22 microns. Through the use of thermal models, physical parameters such as diameter, albedo, and thermal inertia can be determined. In particular, many open questions remain concerning the physical properties and basic characteristics of the near-Earth object (NEO) population. Using data from WISE, we have computed diameters and albedos for hundreds of NEOs. We have accounted for the survey biases that must be considered when extrapolating the properties of the observed sample to the population as a whole. The results of our analyses set constraints on the numbers, size frequency distribution, albedo distribution, and orbital element distributions of the NEOs and their subpopulations down to ~100 m. More work remains to study the population below this size limit, refine understanding of their origins, and set constraints on some of the most unusual classes of NEOs. Moreover, in the process of studying NEOs with NEOWISE, data have been gathered for large numbers of minor planets in different dynamical classes, facilitating an array of diverse investigations.

  4. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Prpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named Neo, suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

  5. A New and Improved Model of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Granvik, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bolin, B.; Beshore, E. C.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Michel, P.

    2014-12-01

    This is a golden age for near-Earth Object (NEO) research. We have discovered some 90% of the most threatening NEOs, while ongoing surveys are finding many sub-km NEOs as well. NEO physical characterization studies by missions, space- and ground-based observatories are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEOs are like. President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025; this remains Administration policy. The Feb. 15, 2013 explosion of an NEO over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEOs. This increasing interest, and a vast array of new data, have led us to re-investigate the debiased orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the NEO population. Such models are asboluetly needed to make accurate predictions about NEOs that are likely exploration targets for human and robotic spacecraft. Using the methods of Bottke et al. (2002), we numerically tracked a large unbiased sample of asteroids escaping the main belt and TNO populations in order to locate all possible NEO source regions. From here, we recorded the orbital evolution of the bodies that entering the NEO region; their evolutionary pathways were used to create so-called NEO residence-time distributions. They were combined with the calculated observational selection effects for the Catalina Sky Survey, with the model fit to 4,550 NEOs (15 < H < 25) detected by the Catalina Sky Survey's Mt. Lemmon (G96) and Catalina (703) stations between 2005-2012. Our best fit case beautifully reproduces observations and provides us with a new and improved NEO model population. We find our results are in good agreement with the Bottke et al. (2002) model, but we also find many intriguing differences as well: (i) There is an increasing preference for small NEOs to come from the central main belt; (ii) Many low-perihelion-distance NEOs are apparently missing -- we suspect many were removed by a physical destruction mechanism; (iii) We are largely complete in H < 18 Atens and Amors, but we are still missing a good fraction of Apollo NEOs. In our talk, we will discuss our latest findings and will describe the nature of the NEO populations accessible by both ARM and human missions.

  6. Investigating the Near-Earth Object Population Using Numerical Integration Methods and LINEAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Stuart, J. S.; Evans, J. B.; Stokes, G.

    2004-11-01

    The remarkable progress made in finding near-Earth objects (NEOs) over the last decade by dedicated NEO surveys has been accompanied by substantial numerical and theoretical work. Together, these advances have given us a much more profound understanding of the NEO population than we have had at any time in the past. Recent models of the NEO orbital and size distributions have been made using different techniques (e.g., Bottke et al. 2000, 2002; Stuart 2001). In Bottke et al., an NEO model was produced by combining numerical integration work with computations of observational biases. This model was calibrated by fitting model parameters to a relatively small sample of 138 NEOs detected by Spacewatch. In Stuart (2001), a NEO model was computed more directly by debiasing the more extensive NEO observations provided by LINEAR. While the results from each model were similar overall, we found that the Bottke et al. model could not reproduce several features of the Stuart model (e.g., specific bumps in the NEO inclination distribution; its somewhat ``flat" shape). To explore this mismatch, we modified our NEO model in two important ways: (i) we added several high inclination sources of NEOs that were excluded by Bottke et al. (2002) (e.g., Hungarias, Phocaeas), and (ii) we joined forces with the LINEAR survey team to explore their extensive NEO data set within our model. While our new results are consistent with previous work, they also indicate that the high inclination asteroid sources contribute to the NEO population at the 10% level; this may be enough to explain some of the features observed in Stuart (2001). Our latest results, as well as the implications of this work, will be discussed in our talk.

  7. An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

  8. Exploring the Near Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W.

    2013-09-01

    This is a golden age for NEA research. We have discovered some 95% of the most threatening NEAs (those larger than 1 km, Mainzer et al. 2012), while ongoing surveys (e.g., Catalina Sky Survey) are finding many sub-km NEAs as well. NEA physical characterization studies by missions (e.g., NEARShoemaker), space-based telescopes (e.g., WISE), and ground-based observatories (e.g., Arecibo, IRTF), are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEAs are actually like. The OSIRIS-REx mission will return a sample from Bennu, a carbonaceous chondrite-like NEO in 2020, while President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025. The Feb. 15 explosion of an NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEAs. In my talk, I will discuss several recent advances in our understanding of the NEO population (e.g, how they go from their source regions to their observed orbits; what we know about the size and nature of the population). I will give particular attention to candidates for robotic and human missions, namely those NEOs on near-Earth like orbits. Recent work has shown that a population of asteroids exists that have been temporarily captured in orbit around Earth ("minimoons"). They offer an innovative, but heretofore uninvestigated, population of targets for human exploration because of their proximity to the Earth and their low geocentric velocities. By better understanding them, we can test theories of the creation, internal structure, and transport of small asteroids. The largest minimoons in the steady state population are 1 to 2 meters in diameter, sizable enough to be both scientifically interesting and potentially suitable as destinations.

  9. Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    Many pieces of the puzzle must be brought together in order to have a clear picture of the near-Earth object (NEO) population. Four of the pieces that can be described include: i) the taxonomic distribution of the population as measured by observational sampling, ii) the determination of albedos that can be associated with the taxonomic distribution, iii) discovery statistics for the NE0 population, and iv) the debiasing of the discovery statistics using the taxonomic and albedo information. Support from this grant enables us to address three of these four pieces. Binzel et al. (2004, submitted) presents the first piece, detailing the observations and observed characteristics of the NE0 and Mars-crossing (MC) population. For the second piece, a complementary program of albedo measurements is pursued at the Keck Observatory (Binzel, P. I.) with first results published in Delbo et al. (2003). For the third piece, the most extensive NE0 discovery statistics are provided by the LINEAR survey. Binzel has supervised the MIT Ph. D. thesis work of Stuart (2003) to bring the fourth piece, submitted for publication by Stuart and Binzel (2004). Our results provide new constraints for the NE0 population and progress for the Spaceguard Survey, illuminate asteroid and comet source regions for the NEOs, and provide new evidence for space weathering processes linking asteroids and meteorites. Further, we are identifying top priority near-Earth spacecraft mission candidates based on their spectral properties and inferred compositions.

  10. The population of tiny near-Earth objects observed by NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Nugent, C. R.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Cukrov, G.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Masci, F.; Wright, E.

    2014-04-01

    Only a very small fraction of the asteroid population at size scales comparable to the object that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia has been discovered to date, and physical properties are poorly characterized. We present previously unreported detections of 105 close approaching near-Earth objects (NEOs) by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission's NEOWISE project. These infrared observations constrain physical properties such as diameter and albedo for these objects, many of which are found to be smaller than 100 m. Because these objects are intrinsically faint, they were detected by WISE during very close approaches to the Earth, often at large apparent on-sky velocities. We observe a trend of increasing albedo with decreasing size, but as this sample of NEOs was discovered by visible light surveys, it is likely that selection biases against finding small, dark NEOs influence this finding.

  11. Debiased Orbital and Size Distributions of the NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Petit, J. M.; Levison, H. F.

    2001-11-01

    The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects but also because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs discovered or accidentally rediscovered by Spacewatch. Our method was to numerically integrate thousands of test bodies from four ``intermediate sources'': three in or adjacent to the main asteroid belt (Bottke et al. 2000, Science 288, 2190.) and one in the Kuiper belt (Levison and Duncan 1997, Icarus 127, 13). The test bodies which passed into the NEO region were tracked until they were eliminated. Next, we calculated the observational biases and assumed a functional form for the absolute magnitude (H) distribution associated with objects on those orbits. By merging the observational biases with our NEO dynamical ``roadmaps'' and an observed NEO H distribution, we produced a probability distribution which was fit to the biased NEO population. By testing a range of possible source combinations, a ``best-fit'' distribution was then deconvolved to provide the debiased orbital and H distributions for the NEO population as well as the relative importance of each NEO replenishment source. Our best-fit model predicts there are ~ 1010 H < 18 NEOs out to T > 2 (i.e., a < ~ 7.4 AU), with ~ 55% coming from the inner main belt (a < 2.5 AU), ~ 30% from the central main belt (2.5 < a < 2.8 AU), and ~ 15% from the Jupiter-family comet region. These results suggest that roughly 40% of the H < 18 NEOs have been found. The Amor, Apollo, and Aten populations contain 30%, 64%, and 6% of the H < 22 NEO population, respectively. The population of objects inside Earth's orbit (IEOs) are about 2% the size of the NEO population. Active and extinct comets make up a third of the entire km-sized NEO population with T > 2. These bodies mostly reside on orbits with 2 < T < 3.

  12. ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Herv; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/?M > 60,000 up to m/z =400 u). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cm3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space, allowing to distinguish isomass compounds and to measure isotopomer abundances. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

  13. The Population of Sedna-Like Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gwyn, S.; Parker, A.; Suc, V.; Jordan, A.; Ip, W.-H.

    2012-05-01

    We present results of wide-field survey based on CFHTLP which searched 100 deg2 (25.1 in g). 91 NEW TNOs and Centaurs have been discovered, one of which was identified as Sedna-like objects. We also estimate the population of Sedna-like objects.

  14. Analysis of Association between Norepinephrine Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Personality Traits of NEO-FFI in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Shin; Nagahori, Kenta; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Norepinephrine is an important chemical messenger that is involved in mood and stress in humans, and is reabsorbed by the norepinephrine transporter (NET). According to Cloninger's theory, the noradrenergic system mediates the personality trait of reward dependence. Thus far, although association studies on NET gene polymorphisms and Cloninger's personality traits have been reported, they yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether or not the 1287G/A, -182T/C and -3081A/T polymorphisms of the NET gene (SLC6A2) are associated with reward dependence-related traits, as assessed by the five-factor model. Methods After written informed consent was obtained from participants, the three NET gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and personality was assessed by the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in 270 Japanese university students. Results A significant relation was found between the -3081A/T functional promoter polymorphism and NEO-FFI scores: those with the T allele exhibited a lower extraversion (E) score than those without the T allele (Mann-Whitney U-test: z=-3.861, p<0.001). However, there was no correlation between the other NET gene polymorphisms and E score, and no association with other dimensions and these three polymorphisms. Conclusion We conclude that the -3081A/T functional polymorphism in the NET gene may affect the extraversion of reward dependence-related traits, as measured by NEO-FFI. However, we used only the shortened version of NEO-PI-R in this study. Further investigations are necessary using the full version of self-rating personality questionnaires. PMID:26207133

  15. NEO-LISP: Deflecting near-Earth objects using high average power, repetitively pulsed lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, C. R.; Michaelis, M. M.

    Several kinds of Near-Earth objects exist for which one would like to cause modest orbit perturbations, but which are inaccessible to normal means of interception because of their number, distance or the lack of early warning. For these objects, LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) is an appropriate technique for rapidly applying the required mechanical impulse from a ground-based station. In order of increasing laser energy required, examples are: (1) repositioning specially prepared geosynchronous satellites for an enhanced lifetime; (2) causing selected items of space junk to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory; and (3) safely deflecting Earth-directed comet nuclei and earth-crossing asteroids (ECA's) a few tens of meters in size (the most hazardous size). They will discuss each of these problems in turn and show that each application is best matched by its own matrix of LISP laser pulse width, pulse repetition rate, wavelength and average power. The latter ranges from 100W to 3GW for the cases considered. They will also discuss means of achieving the active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and very large exit pupil in the optical system which are required in each of these cases.

  16. NEO-LISP: Deflecting near-earth objects using high average power, repetitively pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R.; Michaelis, M.M.

    1994-10-01

    Several kinds of Near-Earth objects exist for which one would like to cause modest orbit perturbations, but which are inaccessible to normal means of interception because of their number, distance or the lack of early warning. For these objects, LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) is an appropriate technique for rapidly applying the required mechanical impulse from a ground-based station. In order of increasing laser energy required, examples are: (1) repositioning specially prepared geosynchronous satellites for an enhanced lifetime, (2) causing selected items of space junk to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory, and (3) safely deflecting Earth-directed comet nuclei and earth-crossing asteroids (ECA`s) a few tens of meters in size (the most hazardous size). They will discuss each of these problems in turn and show that each application is best matched by its own matrix of LISP laser pulse width, pulse repetition rate, wavelength and average power. The latter ranges from 100W to 3GW for the cases considered. They will also discuss means of achieving the active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and very large exit pupil in the optical system which are required in each of these cases.

  17. Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are Atiras, 193 are Atens (31% of known Atens), 456 are Apollos (11% of known Apollos), and 116 are Amors (4% of known Amors). While Apollos comprise 60% of the NEAs which pass the NHATS trajectory filter and Atens comprise only 25%, the percentages according to orbit family are perhaps more relevant. Note that only 11% of known Apollos passed the trajectory filter while 31% of known Atens passed. These simple statistics alone strongly suggest that Aten orbits possess features which tend to enhance their round-trip trajectory accessibility as compared to Apollos or Amors. This is significant because Atens' orbits cause them to spend considerable time in Earth's daytime sky, making them difficult to discover and track using ground-based observing assets. In this paper we will detail the NHATS analysis algorithms, present and analyze all NHATS results to date, and discuss aspects of HSF mission architecture design for future NEA missions.

  18. NEO Albedo Distribution and Impact Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Bottke, W. F.; Jedicke, R.; Michel, P.; Tedesco, E. F.

    2001-11-01

    Our NEO orbital-magnitude distribution model (Bottke et al., 2001, Icarus, in press) relies on 5 main intermediate sources for the Near Earth Object population: the nu6 resonance, the 3:1 resonance, the outer portion of the main belt (I.E., 2.8-3.5 AU), the Mars-crossing population adjacent to the main belt, and the Jupiter family comet population. The model establishes the relative contribution of these sources to the NEO population, in each region of the NEO orbital space. Therefore, by computing the albedo distribution of the bodies in/close to each source, we can deduce the albedo distribution of the NEO population, as a function of their orbital location. An important caveat is that the albedo distribution of main belt asteroids may change with the absolute magnitude, because asteroid families and background populations have different albedo and magnitude distributions. In our model we extrapolate the observed absolute magnitude distributions of the families up to some threshold value Ht, beyond which we assume that the families magnitude distribution is background-like. We find that Ht=15 provides the best match to (I) the color vs. heliocentric distance distribution observed by the SLOAN survey and with (II) the observed albedo distribution of NEOs. Our model predicts that the debiased ratio between dark and bright (albedo smaller or larger than 0.089) NEOs with diameter larger than 1km is 0.8 . We estimate that the total number of NEOs larger than a kilometer is 834 which, compared to the total number of NEOs with H<18 (963), shows that the usually assumed conversion H=18 <=> D=1km is slightly pessimistic, on average. The right statistical correspondence should be H=17.82 <=> D=1km. Combining our orbital distribution model with the new albedo distribution model, and assuming that the density of bright and dark bodies is 2.7 and 1.3 g/cm3, respectively, we estimate that the Earth should undergo a 1000 megatons collision every 64,000 years. The NEOs discovered so far carry only 18% of this collision probability. We thank NASA and ESA for support.

  19. Update on NASAs NEO Search Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul W.

    2015-08-01

    Now in its 18th year, NASAs NEO search program continues to lead the worldwide effort to find and characterize these potentially hazardous objects. The number of known NEOs now surpasses 12,000, and the annual discovery rate is approaching 1500 per year, a significant increase from just a few years ago. Although the prime purpose of the NEO Program is to find hazardous objects, another objective is to support the search for accessible mission targets, including candidates for the Asteroid Redirect Mission.With enhancements to current surveys expected this year and new facilities coming online in the near future, the NEO discovery rate should continue to climb. Still, many more NEOs remain to be found, including some that could represent a serious hazard. Second generation surveys will be required to achieve the George E. Brown (GEB) goal of finding 90 percent of the NEO population down to 140 meters in size. The Large-Scale Synoptic Telescope (LSST) promises to take a major step towards this goal, but a complementary space-based infra-red NEO survey is also needed to reach the GEB objective, and it offers the important advantage of simultaneous characterization of its discoveries.

  20. Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kuumba, M B

    1993-01-01

    Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction. PMID:12286951

  1. The Economics OF NEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schalkwyk, James D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

  2. A Next-Generation NEO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy; Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James; Cutri, Roc Michael; Masiero, Joseph; Wright, Edward

    2015-08-01

    NASA's NEOWISE project has demonstrated the feasibility of using a space-based infrared telescope to discover minor planets and characterize their physical properties such as diameter and albedo. NEOWISE has detected >160,000 minor planets to date at thermal infrared wavelengths, including nearly 1000 near-Earth objects (NEOs; Mainzer et al. 2011, Wright et al. 2010). While NEOWISE serves as a valuable proof of concept, the number of NEOs it can discover is intrinsically limited by expendable cryogens, its field of view, and the relatively narrow range of solar elongations it can view. To make substantial rapid progress toward discovering >90% of the NEO population larger than 140 m in diameter (the goal set to NASA by Congress in 2005), a dedicated survey is needed. The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a proposed space-based IR survey telescope that will discover and deliver thermal IR images at 4 and 8 microns of millions of minor planets. NEOCam was funded for technology development in the 2011 Discovery competition to mature the long-wavelength IR detector arrays needed to support a mission that is cooled purely passively, without the use of cryogens or cryocoolers. That development was successful and has resulted in the production of chips that exceed NEOCam's requirements (McMurtry et al. 2013, Girard et al. 2014). Detailed survey simulations have been carried out using a realistic survey cadence that will result in linkable detections of NEO candidates. The results of the simulation show that stationing NEOCam in a Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point halo orbit provides the optimal environment for surveying the NEO population (Mainzer et al. 2015).

  3. Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/DM > 60,000 up to m/z =400 amu). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (metricconverterProductID2 kg2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cm3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

  4. (Not yet) Dead Comets in the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph; McMillan, Robert; Reach, William; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Smith, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are replenished from a number of source regions in the asteroid main belt, but also from the comets. Most of the objects of cometary origin in the NEOs have ceased their activity, making these 'dead comets' nearly indistinguishable from low-albedo asteroids. Knowledge of the fraction of cometary NEOs is important to constrain the amount of cometary, carbonaceous material that has been brought to the Earth. We propose to observe 9 NEOs that are likely to be dead comets, for which we will derive diameters and albedos using thermal modeling. The measurement of the albedo provides evidence for a possibly cometary nature. The results of this project will contribute to constraining the fraction of NEOs that are of cometary origin. Furthermore, it will help investigating a possible relationship between dynamical properties and the albedo. In addition, high dynamic range (HDR) observations of 3 of our sample targets will be used to search for cometary activity in these objects. This method has been successful in NEO (3552) Don Quixote, where it revealed activity driven by CO2 gas. Our observations will be supported by ground-based optical observations that will improve the accuracy of the albedo measurements and perform an independent search for activity.

  5. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross-comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible-light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments—Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of Earth-impacting NEO. The results of the comparison show simplified relative performance metrics, including the expected number of NEOs visible in the search volumes and the initial detection rates expected for each system. Although these simplified comparisons do not capture all of the details, they give considerable insight into the physical factors limiting performance. Multiple asteroid thermal models are considered, including FRM, NEATM, and a new generalized form of FRM. I describe issues with how IR albedo and emissivity have been estimated in previous studies, which may render them inaccurate. A thermal model for tumbling asteroids is also developed and suggests that tumbling asteroids may be surprisingly difficult for IR telescopes to observe.

  6. Typological and dimensional approach at comparing the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI)

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Marcus; Krner, Annett; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports comparisons of the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI) based on a dimensional as well as on a typological approach. Method: Data were collected from 1673 subjects (aged between 18 and 96 years) constituting a representative sample of the German population. Results: The results indicate only moderate agreement (ranging from .25 to .61) between the subscales of the two personality inventories. The correspondence seems to be somewhat higher, when the typological approach was used instead of the dimensional approach. Conclusions: The typological approach is less dependent on the underlying questionnaires and provides a useful extension of the dimensional approach. PMID:19742276

  7. Earths Nearest Neighbors: Dynamical integrations of NEO-Earth approaches in support of MANOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, Thomas; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David; Burt, Brian

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). In support of this telescopic survey, we are performing a suite of orbital integrations to investigate the dynamical evolution of the near-Earth asteroid population.Using orbital information from the Lowell Observatory AstOrb database and the swift orbital integration package, we compute the orbital history of every known NEO from present day to five hundred thousand years in the past. This orbital history is used to identify the temporal evolution of each NEO's minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) value, quantifying the physical distance between the orbits of a given NEO and that of a terrestrial planet. Due to the non-deterministic behavior of many NEO orbits beyond a few hundred years, these integrated MOIDs do not uniquely determine whether an NEO and a planet will actually encounter one another, bur rather provide a probabilistic metric for the proximity in which two objects can encounter one another. Integrated MOIDs can be a useful tool for correlating measured physical properties with high probabilities of planetary encounters (e.g. Binzel et al. 2010, Nature 463, 331).We will present the status of these orbital integrations. These integrations show a variety of dynamical histories, from objects that are stable over the integration limits to those that show chaotic behavior after approximately fifty to one hundred thousand years. These orbital integrations are being used to track the potentially hazardous object (PHA) population over time, to evaluate dynamical history for both specific objects and NEO sub-populations, and to estimate the evolution of NEO surface temperatures due to changing perihelion distances.

  8. Simulating Current and Future Optical Ground Based NEO Surveys Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Spahr, Tim; Mainzer, Amy

    2015-08-01

    Surveys for near-Earth objects (NEOs) have undergone rapid development over the last decade. The current suite of surveys have discovered more than 12,000 NEOs to date and are now discovering more than 1,000 NEOs per year. More than 90% of NEOs larger than 1 km in diameter have been discovered to date, representing considerable progress by the astronomical community (Mainzer et al. 2011, 2012). In 2005, Congress mandated that NASA should discover 90% of objects larger than 140 meter in diameter in 15 years, i.e. before 2020. We have undertaken a project to perform high-fidelity simulations of a variety of ground-based optical surveys, including present and future facilities, to evaluate the potential of these projects to reach this Congressionally mandated goal. Our survey simulations includes NEO population models based on the orbital element models of Bottke et al. (2002), Grav et al. (2011), and Greenstreet et al. (2013) as well as physical properties derived from recent measurements of diameters and albedos from Mainzer et al. (2011, 2012). The simulations replicates the performance of the existing suite of ground-based projects such as the Catalina Sky Survey and Pan-STARRS and predicts the performance of future large scale ground-based optical surveys.

  9. Histidine-Decarboxylase Knockout Mice Show Deficient Nonreinforced Episodic Object Memory, Improved Negatively Reinforced Water-Maze Performance, and Increased Neo- and Ventro-Striatal Dopamine Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Dere, Ekrem; De Souza-Silva, Maria A.; Topic, Bianca; Spieler, Richard E.; Haas, Helmut L.; Huston, Joseph P.

    2003-01-01

    The brain's histaminergic system has been implicated in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory, as well as brain reward and reinforcement. Our past pharmacological and lesion studies indicated that the brain's histamine system exerts inhibitory effects on the brain's reinforcement respective reward system reciprocal to mesolimbic dopamine systems, thereby modulating learning and memory performance. Given the close functional relationship between brain reinforcement and memory processes, the total disruption of brain histamine synthesis via genetic disruption of its synthesizing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), in the mouse might have differential effects on learning dependent on the task-inherent reinforcement contingencies. Here, we investigated the effects of an HDC gene disruption in the mouse in a nonreinforced object exploration task and a negatively reinforced water-maze task as well as on neo- and ventro-striatal dopamine systems known to be involved in brain reward and reinforcement. Histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-KO) mice had higher dihydrophenylacetic acid concentrations and a higher dihydrophenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio in the neostriatum. In the ventral striatum, dihydrophenylacetic acid/dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine/dopamine ratios were higher in HDC-KO mice. Furthermore, the HDC-KO mice showed improved water-maze performance during both hidden and cued platform tasks, but deficient object discrimination based on temporal relationships. Our data imply that disruption of brain histamine synthesis can have both memory promoting and suppressive effects via distinct and independent mechanisms and further indicate that these opposed effects are related to the task-inherent reinforcement contingencies. PMID:14657262

  10. Compositional Properties of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    The near-Earth object (NEO) population contains the immediate precursors to meteorites studied in our laboratories. All meteorites, by definition of their intersection with Earth, were NEOs prior to their arrival. Because NEOs have dynamical lifetimes that are short (due to collisions with the sun, planets, or ejection) compared with the age of the solar system, all currently observed asteroid-like NEOs must have been supplied from reservoirs of small bodies such as from the main-asteroid belt or from extinct short period comets. Thus NEOs are the nexus of our study of asteroid-comet-meteorite relationships. What's more, by virtue of their proximity NEOs are the smallest observable planetary bodies, thereby providing a challenge to our understanding of planetary processes in low gravity regimes. Their proximity allows detailed study by radar and also makes them among the most easily accessible solar system destinations for sample return missions, human exploration, and space resource utilization. The small, but non-zero chance of a hazardous impact over human lifetimes brings a further pragmatic reason for NEO studies as well. In this talk we will overview our current understanding of NEO compositions and their links to meteorites. A particular focus will be on new insights to likely processes of space weathering that appear to be highly dependent on the surface age or the ability of a surface to retain a regolith. The diversity of NEO compositions appears to match that of the main asteroid belt. Some signatures of specific main-belt asteroid source regions are recognizable within the NEO population. In addition, compositional and source region signatures of NEOs suggest that the cometary contribution to the NEO population may be somewhat larger than previously thought.

  11. Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Mission concept is to assess the feasibility of using solar sail propulsion to enable a robotic precursor that would survey multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for potential future human visits. Single spacecraft will rendezvous with and image 3 NEOs within 6 years of launch

  12. Observing Near-Earth Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Abell, Paul; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Mueller, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Rivkin, Andrew; Ryan, Erin; Stansberry, John

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has the potential to enhance our understanding of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We present results of investigations into the observability of NEOs given the nominal observing requirements of JWST on elongation (85135) and non-sidereal rates (<30 mas s?1). We find that approximately 75% of NEOs can be observed in a given year. However, observers will need to wait for appropriate observing windows. We find that JWST can easily execute photometric observations of meter-sized NEOs that will enhance our understanding of the small NEO population.

  13. Objective basis of the common law of population.

    PubMed

    Ma, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of production. When nonconformity restricts production growth, social revolution results. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production always tends toward conformity from nonconformity. Conformity is the common law of population economy in all societies, and as the social law of population economy it can be sensed by studying Marxist theory, and through people's practical activities. PMID:12313979

  14. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Green, Adam W.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA) using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools) using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA) and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies. PMID:26658734

  15. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam W; Bailey, Larissa L

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA) using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools) using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA) and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies. PMID:26658734

  16. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Bottke, William; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mainzer, Amy; Mueller, Michael; Penprase, Bryan; Smith, Howard; Spahr, Timothy; Stansberry, John

    2008-12-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We propose to use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 750 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

  17. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Harris, A.; Hora, J.; Mainzer, A.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J.

    2009-05-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We will use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 700 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field will allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

  18. Composition of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, M.

    1997-12-01

    The results of a compositional survey of near-Earth objects are presented. This survey, comprised of low-resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 35 Earth-approaching asteroids and cometary candidates, was conducted over the past three years with the Double Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5-m ARC telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Gross surface mineralogical characteristics and standard Tholen taxonomies for these objects have been derived. In particular, similarities between some of the objects observed in this survey and certain meteorite types, including the ordinary chondrite meteorites, are outlined. Extensive simulations have been performed in order to quantify the significant observational biases that affect surveys of small solar system objects. In addition to debiasing the observed compositional distribution of near-Earth objects, a similar bias analysis for the main asteroid belt has been performed, resulting in a new look at the compositional variations across and within the main belt. Together, these data permit the direct comparison of the near-Earth object population with asteroids from various regions within the main belt.

  19. The Limitations of NEO-Uniformitarianism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, D. I.

    1996-02-01

    The geological and biological sciences have gradually dispensed with the nineteenth-century concept of substantive uniformitarianism - or gradualism - whereby the physical and biological features of our planet are assumed to have been brought about by the long-term accumulation of small changes. The catastrophist alternative sees the changes as being wrought largely by discrete, exceptional events; one such type of event is an impact by a substantial asteroid or comet. It is argued here that scientists working on small solar system bodies generally still labour under a form of this gradualism, in that a conventional starting point is to presume a steady-state, and what is seen now is assumed to be diagnostic of the long-term average conditions. This is here termed NEO-uniformitarianism, the NEO referring to Near-Earth Objects. It is maintained herein that this area of science needs to revise its philosophical basis by allowing catastrophist principles to be entertained; that is, the presumption of a steady-state needs to be rejected until such time as evidence to support it is revealed. It is argued that the weight of evidence favours the contrary. For example, evidence is outlined for (a) Variations in the terrestrial cratering rate, disallowing any equating of the crater record with the presently-observed large impactor population; (b) The presence of significant NEO complexes which may be due to giant comet disintegrations within the last 20 kyr, hence solving the problem of the supply of short-period comets; (c) A misbalance between the present supply of meteoroids, there being too many to be supplied by presently-observed comets and also a surplus above the population needed to maintain the interplanetary dust complex; and (d) A substantial variation in the interplanetary dust flux in the past 20 kyr, as might be expected from (b and c).

  20. Overview of the JPL Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent with the reformulation of NASAs Near-Earth Object (NEO) program at NASA Headquarters, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has formed the Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS), which will continue the technical work on NEOs that JPL has performed in the past, and expand on that work. The poster will provide a brief history of NEO activities at JPL, including the establishment of the original NEO Program Office at JPL in 1998 to provide a central node of critical expertise in the area of trajectory dynamics of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). With the reformulation of the NEO program at NASA HQ, that office has become the Center for NEO Studies. The poster will review some of the Centers key activities, such as: the computation of high precision orbits for NEOs, tabulation of their close approaches, and calculation of impact probabilities by all known NEOs over the next century via the Sentry and Scout impact monitoring systems. The Center will continue to host the website for NASAs NEO Program, providing detailed information on the orbits and physical characteristics of all known NEOs. Other technical activities of the Center will also be outlined, including the Horizons on-line ephemeris service, the development of hypothetical impact scenarios and online kinetic-impactor deflection analysis tools, and the detection and mapping of keyholes.

  1. Two neo-Darwinisms.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denis M

    2010-01-01

    There are two extant theories of evolution, each of which deserves the honourific "neo-Darwinism": Modern Synthesis Replicator theory and a theory I shall call Developmental Darwinism. The principal difference concerns the canonical unit of biological organization. Modern Synthesis replicator theory explains the process of evolution by appeal to the activities of genes or replicators. Developmental Darwinism explains the process of evolution by appeal to the capacities of organisms. In particular, it is the plasticity of organisms, manifested most distinctly during development, that causes adaptive evolution. Despite the fact that each, in its own way, traces its origin to the theory outlined by Darwin, they are radically different. The objectives of this essay are twofold: to underscore the differences between these theories, and to argue that Developmental Darwinism, though nascent, is a viable alternative to Modern Synthesis replicator theory. PMID:21162373

  2. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  3. The ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre contribution to NEO hazard monitoring and observational campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Borgia, Barbara; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Perozzi, Ettore

    2015-08-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has recently been established in Frascati, near Rome, within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks is the coordination of observational activities related to the NEO hazard, and the distribution of relevant and up-to-date information on NEOs to both the scientific community and general users through its web portal (http://neo.ssa.esa.int).On the observational side, the NEOCC is linked to an increasingly large worldwide network of collaborating observatories, ranging from amateurs observers to large professional telescopes. The Centre organizes observation campaigns, alerting the network to suggest urgent or high-priority observations, and providing them with observational support.The NEOCC is also directly obtaining astrometric observations of high-priority targets, especially Virtual Impactors (VIs), on challenging objects as faint as magnitude 26.5, thanks to successful collaborations with ESO VLT in Chile and the INAF-sponsored LBT in Arizona. In addition, the Centre carries out regular monthly runs dedicated to NEO follow-up, recovery and survey activities with the 1-meter ESA OGS telescope in Tenerife.From a service perspective, the NEO System hosted at the NEOCC collects data and information on NEOs produced by various European services (e.g. NEODyS, EARN) and makes them available to a variety of users, with a particular focus on objects with possible collision solutions with the Earth. Among the tools provided through the web portal are the Risk List (a table of all known NEOs with impact solutions), a table of recent and upcoming close approaches, a database of physical properties of NEOs and the so-called Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations, and prioritise their observational activities accordingly.The results of our recent observation campaigns and some major recent improvements to the NEO System will presented and discussed in detail.

  4. NEO Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-10-01

    With the first generation near-Earth Object (NEO) search efforts closing in upon the goal of finding 90% of the NEOs larger than one km by the end of 2008, a number of studies have addressed the next generation search goal to find 90% of the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) larger than 140 meters by the end of 2020. Future large aperture, deep search surveys will need to focus their efforts upon the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) rather than the close Earth approaching comets or the more numerous, but far less dangerous, near-Earth asteroids. These surveys will also need to carry out their own follow-up observations and develop automatic data processing and storage systems capable of handling about 50 times the current data flow. Risk evaluation systems (SENTRY, NEODyS) will need to deal with several times the current rate of Earth close approach scenarios and the public will need to get used to a tenfold increase in warnings where a future Earth impact cannot be immediately ruled out. When added to optical astrometry of recently discovered PHAs, critical radar astrometry from Arecibo and/or Goldstone can immediately secure their orbits and allow accurate orbital extrapolations to be carried out for decades. With an approximate 1% chance of an actual catastrophic impact by an asteroid 140 meters or larger in the next 50 years, physical characterizations of a representative sample of different asteroid types will be necessary and guidelines and viable techniques will need to be investigated for mitigation - a task made difficult by the enormous diversity of asteroid structures, sizes, shapes, spin states, compositions and multiplicities.

  5. NEO follow-up, recovery and precovery campaigns at the ESA NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Koschny, Detlef; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Perozzi, Ettore; Borgia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has been established within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks are the coordination of observational activities and the distribution of up-to-date information on NEOs through its web portal. The Centre is directly involved in observational campaigns with various telescopes, including ESO's VLT and ESA's OGS telescope. We are also developing a network of collaborating observatories, with a variety of capabilities, which are alerted when an important observational opportunity arises. From a service perspective, the system hosted at the NEOCC collects information on NEOs produced by European services and makes it available to users, with a focus on objects with possible collisions with the Earth. Among the tools provided via our portal are the Risk List of all known NEOs with impact solutions, and the Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations.

  6. The LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim A.; Greenstreet, S.; Gomez, E.; Christensen, E.; Larson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and additionally for the discovery of new objects. We are using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1&2) and several hundred targets are now being followed per year. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects and those on the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) lists in order to improve the orbits, determine the light curves and rotation periods and improve the characterization. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be targets. Recent results have included the first period determinations for several of the Goldstone-targeted NEOs. We are in the process of building a NEO follow-up portal which will allow professionals, amateurs and Citizen Scientists to plan, schedule and analyze NEO imaging and spectroscopy observations and data using the LCOGT Network and to act as a co-ordination hub for the NEO follow-up efforts.

  7. POPULATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2013-03-01

    We develop a new method for identifying young stellar objects (YSOs) from star-forming regions using the photometry data from Spitzer's c2d Legacy Project. The aim is to obtain YSO lists as complete as possible for studying statistical properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages. The largest obstacle in identifying YSOs comes from background galaxies with similar spectral energy distributions to YSOs. Traditionally, selected color-color and color-magnitude criteria are used to separate YSOs and galaxies. However, since there is no obvious boundary between YSOs and galaxies in color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), those criteria may exclude faint YSOs near the boundary. In this paper, we separate the YSOs and galaxies in a multi-dimensional (multi-D) magnitude space, which is equivalent to using all variations of CMDs simultaneously. Comparing sources from molecular clouds to Spitzer's SWIRE data, which have a negligible amount of YSOs, we can naturally identify YSO candidates (YSOc) located outside of the galaxy-populated regions in the multi-D space. In the five c2d surveyed clouds, we select 322 new YSOc and miss/exclude 33 YSOc compared to Evans et al., and this results in 1313 YSOc in total. As a result, SFR increases 28% correspondingly, but the lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages remain unchanged. Compared to theories by Krumholz and McKee, our derived SFR suggests that star formation at a large scale is dominated by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields. Furthermore, we identify seven new very low luminosity objects.

  8. Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco; Gltekin, Kayhan

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that active galactic nuclei activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M* >~ 1010Msolar), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting is linked to nature, nurture or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

  9. How Many Ultra-Low Delta-v Near Earth Objects Remain Undiscovered? Implications for missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis; Murphy, Max

    2015-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed considerable growth of interest in missions to Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). NEOs are considered prime targets for manned and robotic missions, for both scientific objectives as well as in-situ resource utilization including harvesting of water for propellant and life support and mining of high-value elements for sale on Earth. Appropriate targets are crucial to such missions. Hence, ultra-low delta-v mission targets are strongly favored. Some mission architectures rely on the discovery of more ultra-low delta-v NEOs. In fact the approved and executed NEO missions have all targeted asteroids with ultra-low LEO to asteroid rendezvous delta-v <5.5 km/s.In this paper, we estimate the total NEO population as a function of delta-v, and how many remain to be discovered in various size ranges down to ~100m. We couple the NEOSSat-1 model (Greenstreet et al., 2012) to the NEO size distribution derived from the NEOWISE survey (Mainzer et al., 2011b) to compute an absolute NEO population model. We compare the Minor Planet Center (MPC) catalog of known NEOs to this NEO population model. We compute the delta-v from LEO to asteroid rendezvous orbits using a modified Shoemaker-Helin (S-H) formalism that empirically removes biases found comparing S-H with the results from NHATS. The median delta-v of the known NEOs is 7.3 km/s, the median delta-v predicted by our NEO model is 9.8 km/s, suggesting that undiscovered objects are biased to higher delta-v. The survey of delta-v <10.3 km/s NEOs is essentially complete for objects with diameter D >300 m. However, there are tens of thousands of objects with delta-v <10.3 km/s to be discovered in the D = 50 - 300 m size class (H = 20.4 - 24.3). Our work suggests that there are 100 yet-undiscovered NEOs with delta-v < 5:8 km/s, and 1000 undiscovered NEOs with v < 6.3 km/s. We conclude that, even with complete NEO surveys, the selection of good (i.e. ultra-low delta-v) mission targets is limited given current propulsion technology. Visiting the full range of NEO sub-types will likely require improved propulsion systems.

  10. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  11. Population statistics of faint stellar and non-stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbergh, S.

    1979-01-01

    A disc and halo population model is constructed to fit star counts and color data down to V approximately 23 at absolute value of b = 90 deg. This model is used to predict star counts and colors down to V approximately 30. Deviations from these extrapolated relationships provide constraints on the number of faint quasars and black dwarf stars. It is shown that extra-galactic globular clusters start contributing significantly to star counts at V approximately 25 and are more numerous than stars for V 31. Morphological studies of galaxies with approximately 0.5, were made with the space telescope. Significant constraints on theoretical models that describe the evolution of clusters of galaxies are provided.

