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1

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

2

The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (<0.3 AU) to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; Volk, Christopher P.; Koontz, Steven L.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Swenson, Charles

2014-01-01

3

The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30 to 420 days in duration and assuming chemical propulsion. Similar studies have been reported assuming high power electric propulsion for manned NEO rendezvous missions (11). The delta V requirement breakdown and mission profile data from references 10 and 11 are used as a basis for sizing the NEO Scout spacecraft and for conducting preliminary feasibility assessments using the Tsiokolvsky rocket equation, a (worst-case) delta V requirement of 10 km/sec, and a maximum spacecraft dry mass of 20 kg. Using chemical propellant for a 10 km/sec delta V drives spacecraft wet mass well above 300 kg so that chemical propulsion is a non-starter for the proposed mission profile and spacecraft wet mass limits. In contrast, a solar electric propulsion system needs only 8 kg of Xe propellant to accelerate the spacecraft to 10 km/sec in 163 days with 0.02 N of thrust and 500 W of power from1.6 sq m of 29% efficient solar panels. In a second example, accelerating a 4 kg payload to 7 km/sec over 180 days requires about 6.7 kg of propellant and 1.2 kg of solar panels (12 kg total spacecraft wet mass).

Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

2014-01-01

4

Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

Barbee, Brent W.

2015-01-01

5

Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

Mazanek, Daniel D.

2005-01-01

6

The LCOGT Near Earth Object (NEO) Follow-up Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), NEOWISE and PanSTARRS (PS1). Over 600 NEO candidates have been targeted so far this year with 250+ objects reported to the MPC, including 70 confirmed NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

2014-11-01

7

NeoDys: Near Earth Objects: Dynamic Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NeoDys, a project developed at the University of Pisa in Italy, supplies data and services for all Near Earth Asteroids. Updated daily, researchers can find links to all NeoDys objects and observatories as well as data on Earth Impact Possibilities. Educators and students will find instructive explanations of Near-Earth Asteroids and three dimensional visualizations of the objects' orbits. Although at first glance some of the data may appear difficult to interpret, each page has a Help icon that thoroughly and clearly describes the information presented.

Milani, Andrea

8

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

Adams, Robert B.

2008-01-01

9

ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [Joint Sciences Department, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: cristina.thomas@nau.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-15

10

Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-08-25

11

Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-08-25

12

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

2007-01-01

13

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

2007-05-01

14

High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions  

SciTech Connect

The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M. [Department of Advanced Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

15

Interactive Simulation of Burning Objects melekzek@neo.tamu.edu  

E-print Network

and the solid, and heat conduct to model the motion of fuel, air, and exhaust gasses in a unified system. The heat produced by combustion- tion of the flame. In addition, this heat transport allows us to simulate self-ignition of objects away

Keyser, John

16

ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Obs. de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Ave. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-03-15

17

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named “Neo,” suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

18

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

2014-01-01

19

Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program seeks to address the fundamental question: What are the relationships between asteroids, comets, and meteorites? To answer this question, we are studying the population of asteroids near the Earth which likely contain both asteroids and extinct comets and which is the immediate source for meteorites. An analysis of new and existing visible wavelength spectral data for more than 100 (Near-Earth Objects) NEOs, and Keck albedo data for more than 20 NEOs is underway. New asteroid-meteorite links are being found, the NEO population and hazard is being characterized, and the extinct comet component is being constrained. These results are contained within the following publication work during the current period: 1 book, 2 book chapters, 1 published paper, 2 papers submitted, 2 papers in preparation, 1 Ph. D. thesis in preparation, and 7 meeting abstracts/presentations.

Binzel, Richard P.

2003-01-01

20

Prevention sequence mechanisms (PSM) for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) based on a three parameter scheme based classification framework  

E-print Network

There is a significant amount of space debris from previous space endeavors left over by the Russians and the US, leave alone the possibility of collisions with Near Earth Objects (NEOs) like asteroids and comets. Currently, ...

Sahani, Rohan

2007-01-01

21

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors. We acknowledge support from NASA AISR and NASA NEOO programs.

Tricarico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

2010-10-01

22

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

2010-01-01

23

The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) Program: New NEOs and the Unusual Object 1996 PW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has produced nearly 6000 detections, of which over half (3200) are new objects, including comet C/1996 E1, 5 Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) 1996 EN, 1996 EO, 1996 FQ3, 1996 FR3, 1996 KE, and several Mars-crossers, including 1996 MR, 1996 MS and 1996 PH2. In addition, a dramatically unusual object, 1996 PW, was discovered in August 1996 and determined to have the most eccentric orbit of any known asteroid (e=0.99), an inclination of 29 degrees, and an estimated period of 7000 years. Moving in an highly elongated orbit, 1996 PW, mimics the paths of long-period comets, extending far beyond Neptune and the Kuiper Belt to the outermost region of the Solar System, yet during its closest approach to the sun (q=2.5), no coma or gasous emissions have been detected. Following the tentative announcement of the discovery in the World Wide Web in the Minor Planet Center's NEO Confirmation Page, further observations were made in Italy only twelve hours after the second-night NEAT detection. Early follow-up astrometry and photometry were made by Rabinowitz (see 1996 DPS Abstract), from the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) and others around the world. 1996 PW will be well-placed in the sky for further observations which will help decipher the nature of this, so far, undefined object: is it a dormant long-period comet or an asteroid? Related Abstract: Rabinowitz, D., et al. 1996 DPS.......

Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Lawrence, K. J.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Williams, G. V.; Keesey, M. S.

1996-09-01

24

Step-by-step evolution of neo-sex chromosomes in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.  

PubMed Central

Geographical subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), differ considerably in sex chromosome constitution owing to sex chromosome fusions with autosomes, which leads to variation in chromosome numbers. We cloned S. cynthia orthologues of 16 Bombyx mori genes and mapped them to chromosome spreads of S. cynthia subspecies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the origin of S. cynthia neo-sex chromosomes. FISH mapping revealed that the Z chromosome and chromosome 12 of B. mori correspond to the Z chromosome and an autosome (A1) of S. c. ricini (Vietnam population, 2n=27, Z0 in female moths), respectively. B. mori chromosome 11 corresponds partly to another autosome (A2) and partly to a chromosome carrying nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of this subspecies. The NOR chromosome of S. c. ricini is also partly homologous to B. mori chromosome 24. Furthermore, our results revealed that two A1 homologues each fused with the W and Z chromosomes in a common ancestor of both Japanese subspecies S. c. walkeri (Sapporo population, 2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z) and S. cynthia subsp. indet. (Nagano population, 2n=25, neo-WZ1Z2). One homologue, corresponding to the A2 autosome in S. c. ricini and S. c. walkeri, fused with the W chromosome in S. cynthia subsp. indet. Consequently, the other homologue became a Z2 chromosome. These results clearly showed a step-by-step evolution of the neo-sex chromosomes by repeated autosome–sex chromosome fusions. We suggest that the rearrangements of sex chromosomes may facilitate divergence of S. cynthia subspecies towards speciation. PMID:20668432

Yoshido, A; Sahara, K; Marec, F; Matsuda, Y

2011-01-01

25

Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

2011-01-01

26

The Economics OF NEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

Schalkwyk, James D.

2014-01-01

27

Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission concept is to assess the feasibility of using solar sail propulsion to enable a robotic precursor that would survey multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for potential future human visits. Single spacecraft will rendezvous with and image 3 NEOs within 6 years of launch

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

2012-01-01

28

The NEOS server.  

SciTech Connect

The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an Internet based optimization service. The NEOS Server introduces a novel approach for solving optimization problems. Users of the NEOS Server submit a problem and their choice of optimization solver over the Internet. The NEOS Server computes all information (for example, derivatives and sparsity patterns) required by the solver, links the optimization problem with the solver, and returns a solution.

Czyzyk, J.; Mesnier, M. P.; More, J. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

1998-07-01

29

Science opportunities offered by the European SSA-NEO segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new ESA programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initially consists of 3 segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near-Earth Objects (NEO). The scope of the SSA-NEO segment includes the assessment of the impact risk with Earth from known NEOs, observations of NEO objects and the support of related international co-operations and mitigation measures. To fulfill its objectives the SSA-NEO system will , inter alia, support the detection and tracking of all NEOs above a given size or risk threshold, and determine the orbit state and physical parameters of NEOs and their associated uncertainties. It is also foreseen that the SSA-NEO system keeps a record of all larger fireballs and provides statistical information and predictions on meteoroid fluxes. The SSA-NEO segment offers numerous opportunities for scientific studies on small bodies in the solar system. Examples are: 1. Observations of asteroids and NEOs 2. Study of non-gravitational perturbing forces 3. New methods for precise determination of orbits and their evolution 4. Physical characterization of NEOs (Albedo, mass, density, composition, light curves, rotation rate, etc) 5. Fluxes of larger meteoroids This paper gives an overview of the SSA-NEO segment and discusses scientific opportunities offered by this programme.

Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Bobrinsky, Nicolas

30

Two neo-Darwinisms.  

PubMed

There are two extant theories of evolution, each of which deserves the honourific "neo-Darwinism": Modern Synthesis Replicator theory and a theory I shall call Developmental Darwinism. The principal difference concerns the canonical unit of biological organization. Modern Synthesis replicator theory explains the process of evolution by appeal to the activities of genes or replicators. Developmental Darwinism explains the process of evolution by appeal to the capacities of organisms. In particular, it is the plasticity of organisms, manifested most distinctly during development, that causes adaptive evolution. Despite the fact that each, in its own way, traces its origin to the theory outlined by Darwin, they are radically different. The objectives of this essay are twofold: to underscore the differences between these theories, and to argue that Developmental Darwinism, though nascent, is a viable alternative to Modern Synthesis replicator theory. PMID:21162373

Walsh, Denis M

2010-01-01

31

Il rischio di impatto con la Terra dei Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Sono potenzialmente più pericolosi gli asteroidi o i media?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually we have very unuseful alarms by media about impact on Earth; they are always not real; in fact they are founded on preliminary results improved in a few days by astronomers; these improvements are not followed by media and possible misunderstanding might be happen. In this paper impact risk for the Earth maintained by NASA Near Earth Program Office is shown. Motion of minor planets and orbit computing method is reported with a brief description of the Near Earth Objects population and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids population. Detailed impact risk evolution of minor planet 2003 WG is shown.

Foglia, Sergio

2004-10-01

32

Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

2011-01-01

33

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

was continued by Dr. Jonathan S. neo-latin news 65 Rose, an active member of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies who brought the project to its successful conclusion in the volume under review here. Everyone who works in Neo-Latin studies... to philosophy, mathematics, the sciences, literature, law, the arts, business, and travel. The wide range of topics treated leads in turn to a surprising lexical breadth, so that it is not unreasonable for Dr. Rose to note that the lexicon can also serve...

Kallendorf, Craig et al

2009-01-01

34

Objective basis of the common law of population.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of production. When nonconformity restricts production growth, social revolution results. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production always tends toward conformity from nonconformity. Conformity is the common law of population economy in all societies, and as the social law of population economy it can be sensed by studying Marxist theory, and through people's practical activities. PMID:12313979

Ma, S

1983-01-01

35

Neo: learning conceptual knowledge by sensorimotor interaction with an environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in philosophy, linguistics, developmentalpsychology and artificial intelligence make itpossible to envision a developmental path for an artificialagent, grounded in activity-based sensorimotorrepresentations. This paper describes how Neo, an artificialagent, learns concepts by interacting with itssimulated environment. Relatively little prior structureis required to learn fairly accurate representationsof objects, activities, locations and other aspects ofNeo's...

Paul R. Cohen; Marc S. Atkin; Tim Oates; Carole R. Beal

1997-01-01

36

Composition of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a compositional survey of near-Earth objects are presented. This survey, comprised of low-resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 35 Earth-approaching asteroids and cometary candidates, was conducted over the past three years with the Double Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5-m ARC telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Gross surface mineralogical characteristics and standard Tholen taxonomies for these objects have been derived. In particular, similarities between some of the objects observed in this survey and certain meteorite types, including the ordinary chondrite meteorites, are outlined. Extensive simulations have been performed in order to quantify the significant observational biases that affect surveys of small solar system objects. In addition to debiasing the observed compositional distribution of near-Earth objects, a similar bias analysis for the main asteroid belt has been performed, resulting in a new look at the compositional variations across and within the main belt. Together, these data permit the direct comparison of the near-Earth object population with asteroids from various regions within the main belt.

Hammergren, M.

1997-12-01

37

What is neo-liberalism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-liberalism is an oft-invoked but ill-defined concept in the social sciences. This article conceptualizes neo-liberalism as a sui generis ideological system born of struggle and collaboration in three worlds: intellectual, bureaucratic and political. Emphasizing neo-liberalism's third ‘face’, it argues that a failure to grasp neo-liberalism as a political form imposes two limitations on understanding its effects: (i) fostering an implicit

Stephanie Lee Mudge

2008-01-01

38

Properties and evolution of NEO families created by tidal disruption at Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the coherence and detectable lifetimes of synthetic near-Earth object (NEO) families created by catastrophic disruption of a progenitor as it suffers a very close Earth approach. The closest or slowest approaches yield the most violent ‘s-class’ disruption events where the largest remaining fragment after disruption and reaccumulation retains less than 50% of the parent’s mass. The resulting fragments have a ‘string of pearls’ configuration after their reaccummulation into gravitationally bound components (Richardson, D.C., Bottke, W.F., Love, S.G. [1998]. Icarus 134, 47-76). We found that the average absolute magnitude (H) difference between the parent body and the largest fragment is ?H?1.0. The average slope of the absolute magnitude (H) distribution, N(H)?10, for the fragments in the s-class families is steeper than the slope of the NEO population (Mainzer, A., et al. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 743, 156) in the same size range. The es remain coherent as statistically significant clusters of orbits within the NEO population for an average of ?barc=(14.7±0.6)×103 yr after disruption. The detectable lifetimes of tidally disrupted families are extremely short compared to the multi-Myr and -Gyr lifetimes of main belt families due to the chaotic dynamical environment in NEO space-they are detectable with the techniques developed by Fu et al. and Schunová et al. (Fu, H., Jedicke, R., Durda, D.D., Fevig, R., Binzel, R.P. [2005]. Icarus 178(2), 434-449 and Schunová, E., Granvik, M., Jedicke, R., Gronchi, G., Wainscoat, R., Abe, S. [2012]. Icarus 220, 1050-1063) for an average duration (?bardet) ranging from about 2000 to about 12,000 years for progenitors in the absolute magnitude (Hp) range from 20 to 13 corresponding to diameters in the range from about 0.5 to 10 km respectively. The maximum absolute magnitude of a progenitor capable of producing an observable NEO family (i.e. detectable by our family finding technique) is Hp,max=20 (about 350 m diameter). The short detectability lifetime explains why zero NEO families have been discovered to-date. Nonetheless, every tidal disruption event of a progenitor with diameter greater than 0.5 km is capable of producing several million fragments in the 1-10 m diameter range that can contribute to temporary local density enhancements of small NEOs in Earth’s vicinity. We expect that there are about 1200 objects in the steady state NEO population in this size range due to tidal disruption assuming that one 1 km diameter NEO tidally disrupts at Earth every 2500 years. These objects may be suitable targets for asteroid retrieval missions due to their Earth-like orbits with corresponding low v? which permits low-cost missions. The fragments from the tidal disruptions evolve into orbits that bring them into collision with terrestrial planets or the Sun or they may be ejected from the Solar System on hyperbolic orbits due to deep planetary encounters. The end-state for the fragments from a tidal disruption at Earth have ?5× the collision probability with Earth compared to the background NEO population.

Schunová, Eva; Jedicke, Robert; Walsh, Kevin J.; Granvik, Mikael; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Haghighipour, Nader

2014-08-01

39

Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.  

PubMed

Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

2012-10-01

40

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

del Rinascimento. Florence: Olschki, 2000; Franco Bacchelli. Giovanni Pico e Pier Leone da Spoleto: tra filosofia dell?amore e tradizione cabalistica. Florence: Olschki, 2001. Pierleone da Spoleto (ca. 1440-1492) is NEO-LATIN NEWS 133 best known... sources, printed and manuscript; in this she is quite successful. A useful bibliography is included, but no indices whatsoever, an unfortunate omission. ? Franco Bacchelli?s Giovanni Pico e Pier Leone da Spoleto: tra filosofia dell?amore e tradizione...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2004-01-01

41

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

image of her dead husband carried by a different widow in the companion epigram. The conclusions which Neagu reaches after 250 pages largely given over to critical analysis hardly justify the effort: Olahus, we learn, had ?a keen eye for... articles based on talks given by German and Austrian scholars at a conference held in Bad Homberg, Germany, in 2001. Arranged chronologically, the essays cover Neo-Latin poets from Italy, France, Germany, and England. Since most of the poems are hard...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2005-01-01

42

POPULATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new method for identifying young stellar objects (YSOs) from star-forming regions using the photometry data from Spitzer's c2d Legacy Project. The aim is to obtain YSO lists as complete as possible for studying statistical properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages. The largest obstacle in identifying YSOs comes from background galaxies with similar spectral energy distributions to YSOs. Traditionally, selected color-color and color-magnitude criteria are used to separate YSOs and galaxies. However, since there is no obvious boundary between YSOs and galaxies in color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), those criteria may exclude faint YSOs near the boundary. In this paper, we separate the YSOs and galaxies in a multi-dimensional (multi-D) magnitude space, which is equivalent to using all variations of CMDs simultaneously. Comparing sources from molecular clouds to Spitzer's SWIRE data, which have a negligible amount of YSOs, we can naturally identify YSO candidates (YSOc) located outside of the galaxy-populated regions in the multi-D space. In the five c2d surveyed clouds, we select 322 new YSOc and miss/exclude 33 YSOc compared to Evans et al., and this results in 1313 YSOc in total. As a result, SFR increases 28% correspondingly, but the lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages remain unchanged. Compared to theories by Krumholz and McKee, our derived SFR suggests that star formation at a large scale is dominated by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields. Furthermore, we identify seven new very low luminosity objects.

Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping, E-mail: shawinchone@gmail.com, E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-03-01

43

The Composition of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present reflectance spectra of 34 near-Earth objects (NEOs), 6 main-belt asteroids, and four non-NEO cometary candidates, all obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope + Double Imaging Spectrograph. The spectra cover the wavelength range 3800-10,000 A, encompassing regions of mineralogically important absorption features. Nearly all of the NEOs observed display ultraviolet and near-infrared absorptions characteristic of rock-forming silicate minerals. Of the 27 NEOs belonging to the S or Q taxonomic classes observed in this study, 15 are spectrally indistinguishable from ordinary chondrite meteorites. I perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the NEO and main belt populations aimed at quantifying the severe biases affecting observed taxonomic distributions. The bias-corrected NEO population in the 1-10 km diameter range is composed of 67 ± 13% S- or Q-type, objects, and 30 ± 7% C-types objects, with the remainder being primarily of the spectrally degenerate X-Class. The NEO population resembles most closely that of the inner main belt near the 3:1 mean motion resonance, and is consistent with that region being the sole source for NEOs. If extinct comet nuclei resemble the primitive taxonomic classes C, P, or D, the cometary component of the NEOs is constrained at ~<30%. I investigate trends of S-type spectral characteristics with size. The strength of the 1 ?m absorption increases with decreasing size. There is a possible trend towards shorter-wavelength band centers with decreasing size, possibly reflecting a decreasing olivine abundance in the optically active surface fraction. For sizes below about 6 km, the spectral continuum reddens with increasing size. Above 6 km, this trend reverses, and larger objects have on average bluer continua. For the smaller objects, these trends are all consistent with predictions of the 'space weathering' hypothesis. The bluer continua of the larger objects remains unexplained. All of these trends appear to be systematically dependent on size; specifically, no distinct separation exists between the larger S-type objects and the smaller ordinary chondrite-like bodies.

Hammergren, Mark

44

Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that active galactic nuclei activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M* >~ 1010Msolar), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting is linked to nature, nurture or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco; Gültekin, Kayhan

2008-03-01

45

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

: Franciscus Colonna the member of a collateral branch of the patrician family of this name in Rome, Franciscus Colonna the Dominican monk at the convent of Sts. Giovanni and Paolo in Venice, or another writer using Franciscus Colonna as a pseudonym, Felice... Feliciano, perhaps, or Leon Battista Alberti? And what does this mysterious text, written in a mysterious language, mean? NEO-LATIN NEWS 121 Starting in the 1970s, scholars like Giovanni Pozzi have tried to shift atten- tion away from the woodcuts, which...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2006-01-01

46

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

?opera di Francesco Filelfo,? in Storia di Milano, vol. 7: L?et? sforzesca dal 1450 al 1500, Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1956, 545). Yet a neo-latin news 233 careful reading of Book 4 of the Odes reveals more than a simple hack... and the Repastinatio dialecticae et philosophiae. The latter title suggests what he is up to, a ?replowing? or ?retilling? of what he presented as the barren, infertile soil of late medieval philosophy and theology, a ?repair? or ?rebuild- ing? of Aristotelian...

Kallendorf, Craig, et. al

2010-01-01

47

Setting Numerical Population Objectives for Priority Landbird Species1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the example of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, deriving numerical population estimates and conservation targets for priority landbird species is considered a desirable, if not necessary, element of the Partners in Flight planning process. Methodology for deriving such estimates remains in its infancy, however, and the use of numerical population targets remains controversial within the conservation and academic

Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Peter J. Blancher

48

Forest Management Under Uncertainty for Multiple Bird Population Objectives1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive manage- ment. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate

Clinton T. Moore; W. Todd Plummer; Michael J. Conroy

49

NEO Impact Consequences and Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short overview of main characteristics of the impactor population from which major terrestrial impacts originated is given. This population includes the objects that may hit the Earth in the future (potentially hazardous asteroids, PHAs). An impact frequency (a way of measuring the probability of a given collision) versus impact energy (an index of the impact consequences) relationship is described

Marcello Fulchignoni; M. Antonietta Barucci

2005-01-01

50

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

51

Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One  

PubMed Central

Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

2014-01-01

52

Depletion of the Near-Earth-Asteroid Population at Small Perihelion Distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of near-Earth objects (NEOs) eventually collide with the Sun. Recently it has also become evident that the intense thermal radiation close to the Sun is able to slowly erode asteroid surfaces. We show that this thermal fatigue has observable implications on a larger scale: population models describing NEO orbit and absolute magnitude distributions predict that there should be more objects on low-perihelion orbits than what is observed. This suggests that a significant fraction of all NEOs disrupt at small perihelion distances and can thus no longer be detected. The assumption that, on average, near-Earth asteroids disrupt at perihelion distances less than about 20 solar radii leads to a virtually perfect agreement between observations and theory that increasingly complicated NEO population models otherwise fail to achieve.

Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bottke, Bill; Bolin, Bryce; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Michel, Patrick

2014-11-01

53

Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

2009-01-01

54

Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic…

Miller, Brian

2014-01-01

55

Near-Earth Objects in the Taurid complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taurid complex consists of many substreams and has both comet 2P/Encke and several Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) moving within it. We conduct a new search for associated NEOs, investigate the orbital evolution of any identified NEO and search for meteor showers associated with these NEOs.

Babadzhanov, P. B.; Williams, I. P.; Kokhirova, G. I.

2008-05-01

56

Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s  

SciTech Connect

ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

1996-02-01

57

ObStruct: A Method to Objectively Analyse Factors Driving Population Structure Using Bayesian Ancestry Profiles  

PubMed Central

Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses. PMID:24416362

Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

58

Reduced sequence variability on the Neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana.  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes are generally morphologically and functionally distinct, but the evolutionary forces that cause this differentiation are poorly understood. Drosophila americana americana was used in this study to examine one aspect of sex chromosome evolution, the degeneration of nonrecombining Y chromosomes. The primary X chromosome of D. a. americana is fused with a chromosomal element that was ancestrally an autosome, causing this homologous chromosomal pair to segregate with the sex chromosomes. Sequence variation at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Adh) gene was used to determine the pattern of nucleotide variation on the neo-sex chromosomes in natural populations. Sequences of Adh were obtained for neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana, and for Adh of D. a. texana, in which it is autosomal. No significant sequence differentiation is present between the neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana or the autosomes of D. a. texana. There is a significantly lower level of sequence diversity on the neo-Y chromosome relative to the neo-X in D. a. americana. This reduction in variability on the neo-Y does not appear to have resulted from a selective sweep. Coalescent simulations of the evolutionary transition of an autosome into a Y chromosome indicate there may be a low level of recombination between the neo-X and neo-Y alleles of Adh and that the effective population size of this chromosome may have been reduced below the expected value of 25% of the autosomal effective size, possibly because of the effects of background selection or sexual selection. PMID:10471708

McAllister, B F; Charlesworth, B

1999-01-01

59

Sequence differentiation associated with an inversion on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes originate from pairs of autosomes that acquire controlling genes in the sex-determining cascade. Universal mechanisms apparently influence the evolution of sex chromosomes, because this chromosomal pair is characteristically heteromorphic in a broad range of organisms. To examine the pattern of initial differentiation between sex chromosomes, sequence analyses were performed on a pair of newly formed sex chromosomes in Drosophila americana. This species has neo-sex chromosomes as a result of a centromeric fusion between the X chromosome and an autosome. Sequences were analyzed from the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), big brain (bib), and timeless (tim) gene regions, which represent separate positions along this pair of neo-sex chromosomes. In the northwestern range of the species, the bib and Adh regions exhibit significant sequence differentiation for neo-X chromosomes relative to neo-Y chromosomes from the same geographic region and other chromosomal populations of D. americana. Furthermore, a nucleotide site defining a common haplotype in bib is shown to be associated with a paracentric inversion [In(4)ab] on the neo-X chromosome, and this inversion suppresses recombination between neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes. These observations are consistent with the inversion acting as a recombination modifier that suppresses exchange between these neo-sex chromosomes, as predicted by models of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:14668385

McAllister, Bryant F

2003-01-01

60

A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... .) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials. It involves a main spacescraft which will allow the determination of important physical properties of the target (shape, mass, crater distribution . . . ) and which will take samples by a touch-and-go procedure, a Lander for in-situ investigation of the sampling site, and sampling depending on technological development and resource allocations, a re-entry capsule, and scientific payloads. We will present the mission targets, scenarios and techniques that have been proposed.

Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

2007-08-01

61

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA’s IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, N.; Trilling, D.; Thomas, C.; Willman, M.; Grundy, W.; Roe, H.; Christensen, E.; Person, M.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Busch, M.

2013-10-01

62

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

2013-01-01

63

NEOS server 4.0 administrative guide.  

SciTech Connect

The NEOS Server 4.0 provides a general Internet-based client/server as a link between users and software applications. The administrative guide covers the fundamental principals behind the operation of the NEOS Server, installation and trouble-shooting of the Server software, and implementation details of potential interest to a NEOS Server administrator. The guide also discusses making new software applications available through the Server, including areas of concern to remote solver administrators such as maintaining security, providing usage instructions, and enforcing reasonable restrictions on jobs. The administrative guide is intended both as an introduction to the NEOS Server and as a reference for use when running the Server.

Dolan, E. D.

2001-07-13

64

NEO Impact Consequences and Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short overview of main characteristics of the impactor population from which major terrestrial impacts originated is given. This population includes the objects that may hit the Earth in the future (potentially hazardous asteroids, PHAs). An impact frequency (a way of measuring the probability of a given collision) versus impact energy (an index of the impact consequences) relationship is described on the basis of this analysis. The current state of actions started planetwide by the most developed countries to face the threat represented by an asteroid collision with the Earth is summarized. The 'Torino scale', which assesses the risks connected with a discovery of a PHA in a simple and clear way is finally described. To cite this article: M. Fulchignoni, M.A. Barucci, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

Fulchignoni, Marcello; Barucci, M. Antonietta

2005-04-01

65

Compact Object Modeling with the StarTrack Population Synthesis Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive description of the population synthesis code StarTrack. The original code has been significantly modified and updated. Special emphasis is placed here on processes leading to the formation and further evolution of compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes). Both single and binary star populations are considered. The code now incorporates detailed calculations of all mass transfer phases, a full implementation of orbital evolution due to tides, as well as the most recent estimates of magnetic braking. This updated version of StarTrack can be used for a wide variety of problems, with relevance to observations with many current and planned observatories, e.g., studies of X-ray binaries (Chandra, XMM-Newton), gravitational radiation sources (LIGO, LISA), and gamma-ray burst progenitors (HETE-II, Swift). The code has already been used in studies of Galactic and extragalactic X-ray binary populations, black holes in young star clusters, Type Ia supernova progenitors, and double compact object populations. Here we describe in detail the input physics, we present the code calibration and tests, and we outline our current studies in the context of X-ray binary populations.

Belczynski, Krzysztof; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.; Taam, Ronald E.; Zezas, Andreas; Bulik, Tomasz; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Ivanova, Natalia

2008-01-01

66

Near-Earth-object survey progress and population of small near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the total population vs. size of NEAs and the completion of surveys is the same thing since the total population is just the number discovered divided by the estimated completion. I review the method of completion estimation based on ratio of re-detected objects to total detections (known plus new discoveries). The method is quite general and can be used for population estimations of all sorts, from wildlife to various classes of solar system bodies. Since 2001, I have been making estimates of population and survey progress approximately every two years. Plotted below, left, is my latest estimate, including NEA discoveries up to August, 2012. I plan to present an update at the meeting. All asteroids of a given size are not equally easy to detect because of specific orbital geometries. Thus a model of the orbital distribution is necessary, and computer simulations using those orbits need to establish the relation between the raw re-detection ratio and the actual completion fraction. This can be done for any sub-group population, allowing to estimate the population of a subgroup and the expected current completion. Once a reliable survey computer model has been developed and ''calibrated'' with respect to actual survey re-detections versus size, it can be extrapolated to smaller sizes to estimate completion even at very small size where re-detections are rare or even zero. I have recently investigated the subgroup of extremely low encounter velocity NEAs, the class of interest for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), recently proposed by NASA. I found that asteroids of diameter ˜ 10 m with encounter velocity with the Earth lower than 2.5 km/sec are detected by current surveys nearly 1,000 times more efficiently than the general background of NEAs of that size. Thus the current completion of these slow relative velocity objects may be around 1%, compared to 10^{-6} for that size objects of the general velocity distribution. Current surveys are nowhere near complete, but there may be fewer such objects than have been suggested. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that at least a couple such discovered objects are known to be not real asteroids but spent rocket bodies in heliocentric orbit, of which there are only of the order of a hundred. Brown et al. (Nature 503, 238-241, 2013, below right, green squares are a re-plot of my blue circles on left plot) recently suggested that the population of small NEAs in the size range from roughly 5 to 50 meters in diameter may have been substantially under-estimated. To be sure, the greatest uncertainty in population estimates is in that range, since there are very few bolide events to use for estimation, and the surveys are extremely incomplete in that size range, so a factor of 3 or so discrepancy is not significant. However, the population estimated from surveys carried still smaller, where the bolide frequency becomes more secure, disagrees from the bolide estimate by even less than a factor of 3 and in fact intersects at about 3 m diameter. On the other hand, the shallow-sloping size-frequency distribution derived from the sparse large bolide data diverges badly from the survey estimates, in sizes where the survey estimates become ever-increasingly reliable, even by 100-200 m diameter. It appears that the bolide data provides a good "anchor" of the population in the size range up to about 5 m diameter, but above that one might do better just connecting that population with a straight line (on a log-log plot) with the survey-determined population at larger size, 50-100 m diameter or so.

