Science.gov

Sample records for object neo population

  1. The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; Volk, Christopher P.; Koontz, Steven L.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Swenson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (<0.3 AU) to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

  2. The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30 to 420 days in duration and assuming chemical propulsion. Similar studies have been reported assuming high power electric propulsion for manned NEO rendezvous missions (11). The delta V requirement breakdown and mission profile data from references 10 and 11 are used as a basis for sizing the NEO Scout spacecraft and for conducting preliminary feasibility assessments using the Tsiokolvsky rocket equation, a (worst-case) delta V requirement of 10 km/sec, and a maximum spacecraft dry mass of 20 kg. Using chemical propellant for a 10 km/sec delta V drives spacecraft wet mass well above 300 kg so that chemical propulsion is a non-starter for the proposed mission profile and spacecraft wet mass limits. In contrast, a solar electric propulsion system needs only 8 kg of Xe propellant to accelerate the spacecraft to 10 km/sec in 163 days with 0.02 N of thrust and 500 W of power from1.6 sq m of 29% efficient solar panels. In a second example, accelerating a 4 kg payload to 7 km/sec over 180 days requires about 6.7 kg of propellant and 1.2 kg of solar panels (12 kg total spacecraft wet mass).

  3. Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

  4. A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

    One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as optical or radar sensors and simulate observation campaigns. The tool outputs field-of-view crossings and actual detections of the selected NEO population objects. Using the Observation Analysis users are able to process and plot the results of the Observation Simulation. In order to enable end-users to handle the tool in a user-intuitive and comfortable way, a GUI has been created based on the modular Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) technology. Through the GUI users can easily enter input data for the tool, execute it and view its output data in a clear way. Additionally, the GUI runs gnuplot to create plot pictures and presents them to the user. Furthermore, users can create projects to organise executions of the tool.

  5. Post-Chelyabinsk Risk Assessment for Near Earth Objects (NEOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M.; Harris, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The widely-accepted NEO risk assessments published in the 1990s concluded that the largest asteroids (> 1 km) dominated the hazard. Even though large NEOs represent only a tiny fraction of the population because of a power-law size distribution, the potential for global catastrophe means that the contribution from these low-probability, high-consequence events is large. This conclusion led to the Spaceguard survey, which has now catalogued about 90% of these objects, none of which is on a collision course. The survey has reduced the assessed risk from this size range by more than an order of magnitude because completion is highest for the largest and most dangerous. The relative risk from objects tens of meters in diameter is therefore increasing.The absolute assessed risk from airbursts caused by objects of this size is also higher for two reasons. First, they may be more frequent than previously thought because of an underestimated population. Second, they are significantly more damaging than assumed in the original assessment because (in most cases) they more efficiently couple energy to the surface than nuclear explosions. Last year's half-megaton airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia, appears to challenge the notion that such events are extremely rare—especially when also considering the 1908 Tunguska event along with decades of infrasound bolide data showing higher-than-expected numbers of large airbursts.We will present a new analysis of the risk based on updated estimates for the population of undiscovered NEOs, taking into account the enhanced damage potential of collisional airbursts. Merging the survey population estimates with the bolide frequency estimates suggests a population of tens-of-meters sized bodies that may be a factor of three or so greater than estimated from surveys alone. Uncertainty in the population of airburst-class NEOs remains quite large, and can only be unambiguously reduced by expanded surveys focused on objects in the tens-of-meters size range. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  7. The LCOGT Near Earth Object (NEO) Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), NEOWISE and PanSTARRS (PS1). Over 600 NEO candidates have been targeted so far this year with 250+ objects reported to the MPC, including 70 confirmed NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

  8. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

  9. ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-09-15

    Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

  10. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  11. Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

    1992-08-25

    The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

  12. New population-level insights about near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have witnessed a renewed interest in the true population-level characteristics of near-Earth objects (NEOs). This interest has, at least partly, been driven by ongoing and planned NEO surveys as well as the desire to better characterize the impact threat from small NEOs. I will review the latest advances in NEO population models with a particular emphasis on the latest model (Granvik et al., in preparation; hereafter the NEO model) which describes the debiased orbital and absolute-magnitude distributions.The parameters of the NEO model are calibrated by using about 4500 distinct NEOs detected by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) during 2005-2012. It accounts for the statistically-distinct orbital evolution of NEOs from six different source regions in the main asteroid belt in addition to Jupiter-family comets. An individual absolute-magnitude distribution is estimated for each source region and its functional form allows for a wavy shape but does not require it. The predicted number of large NEOs is in agreement with the results of other contemporary estimates and the overall shape of the absolute-magnitude distribution is very similar to predictions by other authors. For the first time ever, the NEO model predicts a rather complex variation of the orbital distribution with absolute magnitude.A particularly intriguing finding during the development of the NEO model was that there should be more objects on orbits with small perihelion distances than what is observed. This suggests that a significant fraction of all NEOs disrupt at small perihelion distances and can thus no longer be detected. The assumption that, on average, NEOs disrupt at perihelion distances less than about 20 solar radii leads to a virtually perfect agreement between observations and theory that increasingly complicated NEO population models otherwise fail to achieve. The physical mechanisms responsible for the disruptions are still unknown but I will discuss some alternatives.I will end my talk by speculating on near-future advances in NEO population models such as the inclusion of proxies for surface properties.