  12. Maximizing the detection of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, T.; Albrecht, S.; Koschny, D.; Drolshagen, G.

    2014-07-01

    Planetary bodies with a perihelion equal or less than 1.3 astronomical units (au) are called near-Earth objects (NEOs). These objects are divided into 4 sub-families, two of them cross Earth's orbit and may be a potential hazard for the planet. The Tunguska event and the incident in Chelyabinsk last year have shown the devastating destructiveness of NEOs with a size of only approximately 40 and 20 meters, respectively. To predict and identify further threats, telescopic NEO surveys currently extend our knowledge of the population of these objects. Today (March 2014) approximately 10,700 NEOs are known. Based on an extrapolation of the current population, Bottke et al. (2002) predict a total number of N≈(1.0±0.5)×10^{8} NEOs up to an absolute magnitude of H = 30.5 mag. Additionally, Bottke et al. (2002) computed a de-biased model of the expected orbital elements distribution of the NEOs. They have investigated the theoretical distribution of NEOs by a dynamical simulation, following the orbital evolution of these objects from several source regions. Based on both models we performed simulations of the detectability of the theoretical NEO population for certain telescopes with certain properties. The goal of these simulations is to optimize the search strategies of NEO surveys. Our simulation models the optical telescope attributes (main and secondary mirror size, optical throughput, field-of-view), the electronics (CCD Camera, pixel size, quantum efficiency, gain, exposure time, pixel binning, dark / bias noise, Signal-to-Noise ratio), atmospheric effects (seeing, sky background illumination) and the brightness and angular velocity of the NEOs. We present exemplarily results for two telescopes, currently developed by the European Space Agency for a future NEO survey: the so-called Fly-Eye Telescope, a 1-m effective aperture telescope with a field of view of 6.5×6.5 deg^2 and the Test-Bed Telescope, with an aperture of 56 cm and a field of view of 2.2×2.2 deg^2. The results of both telescopes can be easily adapted to other telescopes with similar properties. We show different observation strategies to maximize the detection rate of undiscovered NEOs depending on different telescope operation modes (exposure time, pixel binning) and different sky conditions (seeing, sky background brightness).

  13. Identifying meteorite source regions through near-Earth object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2010-02-01

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, gives important representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source locations, we seek to gain insight into the original Solar System formation locations for different meteorite classes. To forge possible links between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects. We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) as a mathematical tool, we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-?m and 2-?m Geometric Band Centers and their Band Area Ratios (BARs). Using these identical numerical parameters we quantitatively compare the spectral properties of S-, Sq-, Q- and V-type NEOs with the spectral properties of the meteorites in four classes: H, L, LL and HED. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these four meteorite classes. Our NEO-meteorite correlation probabilities are then convolved with NEO-source region probabilities to yield a final set of meteorite-source region correlations. While the ?6 resonance dominates the delivery for all four meteorite classes, an excess (significant at the 2.1-sigma level) source region signature is found for the H chondrites through the 3:1 mean motion resonance. This results suggest an H chondrite source with a higher than average delivery preference through the 3:1 resonance. A 3:1 resonance H chondrite source region is consistent with the short cosmic ray exposure ages known for H chondrites.

  14. Identifying Meteorite Source Regions Through Near-Earth Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Binzel, R. P.

    2007-10-01

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs most likely gives the best representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source regions, we seek to gain insight into the original solar system sources for different meteorite classes. To forge the first link between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA IRTF. Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) (Sunshine et al. 1993, JGR 98, 9075) as a mathematical tool (with no mineralogy interpretation), we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-micron and 2-micron geometric band centers and their band area ratios (BARs). We fit the continuum as a linear function in wavenumber space. We choose to include the geometric center of the band in this study in order to examine the asymmetry of the bands. Using this numerical data we can examine the differences of the H, L, LL and HED meteorite classes. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these classes, yielding probability distributions for our NEO data set being related to H, L, LL, and HED meteorites. Our meteorite correlation distribution is then convolved with an NEO source region model (Bottke et al. 2002, Icarus 156, 399) to shed light on connections between these meteorite classes and their asteroid belt origins.

  15. The LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Greenstreet, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet is planned for 2016.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1) and several hundred targets are now being followed-up per year. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects and those on the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) lists in order to improve the orbits, determine the light curves and rotation periods and improve the characterization. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be targets. Recent results have included the first period determinations for several of the Goldstone-targeted NEOs. We are in the process of building a NEO Portal which will allow professionals, amateurs and Citizen Scientists to plan, schedule and analyze NEO imaging and spectroscopy observations and data using the LCOGT Network and to act as a co-ordination hub for the NEO follow-up efforts.

  16. Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Sykes, M. V.

    2005-12-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within a specified dynamical range having requisite composition and frequency. A minimum size requirement is estimated assuming CONOPs has an NEO harvester on station at L1. When the NEO launch window opens, the vehicle departs, rendezvousing within 30 days. Mining and processing operations ( 60 days) produces dirty water for the return trip ( 30 days) to L1 for final refinement into propellants. A market for propellant at L1 is estimated to be 700 mT /year: 250 mT for Mars missions, 100 mT for GTO services (Blair et al. 2002), 50 mT for L1 to lunar surface services, and 300 mT for bringing NEO-derived propellants to L1. Assuming an appropriate NEO has 5% recoverable water, exploited with 50% efficiency, 23000 mT/year must be processed. At 1500 kg/m3, this corresponds to one object per year with a radius of 15 meters, or two 5 m radius objects per month, of which it is estimated there are 10000 having delta-v < 4.2 km/s and 200/year of these available for short roundtrip missions to meet resource requirements (Jones et al. 2002). The importance of these potential resource objects should drive a requirement that next generation NEO detection systems (e.g., Pan-STARRS/LSST) be capable by 2010 of detecting dark NEOs fainter than V=24, allowing for identification 3 months before closest approach. Blair et al. 2002. Final Report to NASA Exploration Team, December 20, 2002. Jones et al. 2002. ASP Conf. Series Vol. 202 (M. Sykes, Ed.), pp. 141-154.

  17. SIMONE: interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (Smallsat Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other onboard systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

  18. Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Cook, T.; Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). This two spacecraft mission mimics the likely architecture approach that human explorers will use: a mother ship(MS) designed to get from Earth to the NEO and a Small Body Lander(SBL) that performs in situ investigation on or close to the NEOs surface. The MS carries the SBL to the target NEO. Once at the target NEO, the MS conducts an initial reconnaissance in order to produce a high resolution map of the surface. This map is used to identify coordinates of interest which are sent to the SBL. The SBL un-docks from the MS to rendezvous with the NEO and collect data. Landings are possible, though the challenges of anchoring to the NEO surface are significant. The SBL design is flexible and adaptable, enabling science data collection on or near the surface. After surface investigations are completed on the first NEO, the SBL will return and autonomously rendezvous and dock with the MS. The MS then goes to the next NEO target. During transit to the next NEO, the SBL could be refueled by the MS, a TRL8 capability demonstrated on the DARPA/NASA Orbital Express mission in 2007, or alternately sized to operate without requiring refueling depending on the mission profile. The mission goals are to identify surface hazards; quantify engineering boundary conditions for future human visits, and identify resources for future exploitation. The mission goals will be accomplished through the execution of key mission objectives: (1) high-resolution surface topography; (2) surface composition and mineralogy; (3) radiation environment near NEO; and (4) mechanical properties of the surface. Essential SBL instruments include: a) LIDAR (Obj. 1); b) 3D, high- resolution hyperspectral imaging cameras (Obj. 2); c) radiation sensor package (Obj. 3); and d) strain gauges (Obj. 4). Additional or alternative instruments could include: e) x-ray fluorescence or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor package (Obj. 2); f) gamma ray/neutron spectrometry package (Obj. 2); and g) radiometer package (to address variations in thermal environment). The ability to reach, survey, sample, and analyze multiple NEOs at close proximity is an enormous capability that can enable NASA to rapidly achieve the primary Exploration Precursor Robotic Mission (xPRM) Program goal of characterizing NEOs for future human exploration. Instead of launching multiple dedicated missions to each NEO of interest, a multi-NEO sortie mission can be planned and executed to achieve the same mission objectives with one launch, dramatically reducing the cost of NEO exploration. Collectively, our NEO Exploration System Architecture provides solutions for a wide variety of exploration activities using a common spacecraft bus and common core instrumentation for the spacecraft. This engineering consistency will substantially improve the probability of mission success, increase the likelihood of maintaining an aggressive launch schedule, and decrease the total cost of multiple missions. NASA successfully used this approach with the robotic precursors leading up to the Apollo missions, and we see significant benefits from this same programmatic approach for the xPRM program.

  19. Deliverable water from small NEOs to DRLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Sercel, Joel; Morenz, Karen; Gertsch, Leslie S.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a simplified mission model to estimate the quantity of deliverable water from small NEOs to distant retrograde lunar orbit (DRLO) as a function of Earth-return trip time and Δv. Our model is designed to be analytically simple, computationally efficient, and close enough to optimal to provide a realistic but conservative assessment of the relevant parameters. The challenge stems from the fact that we are not considering a mission to a specific, known target, but rather missions to the ensemble of NEOs in a model population. To further simplify the analysis we treat Earth's heliocentric orbit as circular with a semi-major axis of 1 au and zero inclination.

  20. Pencil-beam surveys for trans-neptunian objects: Limits on distant populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Alex H.; Kavelaars, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Two populations of minor bodies in the outer Solar System remain particularly elusive: Scattered Disk Objects and Sedna-like objects. These populations are important dynamical tracers, and understanding the details of their spatial- and size-distributions will enhance our understanding of the formation and on-going evolution of the Solar System. By using newly-derived limits on the maximum heliocentric distances that recent pencil-beam surveys for trans-neptunian objects were sensitive to, we determine new upper limits on the total numbers of distant SDOs and Sedna-like objects. While generally consistent with populations estimated from wide-area surveys, we show that for magnitude-distribution slopes of ? ? 0.7-1.0, these pencil-beam surveys provide stronger upper limits than current estimates in literature.

  1. ObStruct: A Method to Objectively Analyse Factors Driving Population Structure Using Bayesian Ancestry Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses. PMID:24416362

  2. Spacewatch Observations of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Bressi, T. H.; Scotti, J. V.; Larsen, J. A.; Perry, M. L.

    2012-10-01

    We have enhanced Spacewatch's (McMillan et al. 2007 IAU Symp. 236) astrometry and photometry of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). We specialize in follow-up of the Congressionally-mandated "large" NEOs (absolute mag H≤22) as they recede from Earth after discovery and become fainter, as well as NEOs on impact risk pages, Potentially Hazardous Asteroids, and NEOs observed by WISE (Mainzer et al. 2012 ApJ 752, id 110). Spacewatch was the pre-eminent follower-up of NEOs discovered by WISE within 2 weeks of their discovery. We have observed at elongations as small as 46°. Follow-up on longer orbital arcs improves understanding of the statistics of the orbits and absolute magnitudes of the population as well as the recoverability of individual objects. The new CCD which we began operating on our 1.8-m telescope on 2011 Oct 16 makes 23rd mag asteroids more frequently accessible. Faster readout and smaller pixels yield 67% more observations of NEOs per year and astrometric residuals of ±0.3 arcsec, vs. ±0.6 arcsec on NEOs with the old CCD. To reach more distant objects with H≤22, we now also use the Bok 2.3-meter telescope of Steward Observatory and the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4-m Mayall telescope. About 2800 tracklets of NEOs were accepted by the MPC from Spacewatch in the interval 2011 Jul 1 - 2012 Jun 30. The archive of images collected with our mosaic of CCDs on the 0.9-m telescope of Steward Observatory now approaches 15 TB in size and spans almost 10 years of uniformly conducted surveying. It contributes incidental followup astrometry and precoveries of NEOs. This work is funded by NASA/NEOO grants NNX11AB52G and NNX12AG11G, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. Spacewatch uses facilities of KPNO and services of the IAU’s Minor Planet Center.

  3. Nasa s near earth object program office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, D.; Chamberlin, A.; Chesley, S.; Chodas, P.; Giorgini, J.; Keesey, M.

    In 1998, NASA formed the Near-Earth Object Program Office at JPL to provide a focal point for NASA's efforts to discover and monitor the motions of asteroids and comets that can approach the Earth. This office was charged with 1.) facilitating communication between the near-Earth object (NEO) community and the public, 2.) helping coordinate the search efforts for NEOs, 3.) monitoring the progress in finding NEOs at NASA -supported sites, and 4.) monitoring the future motions of all known NEOs and cataloging their orbits. There are far more near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) than near-Earth comets and one of the driving motivations for NASA's NEO Program is the Spaceguard Goal to find 90% of the NEAs larger than one kilometer by 2008. While the total population of NEAs is not clearly established, the consensus opinion seems to be that the total population of NEAs larger than one kilometer is about 1000 (with a range of perhaps 800 - 1200). By April 2002, nearly 60% of the total population of large NEAs had been discovered and while the discovery rate will likely drop off as the easy ones are found, these early discovery efforts are encouraging. The five NASA-supported NEO discovery teams are the Lincoln Laboratory Near-Earth Asteroid Research effort (LINEAR, Grant Stokes, Principal Investigator), the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL (NEAT, Eleanor Helin, P.I.), the Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Object Search (LONEOS, E. Bowell, P.I.), and two discovery teams near Tucson Arizona - the Spacewatch effort (R. McMillan, P.I.) and the Catalina Sky Survey group (S. Larson, P.I.). Mention should also be made of the Japanese Spaceguard discovery site at Bisei Japan (S. Isobe, P.I.). A substantial portion of the critical follow-up observations necessary to secure the orbits of NEOs and provide information on their physical characteristics is provided by a group of very sophisticated amateur astronomers who might better be described as unfunded professionals. After nearly two years in development, the JPL SENTRY system has been brought on line to provide automatic updates of near-Earth asteroid (NEA) orbits and to predict future close Earth approaches along with their associated impact probabilities. For those NEAs that can approach the Earth, a Palermo Scale risk number is computed based upon the object's impact probability at a particular time, the energy upon impact and the time interval before the potential impact. A Palermo Scale number larger than zero implies the predicted impact event has risen above the expected background level of impacts that could occur between now and the predicted time of impact from all NEAs of the same size or larger. Computed Palermo Scale values are used to prioritize automatic Monte Carlo numerical integration runs to determine robust impact probabilities for those NEAs where a future impact cannot be ruled out - usually because of poor orbits and/or close planetary encounters. Our interactive web site at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov will allow the user access to the latest information on NEOs including coming close Earth approaches, the risk page for poorly determined orbits, the progress toward meeting the Spaceguard Goal, links to the web sites of the NEO search teams, the rationale for studying NEOs, space missions to NEOs, as well as information on the characteristics, future motions, orbits and orbital movies for well over 120,000 comets and asteroids.

  4. The Undiscovered Country: How Many Low-Delta-V Near-Earth Objects Remain to be Found?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis

    2014-11-01

    Low delta-v near-Earth objects (NEOs) are of great interest as targets for science and human missions, for possible retrieval to cis-lunar space and as potential resource targets for both exploration and commercial uses. This interest stems from the exponential nature of the rocket equation that imposes a harsh mass penalty on any mission to a higher delta-v. We have compared the known NEO population from the IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC) with the NEOSSat-1 model residence times for the NEO population (Greenstreet & Gladman, 2012) to assess how many undiscovered NEOs there are as a function of H magnitude and delta-v. We find that the median of known NEOs is at lower delta-v (7.3 km/s) than the model population (9.8 km/s), suggesting a bias toward detecting lower delta-v NEOs. To the precision of our data, which is as low as 40% for the 300-500 m diameter (D) objects, the bulk of the larger D>300 m NEOs have been found from delta-v<10.3 km/s. However in the 50 < D < 300 m range there are tens of thousands of delta-v < 10.3 km/s to be found. We examine the total number of undiscovered NEOs as a function of delta-v and find that to find at least 100 now unknown NEOs requires a threshold delta-v of 5.7 km/s, while to find at least 1000 of them requires a threshold delta-v of 6.2 km/s. These numbers can be used to determine mission delta-v requirements for a given number of suitable targets, that will likely be restricted by other criteria (size, composition, spin state) to a few percent of the total population.

  5. Physical characterization of fast rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the physical characteristics of fast rotator NEOs (sub-km sizes with H > 22) is important for two reasons: to establish properties that can constraint models of their potential hazard, and to learn about the origin and the evolution of the solar system. Technically it is difficult to cover different ranges of wavelengths using one telescope with one instrument. Setting up a network of telescopes with different instruments observing simultaneously the same object will efficiently contribute to the characterization of NEOs.ART (Arizona Robotic Telescope) is a University of Arizona initiative whose goal is to use local 2-m size telescopes to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects covering the visible and the near- infrared wavelengths. We plan to use three telescopes of the ART project to observe fast rotator NEOs: 1) VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet) with VATT-4K optical imager for photometry to estimate colors, lightcurves to get the rotation rate, and estimate the phase angle function of NEOs, 2) Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) with BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy, and 3) Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet) with a near-infrared instrument.We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate, color, and type have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h, 2011 PT of 0.17 +/- 0.05 h, 2014 SC324 of 0.36 +/- 0.43 h, 2014 WF201 of 1.00 +/- 0.03 h. Of these objects, 2014 HM2, 2014 FA, 2014 SB145, 2011 PT fall among X-type asteroids; 2014 KS, 2014 WF are likely to be C-type; and 2014 SC 324 is a D-type.

  6. Statistical Estimation of Orbital Debris Populations with a Spectrum of Object Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. -l; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J. -C; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital debris is a real concern for the safe operations of satellites. In general, the hazard of debris impact is a function of the size and spatial distributions of the debris populations. To describe and characterize the debris environment as reliably as possible, the current NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2000) is being upgraded to a new version based on new and better quality data. The data-driven ORDEM model covers a wide range of object sizes from 10 microns to greater than 1 meter. This paper reviews the statistical process for the estimation of the debris populations in the new ORDEM upgrade, and discusses the representation of large-size (greater than or equal to 1 m and greater than or equal to 10 cm) populations by SSN catalog objects and the validation of the statistical approach. Also, it presents results for the populations with sizes of greater than or equal to 3.3 cm, greater than or equal to 1 cm, greater than or equal to 100 micrometers, and greater than or equal to 10 micrometers. The orbital debris populations used in the new version of ORDEM are inferred from data based upon appropriate reference (or benchmark) populations instead of the binning of the multi-dimensional orbital-element space. This paper describes all of the major steps used in the population-inference procedure for each size-range. Detailed discussions on data analysis, parameter definition, the correlation between parameters and data, and uncertainty assessment are included.

  7. Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations.

    PubMed

    Schlottfeldt, S; Walter, M E M T; L F Carvalho, A C P; Soares, T N; Telles, M P C; Loyola, R D; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis. PMID:26125883

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  9. Investigating the composition of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with the NEO-SURFACE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Brucato, J. R.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Rossi, A.

    2015-10-01

    There is a high degree of diversity among the physical properties of the Potentially Hazardous asteroids (PHAs). For these objects, the physical characterization is essential to define a successful mitigation mission, therefore ground-based surveys like NEO-SURFACE could provide a fundamental contribution. Our analysis suggest a prevalence of silicate S-types in the PHA population, which could be due in principle to the high efficiency of the transport mechanisms in the inner main belt, or to an observational bias due to the fact that S-types are brighter.

  10. Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  11. Near-Earth-object survey progress and population of small near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A.

    2014-07-01

    Estimating the total population vs. size of NEAs and the completion of surveys is the same thing since the total population is just the number discovered divided by the estimated completion. I review the method of completion estimation based on ratio of re-detected objects to total detections (known plus new discoveries). The method is quite general and can be used for population estimations of all sorts, from wildlife to various classes of solar system bodies. Since 2001, I have been making estimates of population and survey progress approximately every two years. Plotted below, left, is my latest estimate, including NEA discoveries up to August, 2012. I plan to present an update at the meeting. All asteroids of a given size are not equally easy to detect because of specific orbital geometries. Thus a model of the orbital distribution is necessary, and computer simulations using those orbits need to establish the relation between the raw re-detection ratio and the actual completion fraction. This can be done for any sub-group population, allowing to estimate the population of a subgroup and the expected current completion. Once a reliable survey computer model has been developed and ''calibrated'' with respect to actual survey re-detections versus size, it can be extrapolated to smaller sizes to estimate completion even at very small size where re-detections are rare or even zero. I have recently investigated the subgroup of extremely low encounter velocity NEAs, the class of interest for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), recently proposed by NASA. I found that asteroids of diameter ˜ 10 m with encounter velocity with the Earth lower than 2.5 km/sec are detected by current surveys nearly 1,000 times more efficiently than the general background of NEAs of that size. Thus the current completion of these slow relative velocity objects may be around 1%, compared to 10^{-6} for that size objects of the general velocity distribution. Current surveys are nowhere near complete, but there may be fewer such objects than have been suggested. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that at least a couple such discovered objects are known to be not real asteroids but spent rocket bodies in heliocentric orbit, of which there are only of the order of a hundred. Brown et al. (Nature 503, 238-241, 2013, below right, green squares are a re-plot of my blue circles on left plot) recently suggested that the population of small NEAs in the size range from roughly 5 to 50 meters in diameter may have been substantially under-estimated. To be sure, the greatest uncertainty in population estimates is in that range, since there are very few bolide events to use for estimation, and the surveys are extremely incomplete in that size range, so a factor of 3 or so discrepancy is not significant. However, the population estimated from surveys carried still smaller, where the bolide frequency becomes more secure, disagrees from the bolide estimate by even less than a factor of 3 and in fact intersects at about 3 m diameter. On the other hand, the shallow-sloping size-frequency distribution derived from the sparse large bolide data diverges badly from the survey estimates, in sizes where the survey estimates become ever-increasingly reliable, even by 100-200 m diameter. It appears that the bolide data provides a good "anchor" of the population in the size range up to about 5 m diameter, but above that one might do better just connecting that population with a straight line (on a log-log plot) with the survey-determined population at larger size, 50-100 m diameter or so.

  12. Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic

  13. Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic…

  14. Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

  15. De-biased Populations of Kuiper Belt Objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. R.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF 32 to a minimum of 1.5 × 10-7 for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU 185. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of α = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 <= H <= 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power law with α = 0.42 ± 0.02. This is consistent with a knee in the H-distribution around H = 7.2 as reported elsewhere. Based on the Classical-derived magnitude distribution, the total number of objects (H <= 7) in each class is: Classical (2100 ± 300 objects), Scattered (2800 ± 400), 3:2 (570 ± 80), 2:1 (400 ± 50), 5:2 (270 ± 40), 7:4 (69 ± 9), 5:3 (60 ± 8). The independent estimate for the number of Centaurs in the same H range is 13 ± 5. If instead all objects are divided by inclination into "Hot" and "Cold" populations, following Fraser et al., we find that αHot = 0.90 ± 0.02, while αCold = 1.32 ± 0.02, in good agreement with that work.

  16. De-biased populations of Kuiper belt objects from the deep ecliptic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF {sub 32} to a minimum of 1.5 × 10{sup –7} for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU {sub 185}. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of α = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 ≤ H ≤ 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power law with α = 0.42 ± 0.02. This is consistent with a knee in the H-distribution around H = 7.2 as reported elsewhere. Based on the Classical-derived magnitude distribution, the total number of objects (H ≤ 7) in each class is: Classical (2100 ± 300 objects), Scattered (2800 ± 400), 3:2 (570 ± 80), 2:1 (400 ± 50), 5:2 (270 ± 40), 7:4 (69 ± 9), 5:3 (60 ± 8). The independent estimate for the number of Centaurs in the same H range is 13 ± 5. If instead all objects are divided by inclination into 'Hot' and 'Cold' populations, following Fraser et al., we find that α{sub Hot} = 0.90 ± 0.02, while α{sub Cold} = 1.32 ± 0.02, in good agreement with that work.

  17. Multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering of microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-objective optimization (MOO) involves optimization problems with multiple objectives. Generally, theose objectives is used to estimate very different aspects of the solutions, and these aspects are often in conflict with each other. MOO first gets a Pareto set, and then looks for both commonality and systematic variations across the set. For the large-scale data sets, heuristic search algorithms such as EA combined with MOO techniques are ideal. Newly DNA microarray technology may study the transcriptional response of a complete genome to different experimental conditions and yield a lot of large-scale datasets. Biclustering technique can simultaneously cluster rows and columns of a dataset, and hlep to extract more accurate information from those datasets. Biclustering need optimize several conflicting objectives, and can be solved with MOO methods. As a heuristics-based optimization approach, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulate the movements of a bird flock finding food. The shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFL) is a population-based cooperative search metaphor combining the benefits of the local search of PSO and the global shuffled of information of the complex evolution technique. SFL is used to solve the optimization problems of the large-scale datasets. Results This paper integrates dynamic population strategy and shuffled frog-leaping algorithm into biclustering of microarray data, and proposes a novel multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering (MODPSFLB) algorithm to mine maximum bicluesters from microarray data. Experimental results show that the proposed MODPSFLB algorithm can effectively find significant biological structures in terms of related biological processes, components and molecular functions. Conclusions The proposed MODPSFLB algorithm has good diversity and fast convergence of Pareto solutions and will become a powerful systematic functional analysis in genome research. PMID:22759615

  18. Ultra-low Delta-v Neos As Prime Nasa Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; McDowell, J. C.; Binzel, R. P.; Hoffman, J.

    2010-10-01

    Missions to near-Earth asteroids (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new "Flexible Path" approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards the post, and for their resources. We examine the selection criteria for target NEOs for human exploration to define a set of "Potentially Visitable Objects" (PVOs). Ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous is the primary criterion, as this choice doubles the payload to NEO. Choices for NEOs as human destinations are currently very limited. Only 5 of the 6699 known NEOs have delta-v <4km/s, 2/3 of typical LEO-NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of PVOs. Potentially there are at least an order of magnitude more PVOs but, to find them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in that orbit, plus long arc determination of their orbits.

  19. Neo-Keynesian Economics Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackleton, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of post-Keynesian economic theories and examines the arguments which surround current neo-Keynesian thought. Argues for an eclecticism which recognizes that both supply-side and demand-side factors have a role to play in determining levels of output and employment. Useful charts and diagrams are included. (Author/DH)

  20. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

  1. Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

    1996-02-01

    ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

  2. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  3. An improved multi-objective evolutionary memetic algorithm based on multi-population and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhongliang

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we set up a mathematical model to solve the problem of airport ground services. In this model, we set objective function of cost and time, and the purpose is making it minimized. Base on the analysis of scheduling characteristic, we use the multi-population co-evolutionary Memetic algorithm (MAMC) which is with the elitist strategy to realize the model. From the result we can see that our algorithm is better than the genetic algorithm in this problem and we can see that our algorithm is convergence. So we can summarize that it can be a better optimization to airport ground services problem.

  4. Constraints to the Cold Classical KBO population from HST observations of faint objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David; Grundy, William

    2015-11-01

    The size distribution of the known Kuiper Belt Objects has been described by a double power law, with a break at R magnitude 25. There are two leading interpretations to this break: 1) It is the result of the collisional evolution among these KBOs, with the objects smaller than the break being the population most affected by collisional erosion. 2) The size distribution break is primordial, set during the Kuiper Belt formation.The low inclination Kuiper Belt Objects, the Cold Classical population, is thought to have been dynamically isolated since the formation of the Solar System, and thus only collisions between Cold Classicals would have affected their size distribution. If the size distribution is collisional, it probes parameters of the Kuiper Belt history: strengths of the bodies, impact energies and frequency, and the the number of objects. If the distribution is primordial, it reveals parameters of the Kuiper Belt accretion, as well as limits on its subsequent collisional history.In this work, we obtained new HST observations of 5 faint Cold Classicals, which we combine with previous HST observations, to examine the distribution of two properties of the smallest KBOs: colors and binary fraction. These two properties can differentiate between a primordial and a collisional origin of the size distribution break. If the smaller bodies have been through extensive collisional evolution, they will have exposed materials from their interiors, which has not been exposed to weathering, and thus should be bluer than the old surfaces of the larger bodies. An independent constraint can be derived from the fraction of binary objects: the angular momentum of the observed binaries is typically too high to result from collisions, thus a collisionally-evolved population would have a lower binary fraction, due to the easier separation of binaries, compared to the disruption of similar-sized bodies, and the easier disruption of the binary components, due to the smaller size.We will present the constraints to the color and binary fraction distributions we are measuring from these observations, which probe the smallest KBOs currently observable.

  5. INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Canalizo, Gabriela; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  6. The utilization of neural nets in populating an object-oriented database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms (i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

  7. Reduced sequence variability on the Neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana.

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, B F; Charlesworth, B

    1999-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are generally morphologically and functionally distinct, but the evolutionary forces that cause this differentiation are poorly understood. Drosophila americana americana was used in this study to examine one aspect of sex chromosome evolution, the degeneration of nonrecombining Y chromosomes. The primary X chromosome of D. a. americana is fused with a chromosomal element that was ancestrally an autosome, causing this homologous chromosomal pair to segregate with the sex chromosomes. Sequence variation at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Adh) gene was used to determine the pattern of nucleotide variation on the neo-sex chromosomes in natural populations. Sequences of Adh were obtained for neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana, and for Adh of D. a. texana, in which it is autosomal. No significant sequence differentiation is present between the neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana or the autosomes of D. a. texana. There is a significantly lower level of sequence diversity on the neo-Y chromosome relative to the neo-X in D. a. americana. This reduction in variability on the neo-Y does not appear to have resulted from a selective sweep. Coalescent simulations of the evolutionary transition of an autosome into a Y chromosome indicate there may be a low level of recombination between the neo-X and neo-Y alleles of Adh and that the effective population size of this chromosome may have been reduced below the expected value of 25% of the autosomal effective size, possibly because of the effects of background selection or sexual selection. PMID:10471708

  8. Survey Of Near-earth Objects From The SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Stephen M.; Schaffer, M.; Szalay, A.; Gray, J.; Ivezic, Z.; Quinn, T.; Richmond, M.; Knapp, J.; Schneider, D.

    2009-05-01

    The survey include 104 objects in the range r=18-21 and proper motions 1.3 to 18 degrees per day. Simulations show that virtually all objects are nearby members of the NEO population and have magnitudes in the range H=22-26, characteristic of Earth impactors in the 1-100 Megaton range. The cumulative number of objects to H=25 is 3-4x10^5, well below power-law extrapolations from brighter objects but in-line with more recent population estimates. The median color is midway between that for main-belt C and S types.

  9. Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases, and (4) rights, options, and leases subject to a critical reliability constraint used to represent a maximally risk averse case. The portfolio planning strategies were evaluated using a 10 year Monte Carlo simulation of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) within Texas. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, surplus water, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. Using an additional severe drought scenario, this work shows that leases and options can reduce the potential for critical supply failures when urban supply systems must contend with unexpected and severe extremes in both demand and water scarcity. In summary, this paper contributes a framework that couples interactive visualization and many-objective optimization to innovate urban water portfolio planning under uncertainty. The many-objective analysis of the LRGV case study shows that effective water portfolio planning can simultaneously improve the costs, efficiency, and reliability of urban water supply while ensuring adaptability and resiliency to future changes.

  10. A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

    2008-10-29

    This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

  11. Investigation of binary asteroids and NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagina, I.; Sokov, E.; Gorshanov, D.; Devyatkin, A.; Romas, E.; L'vov, V.; Slesarenko, V.; Rastegaev, D.; Balega, Yu.; Maximov, A.; Diachenko, V.; Malogolovec, E.; Kouprianov, V.; Naiden, Ya.

    2012-09-01

    The Laboratory of Observational Astrometry of the Central (Pulkovo) Observatory of RAS makes observations and investigations of binary and multiple asteroids and Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The observations are carried out with MTM-500M telescope, placed on Mount Astronomical Station of Pulkovo observatory (Northern Caucasus), and ZA-320M mirror astrograph of Pulkovo observatory. Also in this research work we used observations obtained with BTA telescope of Special Astrophysical Observatory. In this work results of investigations binary asteroids such as 22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 2006 VV2, 90 Antiope, 87 Sylvia, 762 Pulcova, 1313 Berna, 137170 (1999 HF1) and Near Earth Asteroids such as 2005 YU55 and 2008 TC3 will be presented.

  12. The orbital distribution of Near-Earth Objects inside Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Ngo, Henry; Gladman, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Canada's Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite (NEOSSat), set to launch in early 2012, will search for and track Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), tuning its search to best detect objects with a < 1.0 AU. In order to construct an optimal pointing strategy for NEOSSat, we needed more detailed information in the a < 1.0 AU region than the best current model (Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S. [2002]. Icarus 156, 399-433) provides. We present here the NEOSSat-1.0 NEO orbital distribution model with larger statistics that permit finer resolution and less uncertainty, especially in the a < 1.0 AU region. We find that Amors = 30.1 0.8%, Apollos = 63.3 0.4%, Atens = 5.0 0.3%, Atiras (0.718 < Q < 0.983 AU) = 1.38 0.04%, and Vatiras (0.307 < Q < 0.718 AU) = 0.22 0.03% of the steady-state NEO population. Vatiras are a previously undiscussed NEO population clearly defined in our integrations, whose orbits lie completely interior to that of Venus. Our integrations also uncovered the unexpected production of retrograde orbits from main-belt asteroid sources; this retrograde NEA population makes up ?0.1% of the steady-state NEO population. The relative NEO impact rate onto Mercury, Venus, and Earth, as well as the normalized distribution of impact speeds, was calculated from the NEOSSat-1.0 orbital model under the assumption of a steady-state. The new model predicts a slightly higher Mercury impact flux.

  13. Orbit Options for an Orion-Class Spacecraft Mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, Nathan C.

    Based on the recommendations of the Augustine Commission, President Obama has proposed a vision for U.S. human spaceflight in the post-Shuttle era which includes a manned mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). A 2006-2007 study commissioned by the Constellation Program Advanced Projects Office investigated the feasibility of sending a crewed Orion spacecraft to a NEO using different combinations of elements from the latest launch system architecture at that time. The study found a number of suitable mission targets in the database of known NEOs, and predicted that the number of candidate NEOs will continue to increase as more advanced observatories come online and execute more detailed surveys of the NEO population. The objective of this thesis is to pick up where the previous Constellation study left off by considering what orbit options are available for an Orion-class spacecraft upon arrival at a NEO. A model including multiple perturbations (solar radiation pressure, solar gravity, non-spherical mass distribution of the central body) to two-body dynamics is constructed to numerically integrate the motion of a satellite in close proximity to a small body in an elliptical orbit about the Sun. Analytical limits derived elsewhere in the literature for the thresholds on the size of the satellite orbit required to maintain stability in the presence of these perturbing forces are verified by the numerical model. Simulations about NEOs possessing various physical parameters (size, shape, rotation period) are then used to empirically develop general guidelines for establishing orbits of an Orion-class spacecraft about a NEO. It is found that an Orion-class spacecraft can orbit NEOs at any distance greater than the NEO surface height and less than the maximum semi-major axis allowed by the solar radiation pressure perturbation, provided that the ellipticity perturbation is sufficiently weak (this condition is met if the NEO is relatively round and/or has a long rotation period) for orbits falling below the minimum threshold for guarding against its effects. NEOs as small as approximately 20 m in diameter can be orbited by an Orion-class spacecraft, provided the rotation period is not too long (<30 hours) if the ellipticity perturbation is strong. There are cases of small, very slowly rotating NEOs that cannot be orbited by an Orion-class spacecraft at any distance, but generally these NEOs are required to have severely elongated shapes in order to maintain the strength of the ellipticity perturbation in spite of their longer rotation periods. Finally, terminator frozen orbits are found to be the best orbit option for a manned mission to a NEO, since their stability in the face of multiple perturbations provides an ideal platform for conducting scientific observations of the NEO and launching astronaut excursions to the NEO surface.

  14. Euphrosyne As An NEO Source: Spectral Properties and Inferences from Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-11-01

    The Euphrosyne family is interpreted as ejecta from an impact into 31 Euphrosyne, a large C-class asteroid in the outer part of the main belt. Recent work by Masiero et al. suggests that Euphrosyne family members may preferentially find their way into the NEO population, and presumably from there into the meteorite collections of the world.Interestingly, observations of Euphrosyne in the 3-µm spectral region by Takir et al. and Rivkin et al. show it to have a rounded band shape and a band center near 3.1 µm. Such a band shape has never been seen in any meteorite spectra collected to date, but these characteristics are reminiscent of 24 Themis and 65 Cybele, whose spectra have been interpreted as having bands due to ice frost and organic materials. The spectra of Euphrosyne family objects, and those NEOs thought to have originated in that family, therefore may show how icy objects evolve as they move from the asteroid belt to orbits near 1 AU and how they may (or may not) be represented in the meteorite record. Alternately, they may give rise to new interpretations of the absorptions that have not yet been considered.We will discuss the combined implications of Euphrosyne’s spectrum and family dynamics, and the opportunities for better understanding the nature of outer belt asteroids that observations of the Euphrosyne family provide.

  15. cyNeo4j: connecting Neo4j and Cytoscape

    PubMed Central

    Summer, Georg; Kelder, Thomas; Ono, Keiichiro; Radonjic, Marijana; Heymans, Stephane; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We developed cyNeo4j, a Cytoscape App to link Cytoscape and Neo4j databases to utilize the performance and storage capacities Neo4j offers. We implemented a Neo4j NetworkAnalyzer, ForceAtlas2 layout and Cypher component to demonstrate the possibilities a distributed setup of Cytoscape and Neo4j have. Availability and implementation: The app is available from the Cytoscape App Store at http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/cyneo4j, the Neo4j plugins at www.github.com/gsummer/cyneo4j-parent and the community and commercial editions of Neo4j can be found at http://www.neo4j.com. Contact: georg.summer@gmail.com PMID:26272981

  16. NEOS server 4.0 administrative guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, E. D.

    2001-07-13

    The NEOS Server 4.0 provides a general Internet-based client/server as a link between users and software applications. The administrative guide covers the fundamental principals behind the operation of the NEOS Server, installation and trouble-shooting of the Server software, and implementation details of potential interest to a NEOS Server administrator. The guide also discusses making new software applications available through the Server, including areas of concern to remote solver administrators such as maintaining security, providing usage instructions, and enforcing reasonable restrictions on jobs. The administrative guide is intended both as an introduction to the NEOS Server and as a reference for use when running the Server.

  17. The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2013-09-01

    The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m). These are big enough to cause, in the case of impact with Earth, destructive effects on a regional scale. Smaller objects can still produce major damage on a local scale, while the largest NEOs could endanger the survival of living species. Therefore, several national and international observational efforts have been started (i) to detect undiscovered NEOs and especially PHAs, (ii) to determine and continuously monitor their orbital properties and hence their impact probability, and (iii) to investigate their physical nature. Further ongoing activities concern the analysis of possible techniques to mitigate the risk of a NEO impact, when an object is confirmed to be on an Earth colliding trajectory. Depending on the timeframe available before the collision, as well as on the objects physical properties, various methods to deflect a NEO have been proposed and are currently under study from groups of experts on behalf of international organizations and space agencies. This paper will review our current understanding of the NEO population, the scientific aspects and the ongoing space- and ground-based activities to foresee close encounters and to mitigate the effects of possible impacts.