Harris, A.

2014-07-01

67

Fanaroff-Riley I galaxies as the parent populations of BL Lacertae objects. III - Radio constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is increasing support for the idea that BL Lacertae objects are dominated by beamed emission from a relativistic jet aligned with the line of sight. If so, the most likely parent objects are Fanaroff-Riley type I (F-R I) radio galaxies. This hypothesis is tested by determining the ratio of number densities of the two populations in a manner appropriate for flux-limited samples. Through a direct comparison of predicted and observed luminosity functions, it is shown that available radio samples of F-R I galaxies and BL Lac objects are fully consistent with the beaming hypothesis. The model makes specific predictions about the luminosity function of BL Lacertae objects and their radio counts below currently observed levels.

Urry, C. M.; Padovani, P.; Stickel, M.

1991-01-01

68

The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a “potentially hazardous asteroid” (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m). These are big enough to cause, in the case of impact with Earth, destructive effects on a regional scale. Smaller objects can still produce major damage on a local scale, while the largest NEOs could endanger the survival of living species. Therefore, several national and international observational efforts have been started (i) to detect undiscovered NEOs and especially PHAs, (ii) to determine and continuously monitor their orbital properties and hence their impact probability, and (iii) to investigate their physical nature. Further ongoing activities concern the analysis of possible techniques to mitigate the risk of a NEO impact, when an object is confirmed to be on an Earth colliding trajectory. Depending on the timeframe available before the collision, as well as on the object’s physical properties, various methods to deflect a NEO have been proposed and are currently under study from groups of experts on behalf of international organizations and space agencies. This paper will review our current understanding of the NEO population, the scientific aspects and the ongoing space- and ground-based activities to foresee close encounters and to mitigate the effects of possible impacts.

Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

2013-09-01

69

De-biased Populations of Kuiper Belt Objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF 32 to a minimum of 1.5 × 10-7 for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU 185. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of ? = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 <= H <= 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power law with ? = 0.42 ± 0.02. This is consistent with a knee in the H-distribution around H = 7.2 as reported elsewhere. Based on the Classical-derived magnitude distribution, the total number of objects (H <= 7) in each class is: Classical (2100 ± 300 objects), Scattered (2800 ± 400), 3:2 (570 ± 80), 2:1 (400 ± 50), 5:2 (270 ± 40), 7:4 (69 ± 9), 5:3 (60 ± 8). The independent estimate for the number of Centaurs in the same H range is 13 ± 5. If instead all objects are divided by inclination into "Hot" and "Cold" populations, following Fraser et al., we find that ?Hot = 0.90 ± 0.02, while ?Cold = 1.32 ± 0.02, in good agreement with that work.

Adams, E. R.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

2014-09-01

70

Multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering of microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-objective optimization (MOO) involves optimization problems with multiple objectives. Generally, theose objectives is used to estimate very different aspects of the solutions, and these aspects are often in conflict with each other. MOO first gets a Pareto set, and then looks for both commonality and systematic variations across the set. For the large-scale data sets, heuristic search algorithms such as EA combined with MOO techniques are ideal. Newly DNA microarray technology may study the transcriptional response of a complete genome to different experimental conditions and yield a lot of large-scale datasets. Biclustering technique can simultaneously cluster rows and columns of a dataset, and hlep to extract more accurate information from those datasets. Biclustering need optimize several conflicting objectives, and can be solved with MOO methods. As a heuristics-based optimization approach, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulate the movements of a bird flock finding food. The shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFL) is a population-based cooperative search metaphor combining the benefits of the local search of PSO and the global shuffled of information of the complex evolution technique. SFL is used to solve the optimization problems of the large-scale datasets. Results This paper integrates dynamic population strategy and shuffled frog-leaping algorithm into biclustering of microarray data, and proposes a novel multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering (MODPSFLB) algorithm to mine maximum bicluesters from microarray data. Experimental results show that the proposed MODPSFLB algorithm can effectively find significant biological structures in terms of related biological processes, components and molecular functions. Conclusions The proposed MODPSFLB algorithm has good diversity and fast convergence of Pareto solutions and will become a powerful systematic functional analysis in genome research. PMID:22759615

2012-01-01

71

The Size Distribution of Very Small Near Earth Objects As Measured by Warm Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a pilot search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with 84 hours of Warm Spitzer time in April, 2013. Results are obtained through a multi-step process: implanting synthetic objects in the Spitzer data stream; processing the Spitzer data; linking non-sidereal sources to form plausible orbits; validating candidates; determining orbits; and determining diameters through thermal modeling. Each of these steps is well-tested on both synthetic populations and real data. Through these steps, we expect to be able to constrain the NEO size distribution down to ~10 meters (at present, through ExploreNEOs and NEOWISE, the size distribution is well-known only to 100 meters). We will present results from this preliminary data and prospects for a large or very large survey that could be carried out in future cycles.

Trilling, David E.; Hora, J.; Burt, B.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Fuentes, C.; Harris, A.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Smith, H.

2013-10-01

72

The relationship between self-rated health and objective health status: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the public health field. However, whether SRH can reflect the objective health status is still debatable. We aim to reveal the relationship between SRH and objective health status in the general population. Methods We assessed the relationship between SRH and objective health status by examining the prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and some health-related factors in different SRH groups. Data were collected from 18,000 residents randomly sampled from the general population in five cities of China (3,600 in each city). SRH was assessed by a single-item health measure with five options: “very good,” “good,” “fair,” “bad,” and “very bad.” The differences in prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and health-related factors between the “healthy” (very good plus good), “relatively healthy” (fair), and “unhealthy” (bad plus very bad) groups were examined. The odds ratios (ORs) referenced by the healthy group were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of all diseases was associated with poorer SRH. The tendency was more prominent in cardio-cerebral vascular diseases, visual impairment, and mental illnesses with larger ORs. Residents with abnormalities in laboratory parameters tended to have poorer SRH, with ORs ranging from 1.62 (for triglyceride) to 3.48 (for hemoglobin among men) in a comparison of the unhealthy and healthy groups. Most of the health-related factors regarded as risks were associated with poorer SRH. Among them, life and work pressure, poor spiritual status, and poor quality of interpersonal relationships were the most significant factors. Conclusions SRH is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. PMID:23570559

2013-01-01

73

Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sail Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office performed an assessment of the feasibility of using a near-term solar sail propulsion system to enable a single spacecraft to perform serial rendezvous operations at multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) within six years of launch on a small-to-moderate launch vehicle. The study baselined the use of the sail technology demonstrated in the mid-2000 s by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project and is scheduled to be demonstrated in space by 2014 as part of the NASA Technology Demonstration Mission Program. The study ground rules required that the solar sail be the only new technology on the flight; all other spacecraft systems and instruments must have had previous space test and qualification. The resulting mission concept uses an 80-m X 80-m 3-axis stabilized solar sail launched by an Athena-II rocket in 2017 to rendezvous with 1999 AO10, Apophis and 2001 QJ142. In each rendezvous, the spacecraft will perform proximity operations for approximately 30 days. The spacecraft science payload is simple and lightweight; it will consist of only the multispectral imager flown on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission to 433 Eros and 253 Mathilde. Most non-sail spacecraft systems are based on the Messenger mission spacecraft. This paper will describe the objectives of the proposed mission, the solar sail technology to be employed, the spacecraft system and subsystems, as well as the overall mission profile.

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

2012-01-01

74

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

75

INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-08-01

76

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G (PI N. Moskovitz).

Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

2014-11-01

77

Effects of response sets on NEO-PI-R scores and their relations to external criteria.  

PubMed

Validity scales indicate the extent to which the results of a self-report inventory are a valid indicator of the test taker's psychological functioning. Validity scales generally are designed to detect the common response sets of positive impression management (underreporting, or faking good), negative impression management (overreporting, or faking bad), and random responding. The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992b) is a popular personality assessment tool based on the 5-factor model of personality and is used in a variety of settings. The NEO-PI-R does not include objective validity scales to screen for positive or negative impression management. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of recently proposed validity scales for detecting these response sets on the NEO-PI-R (Schinka, Kinder, & Kremer, 1997) and to examine the effects of positive and negative impression management on correlations between the NEO-PI-R and external criteria (the Interpersonal Adjective Scale-Revised-B5 [Wiggins & Trapnell, 1997] and the NEO-PI-R Form R). The validity scales discriminated with reasonable accuracy between standard responding and the 2 response sets. Additionally, most correlations between the NEO-PI-R and external criteria were significantly lower when participants were dissimulating than when responding to standard instructions. It appears that response sets of positive and negative impression management may pose a significant threat to the external validity of the NEO-PI-R and that validity scales for their detection might be a useful addition to the inventory. PMID:10900573

Caldwell-Andrews, A; Baer, R A; Berry, D T

2000-06-01

78

Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

Morrison, David

2007-10-01

79

Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) – objectives and protocol  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

Odili, Augustine N.; Ogedengbe, John O.; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O.; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

2014-01-01

80

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. ? v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow us to obtain rotational light curves for objects down to V˜22, visible spectra down to V˜21, and near-IR spectra down to V˜19. MANOS primarily focuses on targets that are recently discovered. We employ a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable follow-up characterization within days or weeks after a target of interest is discovered. We will present a MANOS status report with an emphasis on noteworthy observations and ongoing efforts to achieve fully transparency by making target lists and data products publicly available online.

Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

2014-07-01

81

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

2008-10-29

82

A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

83

Ethnicity, State Violence, and Neo-Liberal Transitions in Post-Communist Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

State socialist nationalization policies in the 1980s severely impacted the ethnic Turkish and Muslim regions of Bulgaria, while neo-liberal economic strategies have subsequently further deepened their economic crisis. This paper focuses on the ways in which policies of regional economic marginalization, cultural assimilation, and population expulsion have deeply marked the people and places of the Kurdajli region of southeastern Bulgaria.

John Pickles; Robert B. Begg

2000-01-01

84

The near-Earth objects segment of the european space situational awareness program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a description of the SSA-NEO segment and presents its content, capabilities, and basic features. The SSA-NEO\\u000a segment is intended to estimate risks of collision of the known NEO objects with the Earth, to observe these objects, and\\u000a to support appropriate programs of international cooperation and measures of reducing this hazard.

G. Drolshagen; D. Koschny; N. Bobrinsky

2010-01-01

85

Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids  

E-print Network

Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ...

Elvis, Martin

86

Thermal Studies of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this proposal, we seek to apply the optical/thermal method to the measurement of the diameters and albedos of a large sample of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Whereas main-belt asteroids have been studied in large numbers, principally using thermal detections from the IRAS satellite, relatively few thermal observations of NEOs have been secured. This program capitalizes on our access to large telescopes and imaging thermal IR detectors in pursuit of the definitive set of albedo data on the NEOs.

Jewitt, David

2003-01-01

87

Objective  

E-print Network

On March 15, 2005, EPA announced the final regulations for mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The regulations embrace a cap-and-trade approach, which favors the use of combinations of existing air pollution control equipment (“co-benefits”). To effectively satisfy the new regulations and remove mercury from flue gas, an adequate fundamental understanding of the system chemistry is required. The objective of this project is to understand the importance of gas- and solid-phase constituents in mercury oxidation reaction chemistry. The effects of chlorine, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and ash particles on mercury oxidation are being studied. These oxidation reactions are believed to be important because oxidized mercury is effectively removed by wet flue gas desulfurization systems at no additional cost to plant operation. Accomplishments To Date At the University of Utah, the mercury analysis equipment, designed and constructed by Southern Research Institute, has been tested and proven to be effective. Mercury analysis has been performed on a 5 MMBtu/hr coal-fired boiler and mercury concentrations and speciation varied with changes in boiler operation as expected. Introduced mercury spikes were also recovered adequately. The mercury sampling and conditioning system were modified to analyze mercury during gas phase experimentation in a natural gas-fired, quartz-line, drop-tube furnace. Mercury mass balances were performed in the drop tube furnace and discrepancies between calculated

Andrew Fry; Joann S. Lighty (pi; Geoffrey D. Silcox (co-pi; Joseph Helble

2004-01-01

88

Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

2014-11-01

89

Properties and evolution of near-Earth-object families created by tidal disruption at the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the coherence and detectable lifetimes of synthetic near-Earth object (NEO) families created by catastrophic disruption of a progenitor as it suffers a very close Earth approach. The closest or slowest approaches yield the most violent 'S-class' disruption events and create a 'string of pearls' configuration of the resulting fragments after their reaccummulation into gravitationally bound components [3]. We found that the average absolute magnitude (H) difference between the parent body and the largest fragment is ? H ˜ 1.0. The average slope of the absolute magnitude (H) distribution, N(H)?10^{(0.55±0.04) H}, for the fragments in the S-class families is steeper than the slope of the NEO population [2] in the same size range. The families remain coherent as statistically significant clusters of orbits within the NEO population for an average of bar?_c = (14.7±0.6)×10^3 years after disruption. The detectable lifetimes of tidally disrupted families are extremely short compared to the multi-Myr and -Gyr lifetimes of main belt families due to the chaotic dynamical environment in NEO space -- they are detectable with the techniques developed by [1] and [4] for an average duration (bar?_{det}) ranging from about 2,000 to about 12,000 years for progenitors in the absolute magnitude (H_p) range from 20 to 13 corresponding to diameters in the range from about 0.5 to 10 km respectively. The maximum absolute magnitude of a progenitor capable of producing an observable NEO family (i.e. detectable by our family finding technique) is H_{p,max} = 20 (about 350 m diameter). The short detectability lifetime explains why zero NEO families have been discovered to-date. Nonetheless, every tidal disruption event of a progenitor with diameter greater than 0.5 km is capable of producing several million fragments in the 1 m to 10 m diameter range that can contribute to temporary local density enhancements of small NEOs in Earth's vicinity. These objects may be suitable targets for asteroid retrieval missions due to their Earth-like orbits with corresponding low v_? which permits low-cost missions. The fragments from the tidal disruptions evolve into orbits that bring them into collision with terrestrial planets or the Sun or they may be ejected from the solar system on hyperbolic orbits due to deep planetary encounters. The end-state for the fragments from a tidal disruption at Earth have ˜5× the collision probability with Earth compared to the background NEO population.

Schunova, E.; Walsh, K.; Granvik, M.; Jedicke, R.; Wainscoat, R.; Haghighipour, N.

2014-07-01

90

Reduced adaptation of a non-recombining neo-Y chromosome.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes are generally believed to have descended from a pair of homologous autosomes. Suppression of recombination between the ancestral sex chromosomes led to the genetic degeneration of the Y chromosome. In response, the X chromosome may become dosage-compensated. Most proposed mechanisms for the degeneration of Y chromosomes involve the rapid fixation of deleterious mutations on the Y. Alternatively, Y-chromosome degeneration might be a response to a slower rate of adaptive evolution, caused by its lack of recombination. Here we report patterns of DNA polymorphism and divergence at four genes located on the neo-sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda. We show that a higher rate of protein sequence evolution of the neo-X-linked copy of Cyclin B relative to the neo-Y copy is driven by positive selection, which is consistent with the adaptive hypothesis for the evolution of the Y chromosome. In contrast, the neo-Y-linked copies of even-skipped and roundabout show an elevated rate of protein evolution relative to their neo-X homologues, probably reflecting the reduced effectiveness of selection against deleterious mutations in a non-recombining genome. Our results provide evidence for the importance of sexual recombination for increasing and maintaining the level of adaptation of a population. PMID:11907578

Bachtrog, Doris; Charlesworth, Brian

2002-03-21

91

Origin of Near Earh Objects, Orbital Dynamics, and Collision Probabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an innovative procedure, we have constructed a model of the de-biased orbital and magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), up to absolute magnitude H=22. This model accounts for 4 main sources of Near Earth Objects in the asteroid belt and for extinct Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs). It fits well the orbital-magnitude distribution of the NEOs detected by the Spacewatch Survey, once the observational biases are properly taken into account. The model predicts the existence of 960 NEOs with absolute magnitude H<18 and semimajor axis a<7.8 AU. of these, 58 bodies should be Aten (NEOs with a<1 AU), 590 should be Apollo (NEOs with a>1 AU and perihelion distance q<1 AU) and 310 should be Amor (NEOs with 1NEOs with H<18 are known, of which 26, 195 and 204 are Atens, Apollos and Amors, respectively. The current completeness of the known NEO population with H<18 is thus only 45%. Using the albedo distribution in each NEO sources given by a Synthetic main belt As- teroid Model (SAM), we have computed the albedo distribution of NEOs, as a function of their orbital parameters. This model allows to convert the estimated absolute mag- nitude distribution into a size distribution. We predict that the total number of NEOs with D>1km is 834, which, compared to the total number of NEOs with H<18 (963), shows that the usually assumed conversion H=18 <=> D=1km is slightly pessimistic, on average (the exact correspondence would be H=17.82). In a size limited sample, our model predicts that the de-biased ratio between dark and bright (albedo smaller or larger than 0.089) NEOs is 0.8 (I.E., 56% of the NEO with a < 7.4 AU have dark albedos). Moreover, combining our orbital distribution model with the new albedo distribution model, and assuming that the density of bright and dark bodies is 2.7 and 1.3 g/cm3, respectively, we estimate that the Earth should undergo a 1000 megatons collision every 64,000 years. Based on our model, we have computed the expected NEO distribution in the sky to- gether with their apparent magnitudes and rates of motion. This is the basis to simulate the efficiency of the various survey strategies. To understand the detection efficiency of various survey strategies, we have first simulated ``perfect surveys" as benchmarks. These are 100% efficient, all-sky, every night survey, subject only to the constraints of 1 detection above a specified air mass and when the Sun is below the horizon. We have computed that such a survey must have a limiting magnitude of about V=21 to reach 90% detection of NEOs with H<18 within ten years. Slightly more realistic surveys, limited by latitude, the galaxy, minimum rates of NEO motion, etc, require progres- sively fainter limiting magnitude to reach the 90% completion level. A survey with the sky-coverage of LINEAR could detect 90% of the NEOs with H<18 only if its limiting magnitude is 24 (the current 50% efficiency magnitude of LINEAR is around 18.5). Our simulations suggest that there may be little need for distributing survey telescopes in longitude and latitude as long as there is sufficient sky coverage from a telescope or network of telescopes which may be geographically close. Conversely, a space based survey, especially from a satellite orbit much interior to Earth, offers a tremendous advantage over their terrestrial planted brethren. For instance, a perfect survey based at Mercury with limiting magnitude V=18 would discover 90% of the NEOs with H<18 in less than 4 years. 2

Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bottke, W. F.

92

The Young Stellar Object Population in the Vela-D Molecular Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the young stellar population in the Vela Molecular Ridge, Cloud-D, a star-forming region observed by both the Spitzer/NASA and Herschel/ESA space telescopes. The point-source, band-merged, Spitzer-IRAC catalog complemented with MIPS photometry previously obtained is used to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs), also including sources detected in less than four IRAC bands. Bona fide YSOs are selected by using appropriate color-color and color-magnitude criteria aimed at excluding both Galactic and extragalactic contaminants. The derived star formation rate and efficiency are compared with the same quantities characterizing other star-forming clouds. Additional photometric data, spanning from the near-IR to the submillimeter, are used to evaluate both bolometric luminosity and temperature for 33 YSOs located in a region of the cloud observed by both Spitzer and Herschel. The luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that some of these sources are representative of Class 0 objects with bolometric temperatures below 70 K and luminosities of the order of the solar luminosity. Far-IR observations from the Herschel/Hi-GAL key project for a survey of the Galactic plane are also used to obtain a band-merged photometric catalog of Herschel sources intended to independently search for protostars. We find 122 Herschel cores located on the molecular cloud, 30 of which are protostellar and 92 of which are starless. The global protostellar luminosity function is obtained by merging the Spitzer and Herschel protostars. Considering that 10 protostars are found in both the Spitzer and Herschel lists, it follows that in the investigated region we find 53 protostars and that the Spitzer-selected protostars account for approximately two-thirds of the total.

Strafella, F.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Elia, D.; Maruccia, Y.; Maiolo, B.; Massi, F.; Olmi, L.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.

2015-01-01

93

Cost-Effective NEO Characterization Using Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a cost-effective multiple NEO rendezvous mission design optimized around the capabilities of Ball's 200-kg NEOX Solar Electric Propelled microsatellite. The NEOX spacecraft is 3-axis stabilized with better-than 1 milliradian pointing accuracy to serve as an excellent imaging platform; its DSN compatible telecommunications subsystem can support a 6.4-kbps downlink rate at 3 AU earth range. The spacecraft mass is <200kg at launch to allow launch as a cost-effective secondary payload. It uses proven SEP technology to provide 12km/s of Delta-V, which enables multiple rendezvous' in a single mission. Cost-effectiveness is optimized by launch as a secondary payload (e.g., Ariane-5 ASAP) or as a multiple manifest on a single dedicated launch vehicle (e.g., 4 on a Delta-II 2925). Following separation from the LV, we describe a candidate mission profile that minimizes cost by using the spacecraft's 12km/s of SEP Delta-V to allow orbiting up to 4 separate NEO's. Orbiting as opposed to flying by augments the mission's science return by providing the NEO mass and by allowing multiple phase angle imaging. The NEOX Spacecraft has the capability to support a 20kg payload drawing 100W average during SEP cruise, with >1kW available during the NEO orbital phase when the SEP thrusters are not powered. We will present a candidate payload suite that includes a visible/NIR imager, a laser altimeter, and a set of small, self-righting surface probes that can be used to assess the geophysical state of the object surface and near-surface environments. The surface probe payload notionally includes a set of cameras for imaging the body surface at mm-scale resolution, an accelerometer package to measure surface mechanical properties upon probe impact, a Langmuir probe to measure the electrostatic gradient immediately above the object surface, and an explosive charge that can be remotely detonated at the end of the surface mission to excavate an artificial crater that can be remotely observed from the orbiting spacecraft.

Dissly, R. W.; Reinert, R.; Mitchell, S.

2003-05-01

94

Neos And Condor: Solving Optimization Problems Over The Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as aprovider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimizationproblems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processedby NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations.1 IntroductionThe NEOS Server [8] is a novel environment for solving optimization problems over

Jorge J. Mor'e; Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier

1998-01-01

95

Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

Sola, Peter; And Others

1986-01-01

96

Confronting a Neo-Nazi Hate Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The peaceful quiet that often accompanies the warming of a mid-April morning in a rural/suburban school district outside Philadelphia was broken harshly when several alarmed high school students arrived at school with Neo-Nazi flyers. The flyers were designed to recruit new members into a hate group calling itself the Pottstown SS. In addition,…

Furin, Terrance L.

2007-01-01

97

Comparison of the MMPI–2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), the NEO-PI, and the NEO-PI-R  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relations between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5; A. R. Harkness, J. L. McNulty, & Y. S. Ben-Porath, 1995), NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1985), and the revised NEO-PI (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992b) scores in community (N = 170) and clinical (N = 57)

Timothy J. Trull; J. David Useda; Paul T. Costa; Robert R. McCrae

1995-01-01

98

Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

99

Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

2007-01-01

100

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

101

Alpha Ontology and Pathology of Social Dominance: Unearthing Western Civilization and Neo-Colonial, Neo-Liberal, neo-Conservative Hegemony  

E-print Network

Alpha Ontology and a Pathology of Social Dominance: Unearthing Western Civilization and Neo-Colonial, Neo-Liberal, Neo-Conservative Hegemony Richard Arnold Prologue This paper was written for the student decolonization essay contest of the 15... on decolonization that prescribes and acknowledges a pathological social process that has both corresponding biological and social dimensions that may be illuminated through an analysis of evolutionary frameworks and ideology that can be observed in both...

Arnold, Richard Keith

2008-03-01

102

HUSSERL AND NEO-KANTIANISM  

E-print Network

phenomenology. Notions such as the transcendental ego as active in world constitu­ tion, synthesis as the ground of objectivity, a develop­ ment of formal and transcendental logics, a doctrine of categories, and a pre-eminent concern with the a priori... ful­ filling of the unfulfilled, a harmonious synthesis which may lie at infinity, reminiscient of a Kantian Idea. Apodicticity, however, must serve as a measure at each step. Apodicticity is a further grounding of what is already evident, by going...

Stapleton, Timothy J.

103

Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

Academic Medicine, 1999

1999-01-01

104

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

2008-09-01

105

Deflection of large near-earth objects  

SciTech Connect

The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

Canavan, G.H.

1999-01-11

106

French Roots of French Neo-Lamarckisms, 1879–1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century.\\u000a Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore,\\u000a that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two\\u000a traditions. We

Laurent Loison

107

EUCLIDEAN SHIFT-TWIST SYMMETRY IN POPULATION MODELS OF SELF-ALIGNING OBJECTS  

E-print Network

, fish schools, and flocks of birds, in which the members of the group tend to align their bodies a significant effect on the nature of the interactions. The underlying population can consist of molecules the evolution of the distribution of oriented elements in space. It is typically assumed that the in- teraction

Bressloff, Paul C

108

Neo-innervation of a bioengineered intestinal smooth muscle construct around chitosan scaffold.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular disorders of the gut result in disturbances in gastrointestinal transit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the neo-innervation of smooth muscle in an attempt to restore lost innervation. We have previously shown the potential use of composite chitosan scaffolds as support for intestinal smooth muscle constructs. However, the constructs lacked neuronal component. Here, we bioengineered innervated colonic smooth muscle constructs using rabbit colon smooth muscle and enteric neural progenitor cells. We also bioengineered smooth muscle only tissue constructs using colonic smooth muscle cells. The constructs were placed next to each other around tubular chitosan scaffolds and left in culture. Real time force generation conducted on the intrinsically innervated smooth muscle constructs showed differentiated functional neurons. The bioengineered smooth muscle only constructs became neo-innervated. The neo-innervation results were confirmed by immunostaining assays. Chitosan supported (1) the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the constructs and (2) the neo-innervation of non-innervated smooth muscle around the same scaffold. PMID:24315576

Zakhem, Elie; Raghavan, Shreya; Bitar, Khalil N

2014-02-01

109

Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Flight Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, postdeflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonometti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

2004-01-01

110

Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Right Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, post-deflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonemetti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

2004-01-01

111

Discovery of M class objects among the near-earth asteroid population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadband colorimetry, visual photometry, near-infrared photometry, and 10 and 20 micron radiometry of the near-earth asteroids (NEAs) 1986 DA and 1986 EB are used to show that these objects belong to the M class of asteroids. The similarity among the distributions of taxonomic classes among the 38 NEAs to the abundances found in the inner astoroid belt between the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances suggests that NEAs have their origins among asteroids in the vicinity of these resonances. The implied mineralogy of 1986 DA and 1986 EB is mostly nickel-iron metal; if this is indeed the case, then current models for meteorite production based on strength-related collisional processes on asteroidal surfaces predict that these two objects alone should produce about one percent of all meteorite falls. Iron meteorites derived from these near-earth asteroids should have low cosmic-ray exposure ages.

Tedesco, Edward F.; Gradie, Jonathan

1987-01-01

112

Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psy- chologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the de- velopment of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on

Thomas Teo

2002-01-01

113

EROs found behind lensing clusters. I. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: On the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects. Aims: Determining the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected, extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114 (Richard et al. 2006, A&A, 456, 861). Comparison with properties of related galaxies, such as IRAC selected EROs and a z 6.5 post-starburst galaxy candidate from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Methods: Using an updated version of Hyperz (Bolzonella et al. 2000, A&A, 363, 476) and a large number of spectral templates we perform broad-band SED fitting. The photometric observations, taken from Hempel et al. (2007, A&A, submitted), include deep optical, ACS/HST, ISAAC/VLT, IRAC/Spitzer data, and for some objects 24 ?m MIPS/Spitzer and sub-mm data as well. Results: For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between “low-z” (z 1-3) and high-z (z 6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at “low-z”. The majority of these objects are best fitted with relatively young (?0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Three of our objects show indications for strong extinction, with AV 2.4-4. The typical stellar masses of our objects are M_star (0.5-5)×1010 M? after correction for lensing; for the most extreme ERO in our sample, the sub-mm galaxy SMMJ14009+0252 most likely at z_fit 3, we estimate M_star ˜ 6.×1011 M?. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical starburst, ERO, and ULIRG templates.Typically we find SFR (1-18) M? yr-1. Again, SMMJ14009+0252 stands out as a LIRG with SFR 1000 M? yr-1. Finally, we predict the mid-IR to sub-mm SED of the dusty objects for comparison with future observations with APEX, Herschel, and ALMA. Concerning the comparison objects, we argue that the massive post-starburst z 6.5 galaxy candidate HUDF-J2 showing observed properties very similar to our EROs, is more likely a dusty starburst at z 2.3-2.6. This interpretation also naturally explains the observed 24 ?m emission from this object and we predict its IR to sub-mm SED. Both empirically and from our SED fits we find that the IRAC selectec EROs from Yan et al. (2004, ApJ, 616, 63) show very similar properties to our lensed EROs. Reasonable fits are found for most of them with relatively young and dusty stellar populations. Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope (Antu/UT1), European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programs 69.A-0508, 70.A-0355, 73.A-0471), the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555, the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407, and the Chandra satellite.

Schaerer, D.; Hempel, A.; Egami, E.; Pelló, R.; Richard, J.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Kneib, J.-P.; Wise, M.; Boone, F.