  13. Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

    2007-01-01

    This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

  14. High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1996-12-31

    The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

  15. A New and Improved Model of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F., Jr.; Granvik, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bolin, B.; Beshore, E. C.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Michel, P.

    2014-12-01

    This is a golden age for near-Earth Object (NEO) research. We have discovered some 90% of the most threatening NEOs, while ongoing surveys are finding many sub-km NEOs as well. NEO physical characterization studies by missions, space- and ground-based observatories are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEOs are like. President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025; this remains Administration policy. The Feb. 15, 2013 explosion of an NEO over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEOs. This increasing interest, and a vast array of new data, have led us to re-investigate the debiased orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the NEO population. Such models are asboluetly needed to make accurate predictions about NEOs that are likely exploration targets for human and robotic spacecraft. Using the methods of Bottke et al. (2002), we numerically tracked a large unbiased sample of asteroids escaping the main belt and TNO populations in order to locate all possible NEO source regions. From here, we recorded the orbital evolution of the bodies that entering the NEO region; their evolutionary pathways were used to create so-called NEO residence-time distributions. They were combined with the calculated observational selection effects for the Catalina Sky Survey, with the model fit to 4,550 NEOs (15 < H < 25) detected by the Catalina Sky Survey's Mt. Lemmon (G96) and Catalina (703) stations between 2005-2012. Our best fit case beautifully reproduces observations and provides us with a new and improved NEO model population. We find our results are in good agreement with the Bottke et al. (2002) model, but we also find many intriguing differences as well: (i) There is an increasing preference for small NEOs to come from the central main belt; (ii) Many low-perihelion-distance NEOs are apparently missing -- we suspect many were removed by a physical destruction mechanism; (iii) We are largely complete in H < 18 Atens and Amors, but we are still missing a good fraction of Apollo NEOs. In our talk, we will discuss our latest findings and will describe the nature of the NEO populations accessible by both ARM and human missions.

  16. ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-03-15

    We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

  17. Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named “Neo,” suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

  18. Investigating the Near-Earth Object Population Using Numerical Integration Methods and LINEAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Stuart, J. S.; Evans, J. B.; Stokes, G.

    2004-11-01

    The remarkable progress made in finding near-Earth objects (NEOs) over the last decade by dedicated NEO surveys has been accompanied by substantial numerical and theoretical work. Together, these advances have given us a much more profound understanding of the NEO population than we have had at any time in the past. Recent models of the NEO orbital and size distributions have been made using different techniques (e.g., Bottke et al. 2000, 2002; Stuart 2001). In Bottke et al., an NEO model was produced by combining numerical integration work with computations of observational biases. This model was calibrated by fitting model parameters to a relatively small sample of 138 NEOs detected by Spacewatch. In Stuart (2001), a NEO model was computed more directly by debiasing the more extensive NEO observations provided by LINEAR. While the results from each model were similar overall, we found that the Bottke et al. model could not reproduce several features of the Stuart model (e.g., specific bumps in the NEO inclination distribution; its somewhat ``flat" shape). To explore this mismatch, we modified our NEO model in two important ways: (i) we added several high inclination sources of NEOs that were excluded by Bottke et al. (2002) (e.g., Hungarias, Phocaeas), and (ii) we joined forces with the LINEAR survey team to explore their extensive NEO data set within our model. While our new results are consistent with previous work, they also indicate that the high inclination asteroid sources contribute to the NEO population at the ˜ 10% level; this may be enough to explain some of the features observed in Stuart (2001). Our latest results, as well as the implications of this work, will be discussed in our talk.

  19. An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

  20. Prevention sequence mechanisms (PSM) for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) based on a three parameter scheme based classification framework

    E-print Network

    Sahani, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    There is a significant amount of space debris from previous space endeavors left over by the Russians and the US, leave alone the possibility of collisions with Near Earth Objects (NEOs) like asteroids and comets. Currently, ...

  1. ExploreNEOs VIII: Dormant Short-Period Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    E-print Network

    Mommert, M; Mueller, M; Hora, J L; Trilling, D E; Bottke, W F; Thomas, C A; Delbo, M; Emery, J P; Fazio, G; Smith, H A

    2015-01-01

    We perform a search for dormant comets, asteroidal objects of cometary origin, in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population based on dynamical and physical considerations. Our study is based on albedos derived within the ExploreNEOs program and is extended by adding data from NEOWISE and the Akari asteroid catalog. We use a statistical approach to identify asteroids on orbits that resemble those of short-period near-Earth comets using the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, the aphelion distance, and the minimum orbital intersection distance with respect to Jupiter. From the sample of NEAs on comet-like orbits, we select those with a geometric albedo $p_V \\leq 0.064$ as dormant comet candidates, and find that only $\\sim$50% of NEAs on comet-like orbits also have comet-like albedos. We identify a total of 23 NEAs from our sample that are likely to be dormant short-period near-Earth comets and, based on a de-biasing procedure applied to the cryogenic NEOWISE survey, estimate both magnitude-limited and s...