  18. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  19. NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; McMillan, R. S.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Spahr, T.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Watkins, J.; and others

    2011-12-20

    With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

  20. Bioengineering endothelialized neo-corneas using donor-derived corneal endothelial cells and decellularized corneal stroma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin San; Williams, James K; Greven, Margaret; Walter, Keith A; Laber, Patrick W; Khang, Gilson; Soker, Shay

    2010-09-01

    Corneal transplantation is a common transplant procedure performed to improve visual acuity by replacing the opaque or distorted host tissue by clear healthy donor tissue. However, its clinical utility is limited due to a lack of high quality donor corneas. Bioengineered neo-corneas, created using an expandable population of human donor-derived corneal endothelial cells (HCEC), could address this current shortage. The objectives of this study were to establish HCEC isolation and culture protocols and to investigate the feasibility of bioengineering corneal tissue constructs by seeding the cells on decellularized human corneal stroma. HCECs were removed from the discarded corneas of eye donors by enzymatic digestion. Cells were expanded and evaluated for their expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1). Donor corneal stromas were cut to 120-200 microm thickness slices using a microtome and then decellularized. Extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were measured after decellularization. To engineer neo-corneas, 130 HCEC/mm(2) were seeded on decellularized human corneal stromas. The resulting constructs were placed in growth medium for 14 days and then analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, and immunocytochemistry. Seeded cells retain expression of the functional markers Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and ZO-1 and constructs have biomechanical properties similar to those of normal corneas. These results indicate that construction of neo-corneas, using HCECs derived from discarded donor corneas and decellularized thin-layer corneal stromas, may create a new source of high quality corneal tissue for transplantation. PMID:20541797

  1. Historicism and neo-Kantianism.

    PubMed

    Beiser, Fred

    2008-12-01

    This article treats the conflict between historicism and neo-Kantianism in the late nineteenth century by a careful examination of the writings of Wilhelm Windelband, the leader of the Southwestern neo-Kantians. Historicism was a profound challenge to the fundamental principles of Kant's philosophy because it seemed to imply that there are no universal and necessary principles of science, ethics or aesthetics. Since all such principles are determined by their social and historical context, they differ with each culture and epoch. Windelband attempted to respond to the challenge of this relativism by either broadening Kantian principles, so that they could accommodate the results of historicism, or by reformulating Kantian principles, so that they were impregnable to historical change. The article examines both aspects of Windelband's strategy in some detail, noting the many changes and different formulations in his views. A final section considers some of the difficulties of Windelband's strategy and concludes that, despite its heroic efforts, it was a failure. PMID:19391374

  2. Hunting for Buried Treasure: Prospecting for a Population of Compact Objects in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; DeWitt, C.; Gosling, A. J.; Blundell, K.; Blum, R.; Olsen, K.; Sarajedini, A.

    2010-02-01

    I describe the observational campaign we have undertaken to determine the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained to date includes a deep Chandra survey; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey; and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. Astrometric cross-correlation of our ISAAC imaging with the revised X-ray source position catalogs from Muno et al. (2003, 2006) results in a statistically significant excess in the number of candidate IR counterparts to the 130 X-ray sources encompassed within our 26 ISAAC fields. Cross-correlation of our ISPI imaging of the central 17' square around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 Chandra sources, with the X-ray catalog reveals 2214 candidate IR counterparts. We explore the likelihood of these astrometric matches being actual physical counterparts and find that, statistically, 443+/-56 are likely to be true counterparts. We categorize these matches by X-ray and IR characteristics (hardness, colour, magnitude). After statistical analysis, we find that by selecting carefully from the subset of X-ray hard, highly reddened candidate matches, we can identify 91 IR sources which have a 45% probability of being true physical counterparts. In both the ISAAC and ISPI data we find an over-abundance of relatively unextinguished, bright, blue candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources as compared to the IR field star population. It is likely that these matches are dominated by local, massive X-ray active stars. We will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to perform a spectroscopic survey of the identified candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 Galactic Center Survey will have a dramatic impact on our knowledge of the Galactic accreting binary population.

  3. Relation of multimorbidity to subjective and objective cognitive impairment: a population-based twin study

    PubMed Central

    Caracciolo, Barbara; Gatz, Margaret; Xu, Weili; Marengoni, Alessandra; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of common chronic disease and multimorbidity with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND), and to explore the contribution of genetic background and shared familial environment to these associations. Design Population-based twin study. Setting Nationwide Swedish twins. Subjects 11,379 dementia-free individuals aged ? 65 from the Swedish Twin Registry. Main Outcome Measures SCI was defined as subjective complaint of cognitive change without objective cognitive impairment, and CIND was ascertained according to the standard definition. Chronic diseases were classified based on international criteria, and multimorbidity was assessed as the co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in the same individual. Results In unmatched, fully-adjusted regression models, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and urological diseases were significantly associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) of both SCI and CIND. Circulatory and gastrointestinal disorders were related to SCI, while endocrine diseases were associated with CIND. The adjusted ORs of multimorbidity were 2.1 [95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI): 1.82.3] for SCI and 1.5 for CIND (95% CI: 1.31.8). There was a significant dose-dependent relationship between number of chronic diseases and ORs for SCI but not for CIND. In co-twin control analyses, the chronic diseases-SCI association remained significant but the association with CIND was no longer statistically significant. Conclusion Chronic diseases are associated with both SCI and CIND and the association is stronger when there is multimorbidity. Genetic and shared environmental factors may partially explain the association of CIND but not that of SCI with chronic diseases. PMID:23603395

  4. The Young Stellar Object Population in the Vela-D Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strafella, F.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Elia, D.; Maruccia, Y.; Maiolo, B.; Massi, F.; Olmi, L.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the young stellar population in the Vela Molecular Ridge, Cloud-D, a star-forming region observed by both the Spitzer/NASA and Herschel/ESA space telescopes. The point-source, band-merged, Spitzer-IRAC catalog complemented with MIPS photometry previously obtained is used to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs), also including sources detected in less than four IRAC bands. Bona fide YSOs are selected by using appropriate color-color and color-magnitude criteria aimed at excluding both Galactic and extragalactic contaminants. The derived star formation rate and efficiency are compared with the same quantities characterizing other star-forming clouds. Additional photometric data, spanning from the near-IR to the submillimeter, are used to evaluate both bolometric luminosity and temperature for 33 YSOs located in a region of the cloud observed by both Spitzer and Herschel. The luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that some of these sources are representative of Class 0 objects with bolometric temperatures below 70 K and luminosities of the order of the solar luminosity. Far-IR observations from the Herschel/Hi-GAL key project for a survey of the Galactic plane are also used to obtain a band-merged photometric catalog of Herschel sources intended to independently search for protostars. We find 122 Herschel cores located on the molecular cloud, 30 of which are protostellar and 92 of which are starless. The global protostellar luminosity function is obtained by merging the Spitzer and Herschel protostars. Considering that 10 protostars are found in both the Spitzer and Herschel lists, it follows that in the investigated region we find 53 protostars and that the Spitzer-selected protostars account for approximately two-thirds of the total.

  5. THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT POPULATION IN THE VELA-D MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Strafella, F.; Maruccia, Y.; Maiolo, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Massi, F.; Olmi, L.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate the young stellar population in the Vela Molecular Ridge, Cloud-D, a star-forming region observed by both the Spitzer/NASA and Herschel/ESA space telescopes. The point-source, band-merged, Spitzer-IRAC catalog complemented with MIPS photometry previously obtained is used to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs), also including sources detected in less than four IRAC bands. Bona fide YSOs are selected by using appropriate color-color and color-magnitude criteria aimed at excluding both Galactic and extragalactic contaminants. The derived star formation rate and efficiency are compared with the same quantities characterizing other star-forming clouds. Additional photometric data, spanning from the near-IR to the submillimeter, are used to evaluate both bolometric luminosity and temperature for 33 YSOs located in a region of the cloud observed by both Spitzer and Herschel. The luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that some of these sources are representative of Class 0 objects with bolometric temperatures below 70K and luminosities of the order of the solar luminosity. Far-IR observations from the Herschel/Hi-GAL key project for a survey of the Galactic plane are also used to obtain a band-merged photometric catalog of Herschel sources intended to independently search for protostars. We find 122 Herschel cores located on the molecular cloud, 30 of which are protostellar and 92 of which are starless. The global protostellar luminosity function is obtained by merging the Spitzer and Herschel protostars. Considering that 10 protostars are found in both the Spitzer and Herschel lists, it follows that in the investigated region we find 53 protostars and that the Spitzer-selected protostars account for approximately two-thirds of the total.

  6. Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Cameron, J.; Jain, A.; Kline, H.; Lim, C.; Mazhar, H.; Myint, S.; Nayar, H.; Patton, R.; Pomerantz, M.; Quadrelli, M.; Shakkotai, P.; Tso, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Space Exploration Analysis and Simulation (SEAS) task, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is using physics-based simulations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to explore potential surface and near-surface mission operations at Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The simulator is under development at JPL and can be used to provide detailed analysis of various surface and near-surface NEO robotic and human exploration concepts. In this paper we describe the SEAS simulator and provide examples of recent mission systems and operations concepts investigated using the simulation. We also present related analysis work and tools developed for both the SEAS task as well as general modeling, analysis and simulation capabilites for asteroid/small-body objects.

  7. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  8. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is

  9. Teaching Color through Neo-Impressionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantz, Kay

    1990-01-01

    Outlines how a museum visit and the Looking/Learning article, "Painting: Neo-Impressionism," ("School Arts," September 1989) were used to inspire sixth grade students to make their own Neo-Impressionist works. Comments on the diversity of the students' techniques in attempting to blend color visually. (KM)

  10. The achievements of Chinese NEOs survey project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuehua; Zhao, Haibin; Yao, Jinsheng; Lu, Hao; Yao, Dazhi; Li, Guangyu

    The Chinese NEOs survey project was proposed in 1995 at the conference on NEOs held at the World Headquarters of United Nations in New York to take part in the international NEO joint survey. After a long time preparation, the telescope special for asteroids and NEOs observation was put into use at Xuyi station of Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) at the end of 2006, which is a 104/120/180mm Schmidt type equipped with a 4K4K CCD detector. Until November of 2007, we had found 332 new asteroids including an Apollo-type NEO "2007 JW2" and a Jupiter family periodic comet "P/2007 S1 (Zhao)". The observational quantity of the telescope ranked the 8th among the 378 asteroid observation plans in the world. We will present the detail of the new achievements of the project.

  11. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-08-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the albedo distribution of NEOs with those of their potential source populations. These projects are supported by NASA and the Spitzer Science Center.

  12. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) -- Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while providing a portal to facilitate observation planning and coordination within the small body observer community. We will present highlights of these early MANOS science results.

  13. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G (PI N. Moskovitz).

  14. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. ? v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow us to obtain rotational light curves for objects down to V22, visible spectra down to V21, and near-IR spectra down to V19. MANOS primarily focuses on targets that are recently discovered. We employ a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable follow-up characterization within days or weeks after a target of interest is discovered. We will present a MANOS status report with an emphasis on noteworthy observations and ongoing efforts to achieve fully transparency by making target lists and data products publicly available online.

  15. Planetary protection issues for the MarcoPolo NEO sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romstedt, Jens; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawagushi, Jun; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Pillinger, Judith; Prieur, Daniel; Yano, Hajime; Agnolon, David; Binzel, Richard P.

    The MarcoPolo mission has been selected as an M-class candidate for assessment study within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through a competitive process the final candidate will be selected at the end of the year 2011. The primary goal of this mission is to return samples of material from a Near Earth Object (NEO) to Earth. An automated system will collect material from the top surface layer with a mass of around 100g. The actual sampling sequence is preceded by an intensive mapping and characterisation campaign of the target body by remote sensing instruments on an orbiting spacecraft. The collected material will be transferred to a return capsule that enters Earth's atmosphere and lands. The proposed candidate targets are primitive objects of various spectral classes. In a current process based on scientific evaluation, engineering and programmatic requirements the list of objects will be narrowed down to a short list of prime target bodies. The delivery of alien material to Earth using a spacecraft places this mission in Category V according to COSPAR planetary protection rules. Depending on the target or region of a target the mission is subclassified as "none-restricted" or" restricted" return. The latter implies a severe impact on the complexity of the mission architecture due to much higher technological constraints and sample handling procedures on Earth. Among the NEO population there is a large variety of very different objects. Only a few are assessed on the basis of planetary protection rules. Future small body exploration missions like MarcoPolo require the assessment and categorisation according to the biologic potential of the respective target body. This presentation will assess the proposed mission according to the COSPAR planetary protection rules as adopted by ESA.

  16. LSST: Comprehensive NEO detection, characterization, and orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne

    2014-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has Solar System mapping as one of its four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. We will describe detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from Cerro Pachon in Chile, the LSST site, which shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, simulations also show that LSST can reach the completeness of 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by optimizing observing cadence andextending the survey lifetime to 12 years. In addition to detecting and determining orbits for these PHAs, LSST will also provide valuable data on their physical characteristics through accurate color and variability measurements, which can be used to determine approximate taxonomical types, better size estimates by constraining albedos, rotation periods, and shape characteristics; thus constraining PHA properties relevant for risk mitigation strategies.

  17. Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office performed an assessment of the feasibility of using a near-term solar sail propulsion system to enable a single spacecraft to perform serial rendezvous operations at multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) within six years of launch on a small-to-moderate launch vehicle. The study baselined the use of the sail technology demonstrated in the mid-2000 s by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project and is scheduled to be demonstrated in space by 2014 as part of the NASA Technology Demonstration Mission Program. The study ground rules required that the solar sail be the only new technology on the flight; all other spacecraft systems and instruments must have had previous space test and qualification. The resulting mission concept uses an 80-m X 80-m 3-axis stabilized solar sail launched by an Athena-II rocket in 2017 to rendezvous with 1999 AO10, Apophis and 2001 QJ142. In each rendezvous, the spacecraft will perform proximity operations for approximately 30 days. The spacecraft science payload is simple and lightweight; it will consist of only the multispectral imager flown on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission to 433 Eros and 253 Mathilde. Most non-sail spacecraft systems are based on the Messenger mission spacecraft. This paper will describe the objectives of the proposed mission, the solar sail technology to be employed, the spacecraft system and subsystems, as well as the overall mission profile.

  18. The CSS and SSS NEO surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, S.; Beshore, E.; Hill, R.; Christensen, E.; McLean, D.; Kolar, S.; McNaught, R.; Garradd, G.

    2003-05-01

    After extensive refurbishment, the Catalina Schmidt is back on line and the Catalina Sky Survey for NEOs has resumed. Compared to the old system, the new coverage rate has doubled to the same R 19.3 limit with a red filter that reduces scattered moonlight and twilight. The data reduction and detection software has been improved with features to automate "housekeeping" and to be more fault tolerant. Together, these help free the observer to concentrate on visual validation of moving object candidates. The Siding Spring Survey is a southern hemisphere component based upon the modified 0.5-m Uppsala Schmidt to use the same type of camera, support computers, and software. Currently in commissioning phase, it will cover areas of the sky unreachable by the northern hemisphere surveys. New to the CSS is the Mt. Lemmon 1.5-m which has been upgraded with computer control and a prime focus camera. Our objective with this instrument is to survey smaller areas to a fainter limit (R 22) for two weeks per month. The cell for the field correcting optics is nearing completion and commissioning is planned for this fall. We describe the details of these facilities, the synergy afforded by the diverse locations and apertures, and the efficiencies that can result from using similar software and processes in conducting all three surveys. This work is supported by NASA NEOO grants NAGW5-10853 and NAGW5-132

  19. Threat Assessment of Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2010-09-01

    Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatorys (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility are in their third year of a program to derive physical characterization information on some of the smallest (less than 200 meters in diameter) objects in the Near-Earth Object (NEO) population. Tiny comets and asteroids are being discovered by survey programs on a routine basis, so targets available for study have been abundant. Our primary objective is to derive rotation rates for these objects, and to place the results in context with previous data to enhance our understanding of asteroid impact physics and better address the threat from NEOs having Earth-crossing orbits. Rotation rate can be used to infer internal structure, which is a physical property important to assessing the energy needed for object disruption or other forms of hazard mitigation. Since the existing database of rotational data derived from lightcurves of objects in this small size regime is sparse, collection of additional observational data is beneficial. Acquiring more knowledge about the physical nature of NEOs not only contributes to general scientific pursuits, but is important to planetary defense.

  20. Thermal Studies of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal, we seek to apply the optical/thermal method to the measurement of the diameters and albedos of a large sample of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Whereas main-belt asteroids have been studied in large numbers, principally using thermal detections from the IRAS satellite, relatively few thermal observations of NEOs have been secured. This program capitalizes on our access to large telescopes and imaging thermal IR detectors in pursuit of the definitive set of albedo data on the NEOs.

  1. NEOShield - A global approach to NEO Impact Threat Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    NEOShield is a European-Union funded project coordinated by the German Aero-space Center, DLR, to address near-Earth object (NEO) impact hazard mitigation issues. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The project is funded for a period of 3.5 years from January 2012 with a total of 5.8 million euros. The primary aim of the project is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. The NEOShield work plan consists of scientific investigations into the nature of the impact hazard and the physical properties of NEOs, and technical and engineering studies of practical means of deflecting NEOs. There exist many ideas for asteroid deflection techniques, many of which would require considerable scientific and technological development. The emphasis of NEOShield is on techniques that are feasible with current technology, requiring a minimum of research and development work. NEOShield aims to provide detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions, targeting NEOs of the kind most likely to trigger the first space-based mitigation action. Most of the asteroid deflection techniques proposed to date require physical contact with the threatening object, an example being the kinetic impactor. NEOShield includes research into the mitigation-relevant physical properties of NEOs on the basis of remotely-sensed astronomical data and the results of rendezvous missions, the observational techniques required to efficiently gather mitigation-relevant data on the dynamical state and physical properties of a threatening NEO, and laboratory investigations using gas guns to fire projectiles into asteroid regolith analog materials. The gas-gun investigations enable state-of-the-art numerical models to be verified at small scales. Computer simulations at realistic NEO scales are used to investigate how NEOs with a range of properties would respond to a pulse of energy applied in a deflection attempt. The technical work includes the development of crucial technologies, such as the autonomous guidance of a kinetic impactor to a precise point on the surface of the target, and the detailed design of realistic missions for the purpose of demonstrating the applicability and feasibility of one or more of the techniques investigated. Theoretical work on the blast deflection method of mitigation is designed to probe the circumstances in which this last line of defense may be the only viable option and the issues relating to its deployment. A global response campaign roadmap will be developed based on realistic scenarios presented, for example, by the discovery of an object such as 99942 Apophis or 2011 AG5 on a threatening orbit. The work will include considerations of the timeline of orbit knowledge and impact probability development, reconnaissance observations and fly-by or rendezvous missions, the political decision to mount a mitigation attempt, and the design, development, and launch of the mitigation mission. Collaboration with colleagues outside the NEOShield Consortium involved in complementary activities (e.g. under the auspices of the UN, NASA, or ESA) is being sought in order to establish a broad international strategy. We present a brief overview of the history and planned scope of the project, and progress made to date. The NEOShield project (http://www.neoshield.net) has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 282703.

  2. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"

  3. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  4. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of taxonomic types that differs from both large NEOs and meteorites.We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G.

  5. Trans-Neptunian Objects Transiently Stuck in Neptune's Mean Motion Resonances: numerical simulations of the current population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tze Yeung Mathew; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Volk, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Inferring from observational data, it is well known that a large population of objects orbits the Sun in mean motion resonance with Neptune with semi-major axes in the range a=30-100AU. Many of these objects were likely caught into resonances by planetary migration---either smooth or stochastic---approximately 4 billion years ago. Some, however, scattered off Neptune and become transiently stuck in more recent events. The goal of this project is to form a testable model of the transient sticking population through numerical simulation. We calculate the relative likelihood of resonance sticking from the current scattering disk into a range of resonances. We confirm that transiently stuck objects are most prevalent in n:1 resonances, followed by n:2, n:3 and so on. The integrated time that objects spend stuck in resonance increases for resonances with longer orbital periods. We calculate the expected distribution of libration amplitudes for resonance angles of stuck objects and comment on implications for the origins of distant resonance populations.

  6. Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David

    2007-10-01

    NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

  7. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  8. From Magnitudes to Diameters: The Albedo Distribution of Near Earth Objects and the Earth Collision Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bottke, W. F.; Michel, P.; Tedesco, E. F.

    2002-08-01

    A recently published model of the Near Earth Object (NEO) orbital-magnitude distribution (Bottke et al., 2002, Icarus156, 399-433.) relies on five intermediate sources for the NEO population: the ? 6 resonance, the 3:1 resonance, the outer portion of the main belt (i.e., 2.8-3.5 AU), the Mars-crossing population adjacent to the main belt, and the Jupiter family comet population. The model establishes the relative contribution of these sources to the NEO population. By computing the albedo distribution of the bodies in and/or near each of the five sources, we can deduce the albedo distribution of the NEO population as a function of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination. A problem with this strategy, however, is that we do not know a priori the albedo distribution of main belt asteroids over the same size range as observed NEOs (diameter D<10 km). To overcome this problem, we determined the albedo distribution of large asteroids in and/or near each NEO source region and used these results to deduce the albedo distribution of smaller asteroids in the same regions. This method requires that we make some assumptions about the absolute magnitude distributions of both asteroid families and background asteroids. Our solution was to extrapolate the observed absolute magnitude distributions of the families up to some threshold value Hthr, beyond which we assumed that the families' absolute magnitude distributions were background-like. We found that Hthr=14.5 provides the best match to the color vs heliocentric distance distribution observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With this value of Hthr our model predicts that the debiased ratio between dark and bright (albedo smaller or larger than 0.089) objects in any absolute-magnitude-limited sample of the NEO population is 0.250.02. Once the observational biases are properly taken into account, this agrees very well with the observed C/S ratio (0.165 for H<20). The dark/bright ratio of NEOs increases to 0.870.05 if a size-limited sample is considered. We estimate that the total number of NEOs larger than a kilometer is 855110, which, compared to the total number of NEOs with H<18 (963120), shows that the usually assumed conversion H=18? D=1 km slightly overestimates the number of kilometer-size objects. Combining our orbital distribution model with the new albedo distribution model, and assuming that the density of bright and dark bodies is 2.7 and 1.3 g/cm 3, respectively, we estimate that the Earth should undergo a 1000 megaton collision every 63,0008000 years. On average, the bodies capable of producing 1000 megaton of impact energy are those with H<20.6. The NEOs discovered so far carry only 182% of this collision probability.

  9. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) — First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Avner, Louis; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Schottland, Robert; Siu, Hosea; Thirouin, Audrey; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Wasserman, Lawrence; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO and has since expanded operations to include facilities at Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, where little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Observing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy enables the characterization of roughly 10% of newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.To date MANOS has obtained data on over 200 sub-km NEOs and will ultimately provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present first results from the survey including: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for small objects with high Earth-encounter probabilities, (3) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will help to facilitate observational planning for the small body observer community, and (4) physical properties derived from rotational light curves.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO, Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G and an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz.

  10. Do Subjective Memory Complaints Lead or Follow Objective Cognitive Change? A Five-Year Population Study of Temporal Influence.

    PubMed

    Snitz, Beth E; Small, Brent J; Wang, Tianxiu; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Hughes, Tiffany F; Ganguli, Mary

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between subjective memory complaints (SM) and objective memory (OM) performance in aging has been variably characterized in a substantial literature, to date. In particular, cross-sectional studies often observe weak or no associations. We investigated whether subjective memory complaints and objectively measured cognition influence each other over time, and if so, which is the stronger pathway of change-objective to subjective, or subjective to objective-or whether they are both important. Using bivariate latent change score modeling in data from a population study (N=1980) over 5 annual assessment cycles, we tested four corresponding hypotheses: (1) no coupling between SM and OM over time; (2) SM as leading indicator of change in OM; (3) OM as leading indicator of change in SM; (4) dual coupling over time, with both SM and OM leading subsequent change in the other. We also extended objective cognition to two other domains, language and executive functions. The dual-coupling models best fit the data for all three objective cognitive domains. The SM-OM temporal dynamics differ qualitatively compared to other domains, potentially reflecting changes in insight and self-awareness specific to memory impairment. Subjective memory and objective cognition reciprocally influence each other over time. The temporal dynamics between subjective and objective cognition in aging are nuanced, and must be carefully disentangled to shed light on the underlying processes. PMID:26477680

  11. The role of near-Sun objects in determining the population of Chelyabinsk-type bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V.

    2014-07-01

    We have calculated the orbit of the Chelyabinsk object, applying the least-squares method directly to its astrometric positions (Emel'yanenko, Naroenkov, Jenniskens, Popova, 2014). A study of the backward dynamical evolution by integrating equations of motion for particles with orbits from the confidence region has shown that the majority of the Chelyabinsk clones reach the near-Sun state. An analysis of other meteorites with well-determined orbits also demonstrates frequent approaches of these bodies to the Sun in the past. In addition, we have found many observed near-Earth asteroids that had small perihelion distances in the past. In extreme near-Sun cases, asteroids should experience thermal and tidal disintegration. It is interesting to note that examples of such near-Sun objects are probably observed now as 'sunskirting comets'. Some members of the Kracht and Marsden families have been observed in a few apparitions. A detailed investigation of their forward motion shows that these bodies evolve to orbits of typical near-Earth objects. Thus they can generate Chelyabinsk-sized bodies in near-Earth space. We conclude that encounters of small bodies with the Sun play an important role in the production of near-Earth objects.

  12. Cochlear implantees: Analysis of behavioral and objective measures for a clinical population of various age groups.

    PubMed

    Greisiger, Ralf; Shallop, Jon K; Hol, Per Kristian; Elle, Ole Jakob; Jablonski, Greg Eigner

    2015-11-01

    Introduction As of 2014 more than 1200 patients have received a cochlear implant (CI) at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) and approximately half of them have been children. The data obtained from these patients have been used to develop a comprehensive database for a systematic analysis of several objective measurements and programming measurements. During the past 10 years, we have used an objective measurements protocol for our CI surgeries. Our intra-operative protocol includes: Evoked Compound Action Potentials (ECAP), visually observed Electrically evoked Stapedius Reflex Threshold (ESRT), and electrode impedances. Post-operative (Post-OP) programming sessions typically begin 4-6 weeks after surgery and continue on a scheduled basis. The initial programming data include threshold levels (T-levels) and comfortable levels (C-levels) for the different patient age groups. In this study, we compared initial stimulation levels and stimulation levels after at least 1 year of CI with objective measurements obtained intra-operatively. Method This study focused on the development of a comprehensive database of detailed intra-operative objective measures and post-OP programming measurements from a group of 296 CI patients who received the same type of CI and electrode configuration (Cochlear() Corporation CI with Contour() electrode). This group included 92 bilateral CI patients. Measurements from 388 CI devices were studied. Patients were divided into 5 different age groups at the age of implantation: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and above 20 years in order to investigate age-related differences in programming levels and objective measurements. For the comparison analysis we used T- and C-levels obtained after the last day of initial programming and also after at least 1 year implant use. These programming levels were then correlated with some of the intra-operative objective measurements. Results T-levels were found to be the lowest for the youngest patient group and increased with age. C-levels varied within age groups and frequency range. Patients above 20 years of age had the highest comfort levels in the low to mid-frequencies (electrodes 22-8) and the lowest comfort levels in the high-frequency range (electrodes 1-7). Correlation coefficients between intra-operative objective measurements and programming levels were found to be in the range of no correlation to moderate correlation. Adult patients had the most significant correlation coefficients between ECAP thresholds and T-levels in the low frequencies. The younger patients aged 10-20 years and 5-10 years had more significant correlations in the higher frequency channels compared to the other age groups. Intra-operative visually observed ESRTs and electrode impedances were not significantly correlated with initial or stable programming levels for the children or adults. Conclusion Analyzing initial and follow-up mapping levels from previous patients is very important for a CI Center in terms of quality control. The mean T/C-levels reported in this study can provide guidance to our programming audiologists and help them determine the initial programming levels to be stored in the speech processor, especially for very young patients. Unfortunately intra-operative objective measures in our study, such as ECAP, ESRT, and electrode impedances did not provide statistically significant correlations that may help to predict the programming T- and C-levels for all patients. However, we have observed cases where the intra-operative objective measures of ESRT and TECAP profiles were very similar to an individual's MAP profile. It was not possible, however, to determine why some patients did not have an objective measures profile that was similar to their programming levels profile. PMID:26642899

  13. Discovery of M class objects among the near-earth asteroid population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Gradie, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Broadband colorimetry, visual photometry, near-infrared photometry, and 10 and 20 micron radiometry of the near-earth asteroids (NEAs) 1986 DA and 1986 EB are used to show that these objects belong to the M class of asteroids. The similarity among the distributions of taxonomic classes among the 38 NEAs to the abundances found in the inner astoroid belt between the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances suggests that NEAs have their origins among asteroids in the vicinity of these resonances. The implied mineralogy of 1986 DA and 1986 EB is mostly nickel-iron metal; if this is indeed the case, then current models for meteorite production based on strength-related collisional processes on asteroidal surfaces predict that these two objects alone should produce about one percent of all meteorite falls. Iron meteorites derived from these near-earth asteroids should have low cosmic-ray exposure ages.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Neo Transgenic Pigs by Studying Changes in Gut Microbiota Using High-Throughput Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shengwang; Cai, Chunbo; Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Tang, Maoxue; Hou, Jian; Liu, Jie; Cui, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The neo (neomycin phosphotransferase) gene is widely used as a selection marker in the production of genetically engineered animals and plants. Recent attention has been focused on safety concerns regarding neo transgene expression. In this study, neo transgenic and non-transgenic piglets were randomly assigned into Group A and Group B to evaluate effects of neo transgene by studying changes in gut microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. Group A pigs were fed a standard diet supplemented with antibiotic neomycin; Group B pigs were fed a standard diet. We examined horizontal transfer of exogenous neo gene using multiplex PCR; and investigated if the presence of secreted NPT II (neo expression product) in the intestine could lead to some protection against neomycin in transgenic pigs by monitoring different patterns of changes in gut microbiota in Group A animals. The unintended effects of neo transgene on gut microbiota were studied in Group B animals. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected in gut microbiota of any transgenic pigs. In Group A, a significant difference was observed between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs in pattern of changes in Proteobacteria populations in fecal samples during and post neomycin feeding. In Group B, there were significant differences in the relative abundance of phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and genera Lactobacillus and Escherichia-Shigella-Hafnia between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs. We speculate that the secretion of NPT II from transgenic tissues/cells into gut microbiota results in the inhibition of neomycin activity and the different patterns of changes in bacterial populations. Furthermore, the neo gene also leads to unintended effects on gut microbiota in transgenic pigs that were fed with basic diet (not supplemented with neomycin). Thus, our data in this study caution that wide use of the neo transgene in genetically engineered animals should be carefully considered and fully assessed. PMID:26966911

  15. Effects of Earth Encounters on the Rotational Properties of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chit Siu, Ho; Keane, James T.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been shown to be significant factors in their evolution. Previous studies have examined the effects of these encounters on reflectance spectra, and effects such as spin state and shape changes have been studied for specific asteroids and through simulation. In this study, archive data from previous NEO surveys were used to investigate rotational frequencies as a function of minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID), which we use as a proxy for Earth encounter likelihood.When comparing objects of similar sizes, we find a highly significant difference in the dispersion of rotational frequency (p < 0.01; significant at a >99% confidence level) between NEO populations that were likely to have had an Earth encounter and those that are less likely to have had such an encounter. The encounter/non-encounter distinction is found at a dividing MOID value of 1 lunar distance (LD). These results were robust to changes in the size of the moving average window, as well as to removal of the smallest objects from the encounter population and the largest objects from the non-encounter population, which would be most strongly affected by a known size/spin period bias where smaller objects tend to have shorter periods. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean rotation rates of encounter and non-encounter objects, however, indicating that encounters cause greater dispersion, but do not preferentially spin objects up or down at a detectable level. Recent modeling work also lends credibility to the idea that NEO interactions with the Earth-Moon system as a whole may be leading to the dispersion difference boundary at 1 LD (Keane et al. 2015, DPS).

  16. Marco Polo, a JAXA-ESA sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.

    2009-04-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). It is proposed to be performed in collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA). Both JAXA and ESA are currently performing Phase-A studies for this mission; within ESA, the mission is studied as part of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. The main objective of the mission is to return unmodified material from a primitive NEO to the Earth to allow its accurate analysis in ground-based laboratories. These primitive NEOs are part of the small body population that represents the leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago and carry records both of the Solar System's birth and early phases. In addition, the mission will allow studying the geological evolution and physical properties of small bodies. Marco Polo will provide the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the terrestrial planets and advance our understanding of some of the fundamental issues in the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, the Earth and possibly life itself. Determining the physical properties of a NEO will also help assessing mitigation strategies for the impact risk of such an object on the Earth. This presentation will focus on the ESA side of the assessment study. The technical development status in Europe will be presented.

  17. A novel drug conjugate, NEO212, targeting proneural and mesenchymal subtypes of patient-derived glioma cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jhaveri, Niyati; Agasse, Fabienne; Armstrong, Don; Peng, Lilei; Commins, Deborah; Wang, Weijun; Rosenstein-Sisson, Rachel; Vaikari, Vijaya Pooja; Santiago, Shayane V; Santos, Tiago; Chen, Ligang; Schönthal, Axel H; Chen, Thomas C; Hofman, Florence M

    2016-02-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant brain tumor, accounts for half of all gliomas. Despite surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the median survival is between 12 and 15 months. The poor prognosis is due to tumor recurrence attributed to chemoresistant glioma cancer stem cells (GSCs). Here we examined the effects of a novel compound NEO212, which is composed of two covalently conjugated anti-cancer compounds - temozolomide (TMZ) and perillyl alcohol (POH), on GSCs expressing either the proneural or mesenchymal gene signatures. These GSCs were obtained from patient-derived tumor tissue. Our findings demonstrate that NEO212 is 10 fold more cytotoxic to GSCs than TMZ (standard-of-care). Furthermore, NEO212 is effective against both proneural and clinically aggressive mesenchymal GSC subtypes. The mechanism of NEO212 mediated-cytotoxicity is through double-strand DNA breaks and apoptosis. In vivo studies show that NEO212 significantly delays tumor growth of both proneural and mesenchymal tumor stem cell populations. Patient-derived GSCs and tumors derived from these cells are highly reflective of the heterogeneity in human GBM. The efficacy of NEO212 against both GSC subtypes indicates that NEO212 has great clinical potential to effectively target GBM. PMID:26683773

  18. Substellar objects in nearby young clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar population in Lupus 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mužić, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Martí, Belén López

    2014-04-20

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (∼1 Myr), nearby (∼200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ∼1.4 deg{sup 2} on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M {sub ☉}, for A{sub V} ≤ 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T {sub eff} ≤ 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H{sub α} or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T {sub eff} = (4120 ± 175) – (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later.

  19. Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2014-11-01

    NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

  20. Deflection of large near-earth objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1999-01-11

    The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

  1. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  2. Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar Population in Lupus 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mužić, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; López Martí, Belén

    2014-04-01

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ~1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ⊙, for AV <= 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff <= 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Hα or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) - (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 087.C-0386 and 089.C-0432, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's programs 2010A-0054 and 2011A-0144.

  3. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mrkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ? 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. PMID:23278771

  4. Cost-Effective NEO Characterization Using Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Reinert, R.; Mitchell, S.

    2003-05-01

    We present a cost-effective multiple NEO rendezvous mission design optimized around the capabilities of Ball's 200-kg NEOX Solar Electric Propelled microsatellite. The NEOX spacecraft is 3-axis stabilized with better-than 1 milliradian pointing accuracy to serve as an excellent imaging platform; its DSN compatible telecommunications subsystem can support a 6.4-kbps downlink rate at 3 AU earth range. The spacecraft mass is <200kg at launch to allow launch as a cost-effective secondary payload. It uses proven SEP technology to provide 12km/s of Delta-V, which enables multiple rendezvous' in a single mission. Cost-effectiveness is optimized by launch as a secondary payload (e.g., Ariane-5 ASAP) or as a multiple manifest on a single dedicated launch vehicle (e.g., 4 on a Delta-II 2925). Following separation from the LV, we describe a candidate mission profile that minimizes cost by using the spacecraft's 12km/s of SEP Delta-V to allow orbiting up to 4 separate NEO's. Orbiting as opposed to flying by augments the mission's science return by providing the NEO mass and by allowing multiple phase angle imaging. The NEOX Spacecraft has the capability to support a 20kg payload drawing 100W average during SEP cruise, with >1kW available during the NEO orbital phase when the SEP thrusters are not powered. We will present a candidate payload suite that includes a visible/NIR imager, a laser altimeter, and a set of small, self-righting surface probes that can be used to assess the geophysical state of the object surface and near-surface environments. The surface probe payload notionally includes a set of cameras for imaging the body surface at mm-scale resolution, an accelerometer package to measure surface mechanical properties upon probe impact, a Langmuir probe to measure the electrostatic gradient immediately above the object surface, and an explosive charge that can be remotely detonated at the end of the surface mission to excavate an artificial crater that can be remotely observed from the orbiting spacecraft.

  5. Creationism, Neo-Darwinism and Panspermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-10-01

    Creationists and neo-Darwinists have spent the past several decades engaged in a sullen trench warfare, occasionally firing at each other with little effect. We argue in this article that an acceptance of panspermia as a "third way" might lead to a long over-due reconciliation between the contending groups.

  6. Confronting a Neo-Nazi Hate Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furin, Terrance L.

    2007-01-01

    The peaceful quiet that often accompanies the warming of a mid-April morning in a rural/suburban school district outside Philadelphia was broken harshly when several alarmed high school students arrived at school with Neo-Nazi flyers. The flyers were designed to recruit new members into a hate group calling itself the Pottstown SS. In addition,

  7. Confronting a Neo-Nazi Hate Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furin, Terrance L.

    2007-01-01

    The peaceful quiet that often accompanies the warming of a mid-April morning in a rural/suburban school district outside Philadelphia was broken harshly when several alarmed high school students arrived at school with Neo-Nazi flyers. The flyers were designed to recruit new members into a hate group calling itself the Pottstown SS. In addition,…

  8. Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sola, Peter; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

  9. The MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Tokunaga, A.; Bus, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. All spectroscopic observations obtained in this campaign are being made publicly available in near-real time.