2007-07-01

114

Living with\\/in and without neo-liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores some concerns about the concept of neo-liberalism, suggesting that it has been stretched too far to be productive as a critical analytical tool. Neo-liberalism suffers from promiscuity (hanging out with various theoret- ical perspectives), omnipresence (treated as a universal or global phenomenon), and omnipotence (identified as the cause of a wide variety of social, political and economic

John Clarke

2008-01-01

115

Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

Ryan, Ann

2008-01-01

116

NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

2000-01-01

117

Meteorite Source Regions as Revealed by the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1], [2], [3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We determine their taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5] [6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral analysis (e.g. [7],[8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the inner main-belt. V-types are relatively equally balanced between nu6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. B- and C-types show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. A Jupiter family comet source predominates for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying these "asteroidal" bodies may be extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless "X-type" category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference. Finally the Xe-class near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites seen in the Hungaria region[11], show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and nu6 resonance pathways. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Lazzarin, M. et al. (2004), Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 5, 21. [2] Thomas, C. A. et al. (2014), Icarus 228, 217. [3] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [4] Hasselmann, P. H., Carvano, J. M., Lazzaro, D. (2011) NASA PDS, EAR-A-I0035-5-SDSSTAX-V1.0. [5] Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. (2002). Icarus 158, 146. [6] DeMeo, F.E. et al. (2009), Icarus 202, 160. [7] Dunn et al. (2010) Icarus 208, 789. [8] Dunn et al. (2013) Icarus 222, 273. [9] Bottke, W.F. et al. (2002), Icarus 156, 399. [10] DeMeo, F., Binzel, R. P. (2007) Icarus 194, 436. [11] Gaffey, M. J. et al. (1992) Icarus 100, 95.

Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Burt, Brian J.; Polishook, David; Burbine, Thomas H.; Bus, Schelte J.; Tokunaga, Alan; Birlan, Mirel

2014-11-01

118

Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC) VIII: Substellar population in Lupus 3  

E-print Network

SONYC -- Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters -- is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO-4m telescope, covering ~1.4 sqdeg on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 MSun, for Av \\leq 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and Teff \\leq 3000K, i.e. are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Halp...

Muzic, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent C; Jayawardhana, Ray; Marti, Belen Lopez

2014-01-01

119

Klenot near-Earth-object follow-up program --- next generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEO research is a great challenge just now --- for science, for exploration, and for planetary defence. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic, has pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of Near Earth Objects since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements has helped to improve the inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO population. It was ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008. A fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. A new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013. The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation. Along with huge hardware changes we have decided for essential changes in software and the whole KLENOT work-flow. Using the current higher computing power available, enhancing and updating our databases and astrometry program, the core of our software package, will prove highly beneficial. Moreover, the UCAC4 as the more precise astrometric star catalog was implemented. Both the system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used in the framework of the KLENOT Project are described here, including methods for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry. Methods and techniques used for the KLENOT Project are also discussed. Sources of particular inaccuracies of astrometric measurements as input data for orbit computations were identified. Then we have searched for ways to eliminate them and this effort still continues. The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. This step opens new possibilities for the KLENOT Project, the long-term European Contribution to Monitoring and Cataloging Near Earth Objects. More than 3000 minor planet and comet astrometric positions including NEA measurements were published from September 2013 to March 2014. The 1.06-m KLENOT telescope is still the largest telescope in continental Europe used exclusively for observations of asteroids and comets. Full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. Considering our results and long-time experience obtained at the Klet Observatory, we have a large potential to contribute to recent NEO efforts. We also plan to discuss an international dimension of NEO astrometric follow-up, crucial for reasonable results. A meaningful connection and collaboration with the next generation ground-based and space surveys will be important. The cooperation with and through the Minor Planet Center, the worldwide clearinghouse for small solar system bodies astrometric observations and orbits, is an essential feature of NEO efforts. We also plan to cooperate and directly take part with the ESA's SSA-NEO Programme as a part of European network of cooperating sensors.

Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

2014-07-01

120

Comparison of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), the NEO-PI, and the NEO-PI-R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), and the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and its revision (NEO-PI-R) were studied for 170 community adults and 57 clinical patients. Correlations between the instruments showed meaningful relations between the two…

Trull, Timothy J.; And Others

1995-01-01

121

The Dutch Objective Burden Inventory: validity and reliability in a Canadian population of caregivers for people with heart failure.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that caregivers of people with heart failure (HF) often experience caregiver burden and emotional distress. However, these studies measured the caregiving experience using generic tools since a disease-specific tool was not available. Recently, the Dutch Objective Burden Inventory (DOBI) was developed as a disease-specific tool measuring objective caregiver burden in a Dutch HF population of caregivers. Using a cross-sectional design, caregivers of HF patients attending an outpatient HF clinic completed the DOBI, the Hosptial Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA). Caregivers (n=47) were mainly female (72%) and spouses (72%) of the HF patients with a mean age of 63.1 (±10.4) years. Patients were older (mean age 72.7; ±10.6), 64% male and had advanced HF. Feasibility for the objective portion of the DOBI was excellent with <10% missing values. The subjective component of the DOBI was incomplete and could not be used in the analyses. Seven items had minimal variability. Significant relationships emerged between the DOBI, CRA and HADS revealing construct validity for all subscales of the DOBI. Cronbach's alpha was >.80 for all DOBI subscales. The DOBI is the only disease-specific tool that measures burden for caregivers of HF patients. The objective portion of the DOBI showed evidence of adequate internal consistency and construct validity in a Canadian population of caregivers of HF patients attending a HF Clinic. Further testing is needed to determine floor and ceiling effects for DOBI items and responsiveness of this tool. PMID:20920844

Makdessi, Anthony; Harkness, Karen; Luttik, Marie Louise; McKelvie, Robert S

2011-12-01

122

Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ? 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. PMID:23278771

Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

2014-06-01

123

Database of Nordic Neo-Latin Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originating from a research project that involved latinists from all five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden), this database is currently maintained and edited by professors Lars Boje Mortensen and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen, Department of Greek and Latin, University of Bergen, Norway, and Peter Zeeberg, Institut for Graesk og Latin, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lists selected Latin texts, written between the reformation (c. 1530) and 1800, that pertain to Nordic people or locations. Scholars can search the database by keyword or by author, place of publication, language, and dedicatee. Visitors can also browse a list of current Neo-Latin scholars, consult a bibliography, view an historical map of Scandanavia, and read a brief note on the historical background of the region.

124

Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces population as a group of the same kind of organisms in a given space at a given time. The activities in this section will provide students with the opportunity to define population, estimate populations in a community, and count and compare populations within a community. Students will gain the knowledge in describing plant and animal populations living in a community. They will also experiment with plant populations to control growth and development, not to mention discuss the effects of abiotic conditions on a community.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

125

Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

Werner, Martin R.

2005-01-01

126

Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

King, Pat; Landahl, John

127

Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects  

E-print Network

Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects of the population genomics of humans. This 1000 genomes project is devoted to the exciting project, where the genomes of a 1000 individuals are to be sequenced in the next

Goldschmidt, Christina

128

Neo-vernacular trends towards the recent past in Greece  

E-print Network

In economically advanced countries, fragments of the past are preserved, or new environments are created to match this past image. The reappropriation of old forms includes what can be called the neo-vernacular as a way ...

Zographaki, Stephania G

1986-01-01

129

Making neo-liberal governance: the disempowering work of empowerment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article casts light on the ideological apparatus of neo-liberal governance. It tries to analyze how neo-liberalism operates as an authorizing narrative that links ideas such as empowerment, social capital and community participation to rationalize the nature, means, and ends of its governing. Formulation of the community-based waste collection strategies by the municipal government in Cape Town, South Africa, during

Faranak Miraftab

2004-01-01

130

Car tracking and vibration test rig using Neo-Freerunner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present our idea of using a cell-phone (the Neo Freerunner) for tracking a Car's location using GPS and measuring the road's quality using the accelerometer in the cell-phone. Neo-Freerunner is an open source Linux phone by Open Moko Inc. The phone can run many flavors of linux like Android, Qt, SHR etc. Here the implementation was done in

Sriranjan Rasakatla; Kashyap Kompella; Krishna Koundinya

2010-01-01

131

CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Nugent, C. R., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

2012-06-20

132

Dynamical 3-Space: neo-Lorentz Relativity  

E-print Network

The major extant relativity theories - Galileo's Relativity (GaR), Lorentz's Relativity (LR) and Einstein's Special Relativity (SR), with the latter much celebrated, while the LR is essentially ignored. Indeed it is often incorrectly claimed that SR and LR are experimentally indistinguishable. Here we show that (i) SR and LR are experimentally distinguishable, (ii) that comparison of gas-mode Michelson interferometer experiments with spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler shift data demonstrate that it is LR that is consistent with the data, while SR is in conflict with the data, (iii) SR is exactly derivable from GaR by means of a mere linear change of space and time coordinates that mixes the Galilean space and time coordinates. So it is GaR and SR that are equivalent. Hence the well-known SR relativistic effects are purely coordinate effects, and cannot correspond to the observed relativistic effects. The connections between these three relativity theories has become apparent following the discovery that space is an observable dynamical textured system, and that space and time are distinct phenomena, leading to a neo-Lorentz Relativity (nLR). The observed relativistic effects are dynamical consequences of nLR and 3-space. In particular a proper derivation of the Dirac equation from nLR is given, which entails the derivation of the rest mass energy mc^2

Reginald T Cahill

2012-07-05

133

Deep Interior: Multiple-Rendezvous Prospecting of NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an international multiple-rendezvous mission designed to prospect the deep interior and subsurface geophysical properties of diverse near-Earth objects, using reflection radar tomography, imaging, gravity, and explosions. What we learn will greatly influence future missions and guide strategies for the diversion, disruption, or utilization of potentially hazardous objects. Deep Interior. Low-frequency radar to determine internal variations of complex permittivity at resolutions approaching 20 m. Map inclusions or voids, fracture geometries, and compositional or structural boundaries. Subsurface. High-frequency radar to determine depth of regolith, existence and nature of cometary mantle, geology beneath and around craters, and subsurface expressions to surface geology. Topography and Geodesy. Stereogrammetric imaging with 1 m/pixel spatial resolution, supplemented by radar altimetry in shadowed regions, to determine detailed shape, volume, and spin state. Compare with radar sounding to learn how internal structure is manifested on the surface. Mass and Density. Total mass and lower moments of the internal mass distribution by mapping the exterior gravitational field. Look for mass concentrations. Surface microphysics and composition. Map color, albedo, and scattering properties of the surface over sunlit regions in six optical filters. Material properties. Deploy grenades to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of surface materials. Record 8 frame/sec, 20 cm/pixel videos of crater formation and ejecta dynamics, to enable simple and direct laboratory constraints on material density, cohesion and porosity. Dust. Look for dust lofted by surface waves propagating from the explosions, to constrain elastic properties and attenuation. Observe longer-term dynamics and optical properties of dust "atmosphere" generated by human activity. Cometary Activity. At comet 107P/Wilson-Harrington, look for expressions of past cometary activity, and for possible awakening from dormancy by explosions. NEO Diversity. Assess the diversity of the interior structures in two classes of near-Earth objects. New Technology. SEP, first multiple rendezvous, autonav, first grenades. Precursor to geoseismic investigations.

Kakuda, R. Y.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Gulkis, S.; Huebner, W. F.

2000-10-01

134

Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

135

Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

136

Sentry: An Automated Close Approach Monitoring System for Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to international concern about potential asteroid impacts on Earth, NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Program Office has implemented a new system called ``Sentry'' to automatically update the orbits of all NEOs on a daily basis and compute Earth close approaches up to 100 years into the future. Results are published on our web site (http:\\/\\/neo.jpl.nasa.gov\\/) and updated orbits and

A. B. Chamberlin; S. R. Chesley; P. W. Chodas; J. D. Giorgini; M. S. Keesey; R. N. Wimberly; D. K. Yeomans

2001-01-01

137

Examining the relationship between total species richness and single island palaeo- and neo-endemics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Emerson and Kolm (2005) hypothesized that diversity begets speciation (DBS hypothesis). The relationship between total species richness and single island endemic diversity (as a proportion of the total species richness of the island) has been used as evidence for the DBS hypothesis. This relationship has been documented in oceanic archipelagos, but many criticisms have been raised on whether this relationship truly supports the DBS hypothesis. In this study we tested if this hypothesis holds in the Aegean archipelago (a continental archipelago with continuous human presence over millennia). Endemism in the Aegean includes mainly neo-endemic species but also relictual populations of formerly more widespread species (i.e. palaeo-endemics). Contrary to the DBS hypothesis, we found that total species richness was not significantly correlated to single island endemics (neither neo-endemics nor palaeo-endemics) as a proportion of the island flora. Furthermore, we found that neo-endemic diversity (either as species richness or as a proportion of the islands flora) is mainly correlated to island maximum elevation, while area and isolation were less important. So if this ratio is indeed an index of speciation, then an alternative explanation might be that elevation (interpreted as a proxy for habitat heterogeneity) is the driver of speciation in our case. Palaeo-endemics, on the other hand, were present in only six of the largest islands in the Aegean and their diversity was strongly correlated only with island area, perhaps implying that larger islands support larger population sizes that buffer stochastic extinctions risks.

Kallimanis, A. S.; Panitsa, M.; Bergmeier, E.; Dimopoulos, P.

2011-03-01

138

Cognitive Development Neo-Piagetian Accounts  

E-print Network

· Believe Piaget Underestimated Child's Capacities ­ Inter-sensory Relations ­ Object Permanence A not · Piaget's results on object permanence ­ infants' poor representational abilities? ­ Infants' poor motor

Coulson, Seana

139

An Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs lie at the intersection of science, space exploration, and civil defense. We propose here a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs to derive their diameters and albedos. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 11, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters to unprecedented accuracy, resolving a current controversy. We will also derive, through our albedo measurements, the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. This catalog will enable many other science investigations to be pursued by us and other researchers. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo; Smith, Howard

2014-12-01

140

Stream and sporadic meteoroids associated with near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEO) are objects that come close to the Earth's orbit. If dust is ejected from them through any process, a meteoroid stream will form which may be seen on the Earth as a meteor shower. As orbits evolve rapidly in this region of the Solar system, a similarity of orbits at the present time is not sufficient to prove a relationship; integrations are needed to show that the evolution over a substantial period of time is similar. Characteristics of streams where the parent is a comet and dust is ejected over a range of values of true anomaly and over several orbits will be very different from a stream formed through the ejection from an asteroid which is likely to occur at a single point in time. Hence a study of meteoroid streams related to NEO may tell us whether the NEO is a comet or an asteroid. In particular, several showers can be associated with the same stream if it is from a cometary origin. Sporadic meteoroids cannot be associated with a single parent body. We can classify them only as of cometary or asteroid origin. In the past, for this purpose several dynamical criteria have been proposed. e.g. K-, Q-criterion, and they were applied to the present-day orbits. We have shown that such an approach may introduce a serious bias into the results - the fraction of cometary orbits can be understated by up to 29 per cent. To remove such a bias, we propose that a two-parameter criterion is used. Assuming that comet and near-Earth asteroids (NEA) populations are disjoint, the Q-i and E-i criteria proved to be the most reliable tool for dynamical discrimination of the NEO population. Using these criteria we have found that in our sample of sporadic meteors cometary type orbits predominate, in a set of ˜78 000 sporadic meteoroids 66-67 per cent have cometary type orbits. This fraction can differ for meteors observed by different technique; in general, it decreases with decreasing brightness of the observed meteors.

Jopek, T. J.; Williams, I. P.

2013-04-01

141

Indigenous knowledge in the science curriculum: avoiding neo-colonialism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial practices, Western science educators ought to consider the notion of cultural mediators. This position, I argue, infers an obligation to take responsibility for their actions and to consider postcolonial discourses as a way of understanding the relationships and dialogue between different ways of knowing.

Ryan, Ann

2008-09-01

142

Studies of NEOs as a task for small telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decades of successful research at the high-altitude observatory Terskol in the Northern Caucasus have yielded new data and findings in the field of monitoring and studies of NEOs. Facilities of the Terskol Observatory, which include optical telescopes with diameters up to 2 m, their instrumentation (high- and low-resolution spectrometers, high-speed photometers, CCDs, etc.), have been heavily used for follow-up astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. In this paper, advances in studies of NEOs achieved in the last years at Terskol are presented.

Tarady, V.; Sergeev, O.; Andreev, M.; Godunova, V.; Reshetnyk, V.

2014-03-01

143

NASA Space Missions to Asteroids: Protecting the Earth from NEO Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a general recognition of the hazard of impacts on Earth by comets and asteroids, but there is yet no consensus concerning international actions that should be taken to protect the planet from such impacts. An essential step in the analysis of the situation involves estimating the relative hazard posed by comets and asteroids of different sizes and orbits. All recent studies agree that the larger impacts pose the greater danger, and that our primary concern from the perspective of total risk should be on impacts that are large enough to cause global ecological catastrophe. These global catastrophes are also of special interest, since they (alone among natural disasters) have the potential to destroy civilization. Studies of the sensitivity of the Earth's environment suggest that the energy threshold energy for causing a global catastrophe is at about 1 million megatons, corresponding to impactor diameters of 1.5 to 2 km. This information leads naturally to a strategy of concentrating on the larger NEOs, say those 1 km or more in diameter. This is the rationale for the Spaceguard Survey, which must be the highest priority in mitigation efforts. The second question concerns the value of developing standing defensive systems that could deflect or destroy an incoming NEO. In the case of the asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, no such system is needed, since there will be ample time (at least several decades) between the discovery of the threatening object by Spaceguard and the requirement to take action against it. In the case of objects smaller than 1 km diameter, development of defensive systems is not cost-effective; there are many greater dangers to persons and property that are much more urgent. Only in the case of large long-period comets is there a rationale for standing defense systems. The question is also raised whether the risks inherent in developing and maintaining a defense system might be greater than the impact risks it is intended to guard against. These and related issues are the focus of much current international debate on defense of the planet against NEO impacts. Meanwhile, the most critical issue remains the expansion of the telescopic search for NEOs.

Morrison, David; Berry, William E. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

144

Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

Evans, Mary

2014-01-01

145

Rethinking academic identities in neo-liberal times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the impact of neo-liberal modes of governance on the ways in which we make sense of our world, as individuals, as academics and professionals. Traditional notions of academic freedom, autonomy and purpose, which have been central signifiers of academic identity no longer hold and bring into question what we are doing, of our role as academics. It

Suzy Harris

2005-01-01

146

An Interface From Optimization Modeling Systems to the NEOS Server  

E-print Network

the following to retrieve real-time output from a NEOS solver while a job is ..... agent preprocessing also converts all absolute path names to relative ones. 10 ... Certain infeasibilities can also be detected by AMPL's local presolve phase. ... an integration of Kestrel and other software to compute a so-called mountain pass.

Dolan, Fourer, Goux, Munson, Sarich

147

Inhomogeneous deformation of a cone of Neo-Hookean material  

E-print Network

In this work we investigate, the nonlinear, elastic deformation of a cone made of a Neo-Hookean material. We use a semi-inverse method and assume a specific form of the displacement and the corresponding structure of the pressure field inside...

Hariharakumar, Pradeep

2012-06-07

148

Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

Ranson, Stewart

2003-01-01

149

Two novel neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel neo-clerodane diterpenoids, barbatellarines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the whole plants of Scutellaria barbata, along with the known compound scutebarbatine F (3). The chemical structures and relative stereochemistry of the isolated compounds were established by NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against

Hanna Lee; YuJin Kim; Inho Choi; Byung Sun Min; Sang Hee Shim

2010-01-01

150

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a 'pilot personality' does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Donald; Schutte, Paul C.

2004-01-01

151

OPTIMIZATION CASE STUDIES IN THE NEOS GUIDE JOSEPH CZY  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZATION CASE STUDIES IN THE NEOS GUIDE JOSEPH CZY â?? ZYK \\Lambda , TIMOTHY WISNIEWSKI y, case studies have proved to be an effec­ tive way to make the connection between theory and algorithms on the one hand and applications on the other. The typical case study encompasses problem description

Wright, Steve

152

Inside "The Turner Diaries": neo-Nazi Scripture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the content of the fictional "Turner Diaries." Points out the antisemitic, racist, and antidemocratic aspects of the novel. Brings attention to the role of the "Diaries" to white supremacist and neo-Nazi groups in the United States. Also links the "Diaries" to Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City (Oklahoma) bombing. (DSK)

Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard

1997-01-01

153

The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned. It will initially supplement the PS1 search by targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) candidates from PS1. As its efficiency grows, PS2 also will search for NEOs, and will increase the sky coverage and cadence.PS1 is cooperating with the G96 telescope of the Catalina Sky Survey in terms of field selection. Between declinations of -30 and +40 degrees, the telescopes alternate 1 hour-wide RA stripes each night. This strategy has led to increased productivity, and eliminated accidental repeats of fields. The PS1 survey area has been extended south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep south sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 has discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014 to date, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The present discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.

Wainscoat, Richard J.; Bolin, Bryce; Chambers, Kenneth; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco; Schunova, Eva; Veres, Peter

2014-11-01

154

Assessing the Five Factors of Personality in Adolescents: The Junior Version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor…

Ortet, Generos; Ibanez, Manuel I.; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

2012-01-01

155

The OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS)—population screening for undiagnosed valvular heart disease in the elderly: study design and objectives  

PubMed Central

Introduction Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an increasingly important cardiac condition, driven by an ageing population and lack of progress in the development of medical therapies. There is a dearth of accurate information to guide decision-makers in the development of strategies to combat VHD, and no population-based study has been performed specifically to investigate its contemporary epidemiology. This document describes the design and methodology of the OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS), which was conceived to address this need. Methods and analysis Participants aged 65?years and older attending a participating general practice in Oxfordshire, UK, are invited to attend a screening examination. Exclusion criteria include previously diagnosed VHD, inability to provide consent, terminal illness or excessive frailty. Demographics, a focused cardiovascular history and vital signs are recorded at the initial screening examination, accompanied by an echocardiogram. Any finding of significant VHD triggers a separate, more formal echocardiographic assessment (including acquisition of a three-dimensional dataset) and collection of blood samples for future genetic and biomarker analysis. Participants provide consent for longitudinal follow-up and enrolment in future cohort substudies. We also assess the acceptability of community-based echocardiographic examination and compare self-assessed quality of life between those with and without VHD. Conclusions OxVALVE-PCS will provide contemporary epidemiological data concerning the community prevalence of undiagnosed VHD, facilitate accurate deployment of scarce resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand for VHD-associated healthcare and create a series of subcohorts with carefully defined genotypes and echocardiographic phenotypes for long overdue clinical studies. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Southampton, UK; REC Ref: 09/H0502/58). Results Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:25332795

Coffey, Sean; d'Arcy, Joanna L; Loudon, Margaret A; Mant, David; Farmer, Andrew J; Prendergast, Bernard D

2014-01-01

156

TAM: Explaining off-object fixations and central fixation tendencies as effects of population averaging during search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how patterns are selected for both recognition and action, in the form of an eye movement, is essential to understanding the mechanisms of visual search. It is argued that selecting a pattern for fixation is time consuming—requiring the pruning of a population of possible saccade vectors to isolate the specific movement to the potential target. To support this position,

Gregory J. Zelinsky

2012-01-01

157

Further anti-feedant neo-clerodanes from Teucrium tomentosum.  

PubMed

Reinvestigation of the acetone extract of Teucrium tomentosum yielded a new neo-clerodane diterpenoid, teuctomin (1), along with 6-O-acetyl-teucmicropodin (2), teugracilin-A (3), 6alpha-hydroxyteuscordin (4) and 6alpha-acetoxyteuscordin (5). The structure of the new compound was elucidated comprehensively using 1D and 2D NMR methods. Compounds showed effective antifeedancy against Plutella xylostella at 10 microg cm(-2) of leaf area. PMID:20013466

Aravind, Sivasubramanian; Balachandran, J; Ramanujam Ganesh, Munuswamy; Krishna Kumari, Gadepalli Narasimha

2010-01-01

158

Astronomy, Divination, and Politics in the Neo-Assyrian Empire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Celestial divination had an important role in the complex political and military machine of the Neo-Assyrian empire. Thousand of cuneiform documents dealing with celestial divination have come to light from the excavated archives of this period, as the Assurbanipal's library. Among them letters and reports enlight the relation of the king with his experts (ummânu), who performed divination and apotropaic rituals for his protection.

Verderame, Lorenzo

159

Ideology and population theory.  

PubMed

The ideological and ethical foundations of population theory are examined in the light of the supposed eithical neutrality of scientific enquiry. The works of Malthus, Ricardo, and Marx are contrasted and it is shown that their theories of population resulted in each case from the adoption of a particular kind of method--empiricism in Malthus, normative analytic "model building" in Ricardo, and dialectical materialism in Marx. It is shown that a Malthusian or neo-Malthusian view of the population problem is inevitable if enquiry is founded in empiricism or in normative analytics. The well-known disagreement between Malthusian and Marxian viewpoints therefore has its foundation in method. Most modern enquiry into the population-resources problem is dominated by empirical and analytic (including systems theory) approaches and consequently arrives at neo-Malthusian conclusions. The final section analyses the consequences of adopting a neo-Malthusian view, and it is shown that in a world dominated by an elite, this can frequently bring about the political, social, and economic repression of a non-elite. It is concluded that the choice of scientific method does not produce unbiased results and that the dominance of a certain conception of scientific method leads to the scientific support of a viewpoint used to justify repression of the underprivileged in society. PMID:4448574

Harvey, D

1974-01-01

160

The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.…

Cox, Daniel J.; And Others

1995-01-01

161

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

PubMed Central

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO-PI-3, a more readable version of the NEO-PI-R, are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item/total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English- and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. We discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan. PMID:19419953

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.

2010-01-01

162

Mitigation of near-earth object impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our ability to survey and catalog potentially threatening Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) grows we will inevitably find some that are potentially threatening. Numerous authors have conjectured about potential mitigation schemes. These schemes include destruction or diversion via nuclear or chemical explosives if time is short. In the case of much longer warning times low-thrust diversion schemes, some taking advantage of

S. Worden; P. Brown

2002-01-01

163

NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

Matney, Mark

2006-01-01

164

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

165

Having One's Cake and Being Eaten too: Irish Neo-liberal Corporatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that neo-liberal globalization has neither homogenized Ireland's institutional social economy nor forced a retreat into an Irish cultural fortress. Instead, the elite community of Irish social partners responded to its own national crisis, American led globalization and European integration by taking the country in two apparently contradictory directions at once: towards European neo-corporatism and Anglo-American neo-liberalism. In

Gerry Boucher; Gráinne Collins

2003-01-01

166

Karl Marx ReturningThe Welfare State and Neo-Marxist, Corporatist and Statist Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades the prevailing postwar political theory paradigm of pluralism has been strongly challenged by other approaches, such as neo-Marxism, Corporatist theory, and a state-centered approach. After the exhaustion of the first wave of neo- Marxism, the 1980s have seen the development of an empirical neo-Marxism Mark II, largely focusing on comparative welfare state research. A critical

Göran Therborn

1986-01-01

167

Effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-earth objects  

E-print Network

The effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been shown to be significant factors in their evolution. Previous studies have examined the effects of these encounters on ...

Siu, Ho Chit

2014-01-01

168

Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-Y Chromosome of Drosophila Americana Americana  

PubMed Central

The extent of genetic degeneration of the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana has been investigated. Three loci, coding for the enzymes enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and alcohol dehydrogenase, have been localized to chromosome 4 of D. a. americana, which forms the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes. Crosses between D. a. americana and D. virilis or D. montana showed that the loci coding for these enzymes carry active alleles on the neo-Y chromosome in all wild-derived strains of americana that were tested. Intercrosses between a genetically marked stock of virilis and strains of americana were carried out, creating F(3) males that were homozygous for sections of the neo-Y chromosome. The sex ratios in the F(3) generation of the intercrosses showed that no lethal alleles have accumulated on any of the neo-Y chromosomes tested. There was evidence for more minor reductions in fitness, but this seems to be mainly caused by deleterious alleles that are specific to each strain. A similar picture was provided by examination of the segregation ratios of two marker genes among the F(3) progeny. Overall, the data suggest that the neo-Y chromosome has undergone very little degeneration, certainly not to the extent of having lost the functions of vital genes. This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work. PMID:9093852

Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Hnilicka, J.; Yu, A.; Guttman, D. S.

1997-01-01

169

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

2005-01-01

170

Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all known extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) have argument of perihelion close to 0°. An existing observational bias strongly favours the detection of ETNOs with arguments of perihelion close to 0° and 180° yet no objects have been found at 180°. No plausible explanation has been offered so far to account for this unusual pattern. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of comet 96P/Machholz 1, a bizarre near-Earth object (NEO) that may provide the key to explain the puzzling clustering of orbits around argument of perihelion close to 0° recently found for the population of ETNOs. Comet 96P/Machholz 1 is currently locked in a Kozai resonance with Jupiter such that the value of its argument of perihelion is always close to 0° at its shortest possible perihelion (highest eccentricity and lowest inclination) and about 180° near its shortest aphelion (longest perihelion distance, lowest eccentricity and highest inclination). If this object is a dynamical analogue (albeit limited) of the known ETNOs, this implies that massive perturbers must keep them confined in orbital parameter space. Besides, its future dynamical evolution displays orbital flips when its eccentricity is excited to a high value and its orbit turns over by nearly 180°, rolling over its major axis. This unusual behaviour, that is preserved when post-Newtonian terms are included in the numerical integrations, may also help understand the production of NEOs on retrograde orbits.

de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

2015-01-01

171

Neo-Latin News, Volume 61, Numbers 1 & 2  

E-print Network

, aplicada de forma particular a Sep?lveda y m?s concretamente a las principales cuestiones antro- pol?gicas planteadas en estas tres obras, que son situadas en el contexto del cisma religioso europeo, de la conquista del Nuevo Mundo, y de la labor de la...44 seventeenth-century news Vol. 61, Nos. 1 & 2. Jointly with SCN. NLN is the official publica- tion of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western European Editor: Gilbert Tournoy...