  2. The population of tiny near-Earth objects observed by NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Nugent, C. R.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Cukrov, G.; Grav, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Masci, F.; Wright, E.

    2014-04-01

    Only a very small fraction of the asteroid population at size scales comparable to the object that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia has been discovered to date, and physical properties are poorly characterized. We present previously unreported detections of 105 close approaching near-Earth objects (NEOs) by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission's NEOWISE project. These infrared observations constrain physical properties such as diameter and albedo for these objects, many of which are found to be smaller than 100 m. Because these objects are intrinsically faint, they were detected by WISE during very close approaches to the Earth, often at large apparent on-sky velocities. We observe a trend of increasing albedo with decreasing size, but as this sample of NEOs was discovered by visible light surveys, it is likely that selection biases against finding small, dark NEOs influence this finding.

  3. Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    Many pieces of the puzzle must be brought together in order to have a clear picture of the near-Earth object (NEO) population. Four of the pieces that can be described include: i) the taxonomic distribution of the population as measured by observational sampling, ii) the determination of albedos that can be associated with the taxonomic distribution, iii) discovery statistics for the NE0 population, and iv) the debiasing of the discovery statistics using the taxonomic and albedo information. Support from this grant enables us to address three of these four pieces. Binzel et al. (2004, submitted) presents the first piece, detailing the observations and observed characteristics of the NE0 and Mars-crossing (MC) population. For the second piece, a complementary program of albedo measurements is pursued at the Keck Observatory (Binzel, P. I.) with first results published in Delbo et al. (2003). For the third piece, the most extensive NE0 discovery statistics are provided by the LINEAR survey. Binzel has supervised the MIT Ph. D. thesis work of Stuart (2003) to bring the fourth piece, submitted for publication by Stuart and Binzel (2004). Our results provide new constraints for the NE0 population and progress for the Spaceguard Survey, illuminate asteroid and comet source regions for the NEOs, and provide new evidence for space weathering processes linking asteroids and meteorites. Further, we are identifying top priority near-Earth spacecraft mission candidates based on their spectral properties and inferred compositions.

  4. Debiased Orbital and Size Distributions of the NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Petit, J. M.; Levison, H. F.

    2001-11-01

    The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects but also because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs discovered or accidentally rediscovered by Spacewatch. Our method was to numerically integrate thousands of test bodies from four ``intermediate sources'': three in or adjacent to the main asteroid belt (Bottke et al. 2000, Science 288, 2190.) and one in the Kuiper belt (Levison and Duncan 1997, Icarus 127, 13). The test bodies which passed into the NEO region were tracked until they were eliminated. Next, we calculated the observational biases and assumed a functional form for the absolute magnitude (H) distribution associated with objects on those orbits. By merging the observational biases with our NEO dynamical ``roadmaps'' and an observed NEO H distribution, we produced a probability distribution which was fit to the biased NEO population. By testing a range of possible source combinations, a ``best-fit'' distribution was then deconvolved to provide the debiased orbital and H distributions for the NEO population as well as the relative importance of each NEO replenishment source. Our best-fit model predicts there are ~ 1010 H < 18 NEOs out to T > 2 (i.e., a < ~ 7.4 AU), with ~ 55% coming from the inner main belt (a < 2.5 AU), ~ 30% from the central main belt (2.5 < a < 2.8 AU), and ~ 15% from the Jupiter-family comet region. These results suggest that roughly 40% of the H < 18 NEOs have been found. The Amor, Apollo, and Aten populations contain 30%, 64%, and 6% of the H < 22 NEO population, respectively. The population of objects inside Earth's orbit (IEOs) are about 2% the size of the NEO population. Active and extinct comets make up a third of the entire km-sized NEO population with T > 2. These bodies mostly reside on orbits with 2 < T < 3.

  5. Exploring the Near Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W.

    2013-09-01

    This is a golden age for NEA research. We have discovered some 95% of the most threatening NEAs (those larger than 1 km, Mainzer et al. 2012), while ongoing surveys (e.g., Catalina Sky Survey) are finding many sub-km NEAs as well. NEA physical characterization studies by missions (e.g., NEARShoemaker), space-based telescopes (e.g., WISE), and ground-based observatories (e.g., Arecibo, IRTF), are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEAs are actually like. The OSIRIS-REx mission will return a sample from Bennu, a carbonaceous chondrite-like NEO in 2020, while President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025. The Feb. 15 explosion of an NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEAs. In my talk, I will discuss several recent advances in our understanding of the NEO population (e.g, how they go from their source regions to their observed orbits; what we know about the size and nature of the population). I will give particular attention to candidates for robotic and human missions, namely those NEOs on near-Earth like orbits. Recent work has shown that a population of asteroids exists that have been temporarily captured in orbit around Earth ("minimoons"). They offer an innovative, but heretofore uninvestigated, population of targets for human exploration because of their proximity to the Earth and their low geocentric velocities. By better understanding them, we can test theories of the creation, internal structure, and transport of small asteroids. The largest minimoons in the steady state population are 1 to 2 meters in diameter, sizable enough to be both scientifically interesting and potentially suitable as destinations.