  10. Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

  11. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement

  12. Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

  13. 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter's Mill meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, R.; Haack, H.; Böhnhardt, H.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Williams, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: 2P/Encke is a short period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke owing to a good match of their orbital elements, even though the comet's activity is not strong enough to explain the number of observed meteors. Various small near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been discovered with orbits that can be linked to 2P/Encke and the Taurid meteoroid stream. Maribo and Sutter's Mill are CM type carbonaceous chondrite that fell in Denmark on January 17, 2009 and April 22, 2012, respectively. Their pre-atmospheric orbits place them in the middle of the Taurid meteoroid stream, which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites. Methods: To investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex associated NEOs, and CM chondrites exists, we performed photometric and spectroscopic studies of these objects in the visible wavelength range. We observed 2P/Encke and 10 NEOs on August 2, 2011 with the FORS instrument at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (Chile). Results: Images in the R filter, used to investigate the possible presence of cometary activity around the nucleus of 2P/Encke and the NEOs, show that no resolved coma is present. None of the FORS spectra show the 700 nm absorption feature due to hydrated minerals that is seen in the CM chondrite meteorites. All objects show featureless spectra with moderate reddening slopes at λ< 800 nm. Apart for 2003 QC10 and 1999 VT25, which show a flatter spectrum, the spectral slope of the observed NEOs is compatible with that of 2P/Encke. However, most of the NEOs show evidence of a silicate absorption in lower S/N data at λ> 800 nm, which is not seen in 2P/Encke, which suggests that they are not related. Conclusions: Despite similar orbits, we find no spectroscopic evidence for a link between 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter's Mill meteorites. However, we cannot rule out a connection to the meteorites either, as the spectral differences may be caused by secondary alteration of the surfaces of the NEOs. Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile: Program 087.C-0788(A).

  14. An objective method for measurement of musculo-skeletal size to characterize body physique with application to the athletic population.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, M H; Lohman, T G

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an objective method for estimating the musculo-skeletal size in relation to height for use in the study of body physique in athletes. The method can be applied to various male and female athletic groups and indicates the relative musculo-skeletal size by the extent to which each group falls above or below the regression of FFB on height as derived from the non-athletic male and female populations. Athletes within both sexes are found to differ greatly among performance events in this aspect of physique with track runners having the least amount of FFB related to height (within 1 standard error of the non-athletic population regression line) and professional football players having the most (2 to 3 standard errors above the non-athletic population line). Measurement of FFB can be obtained by underwater weighing or anthropometric dimensions and thus this approach offers application to the study and assessment of relative musculo-skeletal size in a variety of laboratory and field settings. PMID:7402052

  15. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy reported that some giant elliptical galaxies show extraordinarily strong Na I absorption lines and suggested that this is the evidence of unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later studied galaxies with unexpectedly strong Na D absorption lines (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that the origins of NEOs are different for different types of galaxies. According to their study, the origin of Na D excess seems to be related to interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, but there seems to be no contributions from ISM in smooth-looking early-type galaxies. In order to test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in Na D lines of NEOs. We hypothesized that if Na D absorption line is related to ISM, the absorption line is more likely to be blueshifted in the spectrum by the motion of ISM caused by outflow. Many of late-type NEOs show blueshifted Na D absorption lines, so their origin seems related to ISM. On the other hand, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show Doppler departure and Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM, which is consistent with the finding of Jeong et al.

  16. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Design: Representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. Interventions: None. Measurements: Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration ≥ 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: ≥ 6 h of sleep (“normal sleep duration”) and < 6 h of sleep (“short sleep duration”). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. Results: No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Conclusions: Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the “executive control of attention.” These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Calhoun S; Bixler EO; Pejovic S; Karataraki M; Liao D; Vela-Bueno A; Ramos-Platon MJ; Sauder KA; Vgontzas AN. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in neuropsychological performance: a general population study. SLEEP 2010;33(4):459-465. PMID:20394314

  17. Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

  18. Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.

  19. Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonometti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Flight Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, postdeflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  20. Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonemetti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Right Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, post-deflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  1. On the non-uniform distribution of the angular elements of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-02-01

    We examine the angular distributions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which are often regarded as uniform. The apparent distribution of the longitude of ascending node, ?, is strongly affected by well-known seasonal effects in the discovery rate of NEOs. The deviation from the expected ?-periodicity in the apparent distribution of ? indicates that its intrinsic distribution is slightly enhanced along a mean direction, ??=111; approximately 53% of NEOs have ? values within 90 of ??. We also find that each subgroup of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects which cause different non-uniformities in the apparent distributions of their arguments of perihelion ?, and longitudes of perihelion ?. For their intrinsic distributions, our analysis reveals that the Apollo asteroids have non-uniform ? due to secular dynamics associated with inclination-eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors ? distribution is peaked towards the secularly forced eccentricity vector. The Apollos ? distribution is axial, favoring values near 0 and 180; the two quadrants centered at 0 and 180 account for 55% of the Apollos ? values. The Amors ? distribution peaks near ??=4; 61% of Amors have ? within 90 of this peak. We show that these modest but statistically significant deviations from uniform random distributions of angular elements are owed to planetary perturbations, primarily Jupiters. It is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

  2. A Neo-Sex Chromosome That Drives Postzygotic Sex Determination in the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor)

    PubMed Central

    Benatti, Thiago R.; Valicente, Fernando H.; Aggarwal, Rajat; Zhao, Chaoyang; Walling, Jason G.; Chen, Ming-Shun; Cambron, Sue E.; Schemerhorn, Brandon J.; Stuart, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual properties originated from the anomalous Hessian fly sex determination system in which postzygotic chromosome elimination is used to establish the sex-determining karyotypes. This system permitted the evolution of a master switch (Chromosome maintenance, Cm) that acts maternally. All of the offspring of females that carry Cm-associated neo-sex chromosomes attain a female-determining somatic karyotype and develop as females. Thus, the chromosomes act as maternal effect neo-W's, or W-prime (W′) chromosomes, where ZW′ females mate with ZZ males to engender female-producing (ZW′) and male-producing (ZZ) females in equal numbers. Genetic mapping and physical mapping identified the inversions. Their distribution was determined in nine populations. Experimental matings established the association of the inversions with Cm and measured their recombination suppression. The inversions are the functional equivalent of the sciarid X-prime chromosomes. We speculate that W′ chromosomes exist in a variety of species that produce unisexual broods. PMID:20026681

  3. Comparison of Opposition and Near Sun NEO Discoveries by the Catalina Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boattini, Andrea; Beshore, E. C.; Burton, D.; Garradd, G. J.; Gibbs, A. R.; Grauer, A. D.; Hill, R. E.; Kowalski, R. A.; Larson, S. M.; McNaught, R. H.

    2007-10-01

    The Catalina Sky Survey has been operating 3 telescopes for the past three years while extending its sky coverage into the far southern hemisphere but also towards lower solar elongations. Several recent studies (Chesley and Spahr 2002, Milani et al. 2005, Bernardi et al. 2005, Boattini PhD thesis 2007) have pointed out the importance of extending NEO searches at regions of the sky closer to the sun, despite the more challenging observing and orbital determination: to speed up the discovery of the largest unknown NEOs, to debias the known population by finding bodies with small aphelia and/or larger eccentricity/inclination and to encourage the discovery of PHAs in the so-called "sweet spots". In this work we compare orbital characteristics, size distributions, sky-plane densities, of NEOs discovered at different solar elongations (ecliptic longitude and latitude) by the CSS facilities between October 2004 and September 2007: in particular we focus on what has been found in the opposition region respect to areas closer ot the sun. Results from our sample ( 400 Amors, 500 Apollos and 100 Atens) will be analyzed and discussed in view also of refining observing strategies of future NEO surveys. This work is supported by the NASA NEOO program.

  4. A neo-sex chromosome that drives postzygotic sex determination in the hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor).

    PubMed

    Benatti, Thiago R; Valicente, Fernando H; Aggarwal, Rajat; Zhao, Chaoyang; Walling, Jason G; Chen, Ming-Shun; Cambron, Sue E; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Stuart, Jeffrey J

    2010-03-01

    Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual properties originated from the anomalous Hessian fly sex determination system in which postzygotic chromosome elimination is used to establish the sex-determining karyotypes. This system permitted the evolution of a master switch (Chromosome maintenance, Cm) that acts maternally. All of the offspring of females that carry Cm-associated neo-sex chromosomes attain a female-determining somatic karyotype and develop as females. Thus, the chromosomes act as maternal effect neo-W's, or W-prime (W') chromosomes, where ZW' females mate with ZZ males to engender female-producing (ZW') and male-producing (ZZ) females in equal numbers. Genetic mapping and physical mapping identified the inversions. Their distribution was determined in nine populations. Experimental matings established the association of the inversions with Cm and measured their recombination suppression. The inversions are the functional equivalent of the sciarid X-prime chromosomes. We speculate that W' chromosomes exist in a variety of species that produce unisexual broods. PMID:20026681

  5. Discrepancy between subjectively reported symptoms and objectively measured clinical findings in dry eye: a population based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui; Yao, Kai; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the discrepancy between patient-reported symptoms and measured clinical findings and influencing factors in dry eye (DE). Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in JulyAugust 2007 in northeast China. The study was performed on populations originating from two rural districts that are respectively located approximately 377 and 177?km from our hospital. Participants 2600 eligible residents from 1300 households were identified; valid responses were obtained from 2262 residents(mean age 48 (range 1288) years; 926 men and 1336 women; response rate 87%). Primary outcome measures Patient-reported symptoms of DE, tear film break up time (BUT) and Schirmer scores (Schirmer II). Results Subjects with normal BUT and Schirmer scores without any DE symptoms were defined as the control group. Those with abnormal BUT and Schirmer scores and symptoms of DE were defined as the DE group. Subjects with disparities between the occurrence of DE symptoms and measured clinical findings were regarded as the discrepancy. Out of 2262 subjects, the discrepant group contained 960 subjects (42.44%) with significant difference (?2=4.027, p=0.045<0.05). Factors that influenced the subjective reporting of DE symptoms included gender, smoking status, environment and age. Schirmer II test and tear film BUT values were remarkably different among control, DE and discrepant groups. Conclusions Development of DE can be related to many factors. It is of great importance to put forward the preclinical phase concept (patients who are symptomatic for DE and yet show no aqueous deficiency or evaporative signs) and to screen outpatients with DE-inducing features. Future interventions should focus on patients demonstrating a discrepancy between self-reported symptomology and measured clinical findings. PMID:25168038

  6. Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

  7. Klenot near-Earth-object follow-up program --- next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

    2014-07-01

    NEO research is a great challenge just now --- for science, for exploration, and for planetary defence. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic, has pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of Near Earth Objects since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements has helped to improve the inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO population. It was ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008. A fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. A new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013. The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation. Along with huge hardware changes we have decided for essential changes in software and the whole KLENOT work-flow. Using the current higher computing power available, enhancing and updating our databases and astrometry program, the core of our software package, will prove highly beneficial. Moreover, the UCAC4 as the more precise astrometric star catalog was implemented. Both the system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used in the framework of the KLENOT Project are described here, including methods for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry. Methods and techniques used for the KLENOT Project are also discussed. Sources of particular inaccuracies of astrometric measurements as input data for orbit computations were identified. Then we have searched for ways to eliminate them and this effort still continues. The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. This step opens new possibilities for the KLENOT Project, the long-term European Contribution to Monitoring and Cataloging Near Earth Objects. More than 3000 minor planet and comet astrometric positions including NEA measurements were published from September 2013 to March 2014. The 1.06-m KLENOT telescope is still the largest telescope in continental Europe used exclusively for observations of asteroids and comets. Full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. Considering our results and long-time experience obtained at the Klet Observatory, we have a large potential to contribute to recent NEO efforts. We also plan to discuss an international dimension of NEO astrometric follow-up, crucial for reasonable results. A meaningful connection and collaboration with the next generation ground-based and space surveys will be important. The cooperation with and through the Minor Planet Center, the worldwide clearinghouse for small solar system bodies astrometric observations and orbits, is an essential feature of NEO efforts. We also plan to cooperate and directly take part with the ESA's SSA-NEO Programme as a part of European network of cooperating sensors.

  8. KLENOT Project 2002-2008 contribution to NEO astrometric follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Near-Earth object (NEO) research plays an increasingly important role not only in solar system science but also in protecting our planetary environment as well as human society from the asteroid and comet hazard. Consequently, interest in detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and the physical characterizing of these bodies has steadily grown. The discovery rate of current NEO surveys reflects progressive improvement in a number of technical areas. An integral part of NEO discovery is astrometric follow-up crucial for precise orbit computation and for the reasonable judging of future close encounters with the Earth, including possible impact solutions. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) is aimed especially at the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up, and recovery of near-Earth objects. It ranks among the worlds most prolific professional NEO follow-up programs. The 1.06 m KLENOT telescope, put into regular operation in 2002, is the largest telescope in Europe used exclusively for observations of minor planets and comets, and full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. In this paper, we present the equipment, technology, software, observing strategy, and results of the KLENOT Project obtained during its first phase from March 2002 to September 2008. The results consist of thousands of precise astrometric measurements of NEOs and also three newly discovered near-Earth asteroids. Finally, we also discuss future plans reflecting also the role of astrometric follow-up in connection with the modus operandi of the next generation surveys.

  9. Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; Hopkins, R.; Chapman, J.; White, S.; Bonometti, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Kalkstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This document reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of Near Earth Objects (NEO's) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are then given of an MSFC-led study, intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. An existing program, used to model the NE0 threat, was extensively modified and is presented here. Details of various analytical tools, developed to evaluate the performance of proposed technologies for protection against the NEO threat, are also presented. Trajectory tools, developed to model the outbound path a vehicle would take to intercept or rendezvous with a target asteroid or comet, are described. Also, details are given of a tool that was created to model both the un-deflected inbound path of an NE0 as well as the modified, post-deflection, path. The number of possible options available for protection against the NE0 threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. The major output from this work was a novel process by which the relative effectiveness of different threat mitigation concepts can be evaluated during future, more detailed, studies. In addition, several new or modified mathematical models were developed to analyze various proposed protection systems. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work. It is hoped that this study will serve to raise the level attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  10. Multi-Object Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope’s Near Infrared Spectrograph: Observing Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline; Karakla, Diane M.; Beck, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) will provide a multi-object spectroscopy mode through the four Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs). Each MSA is a grid of contiguous shutters that can be configured to form slits on more than 100 astronomical targets simultaneously. The combination of JWST’s sensitivity and superb resolution in the infrared and NIRSpec’s full wavelength coverage from 0.6 to 5 μm will open new parameter space for studies of galaxies and resolved stellar populations alike. We describe a NIRSpec MSA observing scenario for obtaining spectroscopy of individual stars in an external galaxy, and investigate the technical challenges posed by this scenario. We examine the multiplexing capability of the MSA as a function of the possible MSA configuration design choices, and investigate the primary sources of error in velocity measurements and the prospects for minimizing them. We give examples of how this and other use cases are guiding development of the NIRSpec user interfaces, including proposal planning and pipeline calibrations.

  11. Two decades of Neo-Marxist class analysis and health inequalities: A critical reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Prins, Seth J

    2015-01-01

    Most population health researchers conceptualize social class as a set of attributes and material conditions of life of individuals. The empiricist tradition of ‘class as an individual attribute' equates class to an ‘observation', precluding the investigation of unobservable social mechanisms. Another consequence of this view of social class is that it cannot be conceptualized, measured, or intervened upon at the meso- or macro levels, being reduced to a personal attribute. Thus, population health disciplines marginalize rich traditions in Marxist theory whereby ‘class' is understood as a ‘hidden' social mechanism such as exploitation. Yet Neo-Marxist social class has been used over the last two decades in population health research as a way of understanding how health inequalities are produced. The Neo-Marxist approach views social class in terms of class relations that give persons control over productive assets and the labour power of others (property and managerial relations). We critically appraise the contribution of the Neo-Marxist approach during the last two decades and suggest realist amendments to understand class effects on the social determinants of health and health outcomes. We argue that when social class is viewed as a social causal mechanism it can inform social change to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26345311

  12. Variants of the serotonin transporter gene and NEO-PI-R Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Balaci, Lenuta; Thayer, Jason; Scally, Matthew; Kokinos, Sarah; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Zonderman, Alan B; Sanna, Serena; Olla, Nazario; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Naitza, Silvia; Busonero, Fabio; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Abecasis, Goncalo; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    The polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR) is by far the most studied variant hypothesized to influence Neuroticism-related personality traits. The results of previous studies have been mixed and appear moderated by the personality questionnaire used. Studies that used the TCI to assess Harm Avoidance or the EPQ to assess Neuroticism have found no association with the 5-HTTLPR. However, studies that used the NEO-PI-R or related instruments (NEO-PI, NEO-FFI) to measure Neuroticism have found some evidence of association. This study examines the association of variants in the serotonin transporter gene in a sample from a genetically isolated population within Sardinia (Italy) that is several times larger than previous samples that used the NEO-PI-R (N=3,913). The association was also tested in a sample (N=548) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), in which repeated NEO-PI-R assessments were obtained. In the SardiNIA sample, we found no significant association of the 5-HTTLPR genotypes with Neuroticism or its facets (Anxiety, Angry-Hostility, Depression, Self-Consciousness, Impulsiveness, and Vulnerability). In the BLSA sample, we found lower scores on Neuroticism traits for the heterozygous group, which is inconsistent with previous studies. We also examined 8 SNPs in the SardiNIA (N=3,972) and 9 SNPs in the BLSA (N=1,182) that map within or near the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), and found no association. Along with other large studies that used different phenotypic measures and found no association, this study substantially increases the evidence against a link between 5-HTT variants and Neuroticism-related traits. PMID:19199283

  13. Klenot Project - Near Earth Objects Follow-Up Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, Miloš; Tichá, Jana; Kočer, Michal

    2016-01-01

    NEO research is a great challenge just now - for science, for exploration and for planetary defence. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of Near Earth Objects since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements helped to make inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO population. It ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008. The fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. The new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation (NG) were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013. The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation. Along with huge hardware changes we have decided for essential changes in software and the whole KLENOT work-flow. Using the current higher computing power available, enhancing and updating our databases and astrometry program, the core of our software package, will prove highly beneficial. Moreover, the UCAC4 as the more precise astrometric star catalog was implemented. The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. This step opens new possibilities for the KLENOT Project, the long-term European Contribution to Monitoring and Cataloging Near Earth Objects. KLENOT Project Goals are confirmatory observations of newly discovered fainter NEO candidates, early follow-up of newly discovered NEOs, long-arc follow-up astrometry of NEOs in need of further data. The higher priority is given to Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) and Virtual Impactors (VIs), recoveries of NEOs in the second opposition and also follow-up astrometry of radar or mission targets, special follow-up requests and follow-up astrometry of other unusual objects (comets, bright TNOs) including analysis of cometary features of suspected bodies, and also search for new asteroids, especially NEOs as well as other objects showing unusual motion. The KLENOT Telescope is located at the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic (Central Europe), at geographical position: latitude 14° 17' 17'' E, longitude 48° 51' 48''N, elevation 1068 meters above sea level, in a rather dark site in the middle of the Protected Landscape Area Blanský les. Average number of clear nights per year about 120. Our IAU/MPC code is 246 KLENOT Project Advantages: • full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team • quick changes in an observing plan possible, even during an observing night • long-term NEO activities at Klet (since 1992) • experienced observers/measurers visually validate each moving object candidate • real-time processing of targeted objects KLENOT Next Generation Telescope technical data (since 2013): • new computer controlled paralactic mount • 1.06-m f/3 main mirror (Zeiss) • four lenses primary focus corrector • 1.06-m f/2.7 optical system • CCD camera FLI ProLine PL230 • chip e2v 2048 × 2048 pixels, pixel size 15 microns, Peltier cooling • FOV 37 × 37 arcminutes, image scale 1.1 arcseconds per pixel • limiting magnitude m V=21.5 mag. for 120-sec exposure time KLENOT Project First Phase Results(2002-2008) total of 52,658 astrometric measurements of 5,867 bodies, it contains: • 13,342 astrometric measurements of 1,369 NEAs (MPC,NEODys) • confirmation and astrometry of 623 NEAs from NEOCP (MPECs) • recoveries of 4 comets and 16 NEAs (including 196P/Tichý) • astrometry of 157 Virtual Impactors (CLOMON, SENTRY) • detection of cometary features of 34 bodies (IAUCs) • discovery of splitting of comet C/2004 S1 (Van Ness) • independent discovery of 4 fragments of comet 73P/S-W 3 • asteroid discoveries - 750 bodies • 3 NEOs - Apollo 2002 LK, Aten 2003 UT55, Apollo 2006 XR4, 1 JFA 2004 RT109 The first KLENOT Project Next Generation Results (since 2011) total of 10,054 astrometric measurements of 1,298 bodies, it contains: • 2,211 astrometric measurements of 263 NEAs(MPC,NEODys) • confirmation and astrometry of 143 NEAs from NEOCP (MPECs) • astrometry of 18 Virtual Impactors (CLOMON, SENTRY) • detection of cometary features of 5 bodies (IAUCs)

  14. Adherence to physical activity guidelines in older adults, using objectively measured physical activity in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) levels in older adults decline with age. The prevalence and correlates of adherence to current UK PA guidelines in older adults has not been studied using objectively measured PA, which can examine precisely whether PA is carried out in bouts of specified length and intensity. Methods Free living men and women aged 7093 years from 25 towns in the United Kingdom, participating in parallel on-going population based cohort studies were invited (by post) to wear a GT3x accelerometer over the hip for one week in 201012. Adherence to UK PA guidelines was defined as ?150minutes/week of moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA) in bouts of ?10minutes; the effect of different intensities and durations were examined. Results 1593 men and 857 women participated (responses 51% and 29% respectively). 15% men and 10% women achieved ?150minutes/week of MVPA (defined as >1040cpm) in bouts lasting ?10minutes. With MVPA defined as >1952cpm, prevalences were 7% and 3% respectively. Those adhering to guidelines were younger, had fewer chronic health conditions, less depression, less severe mobility limitations, but higher exercise self-efficacy and exercise outcomes expectations. They rated their local environment more highly for social activities and leisure facilities, having somewhere nice to go for a walk and feeling safe after dark, They left the house on more days per week, were more likely to use active transport (cycle or walk) and to walk a dog regularly. Conclusions Few older adults attain current PA guidelines. Health promotion to extend the duration of moderate-intensity activity episodes to 10minutes or more could yield important health gains among older adults. However future studies will need to clarify whether attaining guideline amounts of PA in spells lasting 10minutes or more is critical for reducing chronic disease risks as well as improving cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24745369

  15. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on-orbit assembly also becomes apparent, as availability of a HLV alone does not provide sufficient payload capabilities for any manned mission targeting NEOs.

  16. What Future for Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The paper first examines the context that has given student engagement a very strong profile in higher education. It identifies neo-liberalism as the driving force in the present higher education context and argues that student engagement enjoys an elective affinity with it. While neo-liberalism is dominant, student engagement will be strong. But

  17. Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Fergal

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

  18. What Future for Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The paper first examines the context that has given student engagement a very strong profile in higher education. It identifies neo-liberalism as the driving force in the present higher education context and argues that student engagement enjoys an elective affinity with it. While neo-liberalism is dominant, student engagement will be strong. But…

  19. Near-Earth Asteroids 2006 RH120 And 2009 BD: Proxies For Maximally Accessible Objects?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Chodas, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study(NHATS): http://neo.jpl.nasa.govnhats/. As of mid-July 2015: 1,434 of the 12,778 currently known NEAs are more astrodynamically accessible than is Mars (requiring less Delta v and or less flight time for round-trip missions). Within those 1,434 NEAs: 605 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less Delta v (9 km/s) than the lunar surface. 51 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less v (5 km/s) than low circular lunar orbit. NEO population statistical models:Tens of thousands of NEAs greater than 100 m yet to be discovered. At least several million NEAs less than or equal to100 m in size (down to approximately 3 m in size) yet to be discovered. How accessible are the NEAs that haven't yet been discovered?

  20. The global impact distribution of Near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Clemens; Lewis, Hugh G.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-02-01

    Asteroids that could collide with the Earth are listed on the publicly available Near-Earth object (NEO) hazard web sites maintained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The impact probability distribution of 69 potentially threatening NEOs from these lists that produce 261 dynamically distinct impact instances, or Virtual Impactors (VIs), were calculated using the Asteroid Risk Mitigation and Optimization Research (ARMOR) tool in conjunction with OrbFit. ARMOR projected the impact probability of each VI onto the surface of the Earth as a spatial probability distribution. The projection considers orbit solution accuracy and the global impact probability. The method of ARMOR is introduced and the tool is validated against two asteroid-Earth collision cases with objects 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA. In the analysis, the natural distribution of impact corridors is contrasted against the impact probability distribution to evaluate the distributions' conformity with the uniform impact distribution assumption. The distribution of impact corridors is based on the NEO population and orbital mechanics. The analysis shows that the distribution of impact corridors matches the common assumption of uniform impact distribution and the result extends the evidence base for the uniform assumption from qualitative analysis of historic impact events into the future in a quantitative way. This finding is confirmed in a parallel analysis of impact points belonging to a synthetic population of 10,006 VIs. Taking into account the impact probabilities introduced significant variation into the results and the impact probability distribution, consequently, deviates markedly from uniformity. The concept of impact probabilities is a product of the asteroid observation and orbit determination technique and, thus, represents a man-made component that is largely disconnected from natural processes. It is important to consider impact probabilities because such information represents the best estimate of where an impact might occur.

  1. Astrometric Results of NEOs from the Characterization and Astrometric Follow-up Program at Adler Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nault, Kristie A.; Brucker, Melissa J.; Hammergren, Mark; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Mike R.

    2015-11-01

    We present astrometric results of near-Earth objects (NEOs) targeted in fourth quarter 2014 and in 2015. This is part of Adler Planetarium’s NEO characterization and astrometric follow-up program, which uses the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). The program utilizes a 17% share of telescope time, amounting to a total of 500 hours per year. This time is divided up into two hour observing runs approximately every other night for astrometry and frequent half-night runs approximately several times a month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et. al.) and light curve studies (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al.).Observations were made using Seaver Prototype Imaging Camera (SPIcam), a visible-wavelength, direct imaging CCD camera with 2048 x 2048 pixels and a field of view of 4.78’ x 4.78’. Observations were made using 2 x 2 binning.Special emphasis has been made to focus on the smallest NEOs, particularly around 140m in diameter. Targets were selected based on absolute magnitude (prioritizing for those with H > 25 mag to select small objects) and a 3σ uncertainty less than 400” to ensure that the target is in the FOV. Targets were drawn from the Minor Planet Center (MPC) NEA Observing Planning Aid, the JPL What’s Observable tool, and the Spaceguard priority list and faint NEO list.As of August 2015, we have detected 670 NEOs for astrometric follow-up, on point with our goal of providing astrometry on a thousand NEOs per year. Astrometric calculations were done using the interactive software tool Astrometrica, which is used for data reduction focusing on the minor bodies of the solar system. The program includes automatic reference star identification from new-generation star catalogs, access to the complete MPC database of orbital elements, and automatic moving object detection and identification.This work is based on observations done using the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We acknowledge the support from the NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G and thank the University of Chicago Astronomy and Astrophysics Department for observing time in 2014.

  2. Ideological principles of Neo-Byurakan Cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    There exists an insurmountable antagonism between the Classical and the Byurakan approaches on the origins of celestial bodies. The Classical approach states that celestial bodies arise from the condensation of gases, gravitational compression; and according to the Byurakan conception, they come into existence due to the explosions, differentiation of compact, superdense bodies. Rejecting each other, the supporters of these two polarized views do not accept that those two trends, differentiation and integration, dispersion and unity are interconnected and mutually conditioned processes: there are always cases of dispersion and differentiation in integration and unity and vice versa. Neo-Byurakan theory distinguishes two types of physical symmetries: substantial and relational symmetries. The types of substantial symmetry are: Symmetry of positive and negative gravitational charges (masses), Symmetry of particles and antiparticles (matter and antimatter). The types of relational symmetry are: Symmetry of differentiation and integration, Symmetry of homogeneity and inhomogeneity, Symmetry of statics (or stationarity) and dynamics, Symmetry of great unity, of strong and electroweak forces and interactions, Symmetry of electroweak unity, of weak and electromagnetic forces. As the above mentioned examples show, substantial symmetries are related to the basic types of matter; and relational symmetries to the interactions of these types. Both types can be explicit and implicit. Neo-Byurakan cosmogony puts forward a range of new ideas: 1.Being a part of Gc?? Cosmology, it differentiates and identifies the concepts of "Eternal Universe", "our Universe" and "Metagalaxy". Viewing Metagalaxy as a subsystem of our universe, as a unity of all galaxies and their clusters, it defines the basic equations which express the basic physical parameters of Metagalaxy, describes its structure, giving a physical explanation to the homogeneity of the large-scale structure of Metagalaxy, mentioning the laws and peculiarities of its origination and evolution. 2.Admitting the fact of its expansion, Neo-Byurakan theory considers that during evolution all physical parameters of Metagalaxy change, including not only the volume and average density but also the mass of Metagalaxy. And it means that the Friedman-Gamow theory of Fireball cannot be ascribed to Metagalaxy, especially to our Universe. A hypothesis is put forward, according to which the concept of Fireball or Big Bang refers to and accurately describes the differentiation and evaluation of compact, superdense superclusters of galaxies through explosion. The immediate components of the large-scale homogeneity of Metagalaxy are superclusters of galaxies. They are similar physical systems belonging to the same class, which have similar structures, and though they arise at different times, they undergo similar phases of evolution.

  3. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  4. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  5. The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard; Weryk, Robert; Schunova, Eva; Carter Chambers, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned.The PS1+PS2 surveys now extend south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep southern sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The Pan-STARRS telescopes are very efficient at detecting cometary activity. PS1 discovered almost half of the new comets in 2014, and discovered 10 comets in 10 nights in November 2014.The discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO follow-up resources, particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs, and the corresponding hazard to Earth. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid redirect mission.

  6. Characterizing Subpopulations within the near-Earth Objects with NEOWISE: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Giorgini, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are ~4700 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

  7. CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-06-20

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

  8. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including ?-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. ?-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for ?-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed the strongest activity. Moderate ligninase activity was only observed in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. In contrast, pectinase, amylase, protease, and cellulase were not present in Ganoderma. The results show that the degree of activity of the tested enzymes varied depending on the Ganoderma species tested. PMID:22783088

  9. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  10. The Near-Earth Object Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, D. V.; Drolshagen, G.; Bobrinsky, N.

    2010-09-01

    Out of the vast asteroid population in the solar system, about 7000 objects are near-Earth objects and come close to the Earth. When impacting our planet, they can cause significant damage - it is assumed that a large mass extinction about 65 Mio years ago was caused by an asteroid of a few kilometers in size. Up until a few years ago, objects down to about 40 m in size were expected to go through the Earths atmosphere and reach the surface and may cause significant damage. Recent impact events have shown that occasionally objects as small as 1 m can reach the ground and produce an impact crater [1], [2], [3]. A number of search programs are ongoing to detect these objects. Two main computing centers determine the risk probability of NEOs, the Sentry system at JPL in the US, and the NeoDys system in Europe. Once an impact threat has been identified, a political process has to start to alert the endangered countries. This is an international process - a NEO could impact anywhere. It is currently discussed in the frame of the so-called Action Team #14 of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations. The Action Team will be active until 2011 and is expected to produce a clear guideline for a political decision process. Historically, most of the activities related to the detection, data dissemination, and computations related to NEOs have been done by the US. In 2008, the advisory board of the European Space Agency(ESA) has approved a programme called 'Space Situational Awareness(SSA) preparatory programme' which also addresses this issue. Its goal is to increase the awareness of the situation in space concerning (a) Space Debris(b) Space Weather(c) Near-Earth Objects As part of the programme, a network of sensors for measurements will be set up. Ground systems will be set up to process the data, and a service to inform users about the situation and give warnings, e.g. about the probability of an NEO coming close to the Earth, will be installed.

  11. An Item-Level Examination of the Factorial Validity of NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Darrell M.; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Verdisco, Aimee E.

    2010-01-01

    The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) is often used in field-based research and clinical studies as it is designed to measure the same personality dimensions as the longer NEO Personality Inventory in a shorter time frame. In this study, the authors examined the reliability and structural validity of the NEO-FFI scores at the item level in a

  12. An Item-Level Examination of the Factorial Validity of NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Darrell M.; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Verdisco, Aimee E.

    2010-01-01

    The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) is often used in field-based research and clinical studies as it is designed to measure the same personality dimensions as the longer NEO Personality Inventory in a shorter time frame. In this study, the authors examined the reliability and structural validity of the NEO-FFI scores at the item level in a…

  13. Post Neo-Liberalism and the Humanities: What the Repressive State Apparatus Means for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Leonard, Hugh A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how neo-liberal and post neo-liberal policies threaten the humanities in post-secondary education as a potential site of democratic dialogue and social transformation. We distinguish between neo-liberalism and post neo-liberalism on the basis of the latter's increased police suppression of democratic dissent. We are…

  14. Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-09-01

    With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a flexible path for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

  15. The OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS)—population screening for undiagnosed valvular heart disease in the elderly: study design and objectives

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sean; d'Arcy, Joanna L; Loudon, Margaret A; Mant, David; Farmer, Andrew J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an increasingly important cardiac condition, driven by an ageing population and lack of progress in the development of medical therapies. There is a dearth of accurate information to guide decision-makers in the development of strategies to combat VHD, and no population-based study has been performed specifically to investigate its contemporary epidemiology. This document describes the design and methodology of the OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS), which was conceived to address this need. Methods and analysis Participants aged 65 years and older attending a participating general practice in Oxfordshire, UK, are invited to attend a screening examination. Exclusion criteria include previously diagnosed VHD, inability to provide consent, terminal illness or excessive frailty. Demographics, a focused cardiovascular history and vital signs are recorded at the initial screening examination, accompanied by an echocardiogram. Any finding of significant VHD triggers a separate, more formal echocardiographic assessment (including acquisition of a three-dimensional dataset) and collection of blood samples for future genetic and biomarker analysis. Participants provide consent for longitudinal follow-up and enrolment in future cohort substudies. We also assess the acceptability of community-based echocardiographic examination and compare self-assessed quality of life between those with and without VHD. Conclusions OxVALVE-PCS will provide contemporary epidemiological data concerning the community prevalence of undiagnosed VHD, facilitate accurate deployment of scarce resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand for VHD-associated healthcare and create a series of subcohorts with carefully defined genotypes and echocardiographic phenotypes for long overdue clinical studies. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Southampton, UK; REC Ref: 09/H0502/58). Results Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:25332795

  16. NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.

    2008-12-01

    NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from 45 different datasets with daily, weekly, and/or monthly temporal resolutions, with more datasets currently under development. The imagery from these datasets is produced in coordination with several data partners who are affiliated either with the instrument science teams or with the respective data processing center. NEO is a system of three components -- website, WMS (Web Mapping Service), and ftp archive -- which together are able to meet the wide-ranging needs of our users. Some of these needs include the ability to: view and manipulate imagery using the NEO website -- e.g., applying color palettes, resizing, exporting to a variety of formats including PNG, JPEG, KMZ (Google Earth), GeoTIFF; access the NEO collection via a standards-based API (WMS); and create customized exports for select users (ftp archive) such as Science on a Sphere, NASA's Earth Observatory, and others.

  17. A New Standardized Stimulus Set for Studying Need-of-Help Recognition (NeoHelp)

    PubMed Central

    Brielmann, Aenne A.; Stolarova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open-access standardized visual stimuli set for investigation of need-of-help recognition and invite researchers to use and extend it. PMID:24409294

  18. The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Daniel J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.

  19. Association between self-reported and objectively measured physical fitness level in a middle-aged population in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Obling, Kirstine H.; Hansen, Anne-Louise S.; Overgaard, Kristian; Normann, Kasper; Sandbaek, Annelli; Maindal, Helle T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between self-reported physical fitness level obtained by a single-item question and objectively measured fitness level in 30- to 49-year-old men and women. Methods From the Danish ‘Check Your Health Preventive Program’ 2013–2014 fitness level was assessed in 2316 participants using the Aastrand test. Additionally, participants rated their physical fitness as high, good, average, fair or low. The association of self-reported- with objectively measured fitness level was analyzed by linear regression. Categories of self-reported- and objectively measured fitness level were cross-tabulated and agreement was quantified by Kappa statistics. Gender differences within categories were investigated by Poisson regression. Results Data from 996 men and 1017 women were analyzed (excluded, n = 303). In both men and women a higher self-reported fitness level was associated with a higher objectively measured fitness level (Rall = 0.42). Kappa agreement was 0.25. Poisson regression revealed that women rated their fitness level significantly lower than men (p < 0.001). Conclusion A single-item question is a cost-effective way of measuring physical fitness level, but the method has low association and fair agreement when compared to the Aastrand test. Men tend to overestimate physical fitness more than women, which should be accounted for if using the question in primary care settings. PMID:26844103

  20. An Examination of Shared Variance in Self-Report and Objective Measures of Attention in the Incarcerated Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Jones, Lise O.; Munkvold, Linda H.; Obrzut, John E.; Manger, Terje

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test some assumptions about screening procedures for ADHD in adults. Method: Twenty-eight incarcerated male adults completed a self report scale of attention deficits as a part of an examination of attention and reading skills. Further assessment of attention included a battery of tests that assessed

  1. The Next Giant Leap: Human Exploration and Utilization of NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. D.; Vilas, F.; Love, S.; Hack, K.; Gefert, L.; Sykes, M. V.; Lewis, J. S.; Jedicke, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Farquhar, R.; McFadden, L.; Durda, D.

    2001-11-01

    Planetary science plays a unique role as the pathfinder for future human space activities beyond the International Space Station. It can also provide the rationale for the first human departure from LEO since the Apollo program. We are examining the potential for human missions to small near-Earth objects (typically tens of meters), passing close by the Earth-Moon system with very low delta-v. A preliminary estimate suggests there may be many thousands of these objects, raising the possibility of number of launch opportunities each year. To demonstrate feasibility, we have simulated a mission to 1991 VG during 1991/1992 when it passed within 0.004 AU of the Earth. This mission takes a total of 60 days, including a 30 day stay time at the asteroid. The accessibility of these targets may provide an opportunity to develop and test systems needed for longer duration interplanetary missions to Mars, and to engage in precursor space resource utilization activities. Early discovery, orbit determination, and target characterization should be pursued and spacebased and groundbased systems that would be needed assessed. Crewed missions would be preceded by robotic probes to test acquisition, rendezvous, and local operations while returning significant new science from target objects. As we look beyond ISS over the next decade, we must reinvigorate a mutually supportive relationship between our human space and solar system exploration goals. The scientific and exploration rationale for sending humans to NEOs must be mature to meet NASA's decision making window, now opening, for operations beyond near-Earth space.

  2. Temporal Neuropathological and Behavioral Phenotype of 6Neo/6Neo Pompe Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Richard L.; Taksir, Tatyana; Fidler, Jonathan; Zhao, Michael; Dodge, James C.; Passini, Marco A.; Raben, Nina; Thurberg, Beth L.; Cheng, Seng H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.

    2009-01-01

    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease II) is caused by mutations in the acid ?-glucosidase gene. The most common form is rapidly progressive with glycogen storage, particularly in muscle, that leads to profound weakness, cardiac failure, and death by the age of two years. Although usually considered a muscle disease, glycogen storage also occurs in the CNS. We evaluated the progression of neuropathological and behavioral abnormalities in a Pompe disease mouse model (6neo/6neo) that displays many features of the human disease. Homozygous mutant mice store excess glycogen within large neurons of hindbrain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia by the age of one month; accumulations then spread progressively within many CNS cell types. Silver degeneration and Fluoro-Jade C stains revealed severe degeneration in axon terminals of primary sensory neurons at three to nine months. These abnormalities were accompanied by progressive behavioral impairment on rotorod, wire hanging and foot fault tests. The extensive neuropathological alterations in this model suggest that therapy of skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders by systemic enzyme replacement therapy may not be sufficient to reverse functional deficits due to CNS glycogen storage, particularly early-onset, rapidly progressive disease. A better understanding of the basis for clinical manifestations is needed to correlate CNS pathology with Pompe disease manifestations. PMID:18648322

  3. Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Binzel, Richard P.