Kallendorf, Craig

2013-01-01

172

Private Security Contractors in the Debate about Darfur: Reflecting and Reinforcing Neo-Liberal Governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the loud presence of private security contractors in the evolving and buoyant discussion surrounding Darfur. Relying primarily on statements by security contractors and industry lobby organizations, this article suggests that neo-liberal governmentality has bolstered the expert status of security contractors in the discussions surrounding Darfur. Both in Darfur and more widely, neo-liberal governmentality tends to `depoliticize' security

Anna Leander; Rens van Munster

2007-01-01

173

High sensitivity of cancer exome-based CD8 T cell neo-antigen identification  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that T-cell reactivity against tumor-specific neo-antigens may be central to the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. The development of personalized vaccines designed to boost T-cell reactivity against patient specific neo-antigens has been proposed largely on the basis of these findings. Work from several groups has demonstrated that novel tumor-specific antigens can be discovered through the use of cancer exome sequencing data, thereby providing a potential pipeline for the development of patient-specific vaccines. Importantly though, it has not been established which fraction of cancer neo-antigens that can be recognized by CD8+ T cells is successfully uncovered with the current exome-based epitope prediction strategies. Here, we use a data set comprising human cancer neo-antigens that was previously identified through the use of unbiased, computational-independent strategies to describe the potential of cancer exome-based neo-antigen discovery. This analysis shows a high sensitivity of exome-guided neo-antigen prediction of approximately 70%. We propose that future research should focus on the analysis and optimization of the specificity of neo-antigen prediction, and should undoubtedly entail the clinical evaluation of patient-specific vaccines with the aim of inducing immunoreactivity against tumor-displayed neo-antigens in a physiologically relevant context. PMID:25083320

van Buuren, Marit M; Calis, Jorg JA; Schumacher, Ton NM

2014-01-01

174

Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower "Conscientiousness" and lower…

Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

2011-01-01

175

Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as…

Hwang, Keumjoong

2013-01-01

176

Brazil’s Landless and the Revolt Against NeoLiberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the “Caracazo”, the 1989 popular uprising in Venezuela against the implementation of a structural adjustment programme, Latin America has seen widespread resistance to the austerity measures and conservative economic policies known as “neo-liberalism”. This opposition has taken various forms: the Zapatista rebellion in Mexico in 1994; the neo-populist Movimiento V República led by Hugo Chávez in Venezuela from

Harry E. Vanden

2008-01-01

177

The SSA NEO Segment and Gaia: present opportunities and future developments E. Perozzi 1,3  

E-print Network

The SSA NEO Segment and Gaia: present opportunities and future developments E. Perozzi 1,3 , D]. This implies the availability of advanced systems for orbit computation and impact monitoring, the possibility 2.1 System Design Because of the intrinsic nature of the asteroid hazard, the SSA NEO Segment needs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference  

E-print Network

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense-the-ground disaster management procedures. An integrated international framework for responding to the NEO threat has and engineers and the international disaster management community. INTRODUCTION If a potentially damaging impact

Chapman, Clark R.

179

The Dark Circle: Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation offers critical and theoretical approaches for understanding depictions of Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian fiction. Spiritualism has fascinated and repelled writers since the movement's inception in Hydesville, New York, in 1848, and continues to haunt writers even today. The conclusion of this dissertation follows Spiritualist fiction as it carries over into the Neo-Victorian genre, by discussing how themes

Joseph Good

2012-01-01

180

Sentry: An Automated Close Approach Monitoring System for Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to international concern about potential asteroid impacts on Earth, NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Program Office has implemented a new system called ``Sentry'' to automatically update the orbits of all NEOs on a daily basis and compute Earth close approaches up to 100 years into the future. Results are published on our web site (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/) and updated orbits and ephemerides made available via the JPL Horizons ephemeris service (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.html). Sentry collects new and revised astrometric observations from the Minor Planet Center (MPC) via their electronic circulars (MPECs) in near real time as well as radar and optical astrometry sent directly from observers. NEO discoveries and identifications are detected in MPECs and processed appropriately. In addition to these daily updates, Sentry synchronizes with each monthly batch of MPC astrometry and automatically updates all NEO observation files. Daily and monthly processing of NEO astrometry is managed using a queuing system which allows for manual intervention of selected NEOs without interfering with the automatic system. At the heart of Sentry is a fully automatic orbit determination program which handles outlier rejection and ensures convergence in the new solution. Updated orbital elements and their covariances are published via Horizons and our NEO web site, typically within 24 hours. A new version of Horizons, in development, will allow computation of ephemeris uncertainties using covariance data. The positions of NEOs with updated orbits are numerically integrated up to 100 years into the future and each close approach to any perturbing body in our dynamic model (all planets, Moon, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta) is recorded. Significant approaches are flagged for extended analysis including Monte Carlo studies. Results, such as minimum encounter distances and future Earth impact probabilities, are published on our NEO web site.

Chamberlin, A. B.; Chesley, S. R.; Chodas, P. W.; Giorgini, J. D.; Keesey, M. S.; Wimberly, R. N.; Yeomans, D. K.

2001-11-01

181

Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

2013-06-01

182

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Virtual Impactors (VIs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs up to 90 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observable in the range 21objects where the longest arcs can be created, but we will observe other, more recently discovered NEOs as well. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of the most dangerous NEOs that accumulate large errors, enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

2014-02-01

183

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

184

Investigation of Relationships between Known Meteor Streams and Recently Recovered NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years we recovered many single-opposition NEOs. A few of these objects are thought to be associated with known meteor streams, but the linkage is often unconfirmed because of a lack of precise orbital information on the parent object. The addition of a second opposition to the observed orbital arc greatly improves the predictability of their past motion, allowing us to back-integrate their orbital evolution long enough to extract meaningful predictions of associated meteoric activity. In this work we will present the results of this type of analysis on a few of these objects. The most interesting case is probably the recently recovered 2001 HA4, tentatively associated by Peter Jenniskens with the annual stream known as ?-Piscids (OPC, IAU code #217). The present radiant of the stream does not match the asteroidal orbit very well, with a declination discrepancy close to 20 degrees. With our integration we tested if old particles released in the past could match the present radiant: the discrepancy cannot be reduced by more than a few degrees, also assuming unreasonably large ejection velocities and radiation pressure effects. We also investigated the possibility of a different stream at the other node, and we found a reasonable match with the Daytime q-Pegasids (QPE, IAU code #130). Another object recovered by our team is 1997 QK1, proposed by Jenniskens as parent for the July Centaurids (JCE, IAU code #179). We checked if a compact meteor cloud associated with the object could have hit the Earth in 1896, explaining a short lived outburst observed that year from Sydney. The outburst radiant could be matched only by old and dispersed particle clouds, but not with compact recently ejected material. Acknowledgement: our observations were funded by grant AST 0709500 from the U.S. National Science Foundation.

Micheli, Marco; Tholen, D. J.; Elliott, G. T.; Troyer, J. M.

2009-09-01

185

Deriving Syntactic Properties of Arguments and Adjuncts from Neo-Davidsonian Semantics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to show that certain syntactic differences between arguments and adjuncts can be thought of as a transparent reflection of differences between their contributions to neo-Davidsonian logical forms. Specifically, the crucial underlying distinction will be that between modifying an event variable directly, and modifying an event variable indirectly via a thematic relation. I note a convergence between the semantic composition of neo-Davidsonian logical forms and existing descriptions of the syntactic properties of adjunction, and then propose a novel integration of syntactic mechanisms with explicit neo-Davidsonian semantics which sheds light on the nature of the distinction between arguments and adjuncts.

Hunter, Tim

186

[Neo-Confucianism and TCM culture in Mount Wuyish area in Song Dynasty].  

PubMed

Mount Wuyi area is the representative cultural region of Fujian province in early time. Medical books and recordings of this area were primary constituents of TCM in ancient Fujian. Zhuzi Theory was formed in this area in Song Dynasty. Influenced by Neo-confucianismborned Songci (Great forensic scientist), Caiyuanding (A scholar of Neo-confucianism with achievements in medical science) and Qianwenli (an official who studied medical science). The spread of Neo-confucianism promoted the development of local printing industry, culture industry and TCM in Mount Wuyi area. PMID:22169487

Wu, Tong; Wang, Ying-Ying

2011-07-01

187

Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: The role of European welfare regimes.  

PubMed

The relation between "neo-Marxian" social class (NMSC) and health in the working population has received considerable attention in public health research. However, less is known about the distribution of mental well-being according to NMSC in a European context. The objectives of this study are (i) to analyse the association of mental well-being and NMSC among employees in Europe (using a welfare regime typology), (ii) to investigate whether the relation between NMSC and mental well-being is the same in women compared to men within each welfare regime, and (iii) to examine within each welfare regime the role of the gender division of labour and job quality as potential mediating factors in explaining this association. Data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010) were analysed. Mental well-being was assessed by the WHO Well-being Index. Social class was measured through E.O. Wright's social class scheme. Models separated by sex were generated using Poisson regression with a robust error variance. The associations were presented as prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Women reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in State corporatist/family support and Southern welfare regimes. Men reported NMSC differences in mental well-being in all but the Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. Gender inequalities were more marked and widespread in Basic security/market-oriented welfare regimes. In all welfare regimes job quality (partly) explained NMSC inequalities in mental well-being for men, the role of the gender division of labour was unclear. This study showed that the relationship between NMSC and mental well-being among employees differs by gender and welfare regimes. It confirms the importance of NMSC and welfare regimes to explain gender and social class inequalities in mental well-being. PMID:25621400

De Moortel, Deborah; Palència, Laia; Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe

2015-03-01

188

Domesticating neo-liberalism: Everyday lives and the geographies of post-socialist transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ways in which neo-liberalism is both constructed and made ‘more tolerable’ through everyday practices and livelihoods in post-socialist cities. It argues that existing conceptualisations of neo-liberalism centre too fully on the role of powerful global forces and institutions in constructing marketisation processes, and consequently neglect the ways in which everyday lives are embroiled in the formation

Adrian Smith; Alena Rochovská

2007-01-01

189

Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum were studied. Treatment with the water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum caused a marked decrease in the CCl4-induced toxicity in rat liver, made evident by their effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the

Jer-Min Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Ming-Feng Chen; Takashi Ujiie; Atsushi Takada

1995-01-01

190

Gender justice and education: constructions of boys within discourses of resentment, neo?liberalism and security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of a politics of resentment, neo?liberal policies, and security concerns on issues of gender justice in schools in various western countries. We argue that since the 1990s gender justice in schools has been severely hampered by a politics of resentment, or backlash politics, and the presence of neo?liberal discourses in education. Furthermore, we contend that

Martin Mills; Amanda Keddie

2010-01-01

191

High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure shows an example of this capability where the Brazil Nut problem is simulated: as the container full of granular material is vibrated, the large ball slowly moves upwards. This capability was expanded to account for anchors of different shapes and penetration velocities, interacting with granular soils.

Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

2012-01-01

192

Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

Goh, Gérardine Meishan

2010-07-01

193

Neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment in North Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North Africa is one of the most earthquake-prone areas of the Mediterranean. Many devastating earthquakes, some of them tsunami-triggering, inflicted heavy loss of life and considerable economic damage to the region. In order to mitigate the destructive impact of the earthquakes, the regional seismic hazard in North Africa is assessed using the neo-deterministic, multi-scenario methodology (NDSHA) based on the computation of synthetic seismograms, using the modal summation technique, at a regular grid of 0.2 × 0.2°. This is the first study aimed at producing NDSHA maps of North Africa including five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. The key input data for the NDSHA algorithm are earthquake sources, seismotectonic zonation, and structural models. In the preparation of the input data, it has been really important to go beyond the national borders and to adopt a coherent strategy all over the area. Thanks to the collaborative efforts of the teams involved, it has been possible to properly merge the earthquake catalogues available for each country to define with homogeneous criteria the seismogenic zones, the characteristic focal mechanism associated with each of them, and the structural models used to model wave propagation from the sources to the sites. As a result, reliable seismic hazard maps are produced in terms of maximum displacement ( D max), maximum velocity ( V max), and design ground acceleration.

Mourabit, T.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Ayadi, A.; Benouar, D.; Ben Suleman, A.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Cheddadi, A.; Chourak, M.; ElGabry, M. N.; Harbi, A.; Hfaiedh, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Kacem, J.; Ksentini, A.; Jabour, N.; Magrin, A.; Maouche, S.; Meghraoui, M.; Ousadou, F.; Panza, G. F.; Peresan, A.; Romdhane, N.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.

2014-04-01

194

The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

2014-07-01

195

The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care  

PubMed Central

Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact. PMID:24758585

2014-01-01

196

[Proposals for social class classification based on the Spanish National Classification of Occupations 2011 using neo-Weberian and neo-Marxist approaches].  

PubMed

In Spain, the new National Classification of Occupations (Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones [CNO-2011]) is substantially different to the 1994 edition, and requires adaptation of occupational social classes for use in studies of health inequalities. This article presents two proposals to measure social class: the new classification of occupational social class (CSO-SEE12), based on the CNO-2011 and a neo-Weberian perspective, and a social class classification based on a neo-Marxist approach. The CSO-SEE12 is the result of a detailed review of the CNO-2011 codes. In contrast, the neo-Marxist classification is derived from variables related to capital and organizational and skill assets. The proposed CSO-SEE12 consists of seven classes that can be grouped into a smaller number of categories according to study needs. The neo-Marxist classification consists of 12 categories in which home owners are divided into three categories based on capital goods and employed persons are grouped into nine categories composed of organizational and skill assets. These proposals are complemented by a proposed classification of educational level that integrates the various curricula in Spain and provides correspondences with the International Standard Classification of Education. PMID:23394892

Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Carrasco, José Miguel; Espelt, Albert; Ferrando, Josep; Borrell, Carme

2013-01-01

197

Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to use MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Many asteroids and comets are being lost owing to insufficient followup astrometry, but only the most important ones can continue to be observed with the limited resources available. Objects flagged as high scientific priority and urgently in need of further observations include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs) and NEOs discovered by the soon-to-be reactivated WISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence our need to reach fainter magnitudes. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters previously determined by WISE in need of astrometry.

McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Scotti, James V.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Maleszewski, Chester K.

2014-02-01

198

Low-cost Mission to NEO Binary 1999 KW4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present a procedure to generate a low-cost trajectory that will intercept the binary NEO 1999 KW4 in 2018, when it will be at closest point approach with the Earth. The transfer is studied considering natural routes between LEOs and the lunar sphere of in-fluence and also swing-by maneuvers with the Moon and the Earth (de Melo et al. 2009). Methodology: the spaceship is inserted into a translunar trajectory derived from a periodic orbit around the Lagrangian equilibrium point L1 (Broucke, 1968) and that will take it up to the proximities of the Moon. This requests a V smaller than the necessary one to generate an interplanetary trajectory (de Melo et al. 2008). Orbit of the 1999 KW4 has an inclina-tion relatively high (38.89 degrees). Then, during the passage through the lunar sphere the influence, a controlled swing-by with the Moon will supply the necessary energy and the incli-nation change to generate the trajectory that will intercept the 1999 KW4. We also show that after the first swing-by, if necessary, other maneuvers of the same type can be designed with the Earth or the Moon starting from the Weak Stability Boundary region associated with the three-body Sun-Earth-particle (Belbruno, 1987, Biesbroek and Janin, 2000). This way, it is possible to generate interplanetary trajectories with larger reach, but also with low-cost. The use of derived trajectories from the periodic orbits between LEOs and the sphere of lunar influ-ence combined with swing-by maneuvers provide considerable reductions in VTotal requested to generate interplanetary trajectories. -de Melo et al., 2009, Celest Mech Dyn Astr, vol. 103, n. 104. -de Melo et al., 2008, IAC.08.A3.2.INT12. -Broucke R., 1968, JPL,TR 321168. -Belbruno E. A., 1987, AIAA-87-1054. -Biesbroek and Janin, 2000, ESA Bulletin 103.

Winter, Othon; de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

199

Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A neo-piagetian analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most Piagetian formal operational reasoning tasks show horizontal decalage; that is, subjects pass certain tasks and fail others that have the same logical structure. The study reported here analyzes the importance of individual difference variables, as postulated by the neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone, in explaining subject performance in formal reasoning. A sample of 72 freshman students were administered a test of formal reasoning having 20 items of different types of reasoning, and the tests of the individual difference variables. Results obtained from multiple regression analyses show that Pascual-Leone's structural M-capacity (Ms) is the most consistent predictor of success in the different formal reasoning tasks, followed by Witkin's cognitive style, and to a much lesser degree Raven's progressive matrices, and Pascual-Leone's functional M-capacity (Mf). It was found that in the total score on the 20 items of formal reasoning, Ms accounted for 23.3% of the variance (R = 0.483, F = 6.39, p = 0.014) and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test, increased the multiple R significantly (F = 7.77, p = 0.007) and accounted for 7.6% of the variance. Mf and the Raven test did not make a significant contribution to the regression equation. Correlation coefficients among most of the items having the same reasoning pattern but different content are generally low but statistically significant (p < 0.01). Intercorrelations among items having the same formal reasoning pattern and content are fairly high (p < 0.001). These results emphasize the importance of individual difference variables: information-processing capacity (Pascual-Leone) and oversensitivity to potentially misleading information (Witkin). It is suggested that in order to understand student performance in formal reasoning tasks, we should expect horizontal decalages as a rule and not the exception, as Piaget had postulated. Educational implications are drawn.

Niaz, Mansoor

200

High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4+ T cells in human melanoma.  

PubMed

Tumor-specific neo-antigens that arise as a consequence of mutations are thought to be important for the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that neo-antigens may be commonly recognized by intratumoral CD8+ T cells, but it is unclear whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T cells also frequently reside within human tumors. In view of the accepted role of tumor-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in tumor control, we addressed whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell reactivity is a common property in human melanoma. PMID:25531942

Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M; Bies, Laura; Verdegaal, Els M E; Schotte, Remko; Calis, Jorg J A; Behjati, Sam; Velds, Arno; Hilkmann, Henk; Atmioui, Dris El; Visser, Marten; Stratton, Michael R; Haanen, John B A G; Spits, Hergen; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Schumacher, Ton N M

2015-01-01

201

Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, Paul A.

2010-01-01

202

Diameters And Albedos Of Three Subkilometer Near Earth Objects Derived From Spitzer Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are fragments of remnant primitive bodies that date from the era of Solar System formation. At present, the physical properties and origins of NEOs are poorly understood. We have measured (Trilling et al. 2008) thermal emission from three NEOs --- (6037) 1988 EG, 1993 GD, and 2005 GL --- with Spitzer's IRAC instrument at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns (the last object was detected only at 5.8 and 8.0 microns). The diameters of these three objects are 400 m, 180 m, and 160 m, respectively, with uncertainties of around 20% (including both observational and systematic errors). For all three the geometric albedos are around 0.30, in agreement with previous results that most NEOs are S-class asteroids. For the two objects detected at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, diameters and albedos based only on those data agree with the values based on modeling the data in all four bands. This agreement, and the high sensitivity of IRAC, show the promise of the Spitzer Warm Mission for determining the physical parameters for a large number of NEOs. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

Trilling, David E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J. A.; Smith, H. A.; Chesley, S. R.; Mainzer, A. K.

2008-09-01

203

Diameters and Albedos of Three Subkilometer Near-Earth Objects Derived from Spitzer Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are fragments of remnant primitive bodies that date from the era of solar system formation. At present, the physical properties and origins of NEOs are poorly understood. We have measured thermal emission from three NEOs-(6037) 1988 EG, 1993 GD, and 2005 GL-with Spitzer's IRAC instrument at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m (the last object was detected only at 5.8 and 8.0 ?m). The diameters of these three objects are 400, 180, and 160 m, respectively, with uncertainties of around 20% (including both observational and systematic errors). For all three the geometric albedos are around 0.30, in agreement with previous results that most NEOs are S-class asteroids. For the two objects detected at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m, diameters and albedos based only on those data agree with the values based on modeling the data in all four bands. This agreement, and the high sensitivity of IRAC, shows the promise of the Spitzer Warm Mission for determining the physical parameters for a large number of NEOs.

Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J. A.; Smith, H. A.; Chesley, S. R.; Mainzer, A. K.

2008-08-01

204

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

E-print Network

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid - which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context - creeps and stress relaxes when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Satish Karra; K. R. Rajagopal

2010-07-07

205

The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.  

PubMed

The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time. PMID:19442927

Delisle, Richard G

2009-06-01

206

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to degradation or healing associated with diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation/healing mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid—which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context—creeps and stress relaxes due to degradation/healing when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a degrading/healing generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Karra, Satish; Rajagopal, K. R.

2012-02-01

207

Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough

David Coburn

2000-01-01

208

Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

2010-01-01

209

Detecting NEO Impacts using the International Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty an International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies has been globally deployed beginning in the late 1990s. The infrasound network sub-component of the IMS consists of 47 active stations as of mid-2014. These microbarograph arrays detect coherent infrasonic signals from a range of sources including volcanoes, man-made explosions and bolides. Bolide detections from IMS stations have been reported since ~2000, but with the maturation of the network over the last several years the rate of detections has increased substantially. Presently the IMS performs semi-automated near real-time global event identification on timescales of 6-12 hours as well as analyst verified event identification having time lags of several weeks. Here we report on infrasound events identified by the IMS between 2010-2014 which are likely bolide impacts. Identification in this context refers to an event being included in one of the event bulletins issued by the IMS. In this untargeted study we find that the IMS globally identifies approximately 16 events per year which are likely bolide impacts. Using data released since the beginning of 2014 of US Government sensor detections (as given at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/ ) of fireballs we find in a complementary targeted survey that the current IMS system is able to identify ~25% of fireballs with E > 0.1 kT energy. Using all 16 US Government sensor fireballs listed as of July 31, 2014 we are able to detect infrasound from 75% of these events on at least one IMS station. The high ratio of detection/identification is a product of the stricter criteria adopted by the IMS for inclusion in an event bulletin as compared to simple station detection.We discuss energy comparisons between infrasound-estimated energies based on amplitudes and periods and estimates provided by US Government sensors. Specific impact events of interest will be discussed as well as the utility of the global IMS infrasound system for location and timing of future NEAs detected prior to impact.

Brown, Peter G.; Dube, Kimberlee; Silber, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

210

Survivable Consensus Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaching consensus among multiple processes in a dis- tributed system is fundamental to coordinating distributed actions. In this paper we present a new approach to build- ing survivable consensus objects in a system consisting of a (possibly large) collection of persistent object servers and a transient population of clients. Our consensus object imple- mentation requires minimal support from servers, but

Dahlia Malkhi; Michael K. Reiter

1998-01-01

211

Observations of Near Earth Object 2002 AM31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEO) are objects whose orbits, at perihelion, bring them at least within 1.3AU from Earth. On July 22, 2012 the NEO 2002 AM31 was at perihelion, 0.035AU from Earth, with an apparent visual magnitude of 13.7. 2002 AM31 was observed during perihelion using the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) 0.4-m f/8 telescope and Apogee U42 2048 x 2048 CCD camera. The scale is 64.5 arcseconds/mm with the CCD image size approximately 0.5 degrees. A series of 300 second exposures were taken with the clear filter. Positions of NEO 2002 AM31from the images were measured using Aladin software. The measured positions were compared to the ephemeris given on the NASA JPL HORIZONS website for NEO 2002 AM31. The observed RA is between 20-24 arcminutes greater than the ephemeris values, and the Declination values were all approximately two arcminutes greater than the expected values between the first and last observations of the set. Considering the near consistency of the deviations, either the ephemeris RA and Declination values were off by the previously stated amounts, or that the calibration process was only accurate to that extent.

Taylor, Emma; Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.

2013-01-01

212

Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Targets include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs), other close approachers, and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence the need to reach fainter magnitudes on short notice. About half of our targets are therefore unknown at the time of this proposal. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by WISE that need astrometry. Our past use of the Mayall telescope has been determined by Co-Investigator Tim Spahr of the Minor Planet Center to provide ``dramatic improvement'' to orbits.

McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeff; Scotti, Jim; Bressi, Terry; Spahr, Tim; Maleszewski, Chet

2014-08-01

213

In vitro neo-cartilage formation on a three-dimensional composite polymeric cryogel matrix.  

PubMed

Limited blood supply and the avascular nature of articular cartilage restricts its self repair capacity, frequently leading to osteoarthritis. This work focuses on scaffolds for tissue repair from natural polymers, for example gelatin, chitosan, and agarose in the form of composite. A novel way of fabrication, known as cryogelation, is presented, in which matrices are synthesized at sub-zero temperature. Cell seeded scaffolds incubated under appropriate conditions result in the accumulation of matrix components on the surface of the gel in the form of neo-cartilage. Neo-cartilage exhibits similarity to native cartilage with respect to its physical, mechanical and biochemical properties. Based on the similarities of neo-cartilage to the native cartilage, it can provide a new approach for the treatment of localised joint injuries. PMID:23619817

Bhat, Sumrita; Lidgren, Lars; Kumar, Ashok

2013-07-01

214

Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region  

SciTech Connect

A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

Panza, G. F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Kouteva, M. [ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F. [DST--University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G. [NIEP-Magurele-Bucharest, 12 Calugareni str., Ilfov (Romania); Paskaleva, I. [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P. [Geodetic and Geophysical Research, Institute of HAS, Sopron (Hungary); Herak, M. [Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zaichenco, A. [IGG, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zivcic, M. [ARSO-Seismology and Geology Office, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-07-08

215

Neo-tectonic fracturing after emplacement of quaternary granitic pluton in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The fracture which occurs in the Kakkonda geothermal system was formed by neo-tectonic stress after the emplacement of the neo-granite (Quaternary Kakkonda Granite) at middle Pleistocene to recent. The characteristic contrast in permeability at ca.1.5 km is strongly controlled by the contact metamorphic zone, especially cordierite and higher grade metamorphic zones, in which the high temperature (320{degrees}C<) and low permeable deep reservoir was created. The five geothermal wells 2.5-3.0 km deep have clarified that a microearthquake zone below -1.0 km shows high permeability especially at the margin of the Kakkonda Granite, and low permeability outside of a microearthquake zone. The Kakkonda Granite is a composite pluton which has very few fractures inside of it. Thus, neo-tectonic fracturing has developed in the non-metamorphosed Tertiary formations and the margin of the Kakkonda Granite.

Doi, N.; Kato, O. [JMC Goethermal Eng. Co., Ltd., Iwate-ken (Japan); Kanisawa, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1995-12-31

216

A feasibility study on the implementation of satellite-to-satellite tracking around a small near-Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-earth objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets that have a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 astronomical units (AU). There are currently more than 10,000 known NEOs. The majority of these objects are less than 1 km in diameter. Despite the number of NEOs, little is known about most of them. Characterizing these objects is a crucial component in developing a thorough understanding of solar system evolution, human exploration, exploitation of asteroid resources, and threat mitigation. Of particular interest is characterizing the internal structure of NEOs. While ground-based methods exist for characterizing the internal structure of NEOs, the information that can be gleaned from such studies is limited and often accompanied by large uncertainty. An alternative is to use in situ studies to examine an NEO's shape and gravity field, which can be used to assess its internal structure. This thesis investigates the use of satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) to map the gravity field of a small NEO on the order of 500 m or less. An analysis of the mission requirements of two previously flown SST missions, GRACE and GRAIL, is conducted. Additionally, a simulation is developed to investigate the dynamics of SST in the vicinity of a small NEO. This simulation is then used to simulate range and range-rate data in the strongly perturbed environment of the small NEO. These data are used in conjunction with the analysis of the GRACE and GRAIL missions to establish a range of orbital parameters that can be used to execute a SST mission around a small NEO. Preliminary mission requirements for data collection and orbital correction maneuvers are also established. Additionally, the data are used to determine whether or not proven technology can be used to resolve the expected range and range-rate measurements. It is determined that the orbit semi-major axis for each spacecraft should be approximately 100% to 200% of the NEO's mean diameter and the two spacecraft should be in circular, near polar orbits. This configuration will produce trajectories, which exhibit reasonable stability over a period of roughly 24 hours. Corrective maneuvers will therefore be required with a frequency of approximately once per day. Due to the potentially rapid changes caused by the highly perturbed environment, it is likely that these maneuvers will need to be made autonomously. During the period between corrective maneuvers SST data collection will be possible. The expected range and range-rate measurements will be on the order of +/-10-5 m and +/-10 -5 m/s respectively and can be resolved using proven technology.

Church, Christopher J.

217

Using NASA NEO and ImageJ to Explore the Role of Snow Cover in Shaping Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students download satellite images displaying land surface temperature, snow cover, and reflected short wave radiation data from the NASA Earth Observation (NEO) Web site. They then explore and animate these images using the free tool ImageJ and utilize the Web-based analysis tools built into NEO to observe, graph, and analyze the relationships among these three variables.

Youngman, B.; Mcauliffe, C.; Freuder, R.; Lockwood, J.; Ward, K.; Herring, D.

218

Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,…

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

2014-01-01

219

A hierarchical investigation of personality and behavior: Examining Neo-Socioanalytic models of health-related outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on proposed hierarchical relations derived from the Neo-Socioanalytic Theory of personality [Roberts, B. W., & Wood, D. (2006). Personality development in the context of the Neo-Socioanalytic Model of personality. In D. K. Mroczek & T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of personality development (pp. 11–39). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers], the present study examined the relationships between trait and

Tim Bogg; Michelle W. Voss; Dustin Wood; Brent W. Roberts

2008-01-01

220

Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

Wiborg, Susanne

2013-01-01

221

"Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people…

Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

2009-01-01

222

Psychometric characteristics and clinical correlates of NEO-PI-R fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.  

E-print Network

??This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R;… (more)

Witt, Edward A.

2010-01-01

223

Shape Similarity, Better than Semantic Membership, Accounts for the Structure of Visual Object Representations in a Population of Monkey Inferotemporal Neurons  

E-print Network

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual ...

Baldassi, Carlo

224

Improved near-earth object detection using dynamic logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current efforts aimed at detecting and identifying Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that pose potential risks to Earth use moderately sized telescopes combined with image processing algorithms to detect the motion of these objects. The search strategies of such systems involve multiple revisits at given intervals between observations to the same area of the sky so that objects that appear to move between the observations can be identified against the static star field. Dynamic Logic algorithm, derived from Modeling Field Theory, has made significant improvements in detection, tracking, and fusion of ground radar images. As an extension to this, the research in this paper will examine Dynamic Logic's ability to detect NEOs with minimal human-in-the-loop intervention. Although the research in this paper uses asteroids for the automation detection, the ultimate extension to this study is for detecting orbital debris. Many asteroid orbits are well defined, so they will serve as excellent test cases for our new algorithm application.