  6. NEO Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Neo-Sr Team

    The NEOs are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets thought to be the remnants of the ancient planetesimals that accreted to form the planets. The chemical investigation of NEOs having primitive characteristics is thus essential in the understanding the planet formation and evolution. They carry records of the solar system's birth/early phases and the geological evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary regions. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with Earth represent a serious hazard to life. For all these reasons the exploration and characterization of these objects are particularly interesting and urgent. NEOs are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and robotic exploration. Within this framework, the mission LEONARD including an orbiter and a lander to the primitive double object (1996 FG3) has been studied by CNES, in collaboration with a number of European planetologists (France, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom) and related Space Agencies. A new Sample Return mission is under study within a large European community and possible collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA to reply to the ESA Cosmic Vision AO. The principal objectives are to investigate on 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the primitive asteroids which could contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) how they can shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life. This type of mission appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.

  7. Analysis of Association between Norepinephrine Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Personality Traits of NEO-FFI in a Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Shin; Nagahori, Kenta; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Norepinephrine is an important chemical messenger that is involved in mood and stress in humans, and is reabsorbed by the norepinephrine transporter (NET). According to Cloninger's theory, the noradrenergic system mediates the personality trait of reward dependence. Thus far, although association studies on NET gene polymorphisms and Cloninger's personality traits have been reported, they yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether or not the 1287G/A, -182T/C and -3081A/T polymorphisms of the NET gene (SLC6A2) are associated with reward dependence-related traits, as assessed by the five-factor model. Methods After written informed consent was obtained from participants, the three NET gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and personality was assessed by the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in 270 Japanese university students. Results A significant relation was found between the -3081A/T functional promoter polymorphism and NEO-FFI scores: those with the T allele exhibited a lower extraversion (E) score than those without the T allele (Mann-Whitney U-test: z=-3.861, p<0.001). However, there was no correlation between the other NET gene polymorphisms and E score, and no association with other dimensions and these three polymorphisms. Conclusion We conclude that the -3081A/T functional polymorphism in the NET gene may affect the extraversion of reward dependence-related traits, as measured by NEO-FFI. However, we used only the shortened version of NEO-PI-R in this study. Further investigations are necessary using the full version of self-rating personality questionnaires. PMID:26207133

  8. ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, Hervé; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/?M > 60,000 up to m/z =400 u). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cm3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space, allowing to distinguish isomass compounds and to measure isotopomer abundances. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

  9. Update on NASA’s NEO Search Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul W.

    2015-08-01

    Now in its 18th year, NASA’s NEO search program continues to lead the worldwide effort to find and characterize these potentially hazardous objects. The number of known NEOs now surpasses 12,000, and the annual discovery rate is approaching 1500 per year, a significant increase from just a few years ago. Although the prime purpose of the NEO Program is to find hazardous objects, another objective is to support the search for accessible mission targets, including candidates for the Asteroid Redirect Mission.With enhancements to current surveys expected this year and new facilities coming online in the near future, the NEO discovery rate should continue to climb. Still, many more NEOs remain to be found, including some that could represent a serious hazard. Second generation surveys will be required to achieve the George E. Brown (GEB) goal of finding 90 percent of the NEO population down to 140 meters in size. The Large-Scale Synoptic Telescope (LSST) promises to take a major step towards this goal, but a complementary space-based infra-red NEO survey is also needed to reach the GEB objective, and it offers the important advantage of simultaneous characterization of its discoveries.

  10. Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

  11. NEO-LISP: Deflecting near-earth objects using high average power, repetitively pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, C.R.; Michaelis, M.M.

    1994-10-01

    Several kinds of Near-Earth objects exist for which one would like to cause modest orbit perturbations, but which are inaccessible to normal means of interception because of their number, distance or the lack of early warning. For these objects, LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) is an appropriate technique for rapidly applying the required mechanical impulse from a ground-based station. In order of increasing laser energy required, examples are: (1) repositioning specially prepared geosynchronous satellites for an enhanced lifetime, (2) causing selected items of space junk to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory, and (3) safely deflecting Earth-directed comet nuclei and earth-crossing asteroids (ECA`s) a few tens of meters in size (the most hazardous size). They will discuss each of these problems in turn and show that each application is best matched by its own matrix of LISP laser pulse width, pulse repetition rate, wavelength and average power. The latter ranges from 100W to 3GW for the cases considered. They will also discuss means of achieving the active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and very large exit pupil in the optical system which are required in each of these cases.