    2011-10-01

    Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous as a target selection criterion, as this choice can greatly increase the payload to the NEO. Few such ultra-low delta-v NEOs are currently known; only 65 of the 6699 known NEOs (March 2010) have delta-v <4.5 km/s, 2/3 of typical LEO-NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - short transit times, long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of accessible objects. Potentially there is at least an order of magnitude more ultra-low delta-v NEOs, but finding them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in that orbit, plus long arc determination of their orbits.

  4. The relationship of NEO-PI performance to coping styles, patterns of use, and triggers for use among substance abusers.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R A; Dowd, E T; Quirk, S; Zegarra, J H

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the construct validity of the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) with a clinical population of 2,676 substance abusers. Scores on the NEO-PI were correlated with self-reported measures of psychopathology as well as patterns of substance abuse, reported coping styles, relapse triggers, and relapse confidence. Substance abusers were more Neurotic and less Agreeable and Conscientious than were the NEO-PI nonclinical normative sample. Within subgroups of substance users, cocaine-only users were more Extroverted and Open than were alcohol-only users. Polysubstance users were the least Agreeable and Conscientious group. Alcohol-only users and polysubstance users scored higher on Neuroticism than did other groups. Personality dimensions related to reported coping styles in meaningful ways. For example, Neuroticism was highly related to escape avoidant coping (r = .53), Agreeableness was negatively related to confrontive coping (r = -.28), and Conscientiousness was related to problem solving (r = -.27) and negatively related to escape avoidance (r = -.29). Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Extroversion were associated with reported triggers of use including negative emotional states, social rejection, and tension. Higher levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Extroversion were associated with greater confidence in ability to refrain from use, whereas Neuroticism was associated with a corresponding lack of confidence in self-restraint. PMID:9698978

  5. [Prevalence of carotid kinking in a resident population. Partial results of the OPI (Objective Prevention of Ictus)].

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, G; De Monti, M; Longhi, F; Trimarchi, S; Bortolani, E

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports partial results on carotid kinking prevalence from the ongoing program Obiettivo Prevenzione Ictus, whose main target is to detect atherosclerotic carotid lesions in a resident population. Over a period of 23 months, 13.936 subjects, aged 45 to 75, were screened by physical vascular and carotid CW Doppler ultrasound examinations; 1.386 (9.9%) subjects underwent color coded echoflow imaging, according to the design of the screening program (suspected carotid atherosclerotic lesion at first level screening): 185 among this subgroup, 40 males and 145 females, were affected with 266 carotid kinkings. In 81 cases (43.8%) the lesions were bilateral. Sensibility and specificity of carotid bruit (25% and 73%, respectively) and CW Doppler ultrasound (48.5% and 55.8%, respectively) proved inadequate for routine diagnosis of carotid kinking. Hypertension was recorded in 146 cases (78.9%). No cerebral ischemic attack was recorded in these 185 subjects over the period considered. PMID:8332268

  6. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems. PMID:20665089

  7. How to Communicate Near Earth Objects with the Public - Klet Observatory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, Jana; Tichy, Milos; Kocer, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth Object (NEO) research is counted among the most popular parts of communicating astronomy with the public. Increasing research results in the field of Near-Earth Objects as well as impact hazard investigations cause growing interest among general public and media. Furthermore NEO related issues have outstanding educational value. So thus communicating NEO detection, NEO characterization, possible impact effects, space missions to NEOs, ways of mitigation and impact warnings with the public and media belong to the most important tasks of scientists and research institutions.Our institution represents an unique liaison of the small professional research institution devoted especially to NEO studies (the Klet Observatory, Czech Republic) and the educational and public outreach branch (the Observatory and Planetarium Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic). This all has been giving us an excellent opportunity for bringing NEO information to wider audience. We have been obtaining a wide experience in communicating NEOs with the public more than twenty years.There is a wide spectrum of public outreach tools aimed to NEO research and hazard. As the most useful ones we consider two special on-line magazines (e-zins) devoted to asteroids (www.planetky.cz) and comets (www.komety.cz) in Czech language, educational multimedia presentations for schools at different levels in planetarium, summer excursions for wide public just at the Klet Observatory on the top of the Klet mountain, public lectures, meetings and exhibitions. It seems to be very contributing and favoured by public to have opportunities for more or less informal meetings just with NEO researchers from time to time. Very important part of NEO public outreach consists of continuous contact with journalists and media including press releases, interviews, news, periodical programs. An increasing role of social media is taken into account through Facebook and Twitter profiles.The essential goal of all mentioned NEO public communication and educational tools is to bring relevant, clear, comprehensive and up to date information to students, educators, wide public and media.

  8. Asteroid Detection with the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Granvik, M.; Wainscoat, R.

    We will present the first asteroid and comet discoveries by the Pan-STARRS prototype telescope (PS1) using the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS). The MOPS was designed to be capable of detecting fast moving objects whizzing by the Earth as well as those moving as slowly as the fastest proper motion stars. We will discuss the design of the MOPS and its efficiency, accuracy, and reliability as determined from long term realistic simulations with synthetically generated objects in the presence of false detections. Our simulations with a synthetic but realistic NEO population indicate that PS1 will discover more of these hazardous objects in its 3.5 year mission than all existing surveys have identified since asteroids were first discovered more than 200 years ago. In particular, we will show that PS1 has a high efficiency for discovering objects that will actually impact the Earth in the next 100 years.

  9. Spacewatch Observations of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Scotti, James V.; Mastaler, Ronald A.; Tubbiolo, Andrew F.

    2015-08-01

    Spacewatch specializes in followup of NEOs of high priority while they are faint, producing an annual average of ~8500 lines of astrometry of ~1,000 different NEOs. We contribute to the removal of half of the objects that were retired from impact risk lists. Our observations at elongations as small as 46 deg support followup of hazardous NEOs and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. Per year we observe about 35 radar targets, 50 NEOs that were measured by NEOWISE, and 100 potential rendezvous destinations. In the last 3 years we have observed 50% of all NEOs observed in that time and 54% of all PHAs observed in that time. We lead in followup of provisionally designated PHAs while faint (V>= 22); contributing 41% of all such observations. With the Steward Obs. 0.9-m telescope, site code 691, we survey with a mosaic of CCDs near opposition and at low elongation in the east. Coverage is 1400 sq. deg per lunation; V mag limit ~20.5-21.7. The 12 yrs of uniform surveying will go live on the web in 2015 to support incidental astrometry & precoveries of NEOs. On the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope, site code 291, the FOV = 20x20 arcmin and the pixel scale = 0.6 arcsec/pixel. V mag limit=23 and the astrometric residuals are +/-0.3 arcsec. Our output with the Bok 2.3-m & Mayall 4-m telescopes from 2010-2014 was 1316 lines of astrometry on 207 different NEOs, including 84 different PHAs. 343 observations were made of PHAs with V>=22. Our average calendar span extension on large PHAs is 6 mo, 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. We extend the span of calendar time coverage on PHAs an average of 3.8x. For 38 of 72 PHAs we added another observed opposition. With the Bok & Mayall we reduce uncertainties of orbital elements an average of a factor of 6 and the uncertainty of the time of perihelion passage an average of a factor of 19 (G. Williams 2014 private communication). We gratefully acknowledge NASA's NEO Observation Program, The IAU's Minor Planet Center, JPL's NEOWISE Team led by A. K. Mainzer, JPL's NEO Office, Kitt Peak National & Steward Observatories, the U. S. Naval Academy, the estates of R. L. Waland and R. S. Vail, and other private donors.

  10. Optimal Deflection of NEOs on Collision Course with the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehrt, E.; Kahle, R.; Hahn, G.

    2005-08-01

    The collision of a near-Earth asteroid or comet (NEO) with the Earth is a rare but disastrous catastrophe. To mitigate the impact risk numerous technologies have been proposed for either the deflection of NEOs by changing their orbital velocity or for the destruction of NEOs by means of high energetic collisions or explosions. From our perspective, the second option is not recommended because of the unknown interior of any particular hazardous NEO. We have improved the model by Carusi et al. (2002, Icarus 159, 417-422) who presented the first real n-body analysis but with the restriction of velocity change ? v along the track of orbital motion only (parallel attack). In our approach we optimize both ? v and the attack angle. In this paper we describe our model and apply it to fictitious asteroids with typical NEO orbital parameters. We compare our results with those of the parallel attack. Finally, we analyse the optimal ? v required to deflect the possible impactor 2004 MN4.

  11. Mini-satellite exploration of very near earth space fuel objects

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-09-19

    A prospecting plan is presented to assay near Earth objects (NEO) for their potential to yield rocket fuel. The plan calls out small satellites as the near-term means to achieve low cost surveys and deep subsurface sampling of NEO composition. The water bearing classes of NEO to be considered are limited to those accessible in short time and with small thrusters. These include the water bearing clay objects (phylosilicates) at nearly trivial distances from Earth, and the recently identified water ice objects such as comet ([number sign]4015) 1979 VA. These objects are evaluated as small satellite prospecting and assay vehicle targets.

  12. Mini-satellite exploration of very near earth space fuel objects

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-09-19

    A prospecting plan is presented to assay near Earth objects (NEO) for their potential to yield rocket fuel. The plan calls out small satellites as the near-term means to achieve low cost surveys and deep subsurface sampling of NEO composition. The water bearing classes of NEO to be considered are limited to those accessible in short time and with small thrusters. These include the water bearing clay objects (phylosilicates) at nearly trivial distances from Earth, and the recently identified water ice objects such as comet ({number_sign}4015) 1979 VA. These objects are evaluated as small satellite prospecting and assay vehicle targets.

  13. The feasibility of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement in a natural experimental study of a commuting population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the effects of environmental interventions on physical activity should include valid measures of physical activity before and after the intervention. Baseline data collection can be difficult when the timetable for introduction of an intervention is outside researchers control. This paper reports and reflects on the practical issues, challenges and results of rapid baseline objective physical activity measurement using accelerometers distributed by post in a natural experimental study. Methods A sample of working adults enrolling for the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study and expressing willingness to wear an activity monitor was selected to undertake baseline accelerometer assessment. Each selected participant received a study pack by post containing the core study questionnaire and an accelerometer to wear for seven consecutive days, and was asked to return their accelerometer and completed questionnaire in person or by post using the prepaid special delivery envelope provided. If a pack was not returned within two weeks of issue, a reminder was sent to the participant. Each participant received up to five reminders by various methods including letter, email, telephone and letter sent by recorded delivery. Results 95% of participants registering for the study were willing in principle to undertake accelerometer assessment. Using a pool of 221 accelerometers, we achieved a total of 714 issues of accelerometers to participants during a six month period. 116 (16%) participants declined to use the accelerometer after receiving it. Three accelerometers failed, 45 (6% of 714) were lost and many were returned with insufficient data recorded, resulted in 109 (15%) participants re-wearing their accelerometer for a second week of measurement. 550 (77%) participants completed data collection, 478 (87% of 550) to the required standard. A total of 694 reminders were issued to retrieve unreturned accelerometers. More than 90% of accelerometers were retrieved after a maximum of two reminders. Conclusions It is feasible to use accelerometers to collect baseline objective physical activity data by post from a large number of participants in a limited time period. However, a substantial pool of devices is required and researchers need to be prepared to make significant efforts to recover some of the devices. PMID:23036074

  14. Spacewatch Astrometry and Photometry of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Scotti, James V.; Mastaler, Ronald A.; Tubbiolo, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The Spacewatch Project uses four telescopes of apertures 0.9-m, 1.8-m, 2.3-m, and 4-m on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona for followup astrometry of priority NEOs. Objects as faint as V=23 on the MPC's NEO Confirmation Page, targets of radar, potential impactors, targets of spacecraft observations or visits, and PHAs with future close approaches to Earth receive priority for astrometry.

  15. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  16. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties

  17. The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chambers, Kenneth; Lilly, Eva; Weryk, Robert; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first telescope, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), has been conducting a survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is nearing completion. The telescope was commissioned using an incomplete focal plane with only 18 good detectors (60 required). The camera is presently being upgraded, and will be operated from October 2015 with 60 detectors (some engineering grade). A final upgrade to the camera in early 2016 will make the telescope fully operational.The two telescopes survey much of the sky accessible from Haleakala multiple times each lunation. The area surveyed ranges from +90 degrees in the north down to -47.5 degrees declination in the south. The “sweet spots” close to the Sun have been productive in discovery of large objects.The PS1 survey is becoming more mature and productive, having discovered more than half of all NEOs in 2015 to date, and more than 60% of the larger NEOs and PHAs discovered in 2015. Both PS1 and PS2 deliver excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs. PS1 has become the leading discover of comets, discovering more than half of the new comets in both 2014 and 2015.In good weather conditions, the discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 overwhelms the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. As a result, we needed to repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, with a complete focal plane, and when the G96 camera upgrade is complete, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, a better census of the NEOs in the sky, and better orbits for NEOs. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.Some early science highlights from the Pan-STARRS survey will be discussed.

  18. Studies of NEOs as a task for small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarady, V.; Sergeev, O.; Andreev, M.; Godunova, V.; Reshetnyk, V.

    2014-03-01

    The decades of successful research at the high-altitude observatory Terskol in the Northern Caucasus have yielded new data and findings in the field of monitoring and studies of NEOs. Facilities of the Terskol Observatory, which include optical telescopes with diameters up to 2 m, their instrumentation (high- and low-resolution spectrometers, high-speed photometers, CCDs, etc.), have been heavily used for follow-up astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. In this paper, advances in studies of NEOs achieved in the last years at Terskol are presented.

  19. Indigenous knowledge in the science curriculum: avoiding neo-colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Ann

    2008-09-01

    Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial practices, Western science educators ought to consider the notion of cultural mediators. This position, I argue, infers an obligation to take responsibility for their actions and to consider postcolonial discourses as a way of understanding the relationships and dialogue between different ways of knowing.

  20. Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.

  1. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

  2. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-04-15

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  3. Associations between objectively assessed and questionnaire-based sedentary behaviour with BMI-defined obesity among general population children and adolescents living in England

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an emerging candidate risk factor for obesity in young people. Evidence to date is conflicting and it is unclear how different SB types are associated with obesity independently of physical activity. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a range of objectively measured and questionnaire-based SB indicators with obesity and body mass index (BMI) to assess whether these associations were independent of physical activity. Participants 4469 (705 with accelerometer data) children aged 515?years from the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes The outcome was adiposity, classified using age-specific and sex-specific BMI SD scores (continuous) and obesity cut-offs (binary). Questionnaire-based measures comprised TV time, non-TV sitting time (such as homework, drawing, time at a computer or playing video games), total sitting time (TV time+non-TV sitting time) and average daily MVPA time. Objective SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were measured using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, with cut-offs of 100 and 200 counts per minute for SB, and 2802 counts per minute for MVPA. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models examined associations between each indicator of sedentary time with obesity and BMI SD scores. Results TV time (but not non-TV sitting or objectively-measured SB) was consistently associated with higher levels of obesity and BMI SD score, even after adjusting for MVPA and other potential confounders. Weaker associations were observed for total sitting time. Conclusions TV viewing (but not other forms of objectively-measured or questionnaire-based sedentary time) was associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, TV time may be a reasonable target for obesity prevention in young populations. PMID:26088807

  4. NASA Space Missions to Asteroids: Protecting the Earth from NEO Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Berry, William E. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is now a general recognition of the hazard of impacts on Earth by comets and asteroids, but there is yet no consensus concerning international actions that should be taken to protect the planet from such impacts. An essential step in the analysis of the situation involves estimating the relative hazard posed by comets and asteroids of different sizes and orbits. All recent studies agree that the larger impacts pose the greater danger, and that our primary concern from the perspective of total risk should be on impacts that are large enough to cause global ecological catastrophe. These global catastrophes are also of special interest, since they (alone among natural disasters) have the potential to destroy civilization. Studies of the sensitivity of the Earth's environment suggest that the energy threshold energy for causing a global catastrophe is at about 1 million megatons, corresponding to impactor diameters of 1.5 to 2 km. This information leads naturally to a strategy of concentrating on the larger NEOs, say those 1 km or more in diameter. This is the rationale for the Spaceguard Survey, which must be the highest priority in mitigation efforts. The second question concerns the value of developing standing defensive systems that could deflect or destroy an incoming NEO. In the case of the asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, no such system is needed, since there will be ample time (at least several decades) between the discovery of the threatening object by Spaceguard and the requirement to take action against it. In the case of objects smaller than 1 km diameter, development of defensive systems is not cost-effective; there are many greater dangers to persons and property that are much more urgent. Only in the case of large long-period comets is there a rationale for standing defense systems. The question is also raised whether the risks inherent in developing and maintaining a defense system might be greater than the impact risks it is intended to guard against. These and related issues are the focus of much current international debate on defense of the planet against NEO impacts. Meanwhile, the most critical issue remains the expansion of the telescopic search for NEOs.

  5. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-03-01

    NEEMO (NASAs Extreme Environment Mission Operations) at the Aquarius underwater habitat off Key Largo, Florida provide valuable mission planning and operations experience as well as crew training for living and working in the extreme environment of a planetary surface such as a NEO.

  6. Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

  7. High performance bonded neo magnets using high density compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herchenroeder, J.; Miller, D.; Sheth, N. K.; Foo, M. C.; Nagarathnam, K.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a manufacturing method called Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) for the manufacture of isotropic bonded NdFeB magnets (bonded Neo). Magnets produced by the CDC method have density up to 6.5 g/cm3 which is 7-10% higher compared to commercially available bonded Neo magnets of the same shape. The performance of an actual seat motor with a representative CDC ring magnet is presented and compared with the seat motor performance with both commercial isotropic bonded Neo and anisotropic NdFeB rings of the same geometry. The comparisons are made at both room and elevated temperatures. The airgap flux for the magnet produced by the proposed method is 6% more compared to the commercial isotropic bonded Neo magnet. After exposure to high temperature due to the superior thermal aging stability of isotropic NdFeB powders the motor performance with this material is comparable to the motor performance with an anisotropic NdFeB magnet.

  8. Measuring Moral Thinking from a Neo-Kohlbergian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The neo-Kohlbergian model revises and extends Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development to better reflect advances in research and theory. In moving from Kohlberg's global stage model to a multi-process description of moral functioning, these modifications are most evident in the ways in which moral thinking is described,

  9. Measuring Moral Thinking from a Neo-Kohlbergian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The neo-Kohlbergian model revises and extends Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development to better reflect advances in research and theory. In moving from Kohlberg's global stage model to a multi-process description of moral functioning, these modifications are most evident in the ways in which moral thinking is described,…

  10. Experimental acute myocardial infarction: telocytes involvement in neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manole, C G; Cisma?iu, V; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used rat experimental myocardial infarction to study the ultrastructural recovery, especially neo-angiogenesis in the infarction border zone. We were interested in the possible role(s) of telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cell very recently discovered in myocardim (see http://www.telocytes.com). Electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and analysis of several proangiogenic microRNAs provided evidence for TC involvement in neo-angiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy showed the close spatial association of TCs with neoangiogenetic elements. Higher resolution images provided the following information: (a) the intercellular space between the abluminal face of endothelium and its surrounding TCs is frequently less than 50 nm; (b) TCs establish multiple direct nanocontacts with endothelial cells, where the extracellular space seems obliterated; such nanocontacts have a length of 0.41.5 ?m; (c) the absence of basal membrane on the abluminal face of endothelial cell. Besides the physical contacts (either nanoscopic or microscopic) TCs presumably contribute to neo-angiognesis via paracrine secretion (as shown by immunocytochemistry for VEGF or NOS2). Last but not least, TCs contain measurable quantities of angiogenic microRNAs (e.g. let-7e, 10a, 21, 27b, 100, 126-3p, 130a, 143, 155, 503). Taken together, the direct (physical) contact of TCs with endothelial tubes, as well as the indirect (chemical) positive influence within the angiogenic zones, suggests an important participation of TCs in neo-angiogenesis during the late stage of myocardial infarction. PMID:21895968

  11. The Rise and Fall of the Neo-Liberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Bronwyn; Gottsche, Michael; Bansel, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The rise of neo-liberal universities over the last 15-20 years has been characterised as an inevitable effect both of globalisation and the associated dominance of capital. In this article we will analyse that rise, seeking to understand how it has come about and its impact on intellectual work. In the final pages of the article we turn towards…

  12. The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and "effectiveness", as well as

  13. Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Don; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a "pilot personality" does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

  14. Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Donald; Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a 'pilot personality' does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

  15. Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

  16. Terrorist Discourse in Naqvi's "Home Boy": A Neo Orientalist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustafa, Atta ul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study Naqvi's novel, "Home Boy" (2010) as a Neo Orientalist discourse of US officials about Pakistani Muslims. This paper will discuss how US officials including that of G. W. Bush perceive the Oriental world -- by using the same strategy -- as one distinguished by strangeness, creepiness, and unusual…

  17. A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Theory of Anaphora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yan

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the contribution of pragmatics to anaphora is much more fundamental than has been commonly believed, at least with respect to languages such as Chinese. A pragmatic theory is presented of anaphora within the neo-Gricean framework of conversational implicature, and an overview is provided of the latest developments of Grice's theory of…

  18. Neo-Institutional Analysis on Response Patterns of Pilot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Chol-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines response patterns of pilot schools in the neo-institutional perspective to make improvements on the pilot school systematic framework. In order to achieve this goal, in-depth interviews were conducted to obtain qualitative data. The results show that pilot schools either (a) actively adopt or (b) ceremonially adopt an education…

  19. Decline of Meritocracy: Neo-Feudal Segregation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagci, S. Erhan

    2015-01-01

    This paper claims that neo-liberalism is a period that capitalism calls and brings back some archaic forms of class domination depending on the results of marketisation policies in education. Marketisation policies in education are accompanied by specific shifts in ideological discourses, such as meritocracy that were valid only under the welfare…

  20. Decline of Meritocracy: Neo-Feudal Segregation in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagci, S. Erhan

    2015-01-01

    This paper claims that neo-liberalism is a period that capitalism calls and brings back some archaic forms of class domination depending on the results of marketisation policies in education. Marketisation policies in education are accompanied by specific shifts in ideological discourses, such as meritocracy that were valid only under the welfare

  1. The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. II. Dynamical Classification, the Kuiper Belt Plane, and the Core Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Kern, S. D.; Clancy, K. B.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Millis, R. L.; Buie, M. W.; Wasserman, L. H.; Chiang, E. I.; Jordan, A. B.; Trilling, D. E.; Meech, K. J.

    2005-02-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES)-a search optimized for the discovery of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with the Blanco and Mayall 4 m telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory-has covered 550 deg2 from its inception in 1998 through the end of 2003. This survey has a mean 50% sensitivity at VR magnitude 22.5. We report here the discoveries of 320 designated KBOs and Centaurs for the period 2000 March through 2003 December and describe improvements to our discovery and recovery procedures. Our data and the data products needed to reproduce our analyses in this paper are available through the NOAO survey database. Here we present a dynamical classification scheme, based on the behavior of orbital integrations over 10 Myr. The dynamical classes, in order of testing, are ``Resonant,'' ``Centaur,'' ``Scattered-Near,'' ``Scattered-Extended,'' and ``Classical.'' (These terms are capitalized when referring to our rigorous definitions.) Of the 382 total designated KBOs discovered by the DES, a subset of 196 objects have sufficiently accurate orbits for dynamical classification. Summary information is given for an additional 240 undesignated objects also discovered by the DES from its inception through the end of 2003. The number of classified DES objects (uncorrected for observational bias) are Classical, 96; Resonant, 54; Scattered-Near, 24; Scattered-Extended, 9; and Centaur, 13. We use subsets of the DES objects (which can have observational biases removed) and larger samples to perform dynamical analyses on the Kuiper belt. The first of these is a determination of the Kuiper belt plane (KBP), for which the Classical objects with inclinations less than 5 from the mean orbit pole yield a pole at R.A.=273.92d+/-0.62d and decl.=66.70d+/-0.20d (J2000), consistent with the invariable plane of the solar system. A general method for removing observational biases from the DES data set is presented and used to find a provisional magnitude distribution and the distribution of orbital inclinations relative to the KBP. A power-law model fit to the cumulative magnitude distribution of all KBOs discovered by the DES in the VR filter yields an index of 0.86+/-0.10 (with the efficiency parameters for the DES fitted simultaneously with the population power law). With the DES sensitivity parameters fixed, we derive power-law indices of 0.74+/-0.05, 0.52+/-0.08, and 0.74+/-0.15, respectively, for the Classical, Resonant, and Scattered classes. Plans for calibration of the DES detection efficiency function and DES magnitudes are discussed. The inclination distribution confirms the presence of ``hot'' and ``cold'' populations; when the geometric sini factor is removed from the inclination distribution function, the cold population shows a concentrated ``core'' with a full width at half-maximum of approximately 4.6d, while the hot population appears as a ``halo,'' extending beyond 30. The inclination distribution is used to infer the KBO distribution in the sky, as a function of latitude relative to the KBP. This inferred latitude distribution is reasonably consistent with the latitude distribution derived from direct observation, but the agreement is not perfect. We find no clear boundary between the Classical and Scattered classes either in their orbital inclinations with respect to the KBP or in their power-law indices in their respective magnitude distributions. This leaves open the possibility that common processes have shaped the distribution of orbital parameters for the two classes.

  2. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as

  3. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  4. Monitoring NEO discoveries for imminent impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, Otto; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri

    2015-11-01

    We are setting up an automated service that will regularly compute asteroid-Earth collision probabilities for objects on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth-Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP). Our goal is to identify objects similar to 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA and provide enough warning time to allow for, e.g., detailed follow-up observations prior to a collision. Our system downloads all the new data on the NEOCP every 30 minutes and, for each object with new data, solves the orbital inverse problem which results in a sample of orbits that describes the typically highly-nonlinear orbital-element probability-density function (PDF). We then propagate the orbital-element PDF forward in time for 7 days and compute the collision probability as the weighted fraction of the sample orbits that impact the Earth. Our tests have shown that the system correctly predicts the collisions of 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA based on the very first astrometry batches available (collision probabilities greater than 70%). Using the same configuration we find that the collision probabilities for objects typically on the NEOCP, based on 4 weeks of continuous operations, are always less than 1 in 10 million.

  5. Neo-sex chromosome inheritance across species in Silene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, L A; Delph, L F

    2014-07-01

    Neo-sex chromosomes, which form through the major restructuring of ancestral sex chromosome systems, have evolved in various taxa. Such restructuring often consists of the fusion of an autosome to an existing sex chromosome, resulting in novel sex chromosome formations (e.g. X1X2Y or XY1Y2.). Comparative studies are often made between restructured sex chromosome systems of closely related species, and here we evaluate the consequences of variable sex chromosome systems to hybrids. If neo-sex chromosomes are improperly inherited across species, this could lead to aberrant development and reproductive isolation. In this study, we examine the fate of neo-sex chromosomes in hybrids of the flowering plants Silene diclinis and Silene latifolia. Silene diclinis has a neo-sex chromosome system (XY1Y2) that is thought to have evolved from an ancestral XY system that is still present in S.latifolia. These species do not hybridize naturally, and improper sex chromosome inheritance could contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated whether this major restructuring of sex chromosomes prevents their proper inheritance in a variety of hybrid crosses, including some F2 - and later-generation hybrids, with sex chromosome-linked, species-specific, polymorphic markers and chromosome squashes. We discovered that despite the differences in sex chromosomes that exist between these two species, proper segregation had occurred in hybrids that made it to flowering, including later-generation hybrids, indicating that neo-sex chromosome formation alone does not result in complete reproductive isolation between these two species. Additionally, hybrids with aberrant sex expression (e.g. neuter, hermaphrodite) also inherited the restructured sex chromosomes properly, highlighting that issues with sexual development in hybrids can be caused by intrinsic genetic incompatibility rather than improper sex chromosome inheritance. PMID:24739043

  6. An Innovative Solution to NASA's NEO Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (< 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results. Detailed technical descriptions of the study results are provided in a separate final technical report, which can be downloaded from the ADRC website (www.adrc.iastate.edu).

  7. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  8. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  9. Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth-Objects at the Dawn of the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Radar, the most powerful ground-based technique for post discovery investigation of NEO's (near-Earth objects), can contribute a great deal to their exploration as well as to identification and mitigation of hazardous objects. My intentions in this article are to review the current state of NEO radar reconnaissance, examine the imminent prospects for this work as upgraded instrumentation becomes available, and propose construction of a next-generation radar telescope that, unlike any existing radar instrument, would be optimized for, and dedicated to, NEO radar.

  10. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  11. Objective assessment for exercise treatment on the B-200 isostation as part of work tolerance rehabilitation. A random prospective blind evaluation with comparison control population.

    PubMed

    Sachs, B L; Ahmad, S S; LaCroix, M; Olimpio, D; Heath, R; David, J A; Scala, A D

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess repeated exercise on the B-200 Isostation as part of rehabilitation work tolerance for nonsurgical patients with lumbar spine disorders. For a consecutive 7-month period, treatment subjects were randomly assigned according to birth date for participation in two groups: a standard work tolerance program only or standard work tolerance program plus inclusion of exercise on the B-200 Isostation. Each patient had similar referral diagnosis requiring conservative treatment. Treatment groups were compared with a control population of volunteers who had neither back pain nor known underlying spinal pathology. All study patients had objective measurement of range of motion, isometric strength, and velocity of motion, on the B-200 Isostation before treatment and at follow-up 3 weeks after treatment. The data showed no significant difference of percent improvement when comparing patients in either of the randomized assigned treatment groups. There was a higher percentage of improvement for each treatment group as compared with the control individuals, however. Based on our study using the B-200 Isostation, there is little objective justification for including exercise on the B-200 dynametric Isostation as part of the rehabilitation routine for improvement of functional physical capacity. PMID:8153803

  12. Are 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and CM chondrites related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, R.; Haack, H.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Williams, I.; Boehnhardt, H.

    2013-09-01

    Comet 2P/Encke is a short-period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. It has an orbital period of 3.3 years and its orbit is dynamically decoupled from Jupiter's control due to gravitational interaction with terrestrial planets [6]. It is the only comet known on such an orbit, making it unique. Capture from the outer solar system onto its current orbit is very unlikely and even a continuous smooth dynamical evolution has a low probability as this requires a continuous period when it is dormant in order to avoid the volatiles from the nucleus becoming exhausted and making the current observed activity impossible. An origin in the asteroid belt is a possibility especially in view of the recently discovered main belt comets. The nucleus of 2P/Encke is dark (geometric albedo of 0.047 0.023 [3]), has an effective radius of 2.4 0.3 km [3] and it has polarimetric properties that are unique compared to other measured types of solar system objects, such as asteroids, TNOs, cometary dust, Centaurs [2]. The colors of 2P/Encke's nucleus are typical for comets, but no spectra of the nucleus in the visible wavelength range exist so far. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke, but the activity of the comet is not strong enough to explain the number of observed meteors. It has been suggested that the meteoroid stream was caused by the break up of a larger parent body, which left comet 2P/Encke and other various small bodies along with a stream of dust. Various small near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been discovered with orbits that can be linked with 2P/Encke and the Taurid meteoroid stream [1]. Though many of the associations are spurious due to the low inclination of 2P/Encke's orbit, many NEO's have evolved in a similar way to 2P/Encke overa period of 5000 years [8] suggesting some relationship. In addition to dynamical properties, common taxonomic properties can also provide an indication of a common origin for small bodies in the solar system. Taxonomic properties are poorly known for cometary nuclei and only few comets have measurements in the visible wavelength range. The existing spectra of bare nuclei are generally featureless and display different reddening slopes. Given the poor S/N ratio that is usually obtained in observations, more subtle features, such as ones from hydrated minerals, are beyond the detection limit in most cases. If the Taurid complex NEOs are fragments of the same body as 2P/Encke, we expect them to have the same spectral properties as the comet nucleus. Furthermore, it would be reasonable to expect that these NEOs could show cometary activity. Maribo is a type CM carbonaceous chondrite that fell in Denmark on 17 January 2009 [5]. The preatmospheric orbit of the object places it in the middle of the Taurid meteor stream [4], which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites, meaning that these meteorites are potentially samples of cometary material we can study in the laboratory. CM chondrites show signs of extensive aqueous alteration, which suggest that the parent body was an icy body that was at least partially molten at some point. It is therefore possible that the parent body of the CM chondrites is a comet [7]. In order to investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex associated NEOs and CM chondrites exists, spectroscopic studies of these objects were performed. Here we present ground-based observations, in the visible wavelength range, of 2P/Encke and 12 candidate Taurid NEOs obtained on 2 August 2011 at the ESO-VLT in Chile, using the FORS2 instrument. We obtained the first optical spectrum of the inactive nucleus of comet 2P/Encke and optical spectra of the selected candidate Taurid NEOs. In addition we obtained deep images in the R filter of each NEO to search for activity and of 2P/Encke to confirm that the comet was not active at the time of the observation. Preliminary analysis shows that 2P/Encke has a starlike pro

  13. Assessing the Five Factors of Personality in Adolescents: The Junior Version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortet, Generos; Ibanez, Manuel I.; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor…

  14. New cytotoxic neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria strigillosa.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Kai; Han, Qing-Tong

    2016-04-01

    Three new neo-clerodane diterpenoids, named scutestrigillosins A-C (1-3), were isolated from the whole plant of Scutellaria strigillosa. Their chemical structures including absolute configurations were established on the basis of detailed physical data analyses. In vitro, the isolated three new compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against four tumor cell lines (HONE-1, P-388, MCF7 and HT29), and gave IC50 values in the range 3.5-7.7μM. PMID:26920801

  15. Astronomy, Divination, and Politics in the Neo-Assyrian Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verderame, Lorenzo

    Celestial divination had an important role in the complex political and military machine of the Neo-Assyrian empire. Thousand of cuneiform documents dealing with celestial divination have come to light from the excavated archives of this period, as the Assurbanipal's library. Among them letters and reports enlight the relation of the king with his experts (ummânu), who performed divination and apotropaic rituals for his protection.

  16. Increasing Space Situational Awareness for NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; Eggl, Siegfried; Thuillot, William

    2015-05-01

    Over the past years, Europe has strengthened its commitment to foster space situational awareness. Apart from the current efforts in tracking space weather, artificial satellites and space debris, Near Earth Asteroid threat assessment is a key task. NEOshield has been part of this European effort. We will give an overview over national projects and European programs with French participation such as PoDET, ESTERS, FRIPON, NEOShield, Gaia-FUN-SSO and Stardust. Future plans regarding Near Earth Object threat assessment and mitigation are described. The role of the IMCCE in this framework is discussed using the example of the post mitigation impact risk analyis of Gravity Tractor and Kinetic Impactor based asteroid deflection demonstration mission designs.

  17. ON THE NATURE OF SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS. I. DATA AND OBSERVED TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sung, Eon-Chang; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Oh, Kyuseok; Sarzi, Marc E-mail: yi@yonsei.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    Several studies have reported the presence of sodium excess objects having neutral atomic absorption lines at 5895 A (Na D) and 8190 A that are deeper than expected based on stellar population models that match the stellar continuum. The origin of these lines is therefore hotly debated. van Dokkum and Conroy proposed that low-mass stars ({approx}<0.3 M{sub Sun }) are more prevalent in massive early-type galaxies, which may lead to a strong Na I 8190 line strength. It is necessary to test this prediction, however, against other prominent optical line indices such as Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270, which can be measured with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than Na I 8190. We identified a new sample of roughly 1000 Na D excess objects (NEOs; {approx}8% of galaxies in the sample) based on Na D line strength in the redshift range 0.00 {<=} z {<=} 0.08 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 through detailed analysis of galaxy spectra. We explore the properties of these new objects here. The novelty of this work is that the galaxies were carefully identified through direct visual inspection of SDSS images, and we systematically compared the properties of NEOs and those of a control sample of galaxies with normal Na D line strengths. We note that the majority of galaxies with high velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub e} > 250 km s{sup -1}) show Na D excesses. Most late-type NEOs have strong H{beta} line strengths and significant emission lines, which are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. This result implies that the presence of the interstellar medium and/or dust contributes to the increase in Na D line strengths observed for these galaxies, which is in good agreement with the earlier study of Chen et al. who used the Na D line index to study outflow activity in star-forming disk galaxies. In contrast, the majority of early-type NEOs are predominantly luminous and massive systems, which is in agreement with the findings of van Dokkum and Conroy. However, we find that models used to reproduce the Na I 8190 line strengths that adopt a bottom-heavy initial mass function are not able to reproduce the observed Na D line strengths. By comparing the observed Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270 line strengths with those of the models, we identify a plausible range of parameters that reproduce the observed values. In these models, the majority of early-type NEOs are ''{alpha}-enhanced'' ([{alpha}/Fe] {approx} 0.3), ''metal-rich'' ([Z/H] {approx} 0.3), and, especially, ''Na-enhanced'' ([Na/Fe] {approx} 0.3). An enhanced Na abundance is a particularly compelling hypothesis for the increase in the strength of the Na D line index in our early-type NEOs that appear devoid of dust, both in their SDSS images and spectra.

  18. NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

  19. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Xilouris, M.; Boumis, P.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Maroussis, A.; Dapergolas, A.; Fytsilis, A.; Charmandaris, V.; Tsiganis, K.; Tsinganos, K.

    2016-01-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope of the National Observatory of Athens, building a two fast-frame camera instrument, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  20. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panos; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Maroussis, Athanasios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris

    2015-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  1. The inner solar system cratering record and the evolution of impactor populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom Robert, G.; Renu, Malhotra; Zhi-Yong, Xiao; Takashi, Ito; Fumi, Yoshida; Ostrach Lillian, R.

    2015-03-01

    We review previously published and newly obtained crater size-frequency distributions in the inner solar system. These data indicate that the Moon and the terrestrial planets have been bombarded by two populations of objects. Population 1, dominating at early times, had nearly the same size distribution as the present-day asteroid belt, and produced heavily cratered surfaces with a complex, multi-sloped crater size-frequency distribution. Population 2, dominating since about 3.8-3.7 Gyr, had the same size distribution as near-Earth objects (NEOs) and a much lower impact flux, and produced a crater size distribution characterized by a differential -3 single-slope power law in the crater diameter range 0.02 km to 100 km. Taken together with the results from a large body of work on age-dating of lunar and meteorite samples and theoretical work in solar system dynamics, a plausible interpretation of these data is as follows. The NEO population is the source of Population 2 and it has been in near-steady state over the past 3.7-3.8 Gyr; these objects are derived from the main asteroid belt by size-dependent non-gravitational effects that favor the ejection of smaller asteroids. However, Population 1 was composed of main belt asteroids ejected from their source region in a size-independent manner, possibly by means of gravitational resonance sweeping during orbit migration of giant planets; this caused the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). The LHB began some time before 3.9 Gyr, peaked and declined rapidly over the next 100 to 300 Myr, and possibly more slowly from about 3.8-3.7 Gyr to 2 Gyr. A third crater population (Population S) consisted of secondary impact craters that can dominate the cratering record at small diameters.