Allen, Thomas G.; O'Connor, Alan C.; Ternovskiy, Igor

2012-06-01

225

Shape Similarity, Better than Semantic Membership, Accounts for the Structure of Visual Object Representations in a Population of Monkey Inferotemporal Neurons  

PubMed Central

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex. PMID:23950700

DiCarlo, James J.; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

2013-01-01

226

A Theory of Collective Competence: Challenging The Neo-Liberal Individualisation of Performance at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary work-related education and training policy represents occupational competence as the outcome of individual performance at work. This paper presents a critique of this neo-liberal assumption, arguing that in many cases competence should be regarded as an attribute of groups, teams and communities. It proposes a theory of collective competence in terms of (1) making collective sense of events in

Nick Boreham

2004-01-01

227

Transnationalism, neo-liberalism, and the rise of the shadow state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the processes through which a neo-liberal agenda is broadened and entrenched through time. The case study focuses on a federal immigration policy in Canada in the 1980s, which encouraged the rapid entry of wealthy entrepreneurs and investors from Hong Kong. One of the many impacts of the arrival of this Chinese business élite in British Columbia was

Katharyne Mitchell

2001-01-01

228

Globalization and regionalization in Africa: reactions to attempts at neo-liberal regionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideology of neo-liberalism is currently dominant at the elite level. This has profound implications for how development is viewed as best pursued. Currently, a process of regionalization projects, at both the macro- and micro-level, are reconfiguring parts of Africa as the continent's elites seek to promote economic integration as a means of latching onto what is perceived as the

Ian Taylor

2003-01-01

229

Worlds of Knowledge, Cosmologies of Skills: Ethnography Outdoors in a Neo-Liberal University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the signs that modernizing agendas in contemporary UK universities have not only reduced autonomy and marketized practices but have also stimulated the crystallization of a ramifying academic worldview, structurally consonant with neo-liberal horizons and new organizational vistas. Ethnographically, the account focuses…

Abramson, Allen

2006-01-01

230

Post-School Horizons: New Zealand's Neo-Liberal Generation in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dominant conceptions of the world infuse educational experiences for young people in implicit rather than explicit ways--through becoming, as Stuart Hall argues, "the horizon of the taken-for-granted". In this article we explore these horizons as experienced by New Zealand's neo-liberal generation, currently "in transition" from high school to…

Nairn, Karen; Higgins, Jane; Ormond, Adreanne

2007-01-01

231

When State Centralism Meets Neo-Liberalism: Managing University Governance Change in Singapore and Malaysia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, both the Singapore and Malaysia governments have introduced reforms along the lines of ideas and practices embedded in neo-liberalism. In the last decade or so, we have witnessed reforms being introduced to the higher education sectors in these Asian states,…

Mok, Ka Ho

2010-01-01

232

The Validity of Kolb Learning Styles and Neo-Piagetian Developmental Levels in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed Kolb learning styles and neo-Piagetian development levels of students who then completed a lecture/lab course with either inquiry or expository instructional methods. The predicted interaction between Kolb's thinking/feeling learning dimension and instructional method was not found, while thinking/feeling dimension and developmental level…

Lawson, Anton E.; Johnson, Margaret

2002-01-01

233

How Can Linguistics Help The Structuring Of A Multidisciplinary Neo-Domain Such As Exobiology ?iii  

E-print Network

How Can Linguistics Help The Structuring Of A Multidisciplinary Neo-Domain Such As Exobiology ?iii the possibility for linguistics to propose results from a corpus of texts analyse in order to contribute to stabilise definitions within exobiology. By using clues provided by tools, linguists build interpretation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Transnational Pharmaceutical Corporations and Neo-Liberal Business Ethics in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author critiques the expedient application of market valuation principles by the transnational corporations and other large firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry on a number of issues like patents, pricing, irrational drugs, clinical trials, etc. He contends that ethics in business is chiseled and etched within the confines of particular social structures of accumulation. An ascendant neo-liberal social structure

Bernard D'Mello

2002-01-01

235

W::Neo: a novel dual-selection marker for high efficiency gene targeting in Drosophila.  

PubMed

We have recently developed a so-called genomic engineering approach that allows for directed, efficient and versatile modifications of Drosophila genome by combining the homologous recombination (HR)-based gene targeting with site-specific DNA integration. In genomic engineering and several similar approaches, a "founder" knock-out line must be generated first through HR-based gene targeting, which can still be a potentially time and resource intensive process. To significantly improve the efficiency and success rate of HR-based gene targeting in Drosophila, we have generated a new dual-selection marker termed W::Neo, which is a direct fusion between proteins of eye color marker White (W) and neomycin resistance (Neo). In HR-based gene targeting experiments, mutants carrying W::Neo as the selection marker can be enriched as much as fifty times by taking advantage of the antibiotic selection in Drosophila larvae. We have successfully carried out three independent gene targeting experiments using the W::Neo to generate genomic engineering founder knock-out lines in Drosophila. PMID:22348139

Zhou, Wenke; Huang, Juan; Watson, Annie M; Hong, Yang

2012-01-01

236

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NEO will accomplish this goal by anticipating users' expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users' expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

Ward, K.; Herring, D.

2005-12-01

237

A Neo-Aristotelian Account of Education, Justice, and the Human Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article sketches the contours of a neo-Aristotelian account of education, justice, and the human good, organized around a sequence of three increasingly distinctive features of the Aristotelian understanding of respect for persons as rational beings. The first and second of these features bear on important aspects of educational justice,…

Curren, Randall

2013-01-01

238

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

E-print Network

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid - which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context - creeps and stress relaxes when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentrati...

Karra, Satish

2010-01-01

239

Darwinian and neo-Darwinian selection mechanisms in bacteria: Effects on antibiotic resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Darwin’s concept of survival of the fittest is as critical when applied to bacteria as it is to animals. Bacteria live in a highly competitive environment that is similar to the macrobiological world with its selective pressures. Neo-Darwinism views genes as selfish and as the ultimate unit of nat...

240

The Neo-Humanistic Concept of "Bildung" Going Astray: Comments to Friedrich Schiller's Thoughts on Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist, philosopher and publisher, was a prominent contributor to the educational neo-humanistic concept of Bildung at the threshold to Romanticism. Schiller assigns a pivotal role to the aesthetic education arguing that aesthetic activity reconciles sensuousness and reason and thereby creates the…

Vinterbo-Hohr, Aagot; Hohr, Hansjorg

2006-01-01

241

Teachers' Professional Identity, Educational Change and Neo-Liberal Pressures on Education in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reforms underpinned by neo-liberal values have been criticised for bringing an adverse impact on teachers' professional identity. This article presents a qualitative study of teachers' professional identity in three historical periods in Hong Kong: Phase 1: 1965-84; Phase 2: 1984-97; and Phase 3: the post-1997 period. By juxtaposing the…

Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

2011-01-01

242

NEOS: Optimization on the Internet Joseph Czyzyk y Jonathan H. Owen z Stephen J. Wright y  

E-print Network

NEOS: Optimization on the Internet Joseph Czyzyk y Jonathan H. Owen z Stephen J. Wright y June 30, Illinois 60439 z Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sci­ ences, Robert R. McCormick School is dynamic by nature---it changes on a fairly short time scale---and the Web is the obvious way to de­ liver

Wright, Steve

243

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL  

E-print Network

manifest themselves as collections of pitches such as scales and chords. In the analysis of music structure music. Much of Western music, for example, is based on the major scale, a special subset of the 12 OF MUSIC KENNETH OSHITA Abstract. Neo-Riemannian theory developed as the mathematical analysis of musical

May, J. Peter

244

The role of external and internal influences on information systems security - a neo-institutional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is an attempt to better understand how external and internal organizational influences shape organizational actions for improving information systems security. A case study of a multi-national company is presented and then analyzed from the perspective of neo-institutional theory. The analysis indicates that coercive, normative, and mimetic isomorphic processes were evident, although it was difficult to distinguish normative from

Qing Hu; Paul J. Hart; Donna Cooke

2007-01-01

245

Making Art Invisible: Visual Education and the Cultural Stagnation of Neo-Liberal Rationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of visual literacy may have resulted, in part, from some school authorities rushing the process of determining school curriculum. This article argues that the haste is reflective of pressure placed on educational discourse to conform to neo-liberal reforms of the sector, and is not the result of a careful and complex debate within…

Peers, Chris

2011-01-01

246

Neo-nationalist ideology : a discourse theoretical approach to the SNP and the CSU   

E-print Network

The concept of ideology's theory-building potential has been under-exploited in studies of contemporary nationalism. This study offers a novel approach to 'neo-nationalism' by defining it as an ideology, embedding it in a theory of discourse...

Sutherland, Claire Nicole

2002-07-11

247

Appendix I: Algorithm of NeoKinema by Peter Bird, UCLA, 2005  

E-print Network

1 1 Appendix I: Algorithm of NeoKinema by Peter Bird, UCLA, 2005 Overview Geodetic studies over-boundary faults. The smaller plates within complex "orogens" [Bird, 2003] might be expected to show important to seismicity, which has been estimated by Bird & Kagan [2004] based on 20th -century seismicity. Thus, results

Bird, Peter

248

The SDF-1–CXCR4 signaling pathway: a molecular hub modulating neo-angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pro-angiogenic bone marrow (BM) cells include subsets of hematopoietic cells that provide vascular support and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which under certain permissive conditions could differentiate into functional vascular cells. Recent evidence demonstrates that the chemokine stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12) has a major role in the recruitment and retention of CXCR4+ BM cells to the neo-angiogenic niches supporting revascularization of ischemic tissue and tumor growth. However, the precise mechanism by which activation of CXCR4 modulates neo-angiogenesis is not clear. SDF-1 not only promotes revascularization by engaging with CXCR4 expressed on the vascular cells but also supports mobilization of pro-angiogenic CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hematopoietic cells, thereby accelerating revascularization of ischemic organs. Here, we attempt to define the multiple functions of the SDF-1–CXCR4 signaling pathway in the regulation of neo-vascularization during acute ischemia and tumor growth. In particular, we introduce the concept that, by modulating plasma SDF-1 levels, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 acutely promotes, while chronic AMD3100 treatment inhibits, mobilization of pro-angiogenic cells. We will also discuss strategies to modulate the mobilization of essential subsets of BM cells that participate in neo-angiogenesis, setting up the stage for enhancing revascularization or targeting tumor vessels by exploiting CXCR4 agonists and antagonists, respectively. PMID:17560169

Petit, Isabelle; Jin, David; Rafii, Shahin

2010-01-01

249

"Alternative" Education in Flanders, 1960-2000: Transformation of Knowledge in a Neo-Liberal Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The founding of "alternative" schools, mainly by parents or other individuals, has made New Education in Flanders tangible today for the general public. In this article, the authors set out to study the knowledge of the "emancipatory" starting points of the post-1968 movements and "alternative" schools in the neo-liberal Flemish educational…

De Coster, Tom; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

2009-01-01

250

The Mastodon in the room: how Darwinian is neo-Darwinism?  

PubMed

Failing to acknowledge substantial differences between Darwinism and neo-Darwinism impedes evolutionary biology. Darwin described evolution as the outcome of interactions between the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions, each relatively autonomous but both historically and spatially intertwined. Furthermore, he postulated that the nature of the organism was more important than the nature of the conditions, leading to natural selection as an inevitable emergent product of biological systems. The neo-Darwinian tradition assumed a creative rather than selective view of natural selection, with the nature of the organism determined by the nature of the conditions, rendering the nature of the organism and temporal contingency unnecessary. Contemporary advances in biology, specifically the phylogenetics revolution and evo-devo, underscore the significance of history and the nature of the organism in biology. Darwinism explains more biology better, and better resolves apparent anomalies between living systems and more general natural laws, than does neo-Darwinism. The "extended" or "expanded" synthesis currently called for by neo-Darwinians is Darwinism. PMID:21300319

Brooks, Daniel R

2011-03-01

251

Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of…

Dong, Jie

2010-01-01

252

Reforming the World Bank: From Social-Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an analytics of government perspective, it is argued that neo-liberalism as an art of government, especially its form as North American advanced liberal political reason, has shaped enterprise governance and managerial reform at the World Bank. With a focus on the World Bank as a financial banking enterprise, the article explores questions…

Girdwood, John

2007-01-01

253

Physical properties of Near-Earth Objects that inform mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods have been proposed to avoid the collision of a Near-Earth Object (NEO) with the Earth. Each of these methods relies on a mitigation concept (deflection or fragmentation), an energy source (e.g. kinetic, gravitational, solar, thermal, etc.) and a mode of approach (e.g. remote station and interaction). The efficiency of each method depends on the physical properties of the considered NEO that influence the way the body will respond to the considered energy source. While the knowledge of properties such as the mass, spin rate and obliquity as well as the shape is generally required for all mitigation methods, there are other properties that are important to know for some methods and that have no great influence for other ones. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of main physical properties of NEOs and their importance for the most usual mitigation strategies that have been proposed, i.e. the kinetic impactor, the gravity tractor, strategies based on anchoring or depositing material on the surface, and strategies aimed at modifying the thermal properties of the NEO in order to either modify or cancel the Yarkovsky effect, or cause surface vaporization.

Michel, P.

2013-09-01

254

Induction of senescence markers after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma and association with clinical outcome: an exploratory analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the induction of senescence markers versus apoptosis pathways in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tumour samples before and after neo-adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and to investigate their relationship with clinical outcome. Specific senescence pathways were assessed by quantifying the expression of p21 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) for the p21-p53 pathway, IGFBP7 for the IGF pathway and ALDH1A3 for the IFN pathway. p21 and PAI-1 expression were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, beta-galactosidase activity staining at pH 6.0 was performed. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Clinical outcome was assessed by modified RECIST criteria, progression-free and overall survival. In a training set (n=9 patients) paired comparison demonstrated a significant increase in p21 (p<0.05), PAI-1 (p<0.01) and apoptosis (p<0.01) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. The patients with the highest increase in PAI-1 had stable disease, whilst patients with little change in senescence markers accompanied by a high increase in apoptosis had an objective response after chemotherapy. The hypothesis that stable disease might be associated with an increase in senescence markers was confirmed in a tissue microarray (n=26 patients) using p21 and PAI-1 immunohistochemistry as readouts. For patients where survival and time to progression data were available, increased PAI-1 levels were significantly associated with a worst outcome. Our results demonstrate induction of senescence markers by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in a proportion of patients with MPM and its potential association with a poor outcome. PMID:21036600

Sidi, Roy; Pasello, Giulia; Opitz, Isabelle; Soltermann, Alex; Tutic, Michaela; Rehrauer, Hubert; Weder, Walter; Stahel, Rolf A; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

2011-01-01

255

Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic. Methods We used the Neo-Socratic Dialogue (NSD) method which promotes philosophical discussion based on a case-study to address a question and formulate a consensus and answer in a group. The question chosen for the dialogue was: “What is a life-prolonging treatment?” A series of dialogues took place over a period of one and a half days. It was carried out by three groups in 2010 and 2011. Seven participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited per group. We analyzed the content of the discussion. Results Based on three case studies concerning different opinions about treatment options for an older dementia patient, a patient demanding chemotherapy, and a severely ill neonate, conditions for futile life-prolonging treatment were elucidated through NSD. Such treatments are those carried out for the sole purpose of prolonging life and are detrimental to the patient, and should be decided based foremost on the patient’s lack of desire for treatment, the consensus of those involved, and through social acceptance. These arguments are essentially consistent with ones on medical futility in the United States. By expressing the objective of healthcare and the requirement of social acceptance, participants were also able to elucidate issues related to the awareness of those involved and the medical environment. Compared to the end-of-life guidelines in Japan, the objective of treatment, its effects, and benefits were more specifically discussed with the patient’s intentions as the foremost consideration, rather than being limited to the terminal stage. Conclusions This small study contributed to elucidating the conditions and current problems of futile life-prolonging treatment through NSD. They would suggest more substantial guidelines and improvements on the administration of the treatment. PMID:24321531

2013-01-01

256

EFFECTS OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON DENSITY, SURVIVAL, AND POPULATION GROWTH OF WOOD THRUSHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neo- tropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National \\\\Vildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile su~val rates,

LARKIN A. POWELL; D. B. Warnell; JASON D. LANG; MICHAELJ. CONROY; DAVID G. KREMENTZ

257

Triton's surface age and impactor population revisited in light of Kuiper Belt fluxes: Evidence for small Kuiper Belt objects and recent geological activity  

E-print Network

Neptune's largest satellite, Triton, is one of the most fascinating and enigmatic bodies in the solar system. Among its numerous interesting traits, Triton appears to have far fewer craters than would be expected if its surface was primordial. Here we combine the best available crater count data for Triton with improved estimates of impact rates by including the Kuiper Belt as a source of impactors. We find that the population of impactors creating the smallest observed craters on Triton must be sub-km in scale, and that this small-impactor population can be best fit by a differential power-law size index near -3. Such results provide interesting, indirect probes of the unseen small body population of the Kuiper Belt. Based on the modern, Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud impactor flux estimates, we also recalculate estimated ages for several regions of Triton's surface imaged by Voyager 2, and find that Triton was probably active on a time scale no greater than 0.1-0.3 Gyr ago (indicating Triton was still active after some 90% to 98% of the age of the solar system), and perhaps even more recently. The time-averaged volumetric resurfacing rate on Triton implied by these results, 0.01 km$^3$ yr$^{-1}$ or more, is likely second only to Io and Europa in the outer solar system, and is within an order of magnitude of estimates for Venus and for the Earth's intraplate zones. This finding indicates that Triton likely remains a highly geologically active world at present, some 4.5 Gyr after its formation. We briefly speculate on how such a situation might obtain.

S. A. Stern; W. B. McKinnon

1999-10-24

258

A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

Landis, Rob R.

2011-01-01

259

Robotic and Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, Paul

2011-01-01

260

Creation of a neo-aortoiliac system from lower extremity deep and superficial veins.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the morbidity, mortality, and intermediate term follow-up of patients undergoing replacement of their aortoiliac-femoral systems with lower extremity deep and superficial veins. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most commonly used treatment for aortic prosthetic infection is ectopic bypass and removal of the prosthesis. The overall mortality rate with this approach is approximately 20%, with an amputation rate of 10% to 14%. Other limitations include thrombosis of the ectopic bypass leading to limb loss, reinfection of the ectopic bypass, and aortic stump blowout. Dissatisfaction with this approach has led the authors to develop the following. METHODS: A neo-aortoiliac system (NAIS) was fashioned from lower extremity deep veins (DV), greater saphenous veins (GSV), or both in patients with infected aortobifemoral prosthesis (n = 17) and other complex aortic problems (n = 3). Removal of infected prosthetic material, harvest of vein, and creation of NAIS was performed as a single-staged procedure. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality and amputation rates were 10% each. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) operative time was 6.5 +/- 1.8 hours and the blood transfusion requirement was 4 +/- 3 units. Four patients experienced postoperative gastrointestinal complications with peritonitis and sepsis; NAIS vein graft resisted infection and remained intact. The mean follow-up time was 22.5 +/- 16 months. NAISs constructed from GSVs were prone to the development of focal stenoses requiring intervention or diffuse neointimal hyperplasia leading to occlusion. In contrast, all NAISs from larger caliber DVs have remained widely patent. The failure rate of GSV NAISs was 64%, compared to 0% for DV NAISs (p = 0.006). Despite the high failure rate in patients with GSV NAISs, none has required amputation. In patients who had DVs harvested for NAIS reconstruction, limb edema and other signs of venous hypertension have been minimal. CONCLUSION: NAIS reconstruction from lower extremity veins is a successful option in patients with extensive aortic prosthetic infection and other complex aortic problems. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8373267

Clagett, G P; Bowers, B L; Lopez-Viego, M A; Rossi, M B; Valentine, R J; Myers, S I; Chervu, A

1993-01-01

261

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The "Copernicus" crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth object (NEO) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. The paper also discusses NASA s current activities and future plans for NTP development that include system-level Technology Demonstrations - specifically ground testing a small, scalable NTR by 2020, with a flight test shortly thereafter.

Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

262

Properties and In-situ Space Investigations of Neos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progenitors of the Near Earth Objects are mainly asteroids and cometary nuclei, which were formed in different regions of the solar system, corresponding to different temperatures and compositions. Recent studies of their physical properties actually reveal a wide diversity, as well as some unexpected results. The determination of the density of some asteroids demonstrates that their composition could be quite different from what was previously assumed; also accurate observations of comets reveal that a significant proportion of their nuclei may happen to fragment or split. Assessing the properties of these various objects is thus mandatory to propose realistic mitigation strategies. This presentation will summarize our present understanding of the physical properties of asteroids and cometary nuclei, with emphasis on recent observations (e.g. asteroids with satellites, comets Borelly and LINEAR). A short review of future space missions to small bodies (e.g. Stardust, CONTOUR, Deep Impact, Muses -C, Rosetta) will then be given. The international cooperation, taking place for observations of both in-situ missions targets and new bright objects, will be pointed out.

Levasseur-Regourd, A. Ch.

263

Swallowed Object  

MedlinePLUS

... toys, coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. Problems may arise ... toys, coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. These objects often ...

264

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.  

PubMed

The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

2013-12-01

265

Dynamics of asteroids and near-Earth objects from Gaia Astrometry D. Bancelina, D. Hestroffera, W. Thuillota  

E-print Network

tests to analyse the impact of Gaia data on known asteroids's orbit, and their value for the analysisDynamics of asteroids and near-Earth objects from Gaia Astrometry D. Bancelina, D. Hestroffera, W asteroids (MBAs) and near-Earth objects (NEOs) down to magnitude 20. The high precision astrometry (0

266

Effects of perceived long-term stress on subjective and objective aspects of memory and cognitive functioning in a middle-aged population-based sample.  

PubMed

The longitudinal effects of perceived stress on measures of memory and two other cognitive functions (word fluency, visuospatial ability) in a middle-aged sample (40-60 years, M age = 47.1 years, SD = 6.1 years; n = 192) were examined. A group describing themselves as stressed in general at baseline, and at follow-up measurement 5 and 10 years later (n = 96) was compared with a matched (age, sex) low-stress group (n = 96). The results revealed more depressive symptoms over time in the high-stress group. With regard to memory, a dissociation between subjective and objective measures was observed. Specifically, participants in the high-stress group rated their memory as worse over time as compared with controls, and reported a higher frequency of occurrence of everyday memory failures, effects partly independent of depressive symptoms. However, the groups did not differ in terms of objective episodic memory performance, word fluency or block design performance, with stable levels of performance over time regardless of perceived stress. The lack of effects of stress on cognitive performance is discussed in the light of factors such as stress level, age of the participants, and other individual difference factors. PMID:23534095

Rönnlund, Michael; Sundström, Anna; Sörman, Daniel Eriksson; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2013-01-01

267

Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

2011-01-01

268

Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling, D.E. et al. [2010]. Astron. J. 140, 770-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (˜0.7-2.5 ?m) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with Band Area Ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed. The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez, J.A., Reddy, V., Nathues, A., Cloutis, E.A., Mann, P., Hiesinger, H. [2012]. Icarus 220, 36-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.008, arXiv:1205.0248). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

2014-01-01

269

An ‘entry level’ mission to a near Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects’ mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An ‘entry level’ mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10 kg science ‘reference’ payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of €20million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2006-10-01

270

An "entry level" mission to a Near Earth Object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects' mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An 'entry level' mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10kg science 'reference' payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of Euro 20 million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2003-11-01

271

NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will directly support the investigation of open questions and operational concepts that will enable NASA to continue its plan for planetary exploration.

Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

2011-01-01

272

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Self-reports: Testing Validity and Reliability Using the NEO-PI-R.  

PubMed

Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of self-reported data using the NEO personality inventory-revised (NEO-PI-R). Forty-eight adults with ASD and 53 controls completed the NEO-PI-R and a psychiatric interview. Results indicate satisfactory internal consistency of the NEO-PI-R, a satisfactory factor structure, predicted correlations with clinician ratings in the ASD group, and predicted differences in personality between the ASD group and controls. In conclusion, the present results support the use of self-reported measures when assessing adults with ASD . PMID:25326256

Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne

2014-10-18

273

Neo-fused hexaphyrin: a molecular puzzle containing an N-linked pentaphyrin.  

PubMed

The first neo-confused hexaphyrin(1.1.1.1.1.0) was synthesized by oxidative ring closure of a hexapyrrane bearing two terminal "confused" pyrroles. The new compound displays a folded conformation with a short interpyrrolic C???N distance of 3.102?Å, and thus it readily underwent ring fusion to afford a neo-fused hexaphyrin with an unprecedented 5,5,5,7-tetracyclic ring structure. Furthermore, coordination of Cu(II) triggered a ring opening/contracting reaction to afford a Cu(II) complex of an N-linked pentaphyrin derivative. The roles of reactive N?C bonds in the porphyrinoid macrocycles were demonstrated. PMID:25323992

Wei, Pingchun; Zhang, Kai; Li, Xin; Meng, Deying; Agren, Hans; Ou, Zhongping; Ng, Seikweng; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Xie, Yongshu

2014-12-15

274

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2007-01-01

275

Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia.  

PubMed

Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process. PMID:25034856

Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T

2014-01-01

276

Neo-Hookean fiber composites undergoing finite out-of-plane shear deformations  

E-print Network

The response of a neo-Hookean fiber composite undergoing finite out-of-plane shear deformation is examined. To this end an explicit close form solution for the out-of-plane shear response of a cylindrical composite element is introduced. We find that the overall response of the cylindrical composite element can be characterized by a fictitious homogeneous neo-Hookean material. Accordingly, this macroscopic response is identical to the response of a composite cylinder assemblage. The expression for the effective shear modulus of the composite cylinder assemblage is identical to the corresponding expression in the limit of small deformation elasticity, and hence also to the expression for the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the out-of-plane shear modulus.

G. deBotton; I. Hariton

2005-08-04

277

Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.  

PubMed

In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

2011-01-01

278

Spacecraft observations of NEOs: a Mars Express demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To demonstrate the astrometric capability of the Mars Express Super Resolution Channel for observing Near Earth Asteroids, asteroid 4 Vesta was imaged against a star field in two five-picture sequences. While at a solar phase angle of 40.5 degrees and visual magnitude of 7.2, Vesta was imaged along with a 7.4 and 8.2 visual magnitude reference star in all ten pictures. Mars Express centered astrometric observations of Vesta were then produced using flight camera geometric calibrations, optical photogrammetric techniques, and the Tycho 2 star catalog. The astrometric measurements, validated to an accuracy of 0.4 arc-sec, were delivered to the IAU's Minor Planet Center. Such observations provide geometrically powerful samples of the target body's state vector when combined with Earth-based astrometric observations, substantially improving orbit reconstruction and prediction compared to data obtained while viewing from the Earth direction only. Based on this success, Mars Express will routinely image Near Earth Objects, asteroids and comets passing within 20,000,000 km of Mars that are brighter than 9th magnitude to support the Near Earth Object Observation program

Duxbury, Thomas; Roatsch, Thomas; Jaumann, Ralf; Hoffmann, Harald; Giorgini, J. D.

279

Breaking the mould: an institutionalist political economy alternative to the neo-liberal theory of the market and the state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper criticises the currently dominant neo-liberal discourse on the role of the state and proposes an alternative approach that will allow us to overcome its shortcomings, especially its inadequate analyses of the role of institutions and politics. It argues that the central problem with the neo-liberal framework lies not in its excessively anti-interventionist policy conclusions, as some of its

Ha-Joon Chang

2002-01-01

280

Improved Bootstrap Conédence Limits in Large-Scale Phylogenies, with an Example from Neo-Astragalus (Leguminosae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analyses oflarge datasetsposespecial challenges, including theapparent ten- dency for the bootstrap support for a clade to decline with increased taxon sampling of that clade. We document this decline in data setswith increasing numbers of taxa in Astragalus, the most species-rich angiospermgenus.Supportforonesubclade, Neo-Astragalus, declined monotonically with increased sampling oftaxa inside Neo-Astragalus, irrespective ofwhether parsimonyorneighbor-joiningmeth- ods were used or of which

MICHAEL J. SANDERSON; MARTIN F. WOJCIECHOWSKI

2000-01-01

281

The Neo-Confucian right and family politics in South Korea: The nuclear family as an ideological construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous issues of Economy and Society, Somerville and Durham debated the moralization of neo-liberal family policy. The conservative politics of the family has been moralized not only in Anglo-American societies but also in South Korea. From a neo-Confucian perspective, many conservative politicians and even scholars have found a convenient scapegoat in the nuclear family as the main cause of

Kyung-Sup Chang

1997-01-01

282

The Fate of Sustainable Development Under Neo-Liberal Regimes in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Due to an ,enhanced ,global environmental ,awareness ,reinforced by dramatic environmental events, international conferences on the environ- ment and development, as well as academic research and publications, have increasingly shifted the developmental ,discourse ,toward ,the concept ,of “sustainable development.” In developing countries, however, the realization ofthe,notion of sustainable,development,has come,under,challenge due to the emergence ,of neo-liberal regimes ,and ,their pro-market

M. shamsul Haque

1999-01-01

283

A Legitimate Paradox: Neo-liberal Reform and the Return of the State in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the neo-liberal reforms that the Kim government implemented in post-crisis Korea. It argues that by embracing the reforms, the state, paradoxically, re-legitimised itself in the national political economy. The process of enacting the reforms completed the power shift from a collusive state-chaebol alliance towards a new alliance based on a more populist social contract - but one

David Hundt

2005-01-01

284

Skills as tribute: Phoenician sailors and shipwrights in the service of Neo-Assyria  

E-print Network

-Palestinian coast. 16 Map of the Phoenician expansion throughout the Mediterranean. 20 Assyrian soldiers carrying off booty from a conquered city. . . . 25 10 Tribute-bearers from the eastern and western provinces of the Neo-Assyrian empire, depicted at Sargon... expanded in territory from its small nucleus in northern Mesopotamia to the coastline of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. This extension of the Assyrian hegemony led to contact with and the eventual subjugation of the Phoenician peoples who occupied a...

Trakadas, Athena Lynn

2012-06-07

285

Teachers’ professional identity, educational change and neo-liberal pressures on education in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education reforms underpinned by neo-liberal values have been criticised for bringing an adverse impact on teachers’ professional identity. This article presents a qualitative study of teachers’ professional identity in three historical periods in Hong Kong: Phase 1: 1965–84; Phase 2: 1984–97; and Phase 3: the post-1997 period. By juxtaposing the systemic narratives against the work life narratives of 23 teachers,

Sylvia Yee Fan Tang

2011-01-01

286

Utility of the NEO-FFI in multi-dimensional assessment of orofacial pain conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of using the NEO-FFI personality assessment as part of multi-dimensional\\u000a psychological assessment in orofacial pain patients during the initial diagnostic visit. All patients completed an orofacial\\u000a pain questionnaire and a battery of psychological questionnaires that cover a wide range of symptoms and behaviors important\\u000a to developing a comprehensive treatment plan.