  12. Comparing NEO Search Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Myhrvold, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple terrestrial and space-based telescopes have been proposed for detecting and tracking near-Earth objects (NEOs). Detailed simulations of the search performance of these systems have used complex computer codes that are not widely available, which hinders accurate cross- comparison of the proposals and obscures whether they have consistent assumptions. Moreover, some proposed instruments would survey infrared (IR) bands, whereas others would operate in the visible band, and differences among asteroid thermal and visible light models used in the simulations further complicate like-to-like comparisons. I use simple physical principles to estimate basic performance metrics for the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and three space-based instruments - Sentinel, NEOCam, and a Cubesat constellation. The performance is measured against two different NEO distributions, the Bottke et al. distribution of general NEOs, and the Veres et al. distribution of earth impacting NEO. The results of the comparis...

  13. Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kuumba, M B

    1993-01-01

    Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction. PMID:12286951

  14. The Economics OF NEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schalkwyk, James D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

  15. Earth’s Nearest Neighbors: Dynamical integrations of NEO-Earth approaches in support of MANOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, Thomas; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David; Burt, Brian

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). In support of this telescopic survey, we are performing a suite of orbital integrations to investigate the dynamical evolution of the near-Earth asteroid population.Using orbital information from the Lowell Observatory AstOrb database and the swift orbital integration package, we compute the orbital history of every known NEO from present day to five hundred thousand years in the past. This orbital history is used to identify the temporal evolution of each NEO's minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) value, quantifying the physical distance between the orbits of a given NEO and that of a terrestrial planet. Due to the non-deterministic behavior of many NEO orbits beyond a few hundred years, these integrated MOIDs do not uniquely determine whether an NEO and a planet will actually encounter one another, bur rather provide a probabilistic metric for the proximity in which two objects can encounter one another. Integrated MOIDs can be a useful tool for correlating measured physical properties with high probabilities of planetary encounters (e.g. Binzel et al. 2010, Nature 463, 331).We will present the status of these orbital integrations. These integrations show a variety of dynamical histories, from objects that are stable over the integration limits to those that show chaotic behavior after approximately fifty to one hundred thousand years. These orbital integrations are being used to track the potentially hazardous object (PHA) population over time, to evaluate dynamical history for both specific objects and NEO sub-populations, and to estimate the evolution of NEO surface temperatures due to changing perihelion distances.

  16. Typological and dimensional approach at comparing the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI)

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Marcus; Körner, Annett; Herzberg, Philipp Yorck

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports comparisons of the Giessen Test (GT) with the NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI) based on a dimensional as well as on a typological approach. Method: Data were collected from 1673 subjects (aged between 18 and 96 years) constituting a representative sample of the German population. Results: The results indicate only moderate agreement (ranging from .25 to .61) between the subscales of the two personality inventories. The correspondence seems to be somewhat higher, when the typological approach was used instead of the dimensional approach. Conclusions: The typological approach is less dependent on the underlying questionnaires and provides a useful extension of the dimensional approach. PMID:19742276

  17. A sensitive search for NEOs with the Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Lori; Trilling, D.; Burt, B.; Valdes, F.; Fuentes, C.; James, D.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Earle, A.; Herrera, D.; Brown, M.; Axelrod, T.

    2013-10-01

    We report on preliminary results from the DECam NEO Survey. DECam (Dark Energy Camera) is a 520 Megapixel optical imager with a 3 square degree field of view on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The combination of large field of view and 4 meter aperture yield an étendue that far surpasses those of previous NEO searches. Our goals are to obtain a census of NEOs down to a detection limit of V=23, to measure the size distribution of small NEOs, and to characterize the population of earth-crossing objects (ECOs). In this contribution we describe our 30-night survey, scheduled to begin in the 2014A semester and to extend over three "A" (northern hemisphere Spring) semesters. We present preliminary results based on our pilot project conducted in January and April of this year and which resulted in our submitting approximately 100,000 astrometric measurements to the Minor Planet Center (observatory code W84), approximately 1% of which are NEOs. Details of extensive simulations and data processing performed with the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) can be found in a separate contribution (Burt et al.) at this meeting.

  18. Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

    Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/DM > 60,000 up to m/z =400 amu). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (metricconverterProductID2 kg2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cmˆ3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

  19. High quality optical photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Hora, Joseph L.; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Joshua P.; Kistler, John L.; Spahr, Timothy B.

    2010-02-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population - such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets - remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study ~700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. The primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. We propose here a tightly focused program to obtain optical photometry of ~100 NEOs with a range of telescopes. These observations have been carefully planned to maximize efficiency and minimize demand on the largest telescopes, and are complemented by observations obtained elsewhere. The resulting photometry will enable our Warm Spitzer NEO science.