  2. Preliminary Light Curve Results of NEOs from the Characterization and Astrometric Follow-Up Program at Adler Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Hammergren, Mark; Sieben, Jennifer; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    We are nearing the halfway mark of a two-year program for near-Earth object (NEO) astrometric follow-up and characterization utilizing 500 hours of observing time per year with the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our observing is divided into two-hour blocks approximately every other night for astrometry (see poster by K. A. Nault et al.) and several half-nights per month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et al.) and light curve studies.We present preliminary results from variable photometry observations as part of the characterization portion of the Adler Planetarium’s NEO program. The frequent scheduling of half-night observing time allows us to capture data for small NEOs near the time when they are closest to Earth before their apparent magnitudes rapidly diminish beyond the range of detectability. We searched for variability in newly discovered NEOs that had close approaches to Earth near the time of observation. These include 2014 RQ17, 2014 SB145, 2014 SF304, 2014 WO4, 2014 WY119, and 2015 BC. In addition, we observed 2340 Hathor and 2007 EC when they each made a close approach to Earth to compare with light curves and magnitude variation constraints from previous apparitions. We will construct light curves for all of the objects listed above and determine rotational periods for those with sufficient temporal coverage.The targets were selected from candidates in the JPL NEO Earth Close Approaches table, Arecibo planetary radar targets, and the Goldstone asteroid radar schedule. Due to the sensitivity of AGILE, we restricted our targets to those with apparent magnitudes in V less than 19 magnitudes.Observations were made using the frame transfer CCD camera AGILE on the ARC 3.5-meter telescope. AGILE has a field-of-view of 2.2'x2.2' and a plate scale of 0.258”/pixel with 2x2 binning.This work is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014

  3. The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

  4. On the existence of near-Earth-object meteoroid complexes producing meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J.; Madiedo, J.; Williams, I.

    2014-07-01

    It is generally thought that meteorites are formed as a result of collisions within the main belt of asteroids [1]. They are delivered onto Earth-crossing orbits because of the effects of orbital resonances, primarily with Jupiter. About 15 meteorites are known where their passage through the atmosphere was observed and recorded, allowing the parameters of the pre-encounter orbit to be derived [2]. The cosmic-ray-exposure ages (CREAs) are suggesting that most meteorites have been exposed to cosmic rays for tens of millions of years (Myrs) [3], re-enforcing the belief that the process of modifying the orbit from being near-circular in the main belt to highly elliptical as an Earth-crossing orbit was a gradual process like the effects of resonance. However, there is growing evidence that some meteorite could originate directly from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. A good example of this is the recent discovery of rare primitive groups in the Antarctic, an example being Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026: a C4/5 carbonaceous chondrite with a measured cosmic ray exposure age of only 0.28 Ma [4]. Here, we focus on recent dynamic links that have been established between meteorite-dropping bolides and NEOs that support the idea of short-life meteoroid streams that can generate meteoroids on Earth. The fact that such streams can exist allows rocky material from potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHA) to be sampled and investigated in the laboratory. The existence of meteoroid streams capable of producing meteorites has been proposed following the determination of accurate meteoroid orbits of fireballs obtained by the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) [5]. Some asteroids in the Earth's vicinity are undergoing both dynamical and collisional evolution on very short timescales [6]. Many of these objects are crumbly bodies that originated from the collisions between main-belt asteroids during their life-time. An obvious method of forming these complexes is fracturing. Many asteroids are known to be rubble piles and such structures can be unstable during a close approach to a planet due to tidal forces. The irregular shape of many fast-rotators can allow the YORP effect to increase the spin rate, also leading to fracturing [7]. The escape speed from a fragmenting asteroid is considerably smaller than the orbital velocity so a large amount of the initial mass can be ejected. The fragmentation process is likely to produce many metre-sized rocks as well as few tens of meters fragmental asteroids that could form a complex of fragments, all moving on nearly identical orbits. The lifetime of such orbital complexes is quite short (few tens of thousand of years) as consequence of planetary perturbations[8], except perhaps for those cases exhibiting orbits with high inclination, where lifetimes can be considerably higher [9]. Catastrophic disruptions in the main asteroid belt have been extensively studied, but little is known about the relevance of the process in the NEO population. The Spanish Fireball Network (SPMN) regularly monitors the skies and is obtaining evidence that NEO complexes can be a source of meteorites. By performing backward integrations of meteoroid orbits and NEO candidates, previously identified by using our ORAS software to compute several orbital similarity criteria, we have identified several complexes associated with NEOs of chondritic nature [10-12] and even one, 2012 XJ_{112} of likely achondritic nature [13]. Another recent example was probably the Feb 15th, 2013 Chelyabinsk superbolide. The meteorites recovered were shocked to a very high level [14,15], and the 19-meter-diameter Chelyabinsk NEA was probably a monolithic single stone produced from its presumable progenitor, the 2.2 km in diameter asteroid (86039) [16]. This association should, however, be tested by performing backward integrations of both orbits.

  5. Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth Objects at the Dawn of the Next Millenium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    From Intro.: Radar, the most powerful groundbased technique for post-discovery investigation of NEOs, can contribute a great deal to their exploration as well as to identification and mitigation of hazardous objects. My intentions in this article are to review the current state of NEO radar reconnaissance, examine the imminent prospects for this work as upgraded instrumentation becomes available, and propose construction of a next-generation radar telescope that, unlike any existing radar instrument, would be optimized for, and dedicated to, NEO radar.

  6. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

  7. KLENOT Project - Near Earth Objects Follow-up Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Milos; Ticha, Jana; Kocer, Michal; Tichy, Milos

    2015-08-01

    Near Earth Object (NEO) research is important not only as a great challenge for science but also as an important challenge for planetary defense. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind.The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of NEOs since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements helped to make inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO distribution. It ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008.The fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. The new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013.The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation.Both the system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used in the framework of the KLENOT Project are described here, including methods for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry.The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. More than 8000 of minor planet and comet astrometric positions including NEA measurements were published from September 2013 to February 2015.The 1.06-m KLENOT telescope is still the largest telescope in continental Europe used exclusively for observations of asteroids and comets. Full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. Considering our results and long-time experience obtained at the Klet Observatory, we have the large potential to contribute to recent NEO efforts.Since October 2014 the KLENOT Project has been a part of European Space Agency Space Systém Awareness Programme (ESA-SSA) - NEO Segment - Cooperating Sensors.

  8. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter; Giguere, P T; Bradley, P; Guzik, J A; Plesko, C; Wohletz, K; Johnson, L N; Boice, D C; Chocron, S; Ghosh, A; Goldstein, R; Mukerherjee, J; Patrick, W; Walker, J D

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  9. Ancient Male Recombination Shaped Genetic Diversity of Neo-Y Chromosome in Drosophila albomicans.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Koichiro

    2016-02-01

    Researchers studying Y chromosome evolution have drawn attention to neo-Y chromosomes in Drosophila species due to their resembling the initial stage of Y chromosome evolution. In the studies of neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila miranda, the extremely low genetic diversity observed suggested various modes of natural selection acting on the nonrecombining genome. However, alternative possibility may come from its peculiar origin from a single chromosomal fusion event with male achiasmy, which potentially caused and maintained the low genetic diversity of the neo-Y chromosome. Here, we report a real case where a neo-Y chromosome is in transition from an autosome to a typical Y chromosome. The neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila albomicans harbored a rich genetic diversity comparable to its gametologous neo-X chromosome and an autosome in the same genome. Analyzing sequence variations in 53 genes and measuring recombination rates between pairs of loci by cross experiments, we elucidated the evolutionary scenario of the neo-Y chromosome of D. albomicans having high genetic diversity without assuming selective force, i.e., it originated from a single chromosomal fusion event, experienced meiotic recombination during the initial stage of evolution and diverged from neo-X chromosome by the suppression of recombination tens or a few hundreds of thousand years ago. Consequently, the observed high genetic diversity on the neo-Y chromosome suggested a strong effect of meiotic recombination to introduce genetic variations into the newly arisen sex chromosome. PMID:26494844

  10. Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-Y Chromosome of Drosophila Americana Americana

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Hnilicka, J.; Yu, A.; Guttman, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of genetic degeneration of the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana has been investigated. Three loci, coding for the enzymes enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and alcohol dehydrogenase, have been localized to chromosome 4 of D. a. americana, which forms the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes. Crosses between D. a. americana and D. virilis or D. montana showed that the loci coding for these enzymes carry active alleles on the neo-Y chromosome in all wild-derived strains of americana that were tested. Intercrosses between a genetically marked stock of virilis and strains of americana were carried out, creating F(3) males that were homozygous for sections of the neo-Y chromosome. The sex ratios in the F(3) generation of the intercrosses showed that no lethal alleles have accumulated on any of the neo-Y chromosomes tested. There was evidence for more minor reductions in fitness, but this seems to be mainly caused by deleterious alleles that are specific to each strain. A similar picture was provided by examination of the segregation ratios of two marker genes among the F(3) progeny. Overall, the data suggest that the neo-Y chromosome has undergone very little degeneration, certainly not to the extent of having lost the functions of vital genes. This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work. PMID:9093852

  11. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create a catalog of NEO diameters and albedos that can be used for a wide range of science goals. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We include in our target list only objects that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs (including results from our previous Spitzer program, ExploreNEOs, as well as objects observed by NEOWISE). We will present the status of the program and results to date, some nine months into the execution of the program. All observational and model results are published immediately online at nearearthobjects.nau.edu . Support for this work is provided by the Spitzer Science Center.

  12. Late Triassic paleogeographic reconstruction along the Neo-Tethyan Ocean margins, southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fulong; Ding, Lin; Laskowski, Andrew K.; Kapp, Paul; Wang, Houqi; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Liyun

    2016-02-01

    Sandstone petrographic and U-Pb detrital zircon analyses of Upper Triassic sedimentary rocks from the northern margin of India (Tethyan Himalaya Sequence) and southern margin of Eurasia (Lhasa terrane) provide new constraints on the Mesozoic paleogeography of Neo-Tethyan Ocean basins. The Upper Triassic Nieru Formation of the Tethyan Himalaya Sequence (THS) near Lazi city (∼29°N, 87.5°E) is dominated by Indian-affinity, Precambrian detrital zircons, which are typical of the majority of the THS. However, the Upper Triassic Langjiexue Formation of the THS exposed to the east (at 90-93°E longitude) includes significant populations of Permian to Early Jurassic (291-184 Ma) detrital zircons for which there is no known Indian source. In addition, the Upper Triassic Nieru Formation near Kangma town (∼28.5°N, 90°E), located ∼200 km to the southeast of Lazi city, yielded detrital zircon age spectra that are similar to those of Langjiexue Formation. Based on detrital zircon age spectra comparisons, we propose that both the Langjiexue and Nieru formations were derived from continental crustal fragments that were adjacent to the northwestern margin of Australia. Furthermore, we suggest that these THS units, and age-equivalent strata in Northwest Australia, West Sulawesi, Timor and West Papua, comprised a Late Triassic submarine fan along the northern Australian shelf. The Upper Triassic Mailonggang Formation in the southern Lhasa terrane (35 km northeast of Lhasa city, ∼30°N, 91.5°E) is dominated by Permian detrital zircons, which were likely derived from proximal Lhasa terrane sources. The Mailonggang Formation differs from all age-equivalent strata in the Tethyan Himalaya; therefore we interpret that it was separated from Greater India by the Neo-Tethyan Ocean.

  13. Mathematics in Mind, Brain, and Education: A Neo-Piagetian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Because of their focus on psychological structures and operations, neo-Piagetian approaches to learning lend themselves to neurological hypotheses. Recent advances in neural imaging and educational technology now make it possible to test some of these claims. Here, we take a neo-Piagetian approach to mathematical learning in order to frame two…

  14. Education Policy as Proto-Fascism: The Aesthetics of Racial Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that neo-liberal educational policy has emerged as a proto-fascist governmentality. This contemporary technology relies on State racisms and racial orderings manifested from earlier liberal and neo-liberal practices of biopower. As a proto-fascist technology, education policy, and school choice policies in particular, operate within a

  15. Gender Justice and Education: Constructions of Boys within Discourses of Resentment, Neo-Liberalism and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin; Keddie, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a politics of resentment, neo-liberal policies, and security concerns on issues of gender justice in schools in various western countries. We argue that since the 1990s gender justice in schools has been severely hampered by a politics of resentment, or backlash politics, and the presence of neo-liberal discourses

  16. Neo-sex chromosomes of Ronderosia bergi: insight into the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Gimenez, O M; Marti, D A; Cabral-de-Mello, D C

    2015-09-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved many times from morphologically identical autosome pairs, most often presenting several recombination suppression events, followed by accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. In Orthoptera, most species have an X0? sex chromosome system. However, in the subfamily Melanoplinae, derived variants of neo-sex chromosomes (neo-XY? or neo-X1X2Y?) emerged several times. Here, we examined the differentiation of neo-sex chromosomes in a Melanoplinae species with a neo-XY?/XX? system, Ronderosia bergi, using several approaches: (i) classical cytogenetic analysis, (ii) mapping via fluorescent in situ hybridization of some selected repetitive DNA sequences and microdissected sex chromosomes, and (iii) immunolocalization of distinct histone modifications. The microdissected sex chromosomes were also used as sources for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA-coding multigene families, to study variants related to the sex chromosomes. Our data suggest that the R. bergi neo-Y has become differentiated after its formation by a Robertsonian translocation and inversions, and has accumulated repetitive DNA sequences. Interestingly, the ex autosomes incorporated into the neo-sex chromosomes retain some autosomal post-translational histone modifications, at least in metaphase I, suggesting that the establishment of functional modifications in neo-sex chromosomes is slower than their sequence differentiation. PMID:25605041

  17. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower "Conscientiousness" and lower

  18. Conspirators in a Neo-Liberal Agenda? Adult Educators in Second-Chance Private Training Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that explored the impact of neo-liberal policy and ideology on educators and directors working in second-chance Private Training Establishments (PTEs) which were created at the height of the neo-liberal reforms in New Zealand. By examining the experiences of 14 educators and directors in four…

  19. Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Keumjoong

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as…

  20. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower "Conscientiousness" and lower…

  1. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  2. Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Keumjoong

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as

  3. Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.

  4. Mathematics in Mind, Brain, and Education: A Neo-Piagetian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Because of their focus on psychological structures and operations, neo-Piagetian approaches to learning lend themselves to neurological hypotheses. Recent advances in neural imaging and educational technology now make it possible to test some of these claims. Here, we take a neo-Piagetian approach to mathematical learning in order to frame two

  5. A neo-sex-chromosome that drives post-zygotic sex determiniation in the Hessian fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two nonoverlapping autosomal inversions defined unusual neo-sex chromosomes in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Like other neo-sex chromosomes, these were normally heterozygous, present only in one sex, and suppressed recombination around a sex-determining master switch. Their unusual propert...

  6. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the

  7. Der soziologische Neo-Institutionalismus. Eine organisationstheoretische Analyse -- und Forschungsperspektive auf Schulische Organisationen (Sociological Neo-Institutionalism. An Organization--Theoretical Perspective Applied to the Analysis of and Research on School Organization).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefers, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Points out the potential in a neo-institutional perspective as applied to school organization. Sketches the theoretical foundations and current developments of sociological neo-institutionalism. Discusses the German school system and plans for school reform. Shows that from a neo-institutional perspective, school sector offers a variety of fields

  8. Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2013-06-01

    We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

  9. Pella vilya: Near earth objectsPlanetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Grardine Meishan

    2010-07-01

    Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

  10. A neo-intuitive proposal for Kaluza-Klein unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    1988-11-01

    This paper addresses a central question of contemporary theoretical physics: Can a unified account be provided for the known forces of nature? The issue is brought into focus by considering the recently revived Kaluza-Klein approach to unification, a program entailing dimensional transformation through cosmogony. First it is demonstrated that, in a certain sence, revitalized Kaluza-Klein theory appears to undermine the intuitive foundations of mathematical physics, but that this implicit consequence has been repressed at a substantial cost. A fundamental reformulation of the Kaluza-Klein strategy is then undertaken, one that casts it within a new intuitive context. This is followed by a provisional application of the suggested approach to the specific problem of cosmological change. The paper concludes by exploring the far-reaching epistemological implications of the “neo-intuitive” proposal set forth.

  11. Issues That Drive Near-Earth Object Mitigation Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, D. K.; Chamberlin, A.; Chesley, S.; Chodas, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Find them early: The most important aspect for the mitigation of hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs) is to find them early enough so that an appropriate and timely response can be carried out. Although about 84% of the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) larger than one kilometer had been found by mid-2009, only about 5% of the NEAs 140 meters and larger that could cause regional devastation had been found. Because of their fewer numbers, comets represent only ~1% of the asteroid threat in the Earths neighborhood. Improve impact predictions: The vast majority of true impactors will reach very high probabilities of impact after their second apparition and that is usually within a few years of discovery. Simulations suggest that radar astrometry increases the average Earth encounter predictability from 80 to 400 years and increases the impact warning time an average of up to 4 years. In addition, radar imaging can often resolve the shapes of NEOs down to the few meter level. For NEOs that have been identified as potential threats, the radiometric tracking of a rendezvous spacecraft, coupled with spacecraft imaging of the NEO, could be used to dramatically improve the asteroids ephemeris. Ongoing activities to improve the orbit determination and ephemeris prediction process for NEOs include efforts to de-bias reference star positions and the modeling of the small asteroid accelerations introduced by the asymmetric re-radiation of sunlight (i.e., Yarkovsky effect). Study risk mitigation responses: For the deflection of hazardous NEOs on direct impacting trajectories, relatively mature techniques include the kinetic energy impacts by spacecraft for relatively small (< 300 meters) NEOs and either stand-off or surface nuclear explosions for the larger, but far less numerous, NEO impactors. For both cases, the ejecta blown back as a result of the collision or explosion would introduce a momentum enhancement that would be expected to augment the momentum delivered by the crater forming mechanism itself. Studies need to be carried out to understand this momentum enhancement factor since it can vary by more than an order of magnitude depending upon the NEOs structure and composition. For the few percent of simulated Earth impactors that pass closely by the Earth prior to impact, the gravitational attraction between the threatening NEO and a nearby thrusting spacecraft (gravity tractor) could be used to drag the NEO out of harms way. For example, near-Earth asteroid Apophis has a small chance of passing through a 610-meter keyhole during its dramatic Earth close approach to within 0.1 lunar distances on April 13, 2029 - a keyhole passage that would then allow it to return seven years later for an Earth impact on April 13, 2036. A gravity tractor could be employed in the early 2020s to ensure that Apophis would not enter this tiny keyhole. However, the Apophis situation, where a very close Earth approach a few years prior to a potential impact offers a tremendous amount of leverage for a deflection, is not typical. In the near term, the most likely scenarios would include impacts by relatively small NEOs with little or no warning so that plans for rapid evacuations also need to be considered.

  12. Specific Research Objectives and Scope by Institute - Intervention Research to Improve Native American Health (R01) Research Project Grant - National Cancer Institute - Cancer Control and Population Sciences

    Cancer.gov

    Native American populations have the lowest 5-year cancer survival rate and highest percentage of disseminated and ill-defined cancers of any subpopulation in the U.S. Poorer cancer survival rates have been attributed to many factors, among them inadequate access to health care, geographic isolation, later stage of detection, underutilization of treatment, poverty, and social and cultural barriers.

  13. Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  14. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  15. European near-Earth object radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Alexander L.

    2002-11-01

    Radar astronomy paradox (RAP): practically everybody agree with essential contributions of active radar observations to Solar System and especially to near-Earth object (NEO) explorations, but despite everything prefer to develop new and new passive telescopes and disposable space missions, only, and nobody want to build at least one dedicated multipurpose radar telescope (neither Arecibo nor Goldstone and Evpatoria radars were created as dedicated radar astronomy instruments). Also, as of June 2002, among of 188 radar detected asteroids and comets there are only 3 NEOs, which were investigated in Europe, with single European radar facility, sited in Evpatoria. The main reason of such deep gap is a low sensitivity of Evpatoria radar, which is in 10 and 300 times less powerful than Goldstone and Arecibo. Therefore, I guess the first dedicated European NEO Radar (ENEOR) is earnestly needful now. From time to time we discuss this problem, but it is not solve for the present moment, perhaps because of above formulated RAP. Origin and concept of the ENEOR, as well as the ENEOR project, based on the being under construction 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope, will be presented below.

  16. Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeff; Scotti, Jim; Bressi, Terry; Spahr, Tim; Maleszewski, Chet

    2014-08-01

    We request MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Targets include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs), other close approachers, and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence the need to reach fainter magnitudes on short notice. About half of our targets are therefore unknown at the time of this proposal. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by WISE that need astrometry. Our past use of the Mayall telescope has been determined by Co-Investigator Tim Spahr of the Minor Planet Center to provide ``dramatic improvement'' to orbits.

  17. Breeding Objectives in Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All breeding programs share one common objective – to improve a species for use within a target population of environments and a particular agricultural context. Beyond this common goal, the objectives of forage breeding programs are as varied as the species upon which they are based and the breeder...

  18. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  19. Eco-SpaCE: an object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations.

    PubMed

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M J; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2010-08-15

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks. PMID:20005557

  20. Object crowding

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Julian M.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2012-01-01

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and donut objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast. PMID:21613388

  1. The Application of Piagetian and Neo-Piagetian Ideas to Further and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Outlines theoretical perspectives of neo-Piagetians (Kohlberg, Peel, Labouvie-Vief), synthesizers (Kolb, Biggs, Pascual-Leone), and alternative theorists (Perry, Gilligan). Considers their applicability to adults and the implications for adult and higher education. (SK)

  2. Physics Teaching and Cognitive Functioning--A Neo-Piagetian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin F.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the "neo-Piagetian" concepts of Juan Pascual-Leone which are present in Piaget's theory. The concepts presented are the repertoire of schemes, mental processing capacity, and field dependence-independence. (Author/SA)

  3. Evolution by epigenesis: farewell to Darwinism, neo- and otherwise.

    PubMed

    Balon, Eugene K

    2004-01-01

    In the last 25 years, criticism of most theories advanced by Darwin and the neo-Darwinians has increased considerably, and so did their defense. Darwinism has become an ideology, while the most significant theories of Darwin were proven unsupportable. The critics advanced other theories instead of 'natural selection' and the survival of the fittest'. 'Saltatory ontogeny' and 'epigenesis' are such new theories proposed to explain how variations in ontogeny and novelties in evolution are created. They are reviewed again in the present essay that also tries to explain how Darwinians, artificially kept dominant in academia and in granting agencies, are preventing their acceptance. Epigenesis, the mechanism of ontogenies, creates in every generation alternative variations in a saltatory way that enable the organisms to survive in the changing environments as either altricial or precocial forms. The constant production of two such forms and their survival in different environments makes it possible, over a sequence of generations, to introduce changes and establish novelties--the true phenomena of evolution. The saltatory units of evolution remain far-from-stable structures capable of self-organization and self-maintenance (autopoiesis). PMID:15612191

  4. Neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourabit, T.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Ayadi, A.; Benouar, D.; Ben Suleman, A.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Cheddadi, A.; Chourak, M.; ElGabry, M. N.; Harbi, A.; Hfaiedh, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Kacem, J.; Ksentini, A.; Jabour, N.; Magrin, A.; Maouche, S.; Meghraoui, M.; Ousadou, F.; Panza, G. F.; Peresan, A.; Romdhane, N.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.

    2014-04-01

    North Africa is one of the most earthquake-prone areas of the Mediterranean. Many devastating earthquakes, some of them tsunami-triggering, inflicted heavy loss of life and considerable economic damage to the region. In order to mitigate the destructive impact of the earthquakes, the regional seismic hazard in North Africa is assessed using the neo-deterministic, multi-scenario methodology (NDSHA) based on the computation of synthetic seismograms, using the modal summation technique, at a regular grid of 0.2 0.2. This is the first study aimed at producing NDSHA maps of North Africa including five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. The key input data for the NDSHA algorithm are earthquake sources, seismotectonic zonation, and structural models. In the preparation of the input data, it has been really important to go beyond the national borders and to adopt a coherent strategy all over the area. Thanks to the collaborative efforts of the teams involved, it has been possible to properly merge the earthquake catalogues available for each country to define with homogeneous criteria the seismogenic zones, the characteristic focal mechanism associated with each of them, and the structural models used to model wave propagation from the sources to the sites. As a result, reliable seismic hazard maps are produced in terms of maximum displacement ( D max), maximum velocity ( V max), and design ground acceleration.

  5. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

    2012-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure shows an example of this capability where the Brazil Nut problem is simulated: as the container full of granular material is vibrated, the large ball slowly moves upwards. This capability was expanded to account for anchors of different shapes and penetration velocities, interacting with granular soils.

  6. Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psychologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the development of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on sensation and perception in order to defend Kant's epistemological idealism. Based on a critique of phrenology and philosophical psychology of his time, Lange developed a program of a psychology without a soul. He suggested that only those phenomena that can be observed and controlled should be studied, that psychology should focus on actions and speech, and that for each psychological event the corresponding physical or physiological processes should be identified. Lange opposed introspection and subjective accounts and promoted experiments and statistics. He also promoted Darwinism for psychology while developing a socialist progressive-democratic reading of Darwin in his social theory. The implications of socialist Darwinism on Lange's conceptualization of race are discussed and his prominence in nineteenth century philosophy and psychology is summarized. PMID:12115788

  7. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: the role of European welfare regimes.

    PubMed

    De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is the same in women compared to men within each welfare regime, and (iii) to examine within each welfare regime the role of the gender division of labour and job quality as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. Social class was measured through E.O. Wright's social class scheme. Models separated by sex were generated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance. The associations were presented as prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Women reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in State corporatist/family support and Southern welfare regimes. Men reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in all but the Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. Gender inequalities were more marked and widespread in Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. In all welfare regimes job quality (partly) explained NMSC inequalities in mental well-being for men, the role of the gender division of labour was unclear. This study showed that the relationship between NMSC and mental well-being among employees differs by gender and welfare regimes. It confirms the importance of NMSC and welfare regimes to explain gender and social class inequalities in mental well-being. PMID:25621400

  8. Optimal detection of short-warning near-earth object threats

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Detection of near-Earth Objects (NEOs) has concentrated on long-warning threats. LPCs (long period comets) and smaller objects do not offer such warning. Their detection on final approach is a more demanding search problem. Improvements in ground- and space-based search sensors and strategies could provide adequate search capability.

  9. The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

    2014-07-01

    The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

  10. A prospective nonrandomized comparison of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication in Indian population using detailed objective and subjective criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Pawanindra; Leekha, Nitin; Chander, Jagdish; Dewan, Richa; Ramteke, Vinod K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) worldwide. However, unfavourable postoperative sequel, including gas bloat and dysphagia, has encouraged surgeons to perform alternative procedures such as laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF). This prospective nonrandomized study was designed to compare LNF with LTF in patients with GERD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred and ten patients symptomatic for GERD were included in the study after having received intensive acid suppression therapy for a minimum of 8 weeks. A 24-hour pH metry was done on all patients. Fifty patients having reflux on 24-hour pH metry were taken up for the surgery. Patients were further divided into group-A (LNF) and group-B (LTF). RESULTS: The median percentage time with esophageal pH < 4 decreased from 10.18% and 12.31% preoperatively to 0.85% and 1.94% postoperatively in LNF and LTF-groups, respectively. There was a significant and comparable increase in length of lower esophageal sphincter (LES), length of intraabdominal part of LES and LES pressure at respiratory inversion point in both the groups. In LNF-group, five patients had early dysphagia that improved afterwards. There were no significant postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: LNF and LTF are highly effective in the management of GERD with significant improvement in symptoms and objective parameters. LNF may be associated with significantly higher incidence of short onset transient dysphagia that improves with time. Patients in both the groups showed excellent symptom and objective control on 24-hour pH metry on short term follow-up. PMID:22623824

  11. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  12. Cognitive Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting on obsessional play objects of infants, Hodgkin suggests that a proper understanding of these "transitional" or "cognitive" objects could lead to an educational model of a "learner" involving a number of human competencies, all developing synergistically. Contends that such a model may be truer to life than the more unified and

  13. [Proposals for social class classification based on the Spanish National Classification of Occupations 2011 using neo-Weberian and neo-Marxist approaches].

    PubMed

    Domingo-Salvany, Antnia; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Carrasco, Jos Miguel; Espelt, Albert; Ferrando, Josep; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the new National Classification of Occupations (Clasificacin Nacional de Ocupaciones [CNO-2011]) is substantially different to the 1994 edition, and requires adaptation of occupational social classes for use in studies of health inequalities. This article presents two proposals to measure social class: the new classification of occupational social class (CSO-SEE12), based on the CNO-2011 and a neo-Weberian perspective, and a social class classification based on a neo-Marxist approach. The CSO-SEE12 is the result of a detailed review of the CNO-2011 codes. In contrast, the neo-Marxist classification is derived from variables related to capital and organizational and skill assets. The proposed CSO-SEE12 consists of seven classes that can be grouped into a smaller number of categories according to study needs. The neo-Marxist classification consists of 12 categories in which home owners are divided into three categories based on capital goods and employed persons are grouped into nine categories composed of organizational and skill assets. These proposals are complemented by a proposed classification of educational level that integrates the various curricula in Spain and provides correspondences with the International Standard Classification of Education. PMID:23394892

  14. Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A neo-piagetian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    Most Piagetian formal operational reasoning tasks show horizontal decalage; that is, subjects pass certain tasks and fail others that have the same logical structure. The study reported here analyzes the importance of individual difference variables, as postulated by the neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone, in explaining subject performance in formal reasoning. A sample of 72 freshman students were administered a test of formal reasoning having 20 items of different types of reasoning, and the tests of the individual difference variables. Results obtained from multiple regression analyses show that Pascual-Leone's structural M-capacity (Ms) is the most consistent predictor of success in the different formal reasoning tasks, followed by Witkin's cognitive style, and to a much lesser degree Raven's progressive matrices, and Pascual-Leone's functional M-capacity (Mf). It was found that in the total score on the 20 items of formal reasoning, Ms accounted for 23.3% of the variance (R = 0.483, F = 6.39, p = 0.014) and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test, increased the multiple R significantly (F = 7.77, p = 0.007) and accounted for 7.6% of the variance. Mf and the Raven test did not make a significant contribution to the regression equation. Correlation coefficients among most of the items having the same reasoning pattern but different content are generally low but statistically significant (p < 0.01). Intercorrelations among items having the same formal reasoning pattern and content are fairly high (p < 0.001). These results emphasize the importance of individual difference variables: information-processing capacity (Pascual-Leone) and oversensitivity to potentially misleading information (Witkin). It is suggested that in order to understand student performance in formal reasoning tasks, we should expect horizontal decalages as a rule and not the exception, as Piaget had postulated. Educational implications are drawn.

  15. The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact. PMID:24758585

  16. Physical modeling and high-performance GPU computing for characterization, interception, and disruption of hazardous near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinger, Brian Douglas

    For the past few decades, both the scientific community and the general public have been becoming more aware that the Earth lives in a shooting gallery of small objects. We classify all of these asteroids and comets, known or unknown, that cross Earth's orbit as near-Earth objects (NEOs). A look at our geologic history tells us that NEOs have collided with Earth in the past, and we expect that they will continue to do so. With thousands of known NEOs crossing the orbit of Earth, there has been significant scientific interest in developing the capability to deflect an NEO from an impacting trajectory. This thesis applies the ideas of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) theory to the NEO disruption problem. A simulation package was designed that allows efficacy simulation to be integrated into the mission planning and design process. This is done by applying ideas in high-performance computing (HPC) on the computer graphics processing unit (GPU). Rather than prove a concept through large standalone simulations on a supercomputer, a highly parallel structure allows for flexible, target dependent questions to be resolved. Built around nonclassified data and analysis, this computer package will allow academic institutions to better tackle the issue of NEO mitigation effectiveness.

  17. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly

  18. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  19. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  20. Object and spatial memory after neonatal perirhinal lesions in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alison R; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of the perirhinal cortex (PRh) to recognition memory is well characterized in adults, yet the same lesions have limited effect on recognition of spatial locations. Here, we assessed whether the same outcomes will follow when perirhinal lesions are performed in infancy. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal (Neo-PRh) lesions and control animals were tested in three operant recognition tasks as they reached adulthood: Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample (DNMS) and Object Memory Span (OMS), measuring object recognition, and Spatial Memory Span (SMS), measuring recognition of spatial locations. Although Neo-PRh lesions did not impact acquisition of the DNMS rule, they did impair performance when the delays were extended from 30s to 600s. In contrast, the same neonatal lesions had no impact on either the object or spatial memory span tasks, suggesting that the lesions impacted the maintenance of information across longer delays and not memory capacity. Finally, the magnitude of recognition memory impairment after the Neo-PRh lesions was similar to that previously observed after adult-onset perirhinal lesions, indicating minimal, or no, functional compensation after the early PRh lesions. Overall, the results indicate that the PRh is a cortical structure that is important for the normal development of mechanisms supporting object recognition memory. Its contribution may be relevant to the memory impairment observed with human cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without hippocampal sclerosis, but not to the memory impairment found in developmental amnesia cases. PMID:26593109

  1. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 μm) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 μW/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

  2. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  3. Reconstruction of the Paleo and Neo stages of Poas and Turrialba volcanoes, Costa Rica: Competing processes of growth and destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Cubillo, Paulo

    This study is about two problems a) growth and b) erosion of the Pos and Turrialba volcanoes during the last 600 ka. For the growth problem, we studied both volcanoes, meanwhile for the erosion problem we focused only in the erosion generated by the recurrent phenomenon of coseismic landslides on Pos. The detailed study done here for Pos, showed how its actual edifice has grown in the last 600 Ky and how it is comprised by at least 14 volcanic units (4 from the Paleo-temporal phase and 10 from the Neo-phase). The geochemistry data showed the variation of these volcanic units between two main magmatic components (Sabana Redonda and the Von Frantzius Geochemical Components). We presented a landslide inventory for the 2009 (M w 6.2) Cinchona earthquake based on LiDAR images. Mass wasting calculations then were extrapolated and used to calculate erosion rates based on this phenomenon for Pos ( 300 150 km3/km/Myr, a rate comparable to estimates of magma flux at arc volcanic systems). Furthermore, the catalog was used to create a landslide susceptibily model, that maps landslide risk for any shallow earthquake on the volcano and determine which areas could be affected by landslides. For Turrialba, this study includes mostly the geochronology and stratigraphy of eight lava flow units that yield ages that range from 251 to 3 ka (one unit from the Paleo-temporal phase and 7 from the Neo). Three of these units, gave remarkably young 40Ar/39Ar ages (25 ka or less), among the youngest lavas dated in Central America (CA) by this method. The Neo-Turrialba flows consist of a low silica and a high silica group. The data and methodology followed here for the reconstruction of the Pos and Turrialba volcanoes can be used to obtain a new net extrusive volcanic flux, which may be used as a parameter for the rest of volcanoes of CA. The effective use of the information generated for the coseismic landslide susceptibility model for Pos by planners could reduce the impact of future landslides on the population and on the important civil infrastructure located in the study area.

  4. Robotic and Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  5. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  6. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38 ± 0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11 ± 0.43 g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28 °C and 200 rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  7. Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Coburn, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health. PMID:14572920

  8. The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Richard G

    2009-06-01

    The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time. PMID:19442927

  9. Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  10. Innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap for neo-phallic reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Figus, A; Dessy, L A; Alei, G; Mazzocchi, M; Trignano, E; Scuderi, N

    2009-03-01

    Many techniques have been described to create an aesthetic and functional neo-phallus after penile amputation or in female-to-male transsexuals. Microsurgical free-flap phalloplasty seems to be the preferred method of penile reconstruction. For many years the radial forearm free flap has been considered the best procedure, but other flaps have been attempted to minimize donor site morbidity and optimize outcome. Pedicled flaps are considered to be reliable and to decrease the risk of total failure. Recently, a one-stage non-microsurgical technique was described for phallic reconstruction in a young male patient. We report successful total phallic reconstruction in a female-to-male transsexual patient using an island pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. Urethral reconstruction was left as a possible further procedure due to patient's preference. A malleable soft silicone penile prosthesis was inserted within the flap and the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve stump was sutured to the dorsal clitoris branch from the pudendal nerve for flap sensation. After 6 months, the patient demonstrated successful aesthetic and functional reconstruction referring to satisfactory sexual activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an innervated island pedicled ALT flap used for female-to-male penile reconstruction in a transsexual patient. The pedicled ALT flap may be a reliable option to avoid visible scarring at the donor site on exposed parts of the body, and reduce the risk of total flap failure from microsurgical procedures for reconstruction of a neo-phallus in this increasing population of patients. PMID:18455975

  11. The non-uniform distribution of the perihelia of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

    2013-10-01

    We show that each sub-group of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects that cause distinctive features in the apparent distribution of their angular elements. We also reveal that the NEOs' perihelia (argument of perihelion ? and longitude of perihelion ?) have intrinsically non-uniform distributions caused by secular planetary perturbations: ? is non-uniform for the Apollo asteroids because of secular dynamics associated with eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors' ? distribution is peaked along the secularly forced eccentricity vector. These secular effects are dominated by Jupiter's perturbations, and it is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

  12. A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Rob R.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

  13. [Effect of a new hormonal contraceptive (Neo-Eunomin) in females with androgenization symptoms].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, E

    1984-10-01

    The activity of Neo-Eunomin on androgenisation of the skin, seborrhoea, acne, alopecia and hirsutism was investigated in a long-term trial covering 165 patients over 3379 cycles. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 47 years. The first three symptoms showed clear improvement after 6 months of treatment, and in many cases a cure was achieved after 12 months of therapy. No equally good results could at least be obtained in the treatment of hirsutism. In a further study Neo-Eunomin was compared with a contraceptive containing a nor-testosteron derivative (Conceplan 21). Neo-Eunomin showed convincingly better efficacy in the treatment of androgenisation of the skin than the preparation under comparison. PMID:6083897

  14. Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region

    SciTech Connect

    Panza, G. F.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G.; Paskaleva, I.; Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P.; Herak, M.; Zaichenco, A.; Zivcic, M.

    2008-07-08

    A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

  15. An "entry level" mission to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

    2003-11-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects' mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An 'entry level' mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10kg science 'reference' payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of Euro 20 million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

  16. Neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy; an opportunity in sphincter preserving procedure for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mozafar, Mohammad; Adhami, Farideh; Atqiaee, Khashayar; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Amraei, Razie; Baikpour, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Aim The present study was designed to assess the impact of neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on the possibility of utilizing sphincter preserving techniques in rectal cancer surgery. Background For both patients and surgeons anal sphincter preserving surgery serves as the ideal procedure to treat rectal cancer. Patients and methods Patients with rectal cancer who were admitted to Shohadaye Tajrish hospital between 2001 and 2011 and underwent sphincter preserving or non-preserving surgery were identified. They were divided into those who had received neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy prior to surgery and those who didn't, and the type of surgical procedure they underwent was compared between the two arms. Data regarding tumor pathology, tumor size and distance from anal verge before and after neo-adjuvant therapy, together with the duration of chemo-radiotherapy were also assessed. Results 103 patients with documented rectal cancer were included in our analysis. Among 47 patients who had not received neo-adjuvant therapy, 26 (55%) underwent APR while 15(32%) and 6(13%) patients were treated with LAR and VLAR respectively. Of the 56 patients who had gone through chemo-radiotherapy prior to surgery, 30 (53%) underwent APR while 14 (25%) and 10 (18%) patients were treated with LAR and VLAR respectively. 2 patients had unresectable tumor. Tumor staging before and after neo-adjuvant therapy showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.0001). Conclusion Neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherpy can decrease tumor size, increase the distance between the tumor and anal verge, and downgrade the staging. However, it does not necessarily increase the possibility of performing sphincter preserving surgery on patients suffering from low-lying tumors. PMID:25436095

  17. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  18. Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,…

  19. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between

  20. Extremism and Neo-Liberal Education Policy: A Contextual Critique of the Trojan Horse Affair in Birmingham Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers new insights into the effects of neo-liberal education policies on some Muslim majority schools in Birmingham. It critically reveals how the implementation of neo-liberal education policies, pursued by both Labour and Conservative Governments, has contributed to the failure of some mechanisms of school leadership and governance.