John E. SchmidtW; W. Michael Hooten; Charles R. Carlson

2011-01-01

287

Nonlinear Active Noise Control for Infant Incubators in NeoNatal Intensive Care Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive noise in neo-natal care units and inside incubators can have a number of detrimental effects on an infant's health. This paper presents a novel, audio-integrated approach to achieving active noise control (ANC) for infant incubators. This paper also presents the implementation of the robust, nonlinear filtered-X least mean M-estimate algorithm, for reducing impulsive interference in incubators. The healthcare application

Priya Thanigai; S. M. Sen Sen Kuo; Ravi Yenduri

2007-01-01

288

NEW STRATEGIES OF POLICING THE POOR: BERLIN'S NEO-LIBERAL SECURITY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inner-city public space has gained a central role in the process of neo-liberal urban restructuring. The profit-orientated revalorization of selected urban spaces is flanked by campaigns for cleanliness and order. Police forces focus their activities on marginalized groups, organizing themselves into “operations” or “special task forces” against homeless people, punks, (foreign) youths and drug addicts. Some of them are working

VOLKER EICK

2003-01-01

289

Cognitive and social development in the second year of life: A Neo-Piagetian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Case’s Neo-Piagetian theory, the cognitive and social development of the child in the second year of life is investigated.\\u000a In a longitudinal repeated measures design, using cognitive and social tasks, 18 mother-infant pairs were studied in respect\\u000a to the transition period from the first (sensorimotor) stage to the second (interrelational) stage. Results strongly support\\u000a the prediction that a new

Karen L. Leitner

1989-01-01

290

Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits  

E-print Network

Nearly all known extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) have argument of perihelion close to 0 degrees. An existing observational bias strongly favours the detection of ETNOs with arguments of perihelion close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees yet no objects have been found at 180 degrees. No plausible explanation has been offered so far to account for this unusual pattern. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of comet 96P/Machholz 1, a bizarre near-Earth object (NEO) that may provide the key to explain the puzzling clustering of orbits around argument of perihelion close to 0 degrees recently found for the population of ETNOs. Comet 96P/Machholz 1 is currently locked in a Kozai resonance with Jupiter such that the value of its argument of perihelion is always close to 0 degrees at its shortest possible perihelion (highest eccentricity and lowest inclination) and about 180 degrees near its shortest aphelion (longest perihelion distance, lowest eccentricity and highest inclination). If this object is a dynamical...

Marcos, C de la Fuente; Aarseth, S J

2014-01-01

291

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, nontraditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NE0 will accomplish this goal by anticipating users expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

Ward, Kevin; Herring, David

2005-01-01

292

Introducing an osteopathic approach into neonatology ward: the NE-O model  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies showed the effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on neonatal care in reducing length of stay in hospital, gastrointestinal problems, clubfoot complications and improving cranial asymmetry of infants affected by plagiocephaly. Despite several results obtained, there is still a lack of standardized osteopathic evaluation and treatment procedures for newborns recovered in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this paper is to suggest a protocol on osteopathic approach (NE-O model) in treating hospitalized newborns. Methods The NE-O model is composed by specific evaluation tests and treatments to tailor osteopathic method according to preterm and term infants’ needs, NICU environment, medical and paramedical assistance. This model was developed to maximize the effectiveness and the clinical use of osteopathy into NICU. Results The NE-O model was adopted in 2006 to evaluate the efficacy of OMT in neonatology. Results from research showed the effectiveness of this osteopathic model in reducing preterms’ length of stay and hospital costs. Additionally the present model was demonstrated to be safe. Conclusion The present paper defines the key steps for a rigorous and effective osteopathic approach into NICU setting, providing a scientific and methodological example of integrated medicine and complex intervention. PMID:24904746

2014-01-01

293

A novel temozolomide analog, NEO212, with enhanced activity against MGMT-positive melanoma in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) represents an important component of current melanoma therapy, but overexpression of O6-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumor cells confers resistance to TMZ and impairs therapeutic outcome. We investigated a novel perillyl alcohol (POH)-conjugated analog of TMZ, NEO212, for its ability to exert anticancer activity against MGMT-positive melanoma cells. Human melanoma cells with variable MGMT expression levels were treated with NEO212, TMZ, or perillyl alcohol in vitro and in vivo, and markers of DNA damage and apoptosis, and tumor cell growth were investigated. NEO212 displayed substantially greater anticancer activity than any of the other treatments. It reduced colony formation of MGMT-positive cells up to eight times more effectively than TMZ, and much more potently induced DNA damage and cell death. In a nude mouse tumor model, NEO212 showed significant activity against MGMT-positive melanoma, whereas TMZ, or a mix of TMZ plus POH, was ineffective. At the same time, NEO212 was well tolerated. NEO212 may have potential as a more effective therapy for advanced melanoma, and should become particularly suitable for the treatment of patients with MGMT-positive tumors. PMID:25524552

Chen, Thomas C; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Wang, Weijun; Nguyen, Jenny; Jhaveri, Niyati; Rosenstein-Sisson, Rachel; Hofman, Florence M; Schönthal, Axel H

2015-03-28

294

Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

2014-09-01

295

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will use the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to recover Near Earth Objects (NEOs) by adding astrometric observations at one or more orbits since discovery. Recovery observations place the strongest constraints on the orbital solution and can be expected to improve the impact risk assessment for Virtual Impactors (VIs). Many NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non- zero risk of Earth impact, all but 21 are classified as "Lost" until rediscovered by the surveys. Through this on-going work, we seek to minimize the number of new discoveries that are "lost", improve the characterization of VI/PHA orbits and to further the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2013-02-01

296

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 50-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21 < V < 23 on any night during 2012A. We will place the highest priority on Virtual Impactors (VIs) and on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) where long arcs can be created. We will also attempt to recover VI and PHA candidates on a 2- night run. Among the 109 NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non-zero risk of Earth impact, all but 26 are unobservable using conventional (non-survey) telescopes. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2012-02-01

297

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 20-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) on the NEODyS risk list, 92 are classified as ``Lost'' by NEODyS until rediscovered by the surveys. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

2013-08-01

298

Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the past decade has seen exponential growth in the number of known near-Earth objects (NEOs), a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist. This information is essential to understanding formational and evolutionary processes in the Solar System, accurate impact hazard assessment, and assuring preparedness for future planetary exploration missions. We propose a three year survey with a regular cadence of spectroscopic and photometric observations to obtain compositional and rotational information for newly discovered, mission accessible NEOs smaller than 100 meters. This will produce a database of roughly 300 objects, representing an unexplored size regime over an order of magnitude smaller than previous studies. This unprecedented data set will (1) provide new insight into fundamental Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and radiation pressure forces; (2) forge new links between asteroids and meteorites; and (3) provide key selection criteria for future planetary missions. This survey is a major component in a complementary NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute proposal (PI D. Trilling).

Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; DeMeo, Francesca; Binzel, Richard; Abell, Paul; Person, Michael; Busch, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

2013-08-01

299

Near Earth Objects - a threat and an opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade the hazard posed to the Earth by Near Earth Objects (NEOs) has generated considerable scientific and public interest. A number of major films, television programmes and media reports have brought the issue to public attention. From an educational perspective an investigation into NEOs and the effects of impacts on the Earth forms a topical and dynamic basis for study in a huge range of subjects, not just scientific. There are clear routes to chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, but history, psychology, geography, palaeontology and geology are just a selection of other subjects involved. A number of projects have been established, mainly in the USA, to determine the extent of the hazard, and to develop ways of countering it, but the present situation is far from satisfactory. Current detection and follow-up programmes are underfunded and lack international coordination.

Tate, Jonathan R.

2003-05-01

300

Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the George E. Brown, Jr. NEO Survey Program are to detect, track, catalogue, and characterize the physical characteristics of NEOs equal to or larger than 140 meters in diameter with a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, achieving 90 percent completion of the survey within 15 years after enactment of the NASA Authorization Act of 2005. The Act was signed into law by President Bush on December 30, 2005. A study team, led by NASAs Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E), conducted the analysis of alternatives with inputs from several other U.S. government agencies, international organizations, and representatives of private organizations. The team developed a range of possible options from public and private sources and then analyzed their capabilities and levels of performance including development schedules and technical risks.

2007-01-01

301

The big five versus the big four: the relationship between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and NEO-PI five factor model of personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sets out examine the relationship between two personality measures—most popularly used measure in the consultancy and training world (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and one of the most heavily used measures in the academic research area on personality (the five factor NEO-PI). One hundred and sixty adults completed the NEO-PI and the MBTI. The NEO-PI Agreeableness score was correlated

Adrian Furnham

1996-01-01

302

ASTEROFF: A Computer Code to Deflect NEOs by Missiles shot from L1 and L3 (Earth-Moon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the mathematical theory for an automatic, space-based system to deflect NEOs by virtue of missiles shot from the Earth-Moon L1 and L3 Lagrangian Points. A patent application has been filed for the relevant code, dubbed ASTEROFF (= Asteroids OFF !). This code was already implemented, and a copyright for it was registered. In a paper published in Acta Astronautica, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 185-199 (2002), this author proved mathematically the following theorem (hereafter called the ``confocal conics theorem''): ``Within the sphere of influence of the Earth, any NEO could be hit by a missile at just an angle of 90 degrees, was the missile shot from Lagrangian Points L1 or L3 of the Earth-Moon system, rather than from the surface of the Earth''. As a consequence, the hitting missile would have move along a ``confocal ellipse'' (centered at the Earth) uniquely determined by the NEO's incoming hyperbola. Based on the above theorem, the author further shows in this paper that: The proposed defense system would be ideal to deflect NEOs that are small, i.e. less than one kilometer in diameter. Small NEOs are just the most difficult ones to be detected early enough and to such an orbital accuracy to be positively sure that they are indeed hazardous. The traditional theory of Keplerian orbits can successfully be applied to get an excellent first-order approximation of the (otherwise unknown) mathematical formulae of the energy/momentum requested to achieve the NEO deflection. Many engineering details about the missiles shot from L1 and L3, however, still have to be implemented into our simulations, partly because they are classified. Was one missile not enough to deflect the NEO completely, it is a great advantage of the ``confocal conics'' used here that the new, slightly deflected NEO's hyperbola would certainly be hit at nearly 90 degrees by another and slightly more eccentric elliptical missile trajectory. A sufficient number of missiles could thus be launched in a sequence from the Earth-Moon Lagrangian points L1 and L3 with the result that the SUM of all these small and repeated deflections will finally throw the NEO off its collision hyperbola with the Earth.

Maccone, C.

303

Population of neutron unbound states via two-proton knockout reactions  

E-print Network

The two-proton knockout reaction 9Be(26Ne,O2p) was used to explore excited unbound states of 23O and 24O. In 23O a state at an excitation energy of 2.79(13) MeV was observed. There was no conclusive evidence for the population of excited states in 24O.

N. Frank; T. Baumann; D. Bazin; A. Gade; J. -L. Lecouey; W. A. Peters; H. Scheit; A. Schiller; M. Thoennessen; J. Brown; P. A. DeYoung; J. E. Finck; J. Hinnefeld; R. Howes; B. Luther

2007-08-20

304

A decision analysis approach for risk management of near-earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk management of near-Earth objects (NEOs; e.g., asteroids and comets) that can potentially impact Earth is an important issue that took on added urgency with the Chelyabinsk event of February 2013. Thousands of NEOs large enough to cause substantial damage are known to exist, although only a small fraction of these have the potential to impact Earth in the next few centuries. The probability and location of a NEO impact are subject to complex physics and great uncertainty, and consequences can range from minimal to devastating, depending upon the size of the NEO and location of impact. Deflecting a potential NEO impactor would be complex and expensive, and inter-agency and international cooperation would be necessary. Such deflection campaigns may be risky in themselves, and mission failure may result in unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and costs of different potential NEO risk management strategies have not been compared in a systematic fashion. We present a decision analysis framework addressing this hazard. Decision analysis is the science of informing difficult decisions. It is inherently multi-disciplinary, especially with regard to managing catastrophic risks. Note that risk analysis clarifies the nature and magnitude of risks, whereas decision analysis guides rational risk management. Decision analysis can be used to inform strategic, policy, or resource allocation decisions. First, a problem is defined, including the decision situation and context. Second, objectives are defined, based upon what the different decision-makers and stakeholders (i.e., participants in the decision) value as important. Third, quantitative measures or scales for the objectives are determined. Fourth, alternative choices or strategies are defined. Fifth, the problem is then quantitatively modeled, including probabilistic risk analysis, and the alternatives are ranked in terms of how well they satisfy the objectives. Sixth, sensitivity analyses are performed in order to examine the impact of uncertainties. Finally, the need for further analysis, data collection, or refinement is determined. The first steps of defining the problem and the objectives are critical to constructing an informative decision analysis. Such steps must be undertaken with participation from experts, decision-makers, and stakeholders (defined here as "decision participants"). The basic problem here can be framed as: “What is the best strategy to manage risk associated with NEOs?” Some high-level objectives might be to minimize: mortality and injuries, damage to critical infrastructure (e.g., power, communications and food distribution), ecosystem damage, property damage, ungrounded media and public speculation, resources expended, and overall cost. Another valuable objective would be to maximize inter-agency/government coordination. Some of these objectives (e.g., “minimize mortality”) are readily quantified (e.g., deaths and injuries averted). Others are less so (e.g., “maximize inter-agency/government coordination”), but these can be scaled. Objectives may be inversely related: e.g., a strategy that minimizes mortality may cost more. They are also unlikely to be weighted equally. Defining objectives and assessing their relative weight and interactions requires early engagement with decision participants. High-level decisions include whether to deflect a NEO, when to deflect, what is the best alternative for deflection/destruction, and disaster management strategies if an impact occurs. Important influences include, for example: NEO characteristics (orbital characteristics, diameter, mass, spin and composition), impact probability and location, interval between discovery and projected impact date, interval between discovery and deflection target date, costs of information collection, costs and technological feasibility of deflection alternatives, risks of deflection campaigns, requirements for inter-agency and international cooperation, and timing of informing the public. The analytical aspects of decision analysis center on es

Lee, Robert C.; Jones, Thomas D.; Chapman, Clark R.

2014-10-01

305

Feasibility study for near-earth-object tracking by a piggybacked micro-satellite with penetrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of August 2007, over 5000 near-earth-objects (NEO) have been discovered. Some already represent a potential danger to the Earth while others might become hazards in the future. The Planetary Society organised in 2007 the "Apophis Mission Design Competition" in response to this potential threat with the objective to identify promising concepts to track NEOs; the asteroid 99942 Apophis was taken as the study case. This paper describes the "Houyi" proposal which was evaluated by the competition jury as an innovative approach to this problem. Instead of launching a large satellite for NEO tracking, this novel concept proposes a miniaturized satellite that is piggybacked onto a larger (scientific) mission. Such mission design would drastically reduce the costs for NEO surveillance. The presented scenario uses the ESA's SOLO mission as a design baseline for the piggyback option. This paper summarizes the architecture of this CubeSat towards Apophis and extends the previous study by focusing on the feasibility of a piggybacked mission in terms of propulsion requirements.

Weiss, P.; Leung, W.; Yung, K. L.

2010-05-01

306

Progressive Recombination Suppression and Differentiation in Recently Evolved Neo-sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Recombination suppression leads to the structural and functional differentiation of sex chromosomes and is thus a crucial step in the process of sex chromosome evolution. Despite extensive theoretical work, the exact processes and mechanisms of recombination suppression and differentiation are not well understood. In threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a different sex chromosome system has recently evolved by a fusion between the Y chromosome and an autosome in the Japan Sea lineage, which diverged from the ancestor of other lineages approximately 2 Ma. We investigated the evolutionary dynamics and differentiation processes of sex chromosomes based on comparative analyses of these divergent lineages using 63 microsatellite loci. Both chromosome-wide differentiation patterns and phylogenetic inferences with X and Y alleles indicated that the ancestral sex chromosomes were extensively differentiated before the divergence of these lineages. In contrast, genetic differentiation appeared to have proceeded only in a small region of the neo-sex chromosomes. The recombination maps constructed for the Japan Sea lineage indicated that recombination has been suppressed or reduced over a large region spanning the ancestral and neo-sex chromosomes. Chromosomal regions exhibiting genetic differentiation and suppressed or reduced recombination were detected continuously and sequentially in the neo-sex chromosomes, suggesting that differentiation has gradually spread from the fusion point following the extension of recombination suppression. Our study illustrates an ongoing process of sex chromosome differentiation, providing empirical support for the theoretical model postulating that recombination suppression and differentiation proceed in a gradual manner in the very early stage of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:23436913

Natri, Heini M.; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

2013-01-01

307

Neo-phalloplasty with re-innervated latissimus dorsi free flap: a functional study of a novel technique.  

PubMed

Twenty two patients with gender dysphoria underwent neo-phalloplasties using a novel technique. Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneus re-innervated free flap was used to allow voluntary rigidity of the neo-penis. From the first 22 patients, 18 have obtained motoric function of reconstructed penis; the "paradox erection" was obtained. 14 patients came for examination after a follow-up period of mean 26.4 months. We evaluated the motility and shape changes of neo-phallus measuring its different size and dimension during relax and muscle contraction. The range of neo-phallus length in relaxed position was between 7 and 17 cm (mean 12.2 cm), its circumference in the same position had a range between 13 and 20 cm (mean 13.7 cm). All patients were able to contract the muscle with an average length reduction of 3.08 cm and an average circumference enlargement of 4 cm. In this study, the dimensions and motility were quantified demonstrating the neo-phallus function and size changes during sexual intercourse. PMID:17469438

Ranno, R; Veselý, J; Hýza, P; Stupka, I; Justan, I; Dvorák, Z; Monni, N; Novák, P; Ranno, S

2007-01-01

308

The tacit-explicit connection: Polanyian integrative philosophy and a Neo-Polanyian medical epistemology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an approach to clinical practice aiming to resolve the dilemma of choosing between a mechanistic and a phenomenological model. The approach is an extension of Polanyi's epistemology. Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), devised an epistemology of science which overcomes the problem of detachment, inherent in the "mechanistic" approach, and resolves the problem of subjectivity troubling phenomenologists. His epistemology is known as Personal Knowledge. An extension of this epistemology, a Neo-Polanyian proposal, is offered as a more successful model for clinical practice than previous suggestions addressing the dilemma. PMID:10051790

Jha, S R

1998-12-01

309

Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.

McCauley, Joseph L.

2001-10-01

310

The interplay between genome organization and nuclear architecture of primate evolutionary neo-centromeres.  

PubMed

An Evolutionary Neo-Centromere (ENC) is a centromere that emerged in an ectopic region of a chromosome during evolution. It is thought that the old centromere must be inactivated because dicentric chromosomes are not viable. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 3D arrangement in the interphase nucleus of the novel and old centromeric domains was affected by the repositioning event. The data we present here strongly indicate that the ENC phenomenon does not affect the 3D location of either novel or old centromeres. Very likely, other features, such as gene density, rather than the newly acquired or lost functions, define positioning in the nucleus. PMID:23648727

Lomiento, Mariana; Grasser, Florian; Rocchi, Mariano; Müller, Stefan

2013-10-01

311

St.Augustine's 'notitia sui' related to Aristotle, the early neo-Platonists and Hegel  

E-print Network

.I , ,I S To A UG U S TI N E ' S ' N 0 TIT I A SUI t Related to . Aristotle, the early neo-Pla tonists and Hegel by Reverend Edward Go T. Booth, O. Po , MoAo A Thesis presented for the Degree of PhoDo in the University of Cambridge... ' this work. ,I .... ------------~~~~; CONT E NTS INTRODUCTION Footnotes to Introduction Clli\\PTER 1 Struc~ures of Subjectivity in Aristotle \\ Intellectual and Sense Knowledge Thinking a) b) how it comes ahout the relationship of thinking...

Booth, Edward Geoffrey Thornton

1975-10-28

312

Sensitivity, Specificity, and Reproducibility of the Capilia TB-Neo Assay  

PubMed Central

The performance of the Capilia TB-Neo assay, a new-generation assay, was assessed by determining its sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and cross-reaction with contaminating organisms. The sensitivity and specificity were 99.2 and 96.4% and 89.3 and 100% in pure and mixed-culture isolates, respectively. The kappa statistic was 95.0 and 77.9% in pure and mixed culture isolates, respectively. There was no cross-reaction with contaminating organisms. PMID:24108604

Mwanza, Winnie C.; Kasese, Nkatya; Cheeba-Lengwe, Maina; Moyo, Maureen; Kaluba-Milimo, Deborah; Ayles, Helen

2013-01-01

313

Literature Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature experts, educators, and a national cross-section of interested laymen were gathered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress to define major objectives in literature instruction, to suggest tasks to sample these objectives and exhibit the achievements, interests, and attitudes of those exposed to literature, and to describe…

Norris, Eleanor L., Ed.; Bowes, John E., Ed.

314

Reading Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a review of past research in reading education, Science Research Associates arrived at reading objectives which were then reviewed by the National Assessment of Educational Progress staff, educators, and laymen. The six major reading objectives, appropriate for age-groups 9, 13, 17, and young adults, are the abilities to comprehend, analyze,…

Norris, Eleanor L., Ed.; Bowes, John E., Ed.

315

The Catalina Sky Survey for Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) specializes in the detection of the closest transients in our transient universe: near-Earth objects (NEOs). CSS is the leading NEO survey program since 2005, with a discovery rate of 500-600 NEOs per year. This rate is set to substantially increase starting in 2014 with the deployment of wider FOV cameras at both survey telescopes, while a proposed 3-telescope system in Chile would provide a new and significant capability in the Southern Hemisphere beginning as early as 2015. Elements contributing to the success of CSS may be applied to other surveys, and include 1) Real-time processing, identification, and reporting of interesting transients; 2) Human-assisted validation to ensure a clean transient stream that is efficient to the limits of the system (˜ 1?); 3) an integrated follow-up capability to ensure threshold or high-priority transients are properly confirmed and followed up. Additionally, the open-source nature of the CSS data enables considerable secondary science (i.e. CRTS), and CSS continues to pursue collaborations to maximize the utility of the data.

Christensen, E.

316

Determination of neo- and d-chiro-Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soils by Solution 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and d-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and d-chiro-IP6 and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable 31P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP6) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of d-chiro-IP6) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46–54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (d-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and d-chiro-IP6 occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and d-chiro-IP6 in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP6 stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

2012-01-01

317

Teaching about Population Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide on population issues contains 19 activities for students in grades 7-12. The objective is to analyze population issues that have resulted from human population dynamics. In this guide, four categories of activities are included: some are discussion starters, some provide factual data, some focus on thinking skills, and some are…

Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

318

Vague objects  

E-print Network

Peter Unger's puzzle, the problem of the many, is an argument for the conclusion that we are grossly mistaken about what kinds of objects are in our immediate surroundings. But it is not clear what we should make of Unger's ...

Ólafur Páll Jónsson

2001-01-01

319

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.  

PubMed

Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

2013-08-15

320

Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument. PMID:22452759

Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

2013-01-01

321

THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-01-01

322

The contribution of female meiotic drive to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-10-01

323

Trusted Objects  

SciTech Connect

In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

1999-10-27

324

Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy  

E-print Network

By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, give the best representation of meteorite source bodies. ...

Thomas, Cristina Ana

2009-01-01

325

Why has productivity growth stagnated in most Latin-American countries since the neo-liberal reforms?  

E-print Network

is always ephemeral, but also that [...] we can always start all over again [and again]. Leo Valiani [Latin America] has a narcissistic tendency to use reality as a mirror for self-contemplation. [... Yet] human history is the product... . As had happened in the 1930s, these laid the foundations for a radical ideological transformation that led to the new paradigm along the lines of Anglo-Saxon neo-liberalism and US neo-conservatism, and quite distinct from what was happening in Asia...

Palma, J G

326

World Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access and visualize world population data using the user friendly MyWorld GIS software. Data includes total population, population density, projected population, male and female population, and age specific population, etc.

This starting point example compiled by R.M. MacKay. utilizes the MyWorld (more info) Geographic Information System (GIS) software created at Norhtwestern University.

327

Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on…

Ramberg, Magnus Rye

2014-01-01

328

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

2013-01-01

329

The NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Latent Structure and Relationships with Dimensions of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in a Large Clinical Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the latent structure of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO FFI) and relations between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and dimensions of "DSM-IV" anxiety and depressive disorders (panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia [SOC], major depressive disorder…

Rosellini, Anthony J.; Brown, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

330

Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

2010-01-01

331

Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

2011-01-01

332

Weakly nonlinear analysis of viscous instability in flow past a neo-Hookean surface.  

PubMed

We analyze the stability of the plane Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid past an incompressible deformable solid in the creeping flow limit where the viscous stresses in the fluid (of the order eta_{f}VR ) are comparable with the elastic stresses in the solid (of the order G ). Here, eta_{f} is the fluid viscosity, V is the top-plate velocity, R is the channel width, and G is the shear modulus of the elastic solid. For (eta_{f}VGR)=O(1) , the flexible solid undergoes finite deformations and is, therefore, appropriately modeled as a neo-Hookean solid of finite thickness which is grafted to a rigid plate at the bottom. Both linear as well as weakly nonlinear stability analyses are carried out to investigate the viscous instability and the effect of nonlinear rheology of solid on the instability. Previous linear stability studies have predicted an instability as the dimensionless shear rate Gamma=(eta_{f}VGR) is increased beyond the critical value Gamma_{c} . The role of viscous dissipation in the solid medium on the stability behavior is examined. The effect of solid-to-fluid viscosity ratio eta_{r} on the critical shear rate Gamma_{c} for the neo-Hookean model is very different from that for the linear viscoelastic model. Whereas the linear elastic model predicts that there is no instability for Hneo-Hookean model predicts an instability for all values of eta_{r} and H . The value of Gamma_{c} increases upon increasing eta_{r} from zero up to sqrt[eta_{r}]H approximately 1 , at which point the value of Gamma_{c} attains a peak and any further increase in eta_{r} results in a decrease in Gamma_{c} . The weakly nonlinear analysis indicated that the bifurcation is subcritical for most values of H when eta_{r}=0 . However, upon increasing eta_{r} , there is a crossover from subcritical to supercritical bifurcation for sqrt[eta_{r}]H approximately 1 . Another crossover is observed as the bifurcation again becomes subcritical at large values of eta_{r} . A plot in H versus sqrt[eta_{r}]H space is constructed to mark the regions where the bifurcation is subcritical and supercritical. The equilibrium amplitude and some physical quantities of interest, such as the total strain energy of the disturbance in the solid, have been calculated, and the effect of parameters H , eta_{r} , and interfacial tension on these quantities are analyzed. PMID:18643157

Chokshi, Paresh; Kumaran, V

2008-05-01

333

A Neo-Gramscian Approach to Corporate Political Strategy: Conflict and Accommodation in the Climate Change Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neo-Gramscian theoretical framework for corporate political strategy is developed drawing from Gramsci's analysis of the relations among capital, social forces, and the state, and from more contemporary theories. Gramsci's political theory recognizes the centrality of organizations and strategy, directs attention to the organizational, economic, and ideological pillars of power, while illuminating the processes of coalition building, conflict, and accommodation

David L. Levy; Daniel Egan

2003-01-01

334

The Single Andigenum Origin of Neo-Tuberosum Potato Materials is not Supported by Microsatellite and Plastid Marker Analyses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neo-Tuberosum refers to cultivated potato adapted to long-day tuberization and a syndrome of related morphological and physiological traits, developed by intercrossing and selection of short-day adapted potatoes of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum Group, native from the Andes of western Venezuela to ...

335

The NEO Spiral II Program: AN FAA\\/industry exploration of unmanned aircraft system integration in the National Airspace System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Network Enabled Operations (NEO) Spiral II Program is a collaborative effort that brings the FAA and a Boeing-led industry team of 14 partner companies and organizations together to explore concepts that will help to advance the operation of future unmanned aircraft system's (UAS's) integration in the National Airspace System (NAS): • Enhanced FAA intra-agency information sharing using capabilities in

Samet Ayhan; Paul Comitz; David Sweet; Les Robinson; Pam Arkebauer; Florian Hafner

2011-01-01

336

Insect abundance and colonization rate in Fontinalis neo-mexicana (Bryophyta) in an Idaho Batholith stream, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect colonization rate and abundance in the aquatic moss, Fontinalis neo-mexicana were examined in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho, June 1978–August 1979 to determine the importance of moss as a habitat for insects. The insect communities in moss as well as in the underlying and adjacent mineral substrates were examined. Insects were sampled with a nylon organdy net in

M. A. Maurer; M. A. Brusven

1983-01-01

337

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction.  

SciTech Connect

In his 1960 paper Man-Machine Symbiosis, Licklider predicted that human brains and computing machines will be coupled in a tight partnership that will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. Today we are on the threshold of resurrecting the vision of symbiosis. While Licklider’s original vision suggested a co-equal relationship, here we discuss an updated vision, neo-symbiosis, in which the human holds a superordinate position in an intelligent human-computer collaborative environment. This paper was originally published as a journal article and is being published as a chapter in an upcoming book series, Advances in Novel Approaches in Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2008-12-01

338

The 1999 Crafoord Prize lectures. Neo-Lamarckian experimentalism in America: origins and consequences.  

PubMed

The 1890s and the first decades of the twentieth century saw a vigorous debate about the mechanisms of evolutionary change. On one side, August Weismann defended the selectionist hypothesis; on the other, Herbert Spencer defended neo-Lamarckian theory. Supporters of Spencer, notably the American paleontologist and evolutionary theorist Henry Fairfield Osborn, recognized that the questions raised by Weismann and Spencer could only be settled experimentally. They called for the application of experimental methods, and the establishment of a new institution for the purpose of confirming the inheritance of acquired characters. To a great extent, the experimental program championed by Osborn and others was implemented and, although it failed to reveal soft inheritance and was soon eclipsed by Mendelian and chromosomal genetics, it did make significant and lasting contributions to evolutionary biology. Thus the importance of methodological and institutional innovation and theoretical pluralism to the progress of science is illustrated and underscored. PMID:10672643

Cook, G M

1999-12-01

339

Newton-Machian analysis of Neo-tychonian model of planetary motions  

E-print Network

The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system will be performed in two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. First model is well-known Copernican system, which assumes the Sun is at rest and all the planets orbit around it. Second one is less-known model developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and other planets orbit around the Sun. The term "Neo-tychonian system" refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

Popov, Luka

2013-01-01

340

Newtonian-Machian analysis of the neo-Tychonian model of planetary motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system is performed using two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. The first model is the well-known Copernican system, which assumes that the Sun is at rest and that all the planets orbit around it. The second is a less well-known model, developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and the other planets orbit around the Sun. The term ‘neo-Tychonian system’ refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

Popov, Luka

2013-03-01

341

X: a case study of a Swedish neo-Nzi and his reintegration into Swedish society.  