  20. Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Mission concept is to assess the feasibility of using solar sail propulsion to enable a robotic precursor that would survey multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for potential future human visits. Single spacecraft will rendezvous with and image 3 NEOs within 6 years of launch

  1. Observing Near-Earth Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Cristina A; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Mueller, Michael; Reddy, Vishnu; Rivkin, Andrew; Ryan, Erin; Stansberry, John

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has the potential to enhance our understanding of near-Earth objects (NEOs). We present results of investigations into the observability of NEOs given the nominal observing requirements of JWST on elongation (85-135 degrees) and non-sidereal rates ($<$30mas/s). We find that approximately 75% of NEOs can be observed in a given year. However, observers will need to wait for appropriate observing windows. We find that JWST can easily execute photometric observations of meter-sized NEOs which will enhance our understanding of the small NEO population.

  2. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Bottke, William; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mainzer, Amy; Mueller, Michael; Penprase, Bryan; Smith, Howard; Spahr, Timothy; Stansberry, John

    2008-12-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population --- such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets --- remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. Recent evidence suggests that the size distribution of NEOs may undergo a transition at 1 km, and that the smaller bodies may record fundamental physical processes that are presently occurring in the Solar System but not understood. We propose to use the unique capability of Warm Spitzer to observe 750 NEOs. We will measure the size distribution of this population to understand fundamental physical processes that occur among the small bodies of our Solar System. We will measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth. We will measure the albedo distribution of NEOs, which indicates the compositional diversity among these small bodies. We will study properties of individual NEOs, including their surface properties and potentially their densities, and detailed properties of a subset of well-characterized objects. Our expert team and our previous experience in this field allow us to complete a comprehensive study of the origin and evolution of the NEO population. Our work is nothing less than an exploration of the history of near-Earth space.

  3. Science opportunities offered by the European SSA-NEO segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    The new ESA programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) initially consists of 3 segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near-Earth Objects (NEO). The scope of the SSA-NEO segment includes the assessment of the impact risk with Earth from known NEOs, observations of NEO objects and the support of related international co-operations and mitigation measures. To fulfill its objectives the SSA-NEO system will , inter alia, support the detection and tracking of all NEOs above a given size or risk threshold, and determine the orbit state and physical parameters of NEOs and their associated uncertainties. It is also foreseen that the SSA-NEO system keeps a record of all larger fireballs and provides statistical information and predictions on meteoroid fluxes. The SSA-NEO segment offers numerous opportunities for scientific studies on small bodies in the solar system. Examples are: 1. Observations of asteroids and NEOs 2. Study of non-gravitational perturbing forces 3. New methods for precise determination of orbits and their evolution 4. Physical characterization of NEOs (Albedo, mass, density, composition, light curves, rotation rate, etc) 5. Fluxes of larger meteoroids This paper gives an overview of the SSA-NEO segment and discusses scientific opportunities offered by this programme.

  4. Overview of the JPL Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent with the reformulation of NASA’s Near-Earth Object (NEO) program at NASA Headquarters, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has formed the Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS), which will continue the technical work on NEOs that JPL has performed in the past, and expand on that work. The poster will provide a brief history of NEO activities at JPL, including the establishment of the original NEO Program Office at JPL in 1998 to provide a central node of critical expertise in the area of trajectory dynamics of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). With the reformulation of the NEO program at NASA HQ, that office has become the Center for NEO Studies. The poster will review some of the Center’s key activities, such as: the computation of high precision orbits for NEOs, tabulation of their close approaches, and calculation of impact probabilities by all known NEOs over the next century via the Sentry and Scout impact monitoring systems. The Center will continue to host the website for NASA’s NEO Program, providing detailed information on the orbits and physical characteristics of all known NEOs. Other technical activities of the Center will also be outlined, including the Horizons on-line ephemeris service, the development of hypothetical impact scenarios and online kinetic-impactor deflection analysis tools, and the detection and mapping of keyholes.

  5. The ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre contribution to NEO hazard monitoring and observational campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Borgia, Barbara; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Perozzi, Ettore

    2015-08-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has recently been established in Frascati, near Rome, within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks is the coordination of observational activities related to the NEO hazard, and the distribution of relevant and up-to-date information on NEOs to both the scientific community and general users through its web portal (http://neo.ssa.esa.int).On the observational side, the NEOCC is linked to an increasingly large worldwide network of collaborating observatories, ranging from amateurs observers to large professional telescopes. The Centre organizes observation campaigns, alerting the network to suggest urgent or high-priority observations, and providing them with observational support.The NEOCC is also directly obtaining astrometric observations of high-priority targets, especially Virtual Impactors (VIs), on challenging objects as faint as magnitude 26.5, thanks to successful collaborations with ESO VLT in Chile and the INAF-sponsored LBT in Arizona. In addition, the Centre carries out regular monthly runs dedicated to NEO follow-up, recovery and survey activities with the 1-meter ESA OGS telescope in Tenerife.From a service perspective, the NEO System hosted at the NEOCC collects data and information on NEOs produced by various European services (e.g. NEODyS, EARN) and makes them available to a variety of users, with a particular focus on objects with possible collision solutions with the Earth. Among the tools provided through the web portal are the Risk List (a table of all known NEOs with impact solutions), a table of recent and upcoming close approaches, a database of physical properties of NEOs and the so-called Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations, and prioritise their observational activities accordingly.The results of our recent observation campaigns and some major recent improvements to the NEO System will presented and discussed in detail.