  1. Extremism and Neo-Liberal Education Policy: A Contextual Critique of the Trojan Horse Affair in Birmingham Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers new insights into the effects of neo-liberal education policies on some Muslim majority schools in Birmingham. It critically reveals how the implementation of neo-liberal education policies, pursued by both Labour and Conservative Governments, has contributed to the failure of some mechanisms of school leadership and governance.…

  2. "Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people

  3. Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,

  4. "Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people…

  5. Low Openness on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory as a Risk Factor for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Michio; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI) may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. Methods We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n?=?35), remitted depressed patients (n?=?27), and healthy controls (n?=?66). We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. Results Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. Conclusions Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression. PMID:24019864

  6. The Validity and Utility of the Positive Presentation Management and Negative Presentation Management Scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer developed "validity" scales for the "Revised NEO Personality Inventory" (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae) to detect underreporting--the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) Scale and overreporting--the Negative Presentation Management (NPM) Scale. In this investigation, the clinical utility of these scales was examined using

  7. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution. PMID:25917417

  8. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  9. On The Distribution Of Angular Orbital Elements Of Near-earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

    2012-05-01

    The longitude of ascending node ? and the argument of periapsis ? are expected to be randomly distributed for near-Earth objects (NEOs). However, the distribution of these angles for the Apollo, Amor and Aten subclasses, considered separately, shows some striking non-random features. We explain how these features arise due to observational biases. The distribution of ? has maxima near 0 and 180 and is affected by observational difficulty due to the galactic plane at the opposition and other seasonal effects. The ? distributions of Aten and Amor subclasses have minima at 90 and 270 while Apollos have minima at 0 and 180. This is explained by the greater detectability of NEOs at close approach to Earth. The longitude of perihelion ?+? also has a strongly non-random distribution that may be owed to actual dynamical effects. Understanding the distribution of unobserved NEOs will help to improve planning for the next generation of NEO surveys. A better understanding of the intrinsic distribution of NEOs is important for estimating the impact hazard at Earth; it is also important for understanding the impact history of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  10. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  11. The Italian version of the NEO PI-R: Conceptual and empirical support for the use of targeted rotation

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Earlier cross-cultural research on replicability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) suggested that personality trait structure is universal, but a recent study using an Italian translation has challenged this position. The present article reexamines the psychometric properties of the Italian NEO-PI-R and discusses the importance of orthogonal Procrustes rotation when the replicability of complex factor structures is tested. The arguments are supported by data from a slightly modified translation of the NEO-PI-R, which was administered to 575 Italian subjects. These data show a close replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Further, the validity of the Italian NEO-PI-R is supported by external correlates, such as demographic variables (age, sex, education), depression, and affect scales. PMID:19002272

  12. Congressional Hearing on Near-Earth Objects Brings Reassurances and "What If" Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    Despite repeated reassurances from Obama administration officials that it is unlikely that a near-Earth object (NEO) could cause catastrophic damage on Earth anytime over the next several hundred years, members of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology kept raising "what if" questions at a 19 March hearing about threats from space.

  13. Precision Astrometry of Near Earth Objects at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Andrew; Ries, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The McDonald astrometry group has been observing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) since 1998 with a 0.76m telescope. The main goal is to confirm newly discovered objects and follow-up known, but under-observed objects. NASA's mission to discover and catalogue 90 percent of NEOs larger than 1 km as soon as possible has been extended down to 140 m. The number of objects in the 140 m size range is much larger than the number of 1 km sized asteroids and thus, a collision is more likely to involve a smaller one. These objects are faint with absolute magnitudes 21.5 or larger. We are resuming the program concentrating on faint/small NEOs on the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope with the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow-up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams as it provides detectable images of a 19th magnitude source with a 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.7’ by 4.7’, with 0.276 ‘’/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the PSF for precision astrometry. Our first task is to characterize the plate solution, the transformation between the standard and pixel coordinates with the least number of coefficients, but removing all systematic errors from the residuals. We obtained images of M71 at three different airmasses during two nights in September. We also took exposures of asteroids with well-known orbits to test our astrometry. The results and the evaluation will be presented at the meeting. This research is funded by NASA NEO Program grant NNX12AG09G. Park, W.K., et al.,(2012), PASP, Vol. 124.

  14. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time-tagged detection times from which orbit quality can be derived and efficiency by dynamical class. The dominant noise term in the simulations comes from the noise in the background flux caused by thermal emission from zodiacal dust. The model used is sufficient for the study of reasonably low-inclination spacecraft orbits such as are being considered. Results to date are based on the 2002 Bottke NEA orbit-distribution model. The system can work with any orbit-distribution model and with any size-frequency distribution. This tool also serves to quantify the amount of data that will also be collected on main-belt objects by simply testing against the known catalog of bodies. The orbit quality work clearly shows the benefit of a self-followup survey such as Sentinel. Most objects discovered will be seen in multiple observing epochs and the resulting orbits will preclude losing track of them for decades to come (or longer). All of the ephemeris calculations, including investigation of orbit determination quality, are done with the OpenOrb software package. The presentation for this meeting will be based on results of modeling the Sentinel Mission and other similar variants. The focus will be on evaluating the survey completion for different dynamical classes as well as for different sized objects. Within the fidelity of such statistically-based models, the planned Sentinel observatory is well capable of a huge step forward in the efforts to build a complete catalog of all objects that could pose future harm to planet Earth.

  15. Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

    2013-02-01

    We will use the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to recover Near Earth Objects (NEOs) by adding astrometric observations at one or more orbits since discovery. Recovery observations place the strongest constraints on the orbital solution and can be expected to improve the impact risk assessment for Virtual Impactors (VIs). Many NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non- zero risk of Earth impact, all but 21 are classified as "Lost" until rediscovered by the surveys. Through this on-going work, we seek to minimize the number of new discoveries that are "lost", improve the characterization of VI/PHA orbits and to further the assessment of impact risk.

  16. Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Mark; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

    2013-08-01

    Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 20-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) on the NEODyS risk list, 92 are classified as ``Lost'' by NEODyS until rediscovered by the surveys. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

  17. Near Earth Objects - a threat and an opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Jonathan R.

    2003-05-01

    In the past decade the hazard posed to the Earth by Near Earth Objects (NEOs) has generated considerable scientific and public interest. A number of major films, television programmes and media reports have brought the issue to public attention. From an educational perspective an investigation into NEOs and the effects of impacts on the Earth forms a topical and dynamic basis for study in a huge range of subjects, not just scientific. There are clear routes to chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, but history, psychology, geography, palaeontology and geology are just a selection of other subjects involved. A number of projects have been established, mainly in the USA, to determine the extent of the hazard, and to develop ways of countering it, but the present situation is far from satisfactory. Current detection and follow-up programmes are underfunded and lack international coordination.

  18. Results from the LCOGT Near-Earth Object Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter and two 2-meter telescopes to five locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with plans to extend to twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. The versitility and design of this network allows for rapid response to target of opportunity events as well as the long-term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The network's global coverage and the apertures of telescopes available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). This is complimented by the two 2-meter telescopes at Haleakala (Hawaii) and Siding Spring Observatory. The telescope network has been fully operational since May 2014, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016.The LCOGT near-Earth object group is using the network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), PanSTARRS (PS1) and NEOWISE, with several hundred targets being followed per year. Follow-up astrometry and photometry of radar-targeted objects and those on the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) lists are improving orbits, producing light curves and rotation periods, and better characterizing these NEOs. Recent results include the first period determinations for several of the Goldstone-targeted NEOs. In addition, we are in the process of building a NEO portal that will allow professionals, amateurs, and Citizen Scientists to plan, schedule, and analyze NEO imaging and spectroscopy observations and data using the LCOGT Network and to act as a coordination hub for the NEO follow-up efforts.

  19. Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

    2009-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASAs Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  20. Darwinian and neo-Darwinian selection mechanisms in bacteria: Effects on antibiotic resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darwin’s concept of survival of the fittest is as critical when applied to bacteria as it is to animals. Bacteria live in a highly competitive environment that is similar to the macrobiological world with its selective pressures. Neo-Darwinism views genes as selfish and as the ultimate unit of nat...

  1. The Mastodon in the room: how Darwinian is neo-Darwinism?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Daniel R

    2011-03-01

    Failing to acknowledge substantial differences between Darwinism and neo-Darwinism impedes evolutionary biology. Darwin described evolution as the outcome of interactions between the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions, each relatively autonomous but both historically and spatially intertwined. Furthermore, he postulated that the nature of the organism was more important than the nature of the conditions, leading to natural selection as an inevitable emergent product of biological systems. The neo-Darwinian tradition assumed a creative rather than selective view of natural selection, with the nature of the organism determined by the nature of the conditions, rendering the nature of the organism and temporal contingency unnecessary. Contemporary advances in biology, specifically the phylogenetics revolution and evo-devo, underscore the significance of history and the nature of the organism in biology. Darwinism explains more biology better, and better resolves apparent anomalies between living systems and more general natural laws, than does neo-Darwinism. The "extended" or "expanded" synthesis currently called for by neo-Darwinians is Darwinism. PMID:21300319

  2. Finite stretching of a circular plate of neo-Hookean material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biricikoglu, V.

    1971-01-01

    The analytical solution presented is based on the assumption that the deformed thickness of the plate is approximately constant. The nonlinear equations governing finite axisymmetric deformations of a circular plate made of neo-Hookean material are used in the analysis. The variation of circumferential extension ratio and the variation of deformed thickness are shown in graphs.

  3. HUMMINGBIRDsCHARM (HsC)/ NEO-NEA Characterization Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheld, D. L.; Dreyer, C. B.; Gamber, T. R.; Hayden, J. L.; Knowles, L.; Hall, D.

    2015-01-01

    The HUMMINGBIRDsCHARM (HsC) concept has been described as a set of multiple missions that will intercept and interview target NEOs/NEAs. The charming aspect of this concept is the requirement that we send multiple vehicles to each target.

  4. Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing

  5. Toward a Neo-Deweyan Theory of Curriculum Analysis and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Almager, Irma L.; Beerwinkle, Andrea L.; Celebi, Dilber; Ferkel, Ricky C.; Holubik, Thomas E.; Reed, Christy A.; Tomlinson, Tracee A.

    2011-01-01

    We adapted an existing comprehensive theory of curriculum analysis for application across complex, multicultural educational environments in P-12 schools. Our theoretical framework is neo-Deweyan in that it draws heavily from John Dewey's curriculum philosophy and because it goes beyond him to draw extensively from other curriculum theorists. The

  6. Neo-Liberal Policy Agendas and the Problem of Inequality in Higher Education: The Ethiopian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    Under the influence of the external policy pressure of donors such as the World Bank, higher education in Ethiopia has witnessed a series of institutional and system-wide reforms. This article reviews selected policy documents to show key neo-liberal policy agendas endorsed in the reforms and explicate how they have affected social equity in the…

  7. Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdwood, John

    2007-01-01

    Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions

  8. Neo-Liberal Policy Agendas and the Problem of Inequality in Higher Education: The Ethiopian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    Under the influence of the external policy pressure of donors such as the World Bank, higher education in Ethiopia has witnessed a series of institutional and system-wide reforms. This article reviews selected policy documents to show key neo-liberal policy agendas endorsed in the reforms and explicate how they have affected social equity in the

  9. Manipulating Images of Popular Culture upon Neo-Classical Theatre: "Tartuffe" at Susquehanna University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodd, Mary Jo

    Moliere's "Tartuffe" is an attack, not on religion, but on people who hide behind religion and exploit it. As a college professor in charge of student production searched for a director's concept for "Tartuffe," she realized that it would be unwise to attempt a museum staging of neo-classical theater with limited funding. She therefore chose a

  10. A Neo-Aristotelian Account of Education, Justice, and the Human Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This article sketches the contours of a neo-Aristotelian account of education, justice, and the human good, organized around a sequence of three increasingly distinctive features of the Aristotelian understanding of respect for persons as rational beings. The first and second of these features bear on important aspects of educational justice,

  11. Is Global Neo-Liberalism Shaping the Future of Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune

    2014-01-01

    With claims that neo-liberalism is the "specific defining political/economic paradigm of the age in which we live??" [Apple, Michael. 2006. "Educating the 'Right' Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality." New York: Taylor & Francis, 14.], an invited symposium at the 2012 International Convention on Science,

  12. The Neo-Liberal Education Policies of "Epimeleia Heautou": Caring for the Self in School Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo; Pitton, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that neo-liberal education policy has capitalized on a historical concern to care for the self, or the Greek "epimeleia heautou". We discuss "epimeleia heautou" in relation to education policies that emphasize greater choice in curriculum offerings, and in relation to school choice policies more generally.

  13. Why Interculturalisation? A Neo-Marxist Approach to Accommodate Cultural Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The paper offers a neo-Marxist framework of interculturalisation to accommodate the increasing cultural diversity in the internationalisation of higher education with specific reference to Chinese students in New Zealand. At present, there are few official strategies in place to provide for the needs of international students in New Zealand

  14. Troubling Intra-Actions: Gender, Neo-Liberalism and Research in the Global Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article raises questions about gender in the neo-liberalised research economy. Theoretically, it includes Barad's concept of intra-action to analyse how discursive-material differences between research winners and losers are created and sustained. Empirically, it draws on international research conducted at British Council seminars on

  15. Neo-Liberalism and Practices of Selection in Arab Education in Israel: Between Control and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Halleli; Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other national contexts, in Israel since the 1980s we have witnessed the emergence of neo-liberal policies in education. However, very little attention has been given to the ways in which they affect the school level and even less attention has been given to the impact of these policy changes on Arab schools in Israel. This article…

  16. Re-Interpretation in Historiography: John Dewey and the Neo-Humanist Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmann, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Did John Dewey's "new philosophy of education" really try to dissolve the whole block of tradition or is his debt namely to educational core-concepts of neo-humanism deeper than he was prepared to acknowledge? After some general remarks on the process of reception as productive re-adaptation and its implication for historiography I will deal with…

  17. When State Centralism Meets Neo-Liberalism: Managing University Governance Change in Singapore and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, both the Singapore and Malaysia governments have introduced reforms along the lines of ideas and practices embedded in neo-liberalism. In the last decade or so, we have witnessed reforms being introduced to the higher education sectors in these Asian states,

  18. Enlightenment and the "Heart of Darkness": (Neo)Imperialism in the Congo, and Elsewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronach, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This article approaches the current state of qualitative inquiry by constructing an allegory of neo-imperialism. It is based substantively on a history and contemporary anthro-politics of the Congo and in particular the city of Kisangani; metaphorically on Conrad's unsettling deployment of that same place as "the heart of darkness"; and ironically

  19. The Measurement of Mental Attentional Capacity: A Neo-Piagetian Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennings, Alber H.; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Whether mental attentional capacity increases as a linear function of age during normal childhood development, as predicted by the neo-Piagetian developmental theory of J. Pascual-Leone (1970 and later), was studied with 215 children aged 5 to 12 years. Results provide only partial support for the Pascual-Leone theory. (SLD)

  20. Dimensional Analysis: A Neo-Piagetian Evaluation of M-demand of Chemistry Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for the evaluation of M-demand of chemistry problems. It was shown that dimensional analysis upon the Neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone could help science teachers to understand the epistemological basis of their discipline. (CW)

  1. Mental Strategies, Mental Capacity, and Instruction: A Neo-Piagetian Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Robbie

    1974-01-01

    Pascual-Leone's neo-Piagetian theory of development is used to predict the pre- and postinstruction distributions of scores on a subject-controlled digit placement task as a function of three parameters dealing with mental strategy and capacity. (Author/ED)

  2. A Neo-Aristotelian Account of Education, Justice, and the Human Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This article sketches the contours of a neo-Aristotelian account of education, justice, and the human good, organized around a sequence of three increasingly distinctive features of the Aristotelian understanding of respect for persons as rational beings. The first and second of these features bear on important aspects of educational justice,…

  3. Worlds of Knowledge, Cosmologies of Skills: Ethnography Outdoors in a Neo-Liberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Allen

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the signs that modernizing agendas in contemporary UK universities have not only reduced autonomy and marketized practices but have also stimulated the crystallization of a ramifying academic worldview, structurally consonant with neo-liberal horizons and new organizational vistas. Ethnographically, the account focuses

  4. Transnational pharmaceutical corporations and neo-liberal business ethics in India.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Bernard

    2002-03-01

    The author critiques the expedient application of market valuation principles by the transnational corporations and other large firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry on a number of issues like patents, pricing, irrational drugs, clinical trials, etc. He contends that ethics in business is chiseled and etched within the confines of particular social structures of accumulation. An ascendant neo-liberal social structure of accumulation has basically shaped these firms' sharp opposition to the Indian Patents Act, 1970, government administered pricing, etc. The author contents that the practice of neo-liberal economics is strongly associated with a "one-dimensional" ethics that privileges market valuation principles over all others. This seems to inevitably generate a social counter-movement that struggles for social protections. He critiques neo-liberal business practices from a perspective that derives from the work of the economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Before the present phase of liberalization in India, markets were "managed", but without a "welfare state" in place. Moving toward deregulation of the markets without a welfare state in place is unethical. Keeping the debilities of the institutional framework of public policy in mind, the author adopts a Polanyian perspective that places its trust and hope in the growing social legitimacy of the counter-movement in opposition to both neo-liberal business practices and the degenerate behavior of state agencies. PMID:12625343

  5. When State Centralism Meets Neo-Liberalism: Managing University Governance Change in Singapore and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, both the Singapore and Malaysia governments have introduced reforms along the lines of ideas and practices embedded in neo-liberalism. In the last decade or so, we have witnessed reforms being introduced to the higher education sectors in these Asian states,…

  6. Is Global Neo-Liberalism Shaping the Future of Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune

    2014-01-01

    With claims that neo-liberalism is the "specific defining political/economic paradigm of the age in which we live?…?" [Apple, Michael. 2006. "Educating the 'Right' Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality." New York: Taylor & Francis, 14.], an invited symposium at the 2012 International Convention on Science,…

  7. Neo-Liberalism and Practices of Selection in Arab Education in Israel: Between Control and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Halleli; Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other national contexts, in Israel since the 1980s we have witnessed the emergence of neo-liberal policies in education. However, very little attention has been given to the ways in which they affect the school level and even less attention has been given to the impact of these policy changes on Arab schools in Israel. This article

  8. Troubling Intra-Actions: Gender, Neo-Liberalism and Research in the Global Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article raises questions about gender in the neo-liberalised research economy. Theoretically, it includes Barad's concept of intra-action to analyse how discursive-material differences between research winners and losers are created and sustained. Empirically, it draws on international research conducted at British Council seminars on…

  9. Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of…

  10. Re-Interpretation in Historiography: John Dewey and the Neo-Humanist Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmann, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Did John Dewey's "new philosophy of education" really try to dissolve the whole block of tradition or is his debt namely to educational core-concepts of neo-humanism deeper than he was prepared to acknowledge? After some general remarks on the process of reception as productive re-adaptation and its implication for historiography I will deal with

  11. A Neo-Piagetian Analysis of Communication Performance in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.

    This exploratory study was conducted to interpret age and individual differences in 48 kindergarteners' and second graders' performance on a referential communication task in light of the Pascual-Leone Theory of Constructive Operations, a neo-Piagetian theory of cognitive development. Stimulus materials were black and white photographs of dogs,

  12. Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of

  13. Globalization: the path to neo-liberal nirvana or health and environmental hell?

    PubMed

    Arya, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses the impact of the neo-liberal agenda of globalization and in particular how international financial institutions and transnational corporations have affected and continue to affect the health of peoples, especially the poorest. It also examines impacts of these policies on the environment and peace. PMID:12868513

  14. Neo-Liberal "Governmentality" in the English and Japanese Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify common patterns in central authorities' steering of universities and the institutional power in neo-liberal higher education regimes. The paper examines the regulatory mechanisms of England and Japan through Foucault's idea of "governmentality" and utilises the concept of autonomy to identify the

  15. Education, Culture, and Class Power: Basil Bernstein and the Neo-Marxist Sociology of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    The article examines Basil Bernstein's research on power relations in education, discussing class formation, class essentialism, and changing nature. It describes new ways of approaching relationships between culture and power, noting the neo-Marxist-oriented sociology of education, and stressing the importance of keeping class relations in the

  16. "Alternative" Education in Flanders, 1960-2000: Transformation of Knowledge in a Neo-Liberal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Coster, Tom; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The founding of "alternative" schools, mainly by parents or other individuals, has made New Education in Flanders tangible today for the general public. In this article, the authors set out to study the knowledge of the "emancipatory" starting points of the post-1968 movements and "alternative" schools in the neo-liberal Flemish educational

  17. The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

    2006-01-01

    Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the

  18. Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing…

  19. Teachers' Professional Identity, Educational Change and Neo-Liberal Pressures on Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2011-01-01

    Education reforms underpinned by neo-liberal values have been criticised for bringing an adverse impact on teachers' professional identity. This article presents a qualitative study of teachers' professional identity in three historical periods in Hong Kong: Phase 1: 1965-84; Phase 2: 1984-97; and Phase 3: the post-1997 period. By juxtaposing the

  20. Post-School Horizons: New Zealand's Neo-Liberal Generation in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen; Higgins, Jane; Ormond, Adreanne

    2007-01-01

    Dominant conceptions of the world infuse educational experiences for young people in implicit rather than explicit ways--through becoming, as Stuart Hall argues, "the horizon of the taken-for-granted". In this article we explore these horizons as experienced by New Zealand's neo-liberal generation, currently "in transition" from high school to

  1. Learning from the Neo-Liberal Movement: Towards a Global Justice Education Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary suggests that a countermovement for educational and social justice must learn from the dominant global neo-liberal movement and its successes in creating institutions and knowledge-making processes and networks. Local struggles for educational justice are important, but they need to be linked to a broader educational justice

  2. Making Art Invisible: Visual Education and the Cultural Stagnation of Neo-Liberal Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of visual literacy may have resulted, in part, from some school authorities rushing the process of determining school curriculum. This article argues that the haste is reflective of pressure placed on educational discourse to conform to neo-liberal reforms of the sector, and is not the result of a careful and complex debate within

  3. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

  4. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained

  5. Are we producing PHAs? On the target selection for a proposed mitigation demo-mission within the NEO-Shield project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

    2013-09-01

    The Chelyabinsk event on February 15th, 2013 has shown once again that even small near earth objects (NEOs) can become a real safety concern. Eventhough we believe to have the capabilities to avert larger potentially disastrous asteroid impacts, only the realization of mitigation demonstration missions can confirm this claim. The target selection process for such deflection demonstrations is a demanding task, as physical, dynamical and engineering aspects have to be considered in great detail. One of the top priorities of such a demonstration mission is, of course, that a harmless asteroid should not be turned into a potentially hazardous object (PHO). Given the potentially large uncertainties in the asteroid's physical parameters as well as the additional uncertainties introduced during the deflection attempt, an in depth analysis of the impact probabilities over the next century becomes necessary, in order to exclude an augmentation of potential risks. Assuming worst case scenarios regard- ing the orbital, physical and mitigation induced uncertainties, we provide a keyhole and impact risk analysis of a list of potential targets for the mitigation demomission proposed in the framework of the NEO-Shield project.

  6. Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic. Methods We used the Neo-Socratic Dialogue (NSD) method which promotes philosophical discussion based on a case-study to address a question and formulate a consensus and answer in a group. The question chosen for the dialogue was: “What is a life-prolonging treatment?” A series of dialogues took place over a period of one and a half days. It was carried out by three groups in 2010 and 2011. Seven participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited per group. We analyzed the content of the discussion. Results Based on three case studies concerning different opinions about treatment options for an older dementia patient, a patient demanding chemotherapy, and a severely ill neonate, conditions for futile life-prolonging treatment were elucidated through NSD. Such treatments are those carried out for the sole purpose of prolonging life and are detrimental to the patient, and should be decided based foremost on the patient’s lack of desire for treatment, the consensus of those involved, and through social acceptance. These arguments are essentially consistent with ones on medical futility in the United States. By expressing the objective of healthcare and the requirement of social acceptance, participants were also able to elucidate issues related to the awareness of those involved and the medical environment. Compared to the end-of-life guidelines in Japan, the objective of treatment, its effects, and benefits were more specifically discussed with the patient’s intentions as the foremost consideration, rather than being limited to the terminal stage. Conclusions This small study contributed to elucidating the conditions and current problems of futile life-prolonging treatment through NSD. They would suggest more substantial guidelines and improvements on the administration of the treatment. PMID:24321531

  7. In vitro and in vivo neo-cartilage formation by heterotopic chondrocytes seeded on PGA scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lohan, A; Marzahn, U; El Sayed, K; Haisch, A; Kohl, B; Mller, R D; Ertel, W; Schulze-Tanzil, G; John, T

    2011-07-01

    Implantation of tissue-engineered heterotopic cartilage into joint cartilage defects might be an alternative approach to improve articular cartilage repair. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize and compare the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage produced with heterotopic (auricular, nasoseptal and articular) chondrocytes seeded on polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds in vitro and in vivo using the nude mice xenograft model. PGA scaffolds were seeded with porcine articular, auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes using a dynamic culturing procedure. Constructs were pre-cultured 3weeks in vitro before being implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 1, 6 or 12weeks, non-seeded scaffolds were implanted as controls. Heterotopic neo-cartilage quality was assessed using vitality assays, macroscopical and histological scoring systems. Neo-cartilage formation could be observed in vitro in all PGA associated heterotopic chondrocytes cultures and extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) deposition increased in vivo. The 6weeks in vivo incubation time point leads to more consistent results for all cartilage species, since at 12weeks in vivo construct size reductions were higher compared with 6weeks except for auricular chondrocytes PGA cultures. Some regressive histological changes could be observed in all constructs seeded with all chondrocytes subspecies such as cell-free ECM areas. Particularly, but not exclusively in nasoseptal chondrocytes PGA cultures, ossificated ECM areas appeared. Elastic fibers could not be detected within any neo-cartilage. The neo-cartilage quality did not significantly differ between articular and non-articular chondrocytes constructs. Whether tissue-engineered heterotopic neo-cartilage undergoes sufficient transformation, when implanted into joint cartilage defects requires further investigation. PMID:21656225

  8. Impacting small Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Fernández, J.; Panzeca, R.; Corral, C.

    2008-10-01

    The design of a low-cost spacecraft to impact on a small, faint Near Earth Object (NEO), poses major challenges. This paper focuses on the terminal phase of such impact mission, analyzing the capability of autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) systems to compensate the deviations in the impact point to achieve a successful collision. The autonomous GNC system employs the information of the optical sensors to estimate the parameters allowing the computation of divert maneuvers to achieve the impact. GMV has developed a simulator, with different levels of sophistication, and a set of different GNC algorithms to help in the design process. This tool is used for different purposes such as: dimensioning the sensors and actuators, verifying mission requirements, computing figures of merit of different SC configurations and evaluating GNC performances. Four GNC algorithms are compared: low-thrust proportional navigation using a fading memory filter, high-thrust predictive guidance using either a Kalman filter or a batch-sequential least-squares filter, and a mid-thrust hybrid predictive-proportional guidance using a fading memory filter. Monte Carlo analysis using global-performances models of the optical sensors for each of these GNC algorithms are presented for two different asteroids (1989 ML and 2002 AT4), showing the mission parameters driving the mission performances. In addition, single-runs with high-fidelity optical sensors models are presented to validate the Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): first photometric results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, N.; Binzel, R.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Person, M.; Polishook, D.; Thomas, C.; Trilling, D.; Willman, M.; Burt, B.; Hinkle, M.; Mommert, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that was originally awarded multi-year survey status by NOAO and recently has employed additional facilities available to Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. Our main goal is to provide physical data, such as rotational properties and composition, for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths.As of February 2015, 12,287 NEOs have been discovered. Despite this impressive number, physical information for the majority of these objects remains limited. Typical NEOs fade in a matter of days or weeks after their discovery, thus their characterization requires a challenging set of rapid response observations.Using a variety of 1-m to 4-m class telescopes, we aim to observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties. Such rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present early results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 50 NEOs. One of the goals of this survey is to increase the number of sub-km NEOs whose short-term variability has been studied and to compile a high quality homogeneous database which may be used to perform statistical analyses.We report light curves from our first two years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to few seconds. We consider the spin rate distributions of several sub-samples according to their size and other physical parameters. Our results were merged with rotational parameters of other asteroids in the literature to build a larger sample. This allows us to identify correlations of rotational properties with orbital parameters. In particular, we want to study MOID vs. rotation period/morphology/elongation/amplitude, rotation properties vs spectral type/composition, etc. We are also planning to observe some objects at different epochs to potentially constrain shape and/or phase curves.

  10. Astrometry of Near-Earth Objects Using Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, D. I.; Marsden, B. G.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, when a near-Earth object (NEO: any asteroid or comet approaching the terrestrial orbit about the Sun) is discovered, there is a distinct chance that it will be lost again due to the lack of suitable follow-up astrometry. The burgeoning international Spaceguard program — which has an aim of discovering and determining the orbits of all possible Earth-impactors so that calamitous collisions can be avoided-will make this problem more acute, as the discovery rate increases. When NEOs reach visual magnitudes brighter than 21, they may be observed with suitable CCD-equipped telescopes with apertures of one metre or less; in fact, even 0.25-m aperture instruments are now being employed to great effect in this regard. This means that in the present situation, countries or individuals having access to quite modest-sized and modest-priced equipment can make a real, valuable contribution to this international effort. When Spaceguard begins in earnest it will be vital that astronomers spread around the world, using small telescopes, take over the tracking of NEOs discovered by the large, expensive, search instruments. The Spaceguard project therefore represents an excellent opportunity for international collaboration, with scientists in developing nations being valuable contributors in a space program with real significance for all humankind. The authors are also with The Spaceguard Foundation, Rome, Italy.

  11. Tectonomagmatic Evolution of the Neo - Tethyan Region in the Iranian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsef, R.; Monsef, I.; Rahgoshay, M.; Emami, M. H.; Shafaii Moghadam, H.

    2009-04-01

    The tectonic history of Neo - Tethyan realm in Iran began with the rifting of the Central Iranian Block (CIB) separated from Arabia and Gondwana during Late Permian - Early Triassic time. This realm travelled to the north to creation of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. The subduction of the Neo-Tethys could start to the south of the Central Iranian Block at Late Triassic to Plio-Quaternary time. The subduction of the Neo - Tethyan ocean beneath the active continental margin of the Iranian block was established by arc magmatism and back - arc spreading. These magmatic activities are marked from SW to NE by the presence of: calc-alkaline arc magmatism from Late Triassic to Late Jurassic in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), back - arc spreading with Late Cretaceous in the Esfandagheh Colour Melange Zone (ECMZ), back-arc spreading with Late Cretaceous - Palaeocene Nain-Baft Ophiolitic Belt (NBOB) and calc-alkaline arc magmatism from Eocene to Plio-Quaternary in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Zone (UDMZ). Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic zone has been considered as a place for the main magmatic activities in the Central Iranian continent in the Cenozoic age. This magmatic arc is situated to the North of the Mesozoic arc of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone and the back-arc basin of the Central Iranian Block of Cretaceous age. During Oligocene-Miocene time the magmatic activity favored to alkaline magmatism. Geochemical data confirm the presence of transtensional tectonic setting along the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic zone, opened during Paleogene and early Neogene due to the collision of the Arabia platform and Central Iranian continent. These magmatic activities are linked to the subduction of the Neo-Tethys to the North below the CIB, followed by the Paleogene collision and continental subduction of the Gondwana (Arabia) beneath the CIB along the Main Zagros Thrust (MZT). Keywords: Neo - Tethys; Gondwana; Central Iranian Block (CIB); Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ); Esfandagheh Colour Melange Zone (ECMZ); Nain-Baft Ophiolitic Belt (NBOB); Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Zone (UDMZ)

  12. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The "Copernicus" crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth object (NEO) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. The paper also discusses NASA s current activities and future plans for NTP development that include system-level Technology Demonstrations - specifically ground testing a small, scalable NTR by 2020, with a flight test shortly thereafter.

  13. Functional evaluation of primary renal cell/biomaterial neo-kidney augment prototypes for renal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Basu, Joydeep; Genheimer, Christopher W; Rivera, Elias A; Payne, Richard; Mihalko, Kim; Guthrie, Kelly; Bruce, Andrew T; Robbins, Neil; McCoy, Darell; Sangha, Namrata; Ilagan, Roger; Knight, Toyin; Spencer, Thomas; Wagner, Belinda J; Jayo, Manuel J; Jain, Deepak; Ludlow, John W; Halberstadt, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Development of a tissue-engineered neo-kidney augment (NKA) requires evaluation of defined, therapeutically relevant cell and cell/biomaterial composites (NKA constructs) for regenerative potential in mammalian kidney. Previous work identified primary renal cell populations that extended survival and improved renal function in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study extends that work toward the goal of developing NKA by (i) screening in vivo inflammatory and fibrotic responses to acellular biomaterials delivered to healthy rodent renal parenchyma, (ii) evaluating the functionality of renal cell/biomaterial combinations in vitro, (iii) generating NKA constructs by combining therapeutically relevant cell populations with biocompatible biomaterial, and (iv) evaluating in vivo neokidney tissue development in response to NKA constructs delivered to healthy rodent renal parenchyma. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels elicited the least inflammatory and fibrotic responses in renal parenchyma relative to polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) beads or particles and were associated with neovascularization and cellular infiltration by 4 weeks postimplantation. Renal cell populations seeded onto gelatin or HA-based hydrogels were viable and maintained a tubular epithelial functional phenotype during an in vitro maturation of 3 days as measured by transcriptomic, proteomic, secretomic, and confocal immunofluorescence assays. In vivo delivery of cell-seeded NKA constructs (bioactive renal cells + gelatin hydrogels) to healthy rodent renal parenchyma elicited neokidney tissue formation at 1 week postimplantation. To investigate a potential mechanism by which NKA constructs could impact a disease state, the effect of conditioned media on TGF-? signaling pathways related to tubulo-interstitial fibrosis associated with CKD progression was evaluated. Conditioned medium was observed to attenuate TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro in a human proximal tubular cell line (HK2). PMID:21439130

  14. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will directly support the investigation of open questions and operational concepts that will enable NASA to continue its plan for planetary exploration.

  15. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

  16. Macroevolution via secondary endosymbiosis: a Neo-Goldschmidtian view of unicellular hopeful monsters and Darwin's primordial intermediate form.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

    2008-08-01

    Seventy-five years ago, the geneticist Richard Goldschmidt hypothesized that single mutations affecting development could result in major phenotypic changes in a single generation to produce unique organisms within animal populations that he called "hopeful monsters". Three decades ago, Sarah P. Gibbs proposed that photosynthetic unicellular micro-organisms like euglenoids and dinoflagellates are the products of a process now called "secondary endosymbiosis" (i.e., the evolution of a chloroplast surrounded by three or four membranes resulting from the incorporation of a eukaryotic alga by a eukaryotic heterotrophic host cell). In this article, we explore the evidence for Goldschmidt's "hopeful monster" concept and expand the scope of this theory to include the macroevolutionary emergence of organisms like Euglena and Chlorarachnion from secondary endosymbiotic events. We argue that a Neo-Goldschmidtian perspective leads to the conclusion that cell chimeras such as euglenids and dinoflagellates, which are important groups of phytoplankton in freshwater and marine ecosystems, should be interpreted as "successful monsters". In addition, we argue that Charles Darwin had euglenoids (infusoria) in mind when he speculated on the "primordial intermediate form", although his Proto-Euglena-hypothesis for the origin of the last common ancestor of all forms of life is no longer acceptable. PMID:18581157

  17. Spacecraft observations of NEOs: a Mars Express demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Roatsch, Thomas; Jaumann, Ralf; Hoffmann, Harald; Giorgini, J. D.

    To demonstrate the astrometric capability of the Mars Express Super Resolution Channel for observing Near Earth Asteroids, asteroid 4 Vesta was imaged against a star field in two five-picture sequences. While at a solar phase angle of 40.5 degrees and visual magnitude of 7.2, Vesta was imaged along with a 7.4 and 8.2 visual magnitude reference star in all ten pictures. Mars Express centered astrometric observations of Vesta were then produced using flight camera geometric calibrations, optical photogrammetric techniques, and the Tycho 2 star catalog. The astrometric measurements, validated to an accuracy of 0.4 arc-sec, were delivered to the IAU's Minor Planet Center. Such observations provide geometrically powerful samples of the target body's state vector when combined with Earth-based astrometric observations, substantially improving orbit reconstruction and prediction compared to data obtained while viewing from the Earth direction only. Based on this success, Mars Express will routinely image Near Earth Objects, asteroids and comets passing within 20,000,000 km of Mars that are brighter than 9th magnitude to support the Near Earth Object Observation program

  18. Application of GAMESS/NEO to quantum calculations of muonic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheely, Eugene V.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Adamson, Paul E.; Duan, Xiaofeng F.; Schmidt, Mike W.

    2010-04-01

    The General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS) has been modified to perform studies involving negative muons. This system, coupled with the Nuclear-Electronic Orbital (NEO) method enables the ab-initio study of muonic atoms where both the negative muon and the positive nuclei are modeled as quantum particles. This is of particular usefulness in the study light nuclei, muonic atoms, such as is encountered in muon-catalyzed fusion. NEO was also modified to allow the inclusion of positive exotic-particles to be studied using open and closed shell Hartree-Fock and Configuration Interaction. Capitalizing on these modified methods, the muon density and vibrational dynamics of some light muonic molecules have been analyzed.

  19. Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  20. Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

  1. Raven and the Center of Maffei 1: Multi-object Adaptive Optics Observations of the Center of a Nearby Elliptical Galaxy and the Detection of an Intermediate Age Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.; Andersen, D. R.; Lardière, O.; Bradley, C.; Blain, C.; Oya, S.; Akiyama, M.; Ono, Y. H.