PubMed

This article provides a case study of a Swedish neo-Nazi and the reintegration program being provided to him. During an extensive interview that took place over two days, he told a researcher that he was interested in having a violent adventure, and that he was drawn to Nazi symbols and history more than their creed. In comparison with ordinary crime, terrorist crime is quite rare, and access to detailed case studies is rarer still, making the development of a prospective risk-assessment instrument extremely difficult. Researchers' "thick descriptions" of their encounters with terrorists can help us to develop putative risk factors which can then be tested against controls. The article concludes by arguing that just as there is no single pathway into or out of terrorism, there can be no single reintegration program. A series of thick descriptions is a first step toward understanding what leads individuals into and out of terrorism. PMID:24711284

Stern, Jessica Eve

2014-01-01

342

Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.  

PubMed

Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. PMID:23415586

Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

2013-03-01

343

Probes to the inferior planets—A new dawn for NEO and IEO detection technology demonstration from heliocentric orbits interior to the earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a renewed interest in exploration of the interior of the solar system. A number of missions are currently under way, in planning as well as in space, with the primary goal to expand our knowledge on the planets Mercury and Venus. Chemical propulsion missions to Mercury in particular require an extended cruise phase prior to arrival at their destination, usually involving multiple planetary fly-by manoeuvres and many revolutions in heliocentric orbit. The difficulties in discovering and tracking small objects interior to Earth's orbit, mainly due to unfavourable viewing geometry as well as atmospheric interference, have long been noted by the solar system science and planetary defence communities. Space probes in the interior of the solar system are in a position to observe objects near or interior to Earth's orbit in favourable opposition geometry. They are also usually free from planet-related interference, at least while in cruise, and often can be while in planetary eclipse. Dedicated search and survey missions to look for Near and Inner Earth Objects (NEO, IEO) from the vicinity of Earth or low Earth orbit are being planned. In this article, the ad-hoc available as well as near-term planned in-situ capabilities of the optical instrument payloads of space probes to Venus and Mercury are compiled from publications by the respective instrument teams. The small-object detection capabilities of cameras and spectrographs in opposition geometry are estimated by a common method, using data from comparable instruments to supplement missing information where necessary. The on-board cameras are classified according to their small-object detection potential in a technology demonstration of asteroid detection from a heliocentric orbit substantially interior to Earth's.

Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Mottola, Stefano; Drentschew, Maximilian; Drobczyk, Martin; Kahle, Ralph; Maiwald, Volker; Quantius, Dominik; Zabel, Paul; van Zoest, Tim

2013-09-01

344

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

345

ESA/ESO collaboration to track potentially threatening near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collaboration has been set up between ESA and ESO, within the global effort by the United Nations and its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). The UN-COPUOS Action Team 14 put forward recommendations for an international response to the near-Earth-object (NEO) impact threat to form an International Asteroid Warning Network, which the UN General Assembly approved in October 2013. The NEO Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) aims to coordinate and combine information from different sources, and analyse them to predict possible impacts with the Earth, and assess danger, and analyse possible mitigations, including the deflection of a menacing asteroid. With the VLT, ESO's capabilities to observe very faint (but still threatening) NEOs complement ESA's efforts to discover and track these objects. The ESA/ESO campaign focuses on faint objects, with a high value on the Palermo scale, which cannot be observed with smaller telescopes, and on recently discovered NEOs, which are rapidly fading below the detection threshold for smaller telescopes before their orbit can be secured. Technically, the campaign is implemented as a 'Target of Opportunity'' program, in which observations can be queued on VLT's UT1 with FORS at short notice. The first observations targeted 2009 FD, which had been ranked among the top five objects on the NEODyS Risk List. The VLT observations, processed by the European NEODyS system and the JPL-based Sentry system, decreased its Palermo index from -1.8 to -2.6. The campaign currently has a telescope time credit corresponding to 15--20 recoveries per year.

Hainaut, O.; Koschny, D.; Micheli, M.

2014-07-01

346

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs of 50 days or more from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. On any night during 2011A, many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21 < V < 23. We will place the highest priority on Virtual Impactors (VIs) and on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) where long arcs can be created. Among 92 objects for which the NEODyS system estimates a non-zero risk of Earth impact, all but 14 are unrecoverable using conventional (not wide field) telescopes. Some 85% of the objects that are the reason for the discovery surveys must be re-discovered at the next favorable opposition and linked to past observations before the impact risk can be reliably assessed. By creating an extended arc, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large ephemeris errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2011-02-01

347

Long-Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs up to 50-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solutions and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainties at the next recovery opportunity. On any night during 2010B, many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21 < V < 23. We will place the highest priority on Virtual Impactors (VIs) and on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) where long arcs can be created. Among 89 objects for which the NEODyS system estimates a non-zero risk of Earth impact, all but 20 are unrecoverable using conventional telescopes with small fields of view. Thus, ~80% of the objects that are the reason for the discovery surveys must be re- discovered at the next favorable oppositions and linked to past observations before the impact risk can be reliably assessed. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large ephemeris errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2010-08-01

348

Extended Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs of 50 to 80 days from discovery. These extended follow-up observations place strong constraints on the orbital solution and will greatly reduce the position uncertainty at next opposition. On any night during 2010A, many NEOs discovered 50 to 80 days before will be observable in the range 21 < V < 23. We will place the highest priority on Virtual Impactors (VIs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Among 78 objects for which the NEODyS system estimates a non- zero risk of Earth impact, all but 12 are categorized as effectively lost. Thus, 85% of the objects that are the reason for the discovery surveys must be re-discovered and linked to past observations before the impact risk can be reliably assessed. By creating an extended arc, we will significantly reduce the probability that new discoveries will also become lost.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2010-02-01

349

The LCOGT near-Earth-object follow-up network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network that will eventually consist of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres [1]. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make the LCOGT network ideal for follow-up and characterization of a wide range of solar-system objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper-belt objects, comets) and in particular near-Earth objects (NEOs). There are 3 classes to the telescope resources: 2-meter aperture, 1-meter aperture and 0.4-meter aperture. We have been operating our two 2-meter telescopes since 2005 and began a specific program of NEO follow-up for the Pan-STARRS survey in October 2010. The combination of all-sky access, large aperture, rapid response, robotic operation and good site conditions allows us to provide time-critical follow-up astrometry and photometry on newly discovered objects and faint objects as they recede from the Earth, allowing the orbital arc to be extended and preventing loss of objects. These telescope resources have greatly increased as LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment, designated as ''Version 1.0'', with the installation, commissioning and ongoing operation of nine 1-meter telescopes. These are distributed among four sites with one 1-meter at McDonald Observatory (Texas), three telescopes at Cerro Tololo (Chile), three telescopes at SAAO (South Africa) and the final two telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). In addition to the 1-meter network, the scheduling and control system for the two 2-meter telescopes have been upgraded and unified with that of the 1-meter network to provide a coherent robotic telescopic network. The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and Pan-STARRS (PS1) with additional targets coming from the NEOWISE satellite and the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Robotic observations of NEOs and other solar-system objects have been routinely carried out for several years on the 2-m and 1-m telescopes, with over 20,000 positional and magnitude measurements reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in the last two years. We have developed software to automatically fetch candidates from Pan-STARRS and the MPC Confirmation Page, compute orbits and ephemerides, plan and schedule observations on the telescopes and retrieve the processed data [2]. The program is being expanded which will allow us to greatly increase the amount of survey discoveries that are followed-up, obtain accurate astrometry and provide important characterization data in the form of colors, lightcurves, rotation rates and spectra for NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. Priority for follow-up is now given to the fainter and most southern targets on the Confirmation Page, objects that are scheduled for Goldstone/Arecibo radar targeting and those objects which could become potential mission destinations for spacecraft. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. With the increase in time available from the LCOGT 1-meter network and commissioning of low-resolution spectrographs on the 2-meter telescopes for moving objects, this will produce a large advance in capabilities for NEO follow-up and characterization. This will produce an unprecedented network for NEO follow-up, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere where there is currently a shortage of suitable facilities. We will continue to develo

Lister, T.

2014-07-01

350

Comet\\/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS): a Space-Based System Concept for Revolutionizing Earth Protection and Utilization of Near Earth-Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists an infrequent, but significant hazard to life and property due to impacting asteroids and comets. Earth approaching asteroids and comets are collectively termed NEOs (near-Earth objects). The goal of current search efforts is to catalog and characterize by 2008 the orbits of 90% of the estimated 1200 near-Earth asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter. Impacts can also

Daniel D. Mazanek; Carlos M. Roithmayr; Jeffrey Antol

2002-01-01

351

CDRP - Target Populations  

Cancer.gov

Home About CDRP Background The Challenge Ahead Health Disparities Cooperative Planning Grant Objective and Scope U56 Award Mechanism Target Populations Funded Institutions Funded Institutions Programs' Presentations CDRP Symposium Presentations Clinical

352

The sockeye salmon neo-Y chromosome is a fusion between linkage groups orthologous to the coho Y chromosome and the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 2.  

PubMed

Unlike other Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) have an X(1)X(2)Y sex chromosome system, with females having a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 58 and males 2n = 57 in all populations examined. To determine the origin of the sockeye Y chromosome, we mapped microsatellite loci from the rainbow trout (O. mykiss; OMY) genetic map, including those found on the Y chromosomes of related species, in kokanee (i.e. non-anadromous sockeye) crosses. Results showed that 3 microsatellite loci from the long arm of rainbow trout chromosome 8 (OMY8q), linked to SEX (the sex-determining locus) in coho salmon (O. kisutch), are also closely linked to SEX in the kokanee crosses. We also found that 3 microsatellite loci from OMY2q are linked to those markers from OMY8q and SEX in kokanee, with both linkage groups fused to form the neo-Y. These results were confirmed by physical mapping of BAC clones containing microsatellite loci from OMY8q and OMY2q to kokanee chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The fusion of OMY2q to the ancestral Y may have resolved sexual conflict and, in turn, may have played a large role in the divergence of sockeye from a shared ancestor with coho. PMID:22188666

Faber-Hammond, J; Phillips, R B; Park, L K

2012-01-01

353

Estimation of tectonic stress rates from NeoKinema models in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied 2-D kinematic F-E program NeoKinema to estimate long-term-average velocity, fault slip rates, and strain rate field in southern California. We use weighted least-squares to fit the input data (geological fault slip rates, geodetic benchmark velocities, and horizontal principal stress directions) and invert the velocity field. The grid is composed of mostly 7-km spherical-triangle finite element and 4-km fault bands. Geological fault slip rates, geodetic velocities, and stress directions are from California Geological Survey 2002, SCEC Community Motion Map3.0, and World Stress Map 2003, respectively. We have calculated ˜60 models to explore two tuning parameters to find the optimal model. Currently the best model has RMS discrepancies of ˜1.6 sigma for geodesy, ˜0.9 sigma for fault data, and ˜0.35 sigma for stress direction. The long-term-average velocity field is continuously/self-consistently corrected for temporary fault locking by summing the contributions of the faults that move freely at a constant rate below a locking depth with the slip rate determined in the optimized NeoKinema model. At present a constant locking depth is used for all faults and regular dislocation patches with constant dip angles are used in the correction. We do not consider the locking contributions from seismic slip in non-faulted elements as they are likely small. We computed strain rate from the "corrected" velocity field. The tectonic stressing rate is computed from strain rate assuming constant elastic modulus. Current results show that maximum tectonic shear stress accumulation concentrates around the major fast-moving faults such as San Andreas, San Jacinto etc. and that stress rate decays away from the faults. The newly derived tectonic stressing rate provides a better estimate of stress from plate tectonics since it utilizes the information from both geodetic and geologic data without preassuming any block dynamics. The comparison with tectonic stress rates estimated from rigid block models would expect to reveal new insights provided by this kinematic approach. The new estimation of tectonic stress accumulation, along with incremental stress release from each earthquake in the catalog, will allow us to test various earthquake interaction and triggering hypotheses.

Liu, Z.; Bird, P.; Kagan, Y.; Jackson, D.

2004-12-01

354

[On illnesses and treatments of scholar officials in the Qing Dynasty from the perspective of Dou Ke-qin, a neo-confucianist philosopher].  

PubMed

Illnesses and treatments are an inevitable part of life in the daily life of the neo-confucianist Dou Ke-qin whose life outlook on the treatment and recognition of diseases was influenced by his neo-confucianist conception. He claimed that diseases can be conquered by spiritual force formed on the basis of Neo-Confucianism and can be recovered by peace of the heart and moral merits and can be seen as an approach of self-accomplishment. He opposed Taoist and Buddhist ideas of life preservation and keeping fit by taking the advantages of external mystic force, and stressed that his own diseases and that of his relatives can be cured by the filial affection advocated by the Neo-Confucianism. PMID:24524634

Zhang, Bo

2013-11-01

355

Psychometric characteristics and clinical correlates of NEO-PI-R fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a) the stability of the measures over a 10-year interval, (b) their criterion-related

Edward A. Witt; Christopher J. Hopwood; Leslie C. Morey; John C. Markowitz; Thomas H. McGlashan; Carlos M. Grilo; Charles A. Sanislow; M. Tracie Shea; Andrew E. Skodol; John G. Gunderson; M. Brent Donnellan

2010-01-01

356

'The birth of bio-politics': Michel Foucault's lecture at the Collège de France on neo-liberal governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on Foucault's analysis of two forms of neo-liberalism in his lecture of 1979 at the Collège de France: German post-War liberalism and the liberalism of the Chicago School. Since the course is available only on audio-tapes at the Foucault archive in Paris, the larger part of the text presents a comprehensive reconstruction of the main line of

Thomas Lemke

2001-01-01

357

A political-economic analysis of the failure of neo-liberal restructuring in post-crisis Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates IMF-led neo-liberal restructuring in post-crisis Korea. The main conclusions are that: the economic rebound in 1999--2000 was both incomplete and unsustainable; restructuring created a ongoing credit crunch that continues to constrain investment spending; Korea may have been pushed onto a long-term low-investment, low-growth trajectory; insecurity and inequality have risen substantially; and the influence of foreign capital has

James Crotty; Kang-Kook Lee

2002-01-01

358

Fullerene C 60 in Solid Bitumen Accumulations in NeoProterozoic Pillow-Lavas at Mítov (Bohemian Massif)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fullerene C60occurs at extremely low concentration (0.2?0.3 ppm) in hard solid bitumen that was accumulated in the pillow lava bodies exposed at M?tov (Tepl?-Barrandian Neo-proterozoic of the Bohemian Massif). No higher fullerenes were documented. The C60fullerene and its precursors are present in non-graphitic and non-graphitizable carbonaceous matter. Inclusions of fullerene are found embedded within glass-like carbons that are found within

Jan Jehli?ka; Otakar Frank

2006-01-01

359

Modernist Neo?classicism and Antiquity in the Political Religion of Nazism: Adolf Hitler as Poietes of the Third Reich  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate surrounding the relation between Hitler’s interest in architectural neo?classicism and his reception of antiquity has often proceeded from the assumption of a deep nostalgia for a (deeply mythicised) classical ‘Aryan’ past and an instinctive drive to use anti?modernist art for solely propagandistic ends. Whereas some have attempted to invert this causal relationship, the present study situates Hitler’s artistic

Jan Nelis

2008-01-01

360

Nonlinear simulation of tumor necrosis, neo-vascularization and tissue invasion via an adaptive finite-element\\/level-set method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multi-scale computer simulator of cancer progression at the tumoral level, from avascular stage growth, through\\u000a the transition from avascular to vascular growth (neo-vascularization), and into the later stages of growth and invasion of\\u000a normal tissue. We use continuum scale reaction-diffusion equations for the growth component of the model, and a combined continuum-discrete\\u000a model for the angiogenesis component.

X. Zhenga; S. M. Wise; V. Cristini

2005-01-01

361

Rimorphin, a unique, naturally occurring [Leu]enkephalin-containing peptide found in association with dynorphin and alpha-neo-endorphin.  

PubMed Central

The tridecapeptide NH2-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-Arg-Gln-Phe-Lys-Val-Val-Thr-COOH has been purified from extracts of bovine posterior pituitary glands. This unique peptide, which has been given the name "rimorphin," is a major [Leu]enkephalin-containing peptide in all tissues examined that contain dynorphin and alpha-neo-endorphin. However, except for the initial hexapeptide sequence, it is structurally unrelated to the other two peptides. Images PMID:6128731

Kilpatrick, D L; Wahlstrom, A; Lahm, H W; Blacher, R; Udenfriend, S

1982-01-01

362

NeoLiberalism, the Changing German Labor Market, and Income Distribution: An Institutionalist and Post Keynesian Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inquiry relies on an Institutionalist and Post Keynesian analysis to explore Germany's neo-liberal project, noting cumulative effects emerging as measurable economic and societal outcomes. Investments in technologies generate rising output-to-capital ratios. Increasing exports offset the Domar problem, but give rise to capital surpluses. National income redistributes in favor of capital. Novel labor market institutions emerge. Following Minsky, good times

John Hall; Udo Ludwig

2010-01-01

363

Blood Pressure-Lowering Peptides from Neo-Fermented Buckwheat Sprouts: A New Approach to Estimating ACE-Inhibitory Activity  

PubMed Central

Neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts (neo-FBS) contain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and vasodilators with blood pressure-lowering (BPL) properties in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In this study, we investigated antihypertensive mechanisms of six BPL peptides isolated from neo-FBS (FBPs) by a vasorelaxation assay and conventional in vitro, in vivo, and a new ex vivo ACE inhibitory assays. Some FBPs demonstrated moderate endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in SHR thoracic aorta and all FBPs mildly inhibited ACE in vitro. Orally administered FBPs strongly inhibited ACE in SHR tissues. To investigate detailed ACE-inhibitory mechanism of FBPs in living body tissues, we performed the ex vivo assay by using endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta rings isolated from SHRs, which demonstrated that FBPs at low concentration effectively inhibited ACE in thoracic aorta tissue and suppressed angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction directly associated with BPL. These results indicate that the main BPL mechanism of FBP was ACE inhibition in living body tissues, suggesting that high FBP's bioavailability including absorption, tissue affinity, and tissue accumulation was responsible for the superior ACE inhibition in vivo. We propose that our ex vivo assay is an efficient and reliable method for evaluating ACE-inhibitory mechanism responsible for BPL activity in vivo. PMID:25222748

Koyama, Masahiro; Hattori, Seiji; Amano, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Masanori; Nakamura, Kozo

2014-01-01

364

Identification of an Effective Early Signaling Signature during Neo-Vasculogenesis In Vivo by Ex Vivo Proteomic Profiling  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic neo-vasculogenesis in vivo can be achieved by the co-transplantation of human endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs). The underlying mechanism is not completely understood thus hampering the development of novel stem cell therapies. We hypothesized that proteomic profiling could be used to retrieve the in vivo signaling signature during the initial phase of human neo-vasculogenesis. ECFCs and MSPCs were therefore either transplanted alone or co-transplanted subcutaneously into immune deficient mice. Early cell signaling, occurring within the first 24 hours in vivo, was analyzed using antibody microarray proteomic profiling. Vessel formation and persistence were verified in parallel transplants for up to 24 weeks. Proteomic analysis revealed significant alteration of regulatory components including caspases, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, DNA protein kinase, human ErbB2 receptor-tyrosine kinase as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases. Caspase-4 was selected from array results as one therapeutic candidate for targeting vascular network formation in vitro as well as modulating therapeutic vasculogenesis in vivo. As a proof-of-principle, caspase-4 and general caspase-blocking led to diminished endothelial network formation in vitro and significantly decreased vasculogenesis in vivo. Proteomic profiling ex vivo thus unraveled a signaling signature which can be used for target selection to modulate neo-vasculogenesis in vivo. PMID:23826172

Rohban, Rokhsareh; Reinisch, Andreas; Etchart, Nathalie; Schallmoser, Katharina; Hofmann, Nicole A.; Szoke, Krisztina; Brinchmann, Jan E.; Rad, Ehsan Bonyadi; Rohde, Eva; Strunk, Dirk

2013-01-01

365

Are oxygen and neon enriched in PNe and is the current solar Ne/O abundance ratio underestimated?  

E-print Network

A thorough critical literature survey has been carried out for reliable measurements of oxygen and neon abundances of planetary nebulae (PNe) and HII regions. By contrasting the results of PNe and of HII regions, we aim to address the issues of the evolution of oxygen and neon in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in the late evolutionary phases of low- and intermediate-mass stars (LIMS), as well as the currently hotly disputed solar Ne/O abundance ratio. Through the comparisons, we find that neon abundance and Ne/O ratio increase with increasing oxygen abundance in both types of nebulae, with positive correlation coefficients larger than 0.75. The correlations suggest different enrichment mechanisms for oxygen and neon in the ISM, in the sense that the growth of neon is delayed compared to oxygen. The differences of abundances between PNe and HII regions, are mainly attributed to the results of nucleosynthesis and dredge-up processes that occurred in the progenitor stars of PNe. We find that both these alpha-elements are significantly enriched at low metallicity (initial oxygen abundance oxygen in intermediate mass stars (IMS) of low initial metallicities and in more massive stars, a conjecture that requires verification by further theoretical studies. This result also strongly suggests that both the solar neon abundance and the Ne/O ratio should be revised upwards by ~0.22 dex from the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval values or by ~0.14 dex from the Grevesse & Sauval values.

W. Wang; X. -W. Liu

2008-06-13

366

Evaluation of ROSCO Neo-Sensitabs for phenotypic detection and subgrouping of ESBL-, AmpC- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of ESBL-, AmpC- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae necessitates reliable phenotypic tests for detection and categorization. The main objective of this study was to evaluate ROSCO Neo-Sensitabs with different ?-lactam-?-lactam inhibitor combinations for phenotypic detection and categorization of ?-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae. Using standard CLSI/EUCAST methodology, differences in zones of inhibitions between a ?-lactam alone compared with the combination with a ?-lactamase inhibitor as well as subjective synergy observations were determined for 172 well characterized Enterobacteriaceae strains with defined resistance mechanisms. The results showed that for all ESBL-positive strains (n = 66), combinations of clavulanic acid synergy with cefotaxime, ceftazidime or cefepime, were observed. All acquired AmpC ?-lactamases (n = 17) were detected using cloxacillin combined with cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime (both combinations were required). Carbapenemase producers (n = 59) with the exception of one KPC-producer were correctly grouped using the combination of meropenem ± aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) or dipicolinic acid (DPA). Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) also inhibited all metallo-?-lactamases, but as with DPA, one false positive result was observed. Based upon these data, we propose a tablet layout for 14 cm agar plates, which could be used as a whole or in a targeted approach for detection and categorizing of relevant acquired ?-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:22882262

Hansen, Frank; Hammerum, Anette M; Skov, Robert L; Giske, Christian G; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Samuelsen, Orjan

2012-09-01

367

In-depth study of Marxist population theory, promote China's population science.  

PubMed

The 3rd National Population Science Seminar, held in Beijng from Feb. 21-27, 1981, brought together over 270 Chinese population researchers and professionals, as well as social science and family planning workers. Participants presented over 220 papers and reports, which showed a higher level of scholarship than previous seminar papers. Chen Dau, the head of the Planning Bureau of the Chinese Academy for Social Sciences, gave the opening address and explained the seminar's 2 tasks: 1) to exchange academic ideas and 2) to found the Population Association of China (PAC), and suggested 3 topics for theoretical discussion: 1) Marxist theory on the 2 kinds of production, 2) the differences between China's population control and old and NeoMalthusianism, and 3) the 1 child policy. Xu Dixin, the vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, spoke on socialist population laws, planned population control, and potential problems with the 1 child family policy. 8 special groups at the seminar discussed 1) Marxist theory on the 2 types of production, 2) Marx and Malthus on population, 3) China's population control policy, 4) population studies, 5) China's population problems, 6) problems with population control in rural areas, 7) urban population issues, and 8) the population problems of minority nationalities. Participants founded the PAC on the last day of the seminar. Vice-premier Cheu Muhua also addressed the seminar on the tremendous success the family planning program has had in the last 2 years and the difficulty of the task of controlling China's population growth. Population research must explain China's population laws so that growth can be controlled. PMID:12313987

Liu, J

1983-01-01

368

But the kids are okay: motherhood, consumption and sex work in neo-liberal Latin America.  

PubMed

Although sex work remains highly stigmatized around the world, its relatively high value (when compared to other kinds of work available for low-income women) allows sex workers to attain some level of economic, if not social, mobility. This article challenges the idea that sex work in 'third world' settings is always about mere subsistence. Instead, it suggests that sex workers in Costa Rica's tourism sector work to survive, but they also demonstrate significant personal ambition and aim not only to increase their own consumption levels, but crucially to get ahead. Women are clear about what sex work enables for their families and themselves: not the maintenance of the status quo, but rather a level of consumption otherwise unavailable to them as low-income and poor women. Sex work offers an opportunity to consume and to get ahead that these women have been unable to attain in other kinds of employment, primarily domestic and factory work. Furthermore, sex work allows women to think of themselves as particularly good mothers, able to provide for and spend important quality time with their kids. The article argues that survival, consumption, and motherhood are discursively deployed, in often contradictory and conflicting ways, in order to counteract the effects that stigma has on sex workers. It also suggests that sex workers may very well be the quintessential subjects of neo-liberalism in Latin America, in their embrace of entrepreneurial work and consumption. PMID:21138429

Rivers-Moore, Megan

2010-12-01

369

Evaluation of automatic neonatal brain segmentation algorithms: The NeoBrainS12 challenge.  

PubMed

A number of algorithms for brain segmentation in preterm born infants have been published, but a reliable comparison of their performance is lacking. The NeoBrainS12 study (http://neobrains12.isi.uu.nl), providing three different image sets of preterm born infants, was set up to provide such a comparison. These sets are (i) axial scans acquired at 40weeks corrected age, (ii) coronal scans acquired at 30weeks corrected age and (iii) coronal scans acquired at 40weeks corrected age. Each of these three sets consists of three T1- and T2-weighted MR images of the brain acquired with a 3T MRI scanner. The task was to segment cortical grey matter, non-myelinated and myelinated white matter, brainstem, basal ganglia and thalami, cerebellum, and cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles and in the extracerebral space separately. Any team could upload the results and all segmentations were evaluated in the same way. This paper presents the results of eight participating teams. The results demonstrate that the participating methods were able to segment all tissue classes well, except myelinated white matter. PMID:25487610

Išgum, Ivana; Benders, Manon J N L; Avants, Brian; Cardoso, M Jorge; Counsell, Serena J; Gomez, Elda Fischi; Gui, Laura; H?ppi, Petra S; Kersbergen, Karina J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Melbourne, Andrew; Moeskops, Pim; Mol, Christian P; Kuklisova-Murgasova, Maria; Rueckert, Daniel; Schnabel, Julia A; Srhoj-Egekher, Vedran; Wu, Jue; Wang, Siying; de Vries, Linda S; Viergever, Max A

2015-02-01

370

On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science.  

PubMed

The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion. PMID:21902508

Whitehead, Clay C

2011-01-01

371

Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 ? y ~3 ? por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

372

Crustal deformation in eastern Betics from CuaTeNeo GPS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern Betic Cordillera, Spain, is the most seismically active area within the Iberian Peninsula. We present a Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived horizontal crustal deformation obtained from five occupations of the CuaTeNeo GPS network (1997, 2002, 2006, 2009 and 2011) that clearly shows continuing tectonic activity in the SE Betics. The most prominent feature of the GPS velocity field is the NW oriented motion of the majority of the stations at rates ranging from 2 mm/yr near the coast to 0.5 mm/yr inland. This type of deformation indicates that the main driving force responsible for the observed velocities is related to the on-going convergence between Nubia and Eurasia plates. The calculated deformation field shows evidence for localized deformation related to active faults within the area. Most of the deformation is concentrated on the Alhama de Murcia fault, the source of the 2011 Lorca earthquake (Mw 5.2). We estimate a reverse-sinistral geodetic slip rate of 1.5 ± 0.3 mm/yr for this fault. Our crustal deformation field and analyses are important contributions to estimating seismic hazard for the eastern Betics, since it is the first time crustal deformation rates at this scale are presented.

Echeverria, Anna; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva; Gárate, Jorge; Dávila, José Martín; Suriñach, Emma

2013-11-01

373

Sun-grazing orbit of the unusual near-Earth object 2004 LG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Near-Earth objects (NEOs) typically end their existence by falling into the Sun. Because the orbit evolution timescale is long, however, it is unlikely that we will witness such events or predict them happening in a foreseeable future. Aims: We studied the orbital dynamics of NEOs to understand whether predictions of Sun impact are possible for individual bodies, and if so, whether special cases can be identified where the Sun impact is expected to happen in ?100 ky. Methods: We identified an unusual NEO on a Sun-grazing orbit, 2004 LG, and numerically integrated its orbit to understand its dynamical history and future evolution. Results: We found that the orbit of 2004 LG is strongly affected by the Kozai resonance. In about 9 ky from now, when the orbital eccentricity will reach the maximum value during its current Kozai cycle, 2004 LG has a greater than 25% probability of falling into the Sun. The probability of Sun impact is >50% over the next 100 ky. 2004 LG was exposed to extreme solar radiation in the past and will be exposed to even more extreme solar radiation in the future. For example, we found that 2004 LG was approaching the Sun to within only ?5.6 solar radii some 3 ky ago, and its surface was baked at temperatures ?2500 K. Spectroscopic observations of 2004 LG would therefore be useful in characterizing the effects of extreme irradiation on NEOs' surfaces. Our forward orbital integrations showed that 2004 LG will reach a very low orbital perihelion distance (<1.6 solar radii) at 9 ky from now, indicating its surface will be scorched at temperatures exceeding 4500 K while the interior will be exposed to strong solar tides and thermal stresses. The object will probably not maintain its physical integrity.

Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D.

2012-05-01

374

People vs. Malthus: Population Pressure, Environmental Degradation, and Armed Conflict Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic and environmental factors have claimed a dominant position in the post-Cold War security discourse. A main proponent of what can be called a neo-Malthusian conflict scenario, Thomas Homer-Dixon, has argued that population pressure on natural renewable resources make societies more prone to armed conflict and civil war. While previous empirical work in this field mostly count case studies, this

Henrik Urdal

2005-01-01

375

Population 1: Global Population and Carrying Capacity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video looks at the global population and trends. It also explains the concept of carrying capacity and how a person's behavior influences carrying capacity. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

376

Reovirus Forms Neo-Organelles for Progeny Particle Assembly within Reorganized Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Most viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells form neo-organelles that serve as sites of viral genome replication and particle assembly. These highly specialized structures concentrate viral replication proteins and nucleic acids, prevent the activation of cell-intrinsic defenses, and coordinate the release of progeny particles. Despite the importance of inclusion complexes in viral replication, there are key gaps in the knowledge of how these organelles form and mediate their functions. Reoviruses are nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses that serve as tractable experimental models for studies of dsRNA virus replication and pathogenesis. Following reovirus entry into cells, replication occurs in large cytoplasmic structures termed inclusions that fill with progeny virions. Reovirus inclusions are nucleated by viral nonstructural proteins, which in turn recruit viral structural proteins for genome replication and particle assembly. Components of reovirus inclusions are poorly understood, but these structures are generally thought to be devoid of membranes. We used transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstructions to visualize reovirus inclusions in infected cells. These studies revealed that reovirus inclusions form within a membranous network. Viral inclusions contain filled and empty viral particles and microtubules and appose mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that markers of the ER and ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) codistribute with inclusions during infection, as does dsRNA. dsRNA colocalizes with the viral protein ?NS and an ERGIC marker inside inclusions. These findings suggest that cell membranes within reovirus inclusions form a scaffold to coordinate viral replication and assembly. PMID:24549844

Fernández de Castro, Isabel; Zamora, Paula F.; Ooms, Laura; Fernández, José Jesús; Lai, Caroline M.-H.; Mainou, Bernardo A.; Dermody, Terence S.; Risco, Cristina

2014-01-01

377

Eo-Ulrichian to Neo-Ulrichian views: The renaissance of "layer-cake stratigraphy"  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Classical notions of "layer-cake stratigraphy" have been denigrated as representing an antiquated "Neptunian" view of the geologic record with the American paleontologist-stratigrapher E.O. Ulrich vilified as its quintessential advocate. Some of the extreme "layer-cake" interpretations of E.O. Ulrich are demonstrably incorrect, especially where applied in marginal marine and terrestrial settings. However, close scrutiny of Ulrich's work suggests that the bulk was correct and demonstrated considerable insight for the time. Subsequent development of facies concepts revolutionized geologists' view of time-space relationships in stratigraphy, but rather than focusing on facies patterns within the established stratigraphic (layer-cake) frameworks many geologists in North America came to view strata as parts of diachronous facies mosaics. Recent advances in the development of event and sequence stratigraphic paradigms are beginning to swing the pendulum back the other way. Possible causes of "layer-cake" patterns are numerous and varied, including: (1) parallelism of depositional strike and outcrop belts, especially in foreland basins, (2) very widespread environmental belts developed in low-relief cratonic areas, (3) time-averaging homogenizes facies to a limited extent, resulting in a very subtle signature of lateral change, (4) condensed beds (hardgrounds, bone beds, ironstones, etc.) often form in responses to extrabasinal forces, thus they cross-cut facies, and (5) large events (i.e. hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, eruptions, etc.) are "over represented" in the rock record. A revised ("Neo-Ulrichian") layer-cake paradigm carries many of the original correct empirical observations of pattern, noted by Ulrich, recast in terms of event and sequence stratigraphy.

Brett, C.E.; McLaughlin, P.I.; Baird, G.C.

2007-01-01

378

Cross-Cultural Replication of the Five-Factor Model and Comparison of the NEO-PI-R and MMPI2 PSY-5 Scales in a Dutch Psychiatric Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated cross-cultural replicability of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality as represented by the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) in a sample of 423 Dutch psychiatric patients. Also, NEO-PI-R domain scales were compared with the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5; A. R. Harkness & J. L. McNulty, 1994) scales of the

Jos I. M. Egger; Hubert R. A. De Mey; Jan J. L. Derksen; Cees P. F. van der Staak

2003-01-01

379

Diversity of Poissonian populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

2010-01-01

380

Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY 2002 a team of engineers and scientists at MSFC conducted a preliminary investigation of the options for deflecting a Near Earth Object (NEO) fiom a collision course with the earth. A general discussion of the current threat facing the earth from NEO s is outlined. A suite of tools were developed to model inbound and outbound trajectories, propulsive options, and assessment of threat. Propulsive options considered included; staged chemical, nuclear ablation and deflagration, mass driver and solar sail concepts. Trajectory tools plotted the outbound course to intercept the NE0 and the deflection requirements to cause the inbound NE0 to miss the earth. Threat assessment tools estimated the number of lives saved over a given time frame by deploying a system capable of deflecting an NE0 of a certain size and velocity. All of these tools were integrated into a routine to find the most effective vehicle for a given mission mass and mission time. Discussion of desired future efforts is given. This work was funded under the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts activity from NASA HQ.

Adams, Robert B.; Alexander, Reginald; Bonometti, Joseph; Chapman, Jack; Fincher, Sharon; Hopkins, Randall; Kalkstein, Matthew; Philips, Al; Polsgrove, Tara; Statham, Geoffrey

2002-01-01

381

MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small hoppers (MINERVA type, JAXA) and SIFNOS. The latter, if added, will perform a soft landing, anchor to the target surface, and make various in situ measurements of surface/subsurface materials near the sampling site. Two surface samples will be collected by the MSC using “touch and go” manoeuvres. Two complementary sample collection devices will be used in this phase: one developed by ESA and another provided by JAXA, mounted on a retractable extension arm. After the completion of the sampling and ascent of the MSC, the arm will be retracted to transfer the sample containers into the MSC. The MSC will then make its journey back to Earth and release the re-entry capsule into the Earth’s atmosphere.

Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

2009-03-01

382

The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network. PMID:23284713

Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

2012-01-01

383

Bandwidth and Fidelity on the NEO-Five Factor Inventory: Replicability and Reliability of Saucier’s (1998) Item Cluster Subcomponents  

PubMed Central

Many users of the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) are unaware that Saucier (1998) developed item cluster subcomponents for each broad domain of the instrument similar to the facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In this study, I examined the following: the replicability of the subcomponents in young adult university and middle-aged community samples; whether item keying accounted for additional covariance among items; subcomponent correlations with a measure of socially desirable responding; subcomponent reliabilities; and subcomponent discriminant validity with respect to age-relevant criterion items expected to reflect varying associations with broad and narrow traits. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all subcomponents were recoverable across samples and that the addition of method factors representing positive and negative item keying improved model fit. The subcomponents correlated no more with a measure of socially desirable responding than their parent domains and showed good average reliability. Correlations with criterion items suggested that subcomponents may prove useful in specifying which elements of NEO-FFI domains are more or less related to variables of interest. I discuss their use for enhancing the precision of findings obtained with NEO-FFI domain scores. PMID:17437386

Chapman, Benjamin P.

2012-01-01

384

Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts.  

PubMed

The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs. PMID:18649494

Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart

2008-07-01

385

Population pressures in Latin America. [Updated reprint].  

PubMed

This publication examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II, and considers their social and economic impact on the region. The paper looks at the following demographic trends: population growth, fertility, death rate, internal migration, international migration, and age structure. It also examines other factors such as marriage and family structure, and employment and education. Furthermore, the publication provides a discussion of the relationship between population growth and economic development from both a neo-Malthusian and Structuralist view. Finally, the paper considers the region's current population policies and future population prospects. From 1950-65, annual population growth averaged 2.8%, which decreased moderately to 2.4% from 1965-85. The report identified 3 population growth patterns in the region: 1) countries which experienced early and gradual declines in birth and death rates and generally lower population growth rates (the group includes Argentina, Cuba, Uruguay, with Chile and Panama also closely fitting the description); 2) countries which underwent rapid declines in birth rate during the 1950s and which began experiencing declines in the birth rate after 1960 (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela, with Ecuador and Peru as borderline cases); and 3) countries which didn't begin to experience declines in mortality rates until relatively late and which lag behind in fertility declines (Bolivia, Haiti, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua). Although population growth has slowed and will continue to fall, UN projections do not expect the population to stabilize until late in the 21st Century. PMID:12284146

Merrick, T W

1991-04-01

386

A Rigorous Statistical Approach to Determine Solar Wind Composition from ACE/SWICS Data, and New Ne/O Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SWICS instruments aboard ACE and Ulysses have performed in situ measurements of individual solar wind ions for a period spanning over two decades. Solar wind composition is determined by accumulating the measurements into an ion count histogram in which each species appears as a distinct peak. Assigning counts to the appropriate species is a challenging statistical problem because of the limited counts for some species and overlap between some peaks. We show that the most commonly used count assignment methods can suffer from significant bias when a highly abundant species overlaps with a much less abundant one. For ACE/SWICS data, this bias results in an overestimated Ne/O ratio. Bias is greatly reduced by switching to a rigorous maximum likelihood count assignment method, resulting in a 30-50% reduction in the estimated Ne abundance. We will discuss the new Ne/O values and put them in context with the solar system abundances for Ne derived from other techniques, such as in situ collection from Genesis and its heritage instrument, the Solar Foil experiment during the Apollo era. The new count assignment method is currently being applied to reanalyze the archived ACE and Ulysses data and obtain revised abundances of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe, leading to revised datasets that will be made publicly available.

Shearer, P.; Jawed, M. K.; Raines, J. M.; Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; von Steiger, R.; Zurbuchen, T.

2013-12-01

387

Ablation of SGK1 impairs endothelial cell migration and tube formation leading to decreased neo-angiogenesis following myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) plays a pivotal role in early angiogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, we sought to define the SGK1 downstream signalling pathways in the adult heart and to elucidate their role in cardiac neo-angiogenesis and wound healing after myocardial ischemia. To this end, we employed a viable SGK1 knockout mouse model generated in a 129/SvJ background. Ablation of SGK1 in these mice caused a significant decrease in phosphorylation of SGK1 target protein NDRG1, which correlated with alterations in NF-?B signalling and expression of its downstream target protein, VEGF-A. Disruption of these signalling pathways was accompanied by smaller heart and body size. Moreover, the lack of SGK1 led to defective endothelial cell (ECs) migration and tube formation in vitro, and increased scarring with decreased angiogenesis in vivo after myocardial infarct. This study underscores the importance of SGK1 signalling in cardiac neo-angiogenesis and wound healing after an ischemic insult in vivo. PMID:24265802

Zarrinpashneh, Elham; Poggioli, Tommaso; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Lexow, Jonas; Monassier, Laurent; Terracciano, Cesare; Lang, Florian; Damilano, Federico; Zhou, Jessica Q; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Rosenthal, Nadia; Santini, Maria Paola

2013-01-01

388

Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8  

SciTech Connect

The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

Ivanka, Paskaleva [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mihaela, Kouteva [CLSMEE-BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Franco, Vaccari [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Panza, Giuliano F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

389

The Impact of NEO PI-R Gender-Norms on the Assessment of Personality Disorder Profiles  

PubMed Central

Many personality assessment inventories provide gender-specific norms to allow comparison of an individual’s standing relative to others of the same gender. In some cases, this means that an identical raw score produces standardized scores that differ notably depending on whether the respondent is male or female. Thus, an important question is whether unisex-normed scores or gender-normed scores more validly assess personality. We examined the gender-normed and unisex-normed scores from the NEO Personality Inventory – Revised (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) in a large clinical sample, using two measures of personality disorder as validating criteria. Gender-normed scores did not obtain significantly higher correlations. In fact, for two personality disorders, antisocial and narcissistic, gender-normed scores yielded significantly lower correlations, suggesting that personality disorder pathology relates most closely to one’s absolute level of a personality trait rather than one’s standing relative to others of the same gender. We discuss ramifications of this finding for personality research and clinical assessment. PMID:20822266

Samuel, Douglas B.; Ansell, Emily B.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2010-01-01

390

The Revenge of the Market on the Rentiers: Why neo-liberal Reports of the end of history turned out to be premature  

E-print Network

their (blatant) bluff. Key words: Ideology, Neo-liberalism, Foucault, Causes of financial crisis, Investment, Risk, Income distribution, Rent-seeking JEL classifications: E22, E24, F02, F36, F59, G20, G30, N20, O16, O43 A shortened version of this paper... unemployed in 2009, and "[s]ome 200 million people, mostly in developing economies, could be pushed into poverty […]”. (Stiglitz, 2009). 2.- How did we get into such a mess? According to the central postulate of mainstream economics of the neo...

Palma, J G

391

Population Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Population genetics is the study of evolutionary genetics at the population level focusing on the exchange of alleles and genes within and between\\u000a populations as well as the forces that cause or maintain these exchanges. This exchange of genes and alleles causes changes\\u000a in the specific allele and hence genotype frequencies within and between populations. Studying this evolution helps us

Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan; Hemant K. Tiwari

392

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of experiments explore the effects of increased population growth on a population of Fast Plants. Through these inquiries, students will better understand the many substantial and pertinent issues surrounding human population explosion on Earth.These experiments can be adjusted toward middle, high school or post-secondary levels.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

393

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

394

Computer Note A Prototype Object Database for  

E-print Network

Computer Note A Prototype Object Database for Mitochondrial DNA Variation J. E. NEIGEL AND P preserved. We hope to prevent further loss by establishing a community database for population genetic surveys. We explored the feasibility of a population genetics database by developing a prototype

Neigel, Joseph E.

395

Learning Object Repositories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

Lehman, Rosemary

2007-01-01

396

Productive ICT Academia Program ObjectivesObjectives  

E-print Network

Productive ICT Academia Program ObjectivesObjectives HumanResources (ICTArchitect) Innovative Research Outputs Research & Education GlobalCooperation withIndustries&Labs Productive ICT AcademiaProductive ICT Academia Multimedia Contents Universal Computing Universal, Highly Distributed, Ultra Scalable

Kasahara, Hironori

397

Population Explosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many factors influence the success and survival rate of a population of living things. Explore several factors that can determine the survival of a population of sheep in this NetLogo model. Start with a model of unlimited grass available to the sheep and watch what happens to the sheep population! Next try to keep the population under control by removing sheep periodically. Change the birthrate, grass regrowth rate, and the amount of energy rabbits get from the grass to keep a stable population.

Consortium, The C.

2012-01-13

398

Population Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities explore population growth rates and its consequences with regard to the distribution of natural resources. Population growth is perhaps the most important environmental issue of our time. As population increases and as people seek to raise their standard of living, more stress is put on our earth’s finite resources.One aspect of the population issue is the sheer magnitude of the numbers involved. World population did not reach 1 billion until the year 1800. Since then it has grown exponentially to reach our current 6.7 billion.

2009-01-01

399

Object locating system  

DOEpatents

A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Petterson, Ben (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-06-09

400

Population and Development Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

1998-01-01

401

Divisions I & III WG: on Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WGNEO, a Working Group of Divisions I and III, was formed in the early 1990s to coordinate study of Earth-approaching asteroids and comets (NEOs) and provide timely advice to the General Secretary and officers of the IAU on discovery of any objects that threaten collision with the Earth. Since then, the WGNEO has steadily grown, reflecting increasing international interest and concern over impacts, especially from asteroids (which dominate over comets in their risk to Earth). In this triennium, the WGNEO had a membership of 49 (including the Organizing Committee of 17 members), plus 10 consultants. The Chair is David Morrison (USA), Vice-Chair Andrea Milani (Italy), Secretary Richard Binzel (USA), and Past-Chair Andrea Carusi (Italy).

Morrison, David; Milani, Andrea; Binzel, Richard; Bowell, Ted; Carusi, Andrea; Chapman, Clark; Harris, Alan; Isobe, Syuzo; Marsden, Brian; Muinonen, Karri; Ostro, Steve; Shor, Victor; Steel, Duncan; Tancredi, Gonzalo; Ticha, Jana; Valsecchi, Giovanni; Yeomans, Don

2007-03-01

402

Population Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

1986-01-01

403

Response Distortion in Normal Personality Assessment: Investigating Proposed Validity Scales for the NEO-PI-R in a College Student Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992b) is an assessment of normal personality composition that is used in clinical counseling contexts as well as for personnel selection. There has been some debate regarding the necessity and usefulness of validity scales to detect response distortion on this instrument. Because the authors of the instrument, Costa…

Fineran, Kerrie R. J.

2009-01-01

404

Is it safe to implant bioresorbable scaffolds in ostial side-branch lesions? Impact of 'neo-carina' formation on main-branch flow pattern. Longitudinal clinical observations.  

PubMed

Formation of a 'neo-carina' has been reported after bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) implantation over side-branches. However, as this 'neo-carina' could protrude into the main-branch, its hemodynamic impact remains unknown. We present two cases of BVS implantation for ostial side-branch lesions, and investigate the flow patterns at follow-up and their potential impact. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed, using a 3D mesh created by fusion of 3-dimensional angiogram with optical coherence tomography images. In our first case, mild disturbances were seen when 'neo-carina' did not protrude perpendicularly into the main branch. In the second case, extensive flow re-distribution was observed due to a more pronounced protrusion of the 'neo-carina'. Importantly, these areas of hemodynamic disturbance were observed together with lumen narrowing in a non-stenotic vessel segment. Our case observations highlight the importance of investigating the hemodynamic consequences of BVS implantation in bifurcation lesions and illustrate a novel method to do so in vivo. PMID:25437885

Karanasos, Antonios; Li, Yingguang; Tu, Shengxian; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Reiber, Johan H C; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Regar, Evelyn

2015-01-01

405

The creation of neo-liberal corporate bias in transnational medicines control: The industrial shaping and interest dynamics of the European regulatory state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on the political theories of corporatism, neo-liberalism and pluralism, and on comparative empirical research in Brussels, Germany, Sweden and the UK, this article conceptualises the nature of Europeanised medicines regulation. It argues that a marketisation of regulation has been established in the European Union as a result of competition between national regulatory agencies for `regulatory business' from the pharmaceutical

Graham Lewis; John Abraham

2001-01-01

406

Books, Banks and Bullets: Controlling Our Minds--The Global Project of Imperialistic and Militaristic Neo-Liberalism and Its Effect on Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on global trends in education policy during the current epoch of imperializing, militaristic, neo-liberal global capital. It is based on an analysis that global capital, in the form of dominant US multinational capital, together with its client governments, uses the repressive and ideological apparatuses of the state to…

Hill, Dave

2004-01-01

407

Expanding the framework of the holism/reductionism debate in neo-Darwinism: the case of Theodosius Dobzhansky and Bernhard Rensch.  

PubMed

The holism/reductionism debate in evolutionary biology has often been analysed as involving two main phenomenological levels within neo-Darwinism: genetic and organismic. This analytical framework assumes that explanation in evolution is either found in the field of genetics or the field of organismic biology. It is argued here that this framework is far too restrictive to incorporate what at least some founding members of neo-Darwinism had in mind in their search for the ultimate cause of evolution. Dobzhansky's "super-holism" locates this drive in the highest possible entity imaginable--an ontologically unified evolutionary cosmos--while Rensch's ontological "super-reductionism," on the other hand, places it at the lowest possible entity of microphysics, that is, at the level of an energetic field of protopsychical nature. Not only it is suggested that a much-expanded framework is required for analysing the holism/reductionism debate in neo-Darwinism, but also that this new framework may have implications for the conceptualization of the neo-Darwinian movement itself. PMID:19203016

Delisle, Richard G

2008-01-01

408

Standardizing Chaos: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Violent conflict and humanitarian disasters such as floods, famines, or tsunamis, have existed since the start of human history. However, it is only recently that education in these emergency situations has emerged as a visible organizational field. We aim to use a unique theoretical application of sociological neo-institutionalism to explain the…

Bromley, Patricia; Andina, Marina

2010-01-01

409

Selecting a Reference Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

2011-01-01

410

Picturing Objects in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

2014-01-01

411

Object Scheduler Distributed TMO Object Group  

E-print Network

Manager : SecurityObject : InformationRepository : DynamicBinder: Client 1: request_ACL_check( ) 2: check_ACL( ) 3 Scheduler Sub-TMO Object Group TMO1TMO1 TMO2TMO2 TMOnTMOn TMO1TMO1 TMO2TMO2 TMOnTMOn Information Repository Information Repository Dynamic Binder Dynamic Binder GM : Group Manager, RTM : Real-Time Manager : Object

Joo, Su-Chong

412

The Scattered Kuiper Belt Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a continuing survey of the Kuiper Belt conducted at the 3.6-m Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The survey employs a 12288 x 8192 pixel CCD mosaic to image the sky to red magnitude 24. All detected objects are targeted for systematic follow-up observations, allowing us to determine their orbital characteristics. Three new members of the rare Scattered Kuiper Belt Object class have been identified, bringing the known population of such objects to four. The SKBOs are thought to have been scattered outward by Neptune, and are a potential source of the short-period comets. Using a Maximum Likelihood method, we place observational constraints on the total number and mass of the SKBOs.

Trujillo, C. A.; Jewitt, D. C.; Luu, J. X.

1999-09-01

413

U.S. Population Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of man and his environment. No previous experience or learning in this field is required. Emphasis is placed on analysis of population growth and the impact population growth and trends have on natural resource depletion. The behavioral objectives (five) are listed. The study guide for the…

Dillner, Harry

414

Neo-nicotinoid metabolic activation and inactivation established with coupled nicotinic receptor-CYP3A4 and -aldehyde oxidase systems.  

PubMed

Two important enzymes in metabolism of the principal neo-nicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid are liver microsomal CYP3 A4 and cytosolic aldehyde oxidase (AOX). CYP3A4 oxidation at several molecular sites and AOX reduction at the nitro substituent result in either an increase (activation) or decrease (inactivation) of agonist potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), both insect and vertebrate alpha 4beta 2. This study evaluates activation or inactivation of 11 neo-nicotinoids in a continuous two-step system coupling metabolism and receptor binding. For metabolism, the neo-nicotinoid is incubated with CYP3A4 and NADPH or AOX with the cosubstrate N-methyl-nicotinamide, terminating the reaction with ketoconazole or menadione, respectively, to inhibit further conversion. For receptor assay, either the Drosophila nAChR and [(3)H]imidacloprid or the alpha4 beta2 nicotinic receptor and [(3)H](-)-nicotine are added to determine changes in neo-nicotinoid potency. With the Drosophila nAChR assay, the N-methyl compounds N-methyl-imidacloprid and thiamethoxam are activated 4.5-29-fold by CYP3 A4 whereas nine other neo-nicotinoids are not changed in potency. With the vertebrate alpha4 beta2 nAChR, AOX enhances imidacloprid potency but CYP3 A4 does not. The AOX system coupled with the Drosophila receptor strongly inactivates clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, desmethyl-thiamethoxam, and thiamethoxam with some inactivation of nitenpyram and nithiazine, and little or no effect on four other compounds. PMID:16153789

Honda, Hideo; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

2006-02-20

415

Cohort Profile: A prospective cohort study of objective physical and cognitive capability and visual health in an ageing population of men and women in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk 3)  

PubMed Central

The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) is a 10-country collaborative study in which EPIC-Norfolk is one of the UK centres. EPIC-Norfolk examined 25 639 men and women resident in East Anglia (aged 40–79 years), between 1993 and 1997. The EPIC collaboration was set up to examine the dietary determinants of cancer, but the remit in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort was broadened from the outset to include determinants of other health conditions and chronic diseases. EPIC-Norfolk completed a third round of health examinations (EPIC-Norfolk 3 or 3HC) in December 2011, on 8623 participants in the age range 48–92 years. EPIC-Norfolk focused on objective measures of cognitive function, physical capability and visual health, adapting this existing mid-life cohort to the current need to investigate healthy and independent living for ageing societies. With a wealth of longitudinal data and a biobank (including DNA) collected at up to three separate time points, EPIC-Norfolk offers the unique opportunity to investigate the association of lifestyle and biological factors, including genetic exposures, with a range of health outcomes in middle and later life. Information for data access can be found on the study website, details as given in this cohort profile. PMID:23771720

Hayat, Shabina A; Luben, Robert; Keevil, Victoria L; Moore, Stephanie; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Khawaja, Anthony P; Foster, Paul; Brayne, Carol; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-01-01

416

The Magdalena Ridge Observatory's 2.4-meter Telescope: A New Facility for Follow-up and Characterization of Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) state-of-the-art 2.4-meter telescope is contributing to the Near-Earth Object (NEO) effort by working in partnership with existing NASA telescopic survey programs to provide the astrometric and physical characterization follow-up required to meet the congressional directive to identify bodies 140 meters in diameter or larger that have the potential to impact the Earth. The 2.4-meter's large

Eileen V. Ryan; William H. Ryan

2008-01-01

417

Object Location Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

418

Population Blocks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

Smith, Martin H.

1992-01-01

419

Astrometric and Photometric Follow-Up of Faint Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the last year, the Near-Earth Object (NEO) follow-up program at Mt. Hopkins funded by the Near-Earth Object Observations (NEOO) program continued to improve. The Principal Investigator was again granted all the requested observing time. In addition to the requested time on the 4 8 in. telescope, 2 nights were also granted on the MMT for observations of extremely faint main-belt asteroids and NEOs. It is expected that the MMT can easily reach V = 25 over a 24 X 24 arcminute field of view. Improvements in the last year included more tweaks to the automatic astrometric routine for higher-quality astrometric fits. Use of the new USNO-B1.0 reference catalog has allowed the PI to push the average RMS of reference star solutions below 0.2 in.. Shift-and- stack techniques are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the target objects. The 48 in. telescope at Mt. Hopkins is completely automated, and can be run remotely from either the Principal Investigator's office at SAO, or even his study at home. Most observing runs are now done remotely.

Spahr, Timothy

2004-01-01

420

Population Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of activities explores the mathematical and environmental aspects of population growth. Using archived census and demographic data as well as up-to-the-minute population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, students learn how to model population growth and study the implications of a changing population. The project provides instructions, activities, back-up information, data links, reference materials, on-line help, and an instructor guide. Although intended for high school students, activities 1 through 5 and 9 avoid higher mathematics and offer students work on statistical and historical aspects of population growth appropriate for the middle school level. This on-line project is part of the Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) program, which has developed internet activities for the elementary, middle, and high school level student.

2007-12-12

421

Bird Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will study bird migratory patterns and the methods that researchers use to study them. Students will be introduced to the concepts of the study of bird movements. The lesson is given in two parts: 1) gathering data about bird populations, and 2) monitoring the movements of bird populations.To assess student learning, they will write a short answer essay explaining the differences between the four types of population movements described in the Movements of Bird Populations resource. Students should be able to describe what kinds of patterns might be observed in each type and how observing and studying each pattern gives scientists the evidence they need to understand the movement of bird populations.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-06-23

422

A powerful new southern hemisphere survey for near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly a decade, the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) operated the Siding Spring Survey (SSS) in partnership with the Australian National University. The SSS was the only professional, full-time NEO survey in the Southern Hemisphere during this period. The SSS ceased operations in July of 2013, and the lack of a full-time, state-of-the-art survey in the Southern Hemisphere leaves a significant blind spot in NASA's ongoing effort to identify and track near-Earth objects (NEOs) that may pose a hazard to the Earth, or that may be appropriate destinations for robotic or human missions. The CSS and the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) are partnering to fill this gap, by rapidly building, deploying and operating a network of three dedicated 1.0-meter survey telescopes at Cerro Tololo, one of the premiere astronomical sites in the Southern Hemisphere. The partnership between CSS and LCOGT provides a fast-track, low-risk, and cost-effective survey capability that will be fully dedicated to the NEO discovery effort. The first of three survey telescopes will be operational ˜18 months after the start of funding, with the second and third telescopes coming online within an additional ˜12 months. Our joint survey will be a powerful new NEO survey capability. The telescopes are based on the field-tested LCOGT 1.0-m design, modified to feature a faster f/1.8 primary and a prime focus camera that will deliver an 8.6 deg^2 field of view (FOV), with a resolution of 1.0 arcseconds per pixel. The three co-located telescopes will offer the operational flexibility to survey together (acting as a 1.7-m telescope), or separately (effectively delivering a 25+ deg^2 FOV), and will have no competing science goals to compromise from the primary mission of NEO discovery. The telescopes will be robotically operated, and the data will be processed, validated, and reported in near real-time from the CSS headquarters in Tucson. Same-night and subsequent night astrometric follow-up observations will be carried out on the LCOGT network, which includes two 2.0-m and nine 1.0-m telescopes at 5 sites in both hemispheres. We calculate figures of merit (FOM) for this and other NEO survey systems, based on clear aperture, field of view, optical throughput, focal-plane fill factor and open-shutter efficiency. Our new survey program will be among the most powerful NEO survey systems in operation once deployed, with a FOM approximately 25 × larger than the SSS, larger than all CSS assets in Arizona combined, and larger than Pan-STARRS 1.

Christensen, E.; Lister, T.; Larson, S.; Gibbs, A.; Grauer, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kowalski, R.; Sanders, R.; Shelly, F.

2014-07-01

423

Population Bracketology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your knowledge of population data! Start by choosing your geographic level: metro areas or states. Click on the name in each match-up that you think has the larger population. Green shows a correct answer, red indicates an incorrect answer. When you have opposing names picked for the next round, pick again. See how close you can come to a perfect score of 63. When you are finished, play again or mouse-over results to view the most current population estimates for each pair.

US Census Bureau

424

Deer Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The deer population activity allows students to experiment with the factors which influence population dynamics. In their exploration, they encounter both exponential and logistic growth curves. Students should be familiar with the concepts of birth and death rates, emigration and immigration, predation, limiting factors such as food supply and habitat size, and carrying capacity. The activity is self-paced with extensions provided for those who have extra time.

School, Maryland V.

425

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 ?g/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by AgNPs have a significant role in apoptosis. The present findings suggest that AgNPs could contribute to the development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of a novel nanomedicine for the treatment of cancers. PMID:24265551

Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

2013-01-01

426

MCF-10A-NeoST: A New Cell System for Studying Cell-ECM and Cell-Cell Interactions in Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

There is a continuing need for genetically matched cell systems to model cellular behav