  6. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  7. For how long is a NEO survey blind with respect to small impactors?

    E-print Network

    Farnocchia, D; Valsecchi, G B

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the European Space Situational Awareness program, we considered a network of telescopes capable of scanning all the observable sky each night, in order to determine the efficiency of discovering Near-Earth objects (NEOs) in the size range of the Tunguska-like asteroids, from 160 m down to 10 m. In the present paper we measure the performances of the proposed survey in terms of the time needed to discover with a reasonable advance at least 50% of the impactors in the considered population. Our results suggest that the studied survey would be a significant addition to the current NEO discovery efforts.

  8. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Green, Adam W.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA) using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica) metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools) using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ?50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA) and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies. PMID:26658734

  9. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    -Universit?t Bochum in February of 2007. The subject was the Neo-Latin drama of the early modern period. neo-latin news 81 In ??Histrionum exercitus et scommata??Schauspieler, die Sp?che klopfen: Johannes Reuchlins Sergius und die Anf?nge der neulatein...- ischen Kom?die,? Matthias Dall?Asta focuses on Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522), a man who stands in many ways at the beginning of Neo-Latin comedy in Germany, with a special focus on his Sergius, a play that had an unusually broad reception. Johannes...

  10. How Many Ultra-Low Delta-v Near Earth Objects Remain Undiscovered? Implications for missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis; Murphy, Max

    2015-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed considerable growth of interest in missions to Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). NEOs are considered prime targets for manned and robotic missions, for both scientific objectives as well as in-situ resource utilization including harvesting of water for propellant and life support and mining of high-value elements for sale on Earth. Appropriate targets are crucial to such missions. Hence, ultra-low delta-v mission targets are strongly favored. Some mission architectures rely on the discovery of more ultra-low delta-v NEOs. In fact the approved and executed NEO missions have all targeted asteroids with ultra-low LEO to asteroid rendezvous delta-v <5.5 km/s.In this paper, we estimate the total NEO population as a function of delta-v, and how many remain to be discovered in various size ranges down to ~100m. We couple the NEOSSat-1 model (Greenstreet et al., 2012) to the NEO size distribution derived from the NEOWISE survey (Mainzer et al., 2011b) to compute an absolute NEO population model. We compare the Minor Planet Center (MPC) catalog of known NEOs to this NEO population model. We compute the delta-v from LEO to asteroid rendezvous orbits using a modified Shoemaker-Helin (S-H) formalism that empirically removes biases found comparing S-H with the results from NHATS. The median delta-v of the known NEOs is 7.3 km/s, the median delta-v predicted by our NEO model is 9.8 km/s, suggesting that undiscovered objects are biased to higher delta-v. The survey of delta-v <10.3 km/s NEOs is essentially complete for objects with diameter D >300 m. However, there are tens of thousands of objects with delta-v <10.3 km/s to be discovered in the D = 50 - 300 m size class (H = 20.4 - 24.3). Our work suggests that there are 100 yet-undiscovered NEOs with delta-v < 5:8 km/s, and 1000 undiscovered NEOs with v < 6.3 km/s. We conclude that, even with complete NEO surveys, the selection of good (i.e. ultra-low delta-v) mission targets is limited given current propulsion technology. Visiting the full range of NEO sub-types will likely require improved propulsion systems.

  11. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2003-01-01

    ?vre and his Freiburg colleagues inau- gurated a series of conferences dedicated to Neo-Latin poetry. (The following meetings dealt with Petrus Lotichius Secundus and Neo- Latin elegy, Giovanni Pontano and Catullus, and Johannes Secundus and Roman love elegy..., Horace, and some of Celtis?s own poems (Epigr. 1, 43; 2, 60; 3, 37; Ode 3, 19) and draws an historical line to the contemporary disputes about occultism in poetry and science (Johannes Trithemius, Agrippa von Nettesheim). Finally Dieter Wuttke...

  12. Cognitive Development Neo-Piagetian Accounts

    E-print Network

    Coulson, Seana

    1 Cognitive Development · Neo-Piagetian Accounts ­ Object Permanence ­ Baby Physics · Neonate · Believe Piaget Underestimated Child's Capacities ­ Inter-sensory Relations ­ Object Permanence A not on A not-B task reflects immature motor control ­ Conceptual development there, but motor development

  13. Composition of the Near-Earth Object Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, M.

    1997-12-01

    The results of a compositional survey of near-Earth objects are presented. This survey, comprised of low-resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 35 Earth-approaching asteroids and cometary candidates, was conducted over the past three years with the Double Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5-m ARC telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Gross surface mineralogical characteristics and standard Tholen taxonomies for these objects have been derived. In particular, similarities between some of the objects observed in this survey and certain meteorite types, including the ordinary chondrite meteorites, are outlined. Extensive simulations have been performed in order to quantify the significant observational biases that affect surveys of small solar system objects. In addition to debiasing the observed compositional distribution of near-Earth objects, a similar bias analysis for the main asteroid belt has been performed, resulting in a new look at the compositional variations across and within the main belt. Together, these data permit the direct comparison of the near-Earth object population with asteroids from various regions within the main belt.