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra that have an angular resolution of ˜0.15 arcsec are used to examine the stellar content of the central regions of the nearby elliptical galaxy Maffei 1. The spectra were recorded at the Subaru Telescope, with wavefront distortions corrected by the RAVEN Multi-object Adaptive Optics science demonstrator. The Ballick-Ramsey C2 absorption bandhead near 1.76 μm is detected, and models in which ˜10%-20% of the light near 1.8 μm originates from stars of spectral type C5 reproduce the depth of this feature. Archival NIR and mid-infrared images are also used to probe the structural and photometric properties of the galaxy. Comparisons with models suggest that an intermediate age population dominates the spectral energy distribution between 1 and 5 μm near the galaxy center. This is consistent not only with the presence of C stars, but also with the large Hβ index that has been measured previously for Maffei 1. The J - K color is more or less constant within 15 arcsec of the galaxy center, suggesting that the brightest red stars are well-mixed in this area. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Toward Identifying Needed Investments in Modeling and Simulation Tools for NEO Deflection Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Its time: a) To bring planetary scientists, deflection system investigators and vehicle designers together on the characterization/mitigation problem. b) To develop a comprehensive trade space of options. c) To trade options under a common set of assumptions and see what comparisons on effectiveness can be made. d) To explore the synergy that can be had with proposed scientific and exploration architectures while interest in NEO's are at an all time high.

  3. Characterization of a PGA-based scaffold for use in a tissue-engineered neo-urinary conduit.

    PubMed

    Knight, Toyin A; Payne, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    A tissue-engineered product needs to be properly characterized in order to be used in vivo. Many methods can be used to characterize a scaffold during creation of a tissue-engineered product. This chapter looks at the mechanical (tensile testing) and biological characterization (cell viability and proliferation) of a polyglycolic acid-based scaffold used to tissue engineer a Neo-Urinary Conduit. Such methods are more broadly applicable to characterization of other neo-organ product candidates. PMID:23494429

  4. 'Neo-Europe' and its ecological consequences: the example of systematic degradation in Australia's inland fisheries.

    PubMed

    Alleway, Heidi K; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Connell, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The antiquity of human impact on ecosystems is increasingly understood, though the arrival of settlers to new lands remains a defining period. Colonization of the 'neo-Europes', a reference from the discipline of history, precipitated changes in aquatic ecosystems through modification of waterways and introductions of non-native species. We considered historical fisheries and fish market records from South Australia (1900-1946) against contemporary production statistics (1987-2011). Native inland species historically contributed large quantities to the market but have deteriorated such that fishing is now limited, and conservation regulations exist. This pattern mirrors the demand-driven transition from freshwater to marine fisheries in Europe; hence, we propose that this pattern was predicated on societal expectations and that European settlement and introduction of non-native fishes led to systematic overexploitation and degradation of native inland fisheries species in Australia, representing a further consequence of neo-European colonization to ecology. Accurate interpretation of ecological change can ensure more appropriate management intervention. Concepts, such as neo-Europe, from alternative disciplines can inform the recognition and evaluation of patterns at regional and global scales. PMID:26814225

  5. Influence of ethnocentrism and neo-phobia on ethnic food consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camarena, Dena M; Sanjun, Ana I; Philippidis, George

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade, a strong upsurge in Spanish immigration has fostered a thriving ethnic food market. To examine indigenous consumer predilections toward ethnic foods, a carefully designed choice experiment is employed, with particular focus on ethnocentricity and food neo-phobia traits on potential purchase decisions. Employing a two level nested logit model, consumers choose to accept/reject ethnic foods, with a positive response met by a further series of different ethnic cuisine and consumption scenario alternatives. Bivariate tests reveal that higher ethnocentric and neo-phobic segments possess common socio-demographic characteristics, whilst neo-phobia plays a significantly stronger role in determining the probability of rejection. Further tests reveal culturally similar Mexican food as the preferred ethnic food across all consumption scenarios. Moreover, the 'restaurant' is the favoured format of consumption, whilst there is evidence of a strong association between specific ethnic food types and consumption formats. The implications of our research suggest that in the short to medium turn, price is a strong strategic variable, whilst marketing strategies must successfully isolate and exploit specific 'ethnic food/consumption scenario' mixes. Finally, stronger messages emphasizing quality and convenience factors are seen as key to bolstering the underrepresented 'home preparation' ethnic food market in Spain. PMID:21513751

  6. NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kevin; Herring, David

    2005-01-01

    The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, nontraditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NE0 will accomplish this goal by anticipating users expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

  7. Introducing an osteopathic approach into neonatology ward: the NE-O model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies showed the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on neonatal care in reducing length of stay in hospital, gastrointestinal problems, clubfoot complications and improving cranial asymmetry of infants affected by plagiocephaly. Despite several results obtained, there is still a lack of standardized osteopathic evaluation and treatment procedures for newborns recovered in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this paper is to suggest a protocol on osteopathic approach (NE-O model) in treating hospitalized newborns. Methods The NE-O model is composed by specific evaluation tests and treatments to tailor osteopathic method according to preterm and term infants needs, NICU environment, medical and paramedical assistance. This model was developed to maximize the effectiveness and the clinical use of osteopathy into NICU. Results The NE-O model was adopted in 2006 to evaluate the efficacy of OMT in neonatology. Results from research showed the effectiveness of this osteopathic model in reducing preterms length of stay and hospital costs. Additionally the present model was demonstrated to be safe. Conclusion The present paper defines the key steps for a rigorous and effective osteopathic approach into NICU setting, providing a scientific and methodological example of integrated medicine and complex intervention. PMID:24904746

  8. Goserelin, as an ovarian protector during (neo)adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy, prevents long term altered bone turnover

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline; Gossiel, Fatma; Leonard, Robert; Anderson, Richard A; Adamson, Douglas J A; Thomas, Geraldine; Coleman, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ovarian Protection Trial In Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients “OPTION” trial (NCT00427245) was a prospective, multicenter, randomised, open label study evaluating the frequency of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) at 12 months in women randomised to 6–8 cycles of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) +/− goserelin (G). Here we report the results of a secondary endpoint analysis of the effects of CT+/-G on markers of bone turnover. Methods Serum for bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and urine for N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Changes in median levels of bone turnover markers were evaluated for the overall population, according to age stratification at randomisation (≤40 vs >40 years) and with exploratory analysis according to POI rates at 12 months. Results In the overall population, there was a significant increase in NTX at 6 months compared to baseline in patients treated with CT+G (40.81 vs 57.82 p=0.0074) with normalisation of levels thereafter. BALP was significantly increased compared to baseline at 6 months and 12 months in those receiving CT+G, but normalised thereafter. BALP remained significantly higher compared to baseline at 12, 24 and 36 months in patients receiving CT, resulting in a significant difference between treatment groups at 36 months (CT+G 5.845 vs CT 8.5 p=0.0006). These changes were predominantly seen in women >40 years. Women with POI at 12 months showed altered bone formation compared to baseline levels for a longer duration than women who maintained menses. Conclusion Addition of G to CT increases bone turnover during treatment with normalisation after cessation of treatment suggesting G may offer sufficient ovarian protection against CT induced POI to negate longstanding altered bone turnover associated with POI. PMID:26998426

  9. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the Japanese Hyabusa Mission to Itokawa. Also due to their close proximity to Earth, NEOs constitute the most likely set of celestial objects that will impact us in the relatively near future.

  10. Piloted Missions to Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D.; Landis, R.; Jones, T.; Morrison, D.; Adamo, D.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.; Lu, E.

    2007-10-01

    A recent study has examined the feasibility of sending the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration and Exploration Systems Architecture Study in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade ( 2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program's Orion CEV capsule and Ares launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the Earth-Moon system and would help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting crewed exploration missions outside of low-Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years. Such a mission would not only provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration, but would also provide the capability to conduct an in-depth scientific investigation of a NEO. Essential physical and geochemical properties of these objects can best be determined from dedicated spacecraft. In addition, a crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques, and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) much more capably than a robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance any scientific return from this type of mission. Missions to NEOs would also have practical applications for resource utilization and planetary defense, two issues that will be relevant in the not-too-distant future as humanity begins to explore, understand, and utilize the solar system. These scientific and practical aspects, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture into deep space, make a mission to a NEO using Constellation systems a compelling prospect. This work is sponsored by NASA's Constellation Advanced Programs Office.

  11. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  12. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  13. Dormant Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David E.; Knight, Matthew; Bottke, William F.; Thomas, Cristina; Delbo', Marco; Emery, Josh P.; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    The population of near-Earth objects comprises active comets and asteroids, covering a wide range of dynamical parameters and physical properties. Dormant (or extinct) comets, masquerading as asteroids, have long been suspected of supplementing the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. We present a search for asteroidal objects of cometary origin based on dynamical and physical considerations. Our study is based on albedos derived within the ExploreNEOs program and is extended by adding data from NEOWISE and the Akari asteroid catalog. We use a statistical approach to identify asteroids on orbits that resemble those of short-period near-Earth comets using the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, the aphelion distance, and the minimum orbital intersection distance with respect to Jupiter. We identify a total of 23 near-Earth asteroids from our sample that are likely to be dormant short-period near-Earth comets and, based on a de-biasing procedure applied to the cryogenic NEOWISE survey, estimate both magnitude-limited and size-limited fractions of the NEA population that are dormant short-period comets. We find that 0.3-3.3% of the NEA population with H <= 21, and 9(+2/-5)% of the population with diameters d >= 1 km, are dormant short-period near-Earth comets. We also present an observation program that utilizes the 1.8m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, AZ, to identify dormant comet candidates and search for activity in these objects. Our targets are NEAs on comet-like orbits, based on the dynamical criteria derived in the above study, that are accessible with the VATT (V <= 22). We identify dormant comets based on their optical spectral slope, represented by V-R color measurements, as albedo measurements for most of these objects are not available. For each target we measure and monitor its V magnitude in order to reveal activity outbreaks. We also search for extended emission around our targets using deep imaging and a point-spread-function subtraction technique that allows us to obtain an upper limit on the dust production rate in each target. We present preliminary results from this program. This work is supported in part by funding from the Spitzer Science Center.

  14. Development of a handbook and an on-line tool on defending Earth against Potentially Hazardous Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melamed, Nahum

    2013-09-01

    A credible Potentially Hazardous Object (PHO) threat may be identified sometime in the future, requiring actions to be taken to prevent an impact disaster. To negate that threat, mitigation techniques are being proposed where the potential for collision is unacceptably high. The Aerospace Corporation is developing a handbook for Near Earth Object (NEO) deflection and a complementary web-based NEO deflection interactive tool. The purpose of the tool is to aid in the design and understanding of the deflection impulses necessary for defending Earth against threatening objects and in the analysis and comparison of various techniques that might be used to provide those impulses. The handbook and the associated web-based resource center will provide first-order requirements for effective NEO deflection missions using a variety of deflection concepts. The resources will include educational materials on NEO threats and deflection concepts, as well as examples demonstrating the use of the handbook and web-based tool. A project overview and status are presented.

  15. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  16. Antibodies against neo-epitope tTg complexed to gliadin are different and more reliable then anti-tTg for the diagnosis of pediatric celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Jeremias, Patricia; Neidhfer, Sandra; Matthias, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    The neo-epitope tTg (tTg-neo) autoantibody, never challenged the anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTg) premiership, recommended by ESPGHAN, for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. Pediatric CD (PCD), abdominal pains and normal children, normal adults, and rheumatoid arthritis patients, were tested using the following ELISAs detecting IgA, IgG or both IgA and IgG (check): AESKULISA tTg (tTg; RUO) and AESKULISA tTg-neo. Higher OD activity was detected for tTg-neo IgA, IgG and IgA+IgG than for tTg. tTg-neo IgA, IgG correlated better with intestinal damage than tTg. The tTg-neo combined IgA+IgG ELISA kit had higher sensitivity and a comparable specificity for the diagnosis of PCD. The drop in the % competition was much higher with the tTg-neo then the tTg antibodies. The false positivity of the tTg was significantly higher than the tTg-neo one. Serological diagnostic performances, reflection of intestinal damage, diverse epitopes and false positivity were better with the tTg-neo. PMID:26684936

  17. The LCOGT near-Earth-object follow-up network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, T.

    2014-07-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network that will eventually consist of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres [1]. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make the LCOGT network ideal for follow-up and characterization of a wide range of solar-system objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper-belt objects, comets) and in particular near-Earth objects (NEOs). There are 3 classes to the telescope resources: 2-meter aperture, 1-meter aperture and 0.4-meter aperture. We have been operating our two 2-meter telescopes since 2005 and began a specific program of NEO follow-up for the Pan-STARRS survey in October 2010. The combination of all-sky access, large aperture, rapid response, robotic operation and good site conditions allows us to provide time-critical follow-up astrometry and photometry on newly discovered objects and faint objects as they recede from the Earth, allowing the orbital arc to be extended and preventing loss of objects. These telescope resources have greatly increased as LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment, designated as ''Version 1.0'', with the installation, commissioning and ongoing operation of nine 1-meter telescopes. These are distributed among four sites with one 1-meter at McDonald Observatory (Texas), three telescopes at Cerro Tololo (Chile), three telescopes at SAAO (South Africa) and the final two telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). In addition to the 1-meter network, the scheduling and control system for the two 2-meter telescopes have been upgraded and unified with that of the 1-meter network to provide a coherent robotic telescopic network. The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and Pan-STARRS (PS1) with additional targets coming from the NEOWISE satellite and the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Robotic observations of NEOs and other solar-system objects have been routinely carried out for several years on the 2-m and 1-m telescopes, with over 20,000 positional and magnitude measurements reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in the last two years. We have developed software to automatically fetch candidates from Pan-STARRS and the MPC Confirmation Page, compute orbits and ephemerides, plan and schedule observations on the telescopes and retrieve the processed data [2]. The program is being expanded which will allow us to greatly increase the amount of survey discoveries that are followed-up, obtain accurate astrometry and provide important characterization data in the form of colors, lightcurves, rotation rates and spectra for NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. Priority for follow-up is now given to the fainter and most southern targets on the Confirmation Page, objects that are scheduled for Goldstone/Arecibo radar targeting and those objects which could become potential mission destinations for spacecraft. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. With the increase in time available from the LCOGT 1-meter network and commissioning of low-resolution spectrographs on the 2-meter telescopes for moving objects, this will produce a large advance in capabilities for NEO follow-up and characterization. This will produce an unprecedented network for NEO follow-up, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere where there is currently a shortage of suitable facilities. We will continue to develop our software to take advantage of the increased resources and capabilities of the LCOGT Network.

  18. ASTEROFF: A Computer Code to Deflect NEOs by Missiles shot from L1 and L3 (Earth-Moon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    We develop the mathematical theory for an automatic, space-based system to deflect NEOs by virtue of missiles shot from the Earth-Moon L1 and L3 Lagrangian Points. A patent application has been filed for the relevant code, dubbed ASTEROFF (= Asteroids OFF !). This code was already implemented, and a copyright for it was registered. In a paper published in Acta Astronautica, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 185-199 (2002), this author proved mathematically the following theorem (hereafter called the ``confocal conics theorem''): ``Within the sphere of influence of the Earth, any NEO could be hit by a missile at just an angle of 90 degrees, was the missile shot from Lagrangian Points L1 or L3 of the Earth-Moon system, rather than from the surface of the Earth''. As a consequence, the hitting missile would have move along a ``confocal ellipse'' (centered at the Earth) uniquely determined by the NEO's incoming hyperbola. Based on the above theorem, the author further shows in this paper that: The proposed defense system would be ideal to deflect NEOs that are small, i.e. less than one kilometer in diameter. Small NEOs are just the most difficult ones to be detected early enough and to such an orbital accuracy to be positively sure that they are indeed hazardous. The traditional theory of Keplerian orbits can successfully be applied to get an excellent first-order approximation of the (otherwise unknown) mathematical formulae of the energy/momentum requested to achieve the NEO deflection. Many engineering details about the missiles shot from L1 and L3, however, still have to be implemented into our simulations, partly because they are classified. Was one missile not enough to deflect the NEO completely, it is a great advantage of the ``confocal conics'' used here that the new, slightly deflected NEO's hyperbola would certainly be hit at nearly 90 degrees by another and slightly more eccentric elliptical missile trajectory. A sufficient number of missiles could thus be launched in a sequence from the Earth-Moon Lagrangian points L1 and L3 with the result that the SUM of all these small and repeated deflections will finally throw the NEO off its collision hyperbola with the Earth.

  19. Galectin Binding to Neo-Glycoproteins: LacDiNAc Conjugated BSA as Ligand for Human Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Bcker, Sophia; Laaf, Dominic; Elling, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-lectin interactions are relatively weak. As they play an important role in biological recognition processes, multivalent glycan ligands are designed to enhance binding affinity and inhibitory potency. We here report on novel neo-glycoproteins based on bovine serum albumin as scaffold for multivalent presentation of ligands for galectins. We prepared two kinds of tetrasaccharides (N-acetyllactosamine and N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated) by multi-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis utilizing recombinant glycosyltransferases. Subsequent conjugation of these glycans to lysine groups of bovine serum albumin via squaric acid diethyl ester yielded a set of 22 different neo-glycoproteins with tuned ligand density. The neo-glycoproteins were analyzed by biochemical and chromatographic methods proving various modification degrees. The neo-glycoproteins were used for binding and inhibition studies with human galectin-3 showing high affinity. Binding strength and inhibition potency are closely related to modification density and show binding enhancement by multivalent ligand presentation. At galectin-3 concentrations comparable to serum levels of cancer patients, we detect the highest avidities. Selectivity of N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated structures towards galectin-3 in comparison to galectin-1 is demonstrated. Moreover, we also see strong inhibitory potency of our scaffolds towards galectin-3 binding. These novel neo-glycoproteins may therefore serve as selective and strong galectin-3 ligands in cancer related biomedical research. PMID:26213980

  20. Synthesis, structural characterization, aromatic characteristics, and metalation of neo-confused porphyrins, a newly discovered class of porphyrin isomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoshi; Lammer, Aaron D; Ferrence, Gregory M; Lash, Timothy D

    2014-05-01

    Neo-confused porphyrins represent a unique family of porphyrin isomers that retain overall aromatic characteristics by virtue of a 17-atom 18? electron delocalization pathway. These porphyrin analogues have a pyrrolic subunit linked in a 1,3-fashion so that a nitrogen atom is directly connected to a meso-bridging carbon. Pyrrole-3-carbaldehydes were shown to react with sodium hydride and 5-acetoxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehydes in DMF to give the crucial neo-confused dipyrrolic dialdehyde intermediates. MacDonald "2 + 2" condensation of the dialdehydes with a dipyrrylmethane afforded a dihydroporphyrinoid, and subsequent oxidation with 0.2% aqueous ferric chloride generated a series of fully conjugated neo-confused porphyrins. Unusual dihydroporphyrin byproducts were also identified. Reaction of neo-confused porphyrins with nickel(II) or palladium(II) acetate in refluxing acetonitrile gave excellent yields of the corresponding organometallic derivatives. Proton NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the diatropic character of this system is diminished compared to regular porphyrins, although neo-confused porphyrins retain porphyrin-like UV-vis spectra. Protonation led to the sequential formation of mono- and dicationic species. Proton NMR spectra for the dications showed the presence of enhanced diamagnetic ring currents. PMID:24697282

  1. Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2001-10-01

    Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.

  2. Chemotherapy and target therapy as neo-adjuvant approach for initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Luigi; Zullo, Angelo; Zoratto, Federica; Papa, Anselmo; Strudel, Martina; Colonna, Maria; Tomao, Silverio

    2012-01-01

    Although surgery is the most effective treatment for liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients, only 1520% of these patients are suitable for a radical surgical approach, and metastases recurrence may occur at follow up. In the last decade, the use of pre-operative chemotherapy in combination with new biological drugs has been introduced. We reviewed data of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy strategies aimed at increasing the resection rate of liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients who were initially considered unresectable. PMID:25992208

  3. Isotope composition of neodymium in neo-Archean banded iron formations of Karelia and Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felitsyn, S. B.; Bogomolov, E. S.; Alfimova, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of three deposits of neo-Archean banded iron formations from the West Karelian domain (the Kostomuksha deposit) and from the Central Kola block (the Olenegorsk and Kirovogorsk deposits) showed a pronounced difference in the isotope compositions of Nd from quartz and magnetite-hematite interlayers. The less radiogenic Nd of iron-containing layers compared to that of the quartz component may be considered as an indication of the formation mechanism of the treated banded iron formations. Thus, silicon-containing layers are related to submarine volcanism and iron was supplied to the sedimentation zone from other sources.

  4. Acylated neo-clerodane type diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia Levl. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-04-01

    Twenty new neo-clerodane type diterpenoids, scutefolides G1-S (1-20), were isolated from the 70 % aqueous acetone extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1, 2, 7, 8, 14 and 15 were determined by means of the CD exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 18 and 19 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines, and anti-bacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26825781

  5. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondrite meteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km.

  6. Power and Propulsion System Design for Near-Earth Object Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Landau, Damon F.; Bury, Kristen M.; Malone, Shane P.; Hickman, Tyler A.

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are exciting targets for exploration; they are relatively easy to reach but relatively little is known about them. With solar electric propulsion, a vast number of interesting NEOs can be reached within a few years and with extensive flexibility in launch date. An additional advantage of electric propulsion for these missions is that a spacecraft can be small, enabling a fleet of explorers launched on a single vehicle or as secondary payloads. Commercial, flight-proven Hall thruster systems have great appeal based on their performance and low cost risk, but one issue with these systems is that the power processing units (PPUs) are designed for regulated spacecraft power architectures which are not attractive for small NEO missions. In this study we consider the integrated design of power and propulsion systems that utilize the capabilities of existing PPUs in an unregulated power architecture. Models for solar array and engine performance are combined with low-thrust trajectory analyses to bound spacecraft design parameters for a large class of NEO missions, then detailed array performance models are used to examine the array output voltage and current over a bounded mission set. Operational relationships between the power and electric propulsion systems are discussed, and it is shown that both the SPT-100 and BPT-4000 PPUs can perform missions over a solar range of 0.7 AU to 1.5 AU - encompassing NEOs, Venus, and Mars - within their operable input voltage ranges. A number of design trades to control the array voltage are available, including cell string layout, array offpointing during mission operations, and power draw by the Hall thruster system.

  7. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra and Taxonomies of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are interesting to scientists and the general public for diverse reasons: their impacts pose a threat to life and property; they present important albeit biased records of the formation and evolution of the Solar System; and their materials may provide in situ resources for future space exploration and habitation.In January 2015 we began a program of NEO astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our 500 hours of annual observing time are split into frequent, short astrometric runs (see poster by K. A. Nault et. al), and half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al for preliminary rotational lightcurve results). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 μm reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) instrument. As of August 25, 2015, including testing runs during fourth quarter 2014, we have obtained reflectance spectra of 68 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5m to 8km.In addition to investigating the compositions of individual NEOs to inform impact hazard and space resource evaluations, we may examine the distribution of taxonomic types and potential trends with other physical and orbital properties. For example, the Yarkovsky effect, which is dependent on asteroid shape, mass, rotation, and thermal characteristics, is believed to dominate other dynamical effects in driving the delivery of small NEOs from the main asteroid belt. Studies of the taxonomic distribution of a large sample of NEOs of a wide range of sizes will test this hypothesis.We present a preliminary analysis of the reflectance spectra obtained in our survey to date, including taxonomic classifications and potential trends with size.Acknowledgements: Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  8. Effect of Facilitation of Local Stakeholder Groups on Equity in Neonatal Survival; Results from the NeoKIP Trial in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Phuong Thi; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background To operationalize the post-MDG agenda, there is a need to evaluate the effects of health interventions on equity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect on equity in neonatal survival of the NeoKIP trial (ISRCTN44599712), a population-based, cluster-randomized intervention trial with facilitated local stakeholder groups for improved neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all mothers experiencing neonatal mortality and a random sample of 6% of all mothers with a live birth in the study area during the study period (July 2008-June 2011). Multilevel regression analyses were performed, stratifying mothers according to household wealth, maternal education and mother’s ethnicity in order to assess impact on equity in neonatal survival. Findings In the last year of study the risk of neonatal death was reduced by 69% among poor mothers in the intervention area as compared to poor mothers in the control area (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15–0.66). This pattern was not evident among mothers from non-poor households. Mothers with higher education had a 50% lower risk of neonatal mortality if living in the intervention area during the same time period (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28–0.90), whereas no significant effect was detected among mothers with low education. Interpretation The NeoKIP intervention promoted equity in neonatal survival based on wealth but increased inequity based on maternal education. PMID:26713871

  9. Racism against the Mayan Population in Yucatan, Mexico: How Current Education Contradicts the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The discriminatory situation suffered by the Maya population in the Mexican state of Yucatan is discussed using the concept of neo-racism. Statistical evidence about the school system is presented, along with testimonies of Mayan speakers which uncover a phenomena frequently denied or obliterated by politically correct speeches that actually serve…

  10. Low Cost Multiple Near Earth Object Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. B.; Klaus, K.; Kaplan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Commercial spacecraft are available with efficient high power solar arrays and hybrid propulsion systems (Chemical and Solar Electric) that make possible multiple Near Earth Object Missions within Discovery budget limits. Our analysis is based on the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit Capability (GTOC-3) solution. GTOC-3 assumptions: - Escape from Earth, rendezvous with 3 asteroids, then rendezvous with Earth - Departure velocity below 0.5 km/s - Launch between 2016 and 2025 - Total trip time less than 10 years - Minimum stay time of 60 days at each asteroid - Initial spacecraft mass of 2,000 kg - Thrust of 0.15 N and Isp of 3,000 s - Only Earth GAMs allowed (Rmin = 6,871 km) Preliminary results indicate that for mission objectives we can visit Apophis and any other 2 asteroids on this list or any other 3 asteroids listed. We have considered two spacecraft approaches to accomplish mission objectives: - Case 1: Chemical engine burn to the 1st target, and then solar electric to the 2nd and 3rd targets, or - Case 2: Solar electric propulsion to all 3 targets For both Cases, we assumed an instrument mass of up to 100 kg, power up to 100 W, and s/c bus pointing as good as 12 arc sec.Multi-NEO Mission Candidates

  11. ESA/ESO collaboration to track potentially threatening near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Koschny, D.; Micheli, M.

    2014-07-01

    A collaboration has been set up between ESA and ESO, within the global effort by the United Nations and its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). The UN-COPUOS Action Team 14 put forward recommendations for an international response to the near-Earth-object (NEO) impact threat to form an International Asteroid Warning Network, which the UN General Assembly approved in October 2013. The NEO Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) aims to coordinate and combine information from different sources, and analyse them to predict possible impacts with the Earth, and assess danger, and analyse possible mitigations, including the deflection of a menacing asteroid. With the VLT, ESO's capabilities to observe very faint (but still threatening) NEOs complement ESA's efforts to discover and track these objects. The ESA/ESO campaign focuses on faint objects, with a high value on the Palermo scale, which cannot be observed with smaller telescopes, and on recently discovered NEOs, which are rapidly fading below the detection threshold for smaller telescopes before their orbit can be secured. Technically, the campaign is implemented as a 'Target of Opportunity'' program, in which observations can be queued on VLT's UT1 with FORS at short notice. The first observations targeted 2009 FD, which had been ranked among the top five objects on the NEODyS Risk List. The VLT observations, processed by the European NEODyS system and the JPL-based Sentry system, decreased its Palermo index from -1.8 to -2.6. The campaign currently has a telescope time credit corresponding to 15--20 recoveries per year.

  12. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  13. Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  14. Partial correction of murine hemophilia A with neo-antigenic murine factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R; Gao, G P; Chirmule, N; Tazelaar, J; Kazazian, H H

    2000-04-10

    We have previously reported a factor VIII knockout (FVIII KO) mouse model for hemophilia A. Here we demonstrate the presence of nonfunctional heavy chain factor VIII protein in the mouse, making it an excellent model for cross-reacting material (CRM)-positive hemophilia A patients, who express normal levels of a dysfunctional FVIII protein. We attempted to correct these mice phenotypically by transduction of wild-type mouse factor VIII cDNA delivered in an E1/E3-deleted adenoviral vector by tail vein injection. All treated mice displayed initial high-level FVIII expression that diminished after 1 month. Ten of 12 mice administered between 6 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(11) particles/mouse along with anti-CD4 antibody showed long-term FVIII activity (0.03-0.05 IU/ml, equivalent to 3-5% of normal FVIII) that corrected the phenotype. Wild-type murine FVIII was a neo-antigen to the KO mice, generating both cytotoxic and humoral immune responses. Immune suppression with anti-CD4 antibody abrogated these immune responses. These data demonstrate that despite the presence of endogenous FVIII protein the immune system still recognizes a species-specific transgene protein as a neo-antigen, eliciting a cytotoxic T cell response. This phenomenon may exist in the treatment of other genetic disorders by gene therapy. PMID:10779165

  15. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

  16. Regeneration of native-like neo-urinary tissue from nonbladder cell sources.

    PubMed

    Basu, Joydeep; Jayo, Manuel J; Ilagan, Roger M; Guthrie, Kelly I; Sangha, Namrata; Genheimer, Christopher W; Quinlan, Sarah F; Payne, Richard; Knight, Toyin; Rivera, Elias; Jain, Deepak; Bertram, Timothy A; Ludlow, John W

    2012-05-01

    Urinary pathology requiring urinary diversion, partial or full bladder replacement, is a significant clinical problem affecting ~14,000 individuals annually in the United States alone. The use of gastrointestinal tissue for urinary diversion or bladder reconstruction/replacement surgeries is frequently associated with complications. To try and alleviate or reduce the frequency of these complications, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies have been developed using bio-absorbable materials seeded with cells derived from the bladder. However, bladder-sourced cells may not always be suitable for such applications, especially in patients with bladder cancer. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from porcine adipose and peripheral blood that are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from bladder-derived SMCs. In a preclinical Good Laboratory Practice study, we demonstrate that autologous adipose- and peripheral blood-derived SMCs may be used to seed synthetic, biodegradable tubular scaffold structures and that implantation of these seeded scaffolds into a porcine cystectomy model leads to successful de novo regeneration of a tubular neo-organ composed of urinary-like neo-tissue that is histologically identical to native bladder. The ability to create urologic structures de novo from scaffolds seeded by autologous adipose- or peripheral blood-derived SMCs will greatly facilitate the translation of urologic tissue engineering technologies into clinical practice. PMID:22136657

  17. Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument. PMID:22452759

  18. Bioengineered neo-corneal endothelium using collagen type-I coated silk fibroin film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Cho, Sun Ah; Joo, Choun-Ki; Lee, Dongwon; Khang, Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Corneal transplantation, a common surgical protocol for visual acuity improvement, is limited owing to shortage of high quality donor corneas and/or lack of accurate replication of structural and biochemical composition of native cornea in a scaffold. Construction of neo-corneas utilizing novel, biocompatible and biodegradable scaffold/film source, could possibly address such formidable challenges. Herein, we designed optically transparent, micro-structurally stable silk films surface-coated with collagen type-I (Col-I/SF) as an alternative scaffold source for bioengineering of neo-cornea. Morphological, structural characteristics and in vitro biological studies were performed using primary rabbit corneal endothelial cells (rCEnCs) as models. The Col-I/SF films demonstrated higher Ra (nm) values compared to the bare SF surfaces. In vitro biological studies showed a significant increment in initial cell attachment and proliferation of cultured rCEnCs on the Col-I/SF films with well-maintained characteristic polygonal shape of rCEnCs. Although any remarkable changes regarding the morphology, expression of ZO-1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were absent, however the cells were found to be capable of well-expressing their functional proteins which regulates functions of corneal endothelium. Collectively, these results strongly suggest Col-I/SF film for future corneal transplantation therapy. PMID:26433646

  19. The McDonaldization of childhood: children's mental health in neo-liberal market cultures.

    PubMed

    Timimi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    As the failings of neo-liberalism have recently been revealed through the collapse of much of the banking and financial services sector, it seems an opportune time to think about the impact this economic, political, and social value system has had on the well-being of children. After analyzing how our beliefs and practices around children and families are shaped by a variety of economic, political, and cultural pressures, I discuss how policies that promote a particular form of aggressive capitalism lead to a narcissistic value system that permeates social institutions, including those that deal with children. Not only does this impact children's emotional well-being, but it also shapes the way we conceptualize children and their problems. These dynamics facilitate the rapid growth of child psychiatric diagnoses and the tendency to deal with aberrant behavior or emotions in children through technical--particularly pharmaceutical--interventions, a phenomenon I refer to as the 'McDonaldization' of children's mental health. The present article seeks to challenge many of the unhelpful cultural assumptions regarding childhood embedded within the narrow biomedical frame that neo-liberalism has encouraged. PMID:21088100

  20. Trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Phenotypic and genetic support.

    PubMed

    Few, Lauren R; Miller, Joshua D; Grant, Julia D; Maples, Jessica; Trull, Timothy J; Nelson, Elliot C; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T; Agrawal, Arpana

    2016-01-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(1) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2015-54029-001). The FFI-BPD values for Sample 3 in Table 2 should read 1.42 (0.44), 0.83.] The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of a trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Correlations between the Five-Factor Inventory-BPD composite (FFI-BPD) and explicit measures of BPD were examined across 6 samples, including undergraduate, community, and clinical samples. The median correlation was .60, which was nearly identical to the correlation between measures of BPD and a BPD composite generated from the full Revised NEO Personality Inventory (i.e., NEO-BPD; r = .61). Correlations between FFI-BPD and relevant measures of psychiatric symptomatology and etiology (e.g., childhood abuse, drug use, depression, and personality disorders) were also examined and compared to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. As expected, the FFI-BPD composite correlated most strongly with measures associated with high levels of Neuroticism, such as depression, anxiety, and emotion dysregulation, and the pattern of correlations generated using the FFI-BPD was highly similar to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. Finally, genetic analyses estimated that FFI-BPD is 44% heritable, which is comparable to meta-analytic research examining genetics associated with BPD, and revealed that 71% of the genetic influences are shared between FFI-BPD and a self-report measure assessing BPD (Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline subscale; Morey, 1991). Generally, these results support the use of FFI-BPD as a reasonable proxy for BPD, which has considerable implications, particularly for potential gene-finding efforts in large, epidemiological datasets that include the NEO FFI. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25984635

  1. Determination of neo- and D-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cheesman, Alexander W; Godage, H Yasmin; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-05-01

    The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and D-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable (31)P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP(6)) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of D-chiro-IP(6)) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46-54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (D-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP(6) stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

  2. The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard; Chambers, Ken; Lilly, Eva; Weryk, Robert; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields-of-view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1, is conducting a search for Near Earth Objects, and is currently the leading discoverer of Near Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2, is nearing the end of its commissioning, and is becoming more productive. Pan-STARRS has become the leading survey for Near Earth Objects, responsible for approximately half of the NEO discoveries to date in 2015. Pan-STARRS is also the leading discoverer of new comets.

  3. [Influence of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyun

    2002-07-01

    The academic style of study and thoughts of Neo - Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties improved the innovation of contemporary physicians and their recognition on the research of medical theories, and strengthened the development of determination of treatment based on the differentiation of symptoms and signs. Its related contents, such as taiji, circulation and change of vital energy, substance and functions, and congenital and postnatal etc. also were absorbed as the elements of medical theories. However, there were some negative influences from Neo - Confucianism on the development of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12639442

  4. Neo-Liberal Transformation in Turkish Higher Education System: A New Story of a Turning Point: Draft Proposition on the Higher Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Glay

    2014-01-01

    Neo-liberal policies have been affecting in waves all public services in Turkey since 1980s. The most affected institutions in this process were education in general and the higher education institutions in particular. This article consists of two dimensions. In the first dimension, the process, in which the neo-liberal policies started with a

  5. The Neo-Liberalisation Policy Agenda and Its Consequences for Education in England: A Focus on Resistance Now and Possibilities for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisuria, Alpesh

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the way that neo-liberalism is becoming more entrenched in the fabric of the education system in England. The article begins by setting out a very brief historical trajectory of neo-liberalism to provide a working definition of a complex and disarticulated socio-political and economic system. In part two, this

  6. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships with Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of "DSM-IV" anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder

  7. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships with Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Brown, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of "DSM-IV" anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder…

  8. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)

  9. From Desktop Toy to Educational Aid: Neo Magnets as an Alternative to Ball-and-Stick Models in Representing Carbon Fullerenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Jacqueline Y.; Yang, Min-Han; Lee, Chi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Neo magnets are neodymium magnet beads that have been marketed as a desktop toy. We proposed using neo magnets as an alternative building block to traditional ball-and-stick models to construct carbon allotropes, such as fullerene and various nanocone structures. Due to the lack of predetermined physical connections, the versatility of carbon…

  10. The Neo-Liberalisation Policy Agenda and Its Consequences for Education in England: A Focus on Resistance Now and Possibilities for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisuria, Alpesh

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the way that neo-liberalism is becoming more entrenched in the fabric of the education system in England. The article begins by setting out a very brief historical trajectory of neo-liberalism to provide a working definition of a complex and disarticulated socio-political and economic system. In part two, this…

  11. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  12. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

  13. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)

  14. Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramberg, Magnus Rye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on

  15. From Desktop Toy to Educational Aid: Neo Magnets as an Alternative to Ball-and-Stick Models in Representing Carbon Fullerenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Jacqueline Y.; Yang, Min-Han; Lee, Chi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Neo magnets are neodymium magnet beads that have been marketed as a desktop toy. We proposed using neo magnets as an alternative building block to traditional ball-and-stick models to construct carbon allotropes, such as fullerene and various nanocone structures. Due to the lack of predetermined physical connections, the versatility of carbon

  16. Neo-Liberal Transformation in Turkish Higher Education System: A New Story of a Turning Point: Draft Proposition on the Higher Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Neo-liberal policies have been affecting in waves all public services in Turkey since 1980s. The most affected institutions in this process were education in general and the higher education institutions in particular. This article consists of two dimensions. In the first dimension, the process, in which the neo-liberal policies started with a…

  17. Invariant object recognition enhanced by object persistence.

    PubMed

    Schurgin, Mark; Flombaum, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The same object can look different to an observer because of changes in viewpoint, lighting, and other parameters. This makes object recognition that is invariant to viewing condition a staggering challenge. It has been suggested that spatiotemporal association can support invariant learning; combining information gained during distinct encounters can improve one's estimates of an object's true features. But spatiotemporal association is insufficient; one needs to know whether spatiotemporally close encounters include the same object. We hypothesized that spatiotemporal association should therefore be constrained by the rules of object persistence, the object physics thought to make up core knowledge in infants and known to guide online perception of token identity. We tested this hypothesis with an incidental-encoding paradigm followed by a recognition test. During each encoding trial a single object appeared twice, via an apparent motion manipulation, in a way that made it look like encounters with two distinct individuals (discontinuous motion) or that made it look like two encounters with the same individual (continuous motion). Participants then judged test objects each as old, similar, or new. Signal detection measures of recognition were used to compare performance as a function of motion continuity. In Experiment 1, encoding involved encounters with an object embedded each time in independent noise. In Experiment 2, encoding occurred without noise, but test images were embedded in varying degrees of noise. And in Experiment 3, each encoding encounter included the object oriented differently, with old objects at test appearing at a third, never-before-seen orientation. (Additional control and extension experiments were run as well). In all three experiments, objects encountered through continuous motion were recognized significantly better than objects encountered through discontinuous motion. These results demonstrate how invariant object learning is supported by constraints from object physics that control the online perception of token identity. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325927

  18. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  20. Inactivation of Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water by Ultraviolet Light Technology: NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.; Ultraviolet Water Treatment System, NeoTech D438™ (Report and VS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc. D438™ UV Water Treatment System was tested to validate the UV dose delivered by the system using biodosimetry and a set line approach. The set line for 40 mJ/cm2 measured Reduction Equivalent Dose (RED) was based on validation testing at three (3)...