  14. The LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Greenstreet, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet is planned for 2016.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1) and several hundred targets are now being followed-up per year. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects and those on the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) lists in order to improve the orbits, determine the light curves and rotation periods and improve the characterization. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be targets. Recent results have included the first period determinations for several of the Goldstone-targeted NEOs. We are in the process of building a NEO Portal which will allow professionals, amateurs and Citizen Scientists to plan, schedule and analyze NEO imaging and spectroscopy observations and data using the LCOGT Network and to act as a co-ordination hub for the NEO follow-up efforts.

  15. Maximizing the detection of near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, T.; Albrecht, S.; Koschny, D.; Drolshagen, G.

    2014-07-01

    Planetary bodies with a perihelion equal or less than 1.3 astronomical units (au) are called near-Earth objects (NEOs). These objects are divided into 4 sub-families, two of them cross Earth's orbit and may be a potential hazard for the planet. The Tunguska event and the incident in Chelyabinsk last year have shown the devastating destructiveness of NEOs with a size of only approximately 40 and 20 meters, respectively. To predict and identify further threats, telescopic NEO surveys currently extend our knowledge of the population of these objects. Today (March 2014) approximately 10,700 NEOs are known. Based on an extrapolation of the current population, Bottke et al. (2002) predict a total number of N?(1.0±0.5)×10^{8} NEOs up to an absolute magnitude of H = 30.5 mag. Additionally, Bottke et al. (2002) computed a de-biased model of the expected orbital elements distribution of the NEOs. They have investigated the theoretical distribution of NEOs by a dynamical simulation, following the orbital evolution of these objects from several source regions. Based on both models we performed simulations of the detectability of the theoretical NEO population for certain telescopes with certain properties. The goal of these simulations is to optimize the search strategies of NEO surveys. Our simulation models the optical telescope attributes (main and secondary mirror size, optical throughput, field-of-view), the electronics (CCD Camera, pixel size, quantum efficiency, gain, exposure time, pixel binning, dark / bias noise, Signal-to-Noise ratio), atmospheric effects (seeing, sky background illumination) and the brightness and angular velocity of the NEOs. We present exemplarily results for two telescopes, currently developed by the European Space Agency for a future NEO survey: the so-called Fly-Eye Telescope, a 1-m effective aperture telescope with a field of view of 6.5×6.5 deg^2 and the Test-Bed Telescope, with an aperture of 56 cm and a field of view of 2.2×2.2 deg^2. The results of both telescopes can be easily adapted to other telescopes with similar properties. We show different observation strategies to maximize the detection rate of undiscovered NEOs depending on different telescope operation modes (exposure time, pixel binning) and different sky conditions (seeing, sky background brightness).

  16. Relevance of the NEO dedicated observing programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillot, William; Vaubaillon, Jérémie; Scholl, Hans; Colas, François; Rocher, P.; Birlan, Mirel; Arlot, Jean-Eudes

    2005-04-01

    The study of NEOs (Near Earth Objects) has considerably been developed in several ways under the huge impulse of the research on the risks of an hazardous collision with the Earth. In this context observations play a very important role. This article attempts to underline their importance in improving our knowledge of these objects and the necessity of organizing dedicated programs. It develops the objectives of these observations, describes methods to perform the detection of new objects, discusses their follow-up and the necessity of finding using archives. It also gives information about the fit of the observations in order to improve the knowledge of the orbits of NEO and about the effect of the planetary theories taken into account in the model. To cite this article: W. Thuillot et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  17. Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. N.; Sykes, M. V.

    2005-12-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within a specified dynamical range having requisite composition and frequency. A minimum size requirement is estimated assuming CONOPs has an NEO harvester on station at L1. When the NEO launch window opens, the vehicle departs, rendezvousing within 30 days. Mining and processing operations ( 60 days) produces dirty water for the return trip ( 30 days) to L1 for final refinement into propellants. A market for propellant at L1 is estimated to be 700 mT /year: 250 mT for Mars missions, 100 mT for GTO services (Blair et al. 2002), 50 mT for L1 to lunar surface services, and 300 mT for bringing NEO-derived propellants to L1. Assuming an appropriate NEO has 5% recoverable water, exploited with 50% efficiency, 23000 mT/year must be processed. At 1500 kg/m3, this corresponds to one object per year with a radius of 15 meters, or two 5 m radius objects per month, of which it is estimated there are 10000 having delta-v < 4.2 km/s and 200/year of these available for short roundtrip missions to meet resource requirements (Jones et al. 2002). The importance of these potential resource objects should drive a requirement that next generation NEO detection systems (e.g., Pan-STARRS/LSST) be capable by 2010 of detecting dark NEOs fainter than V=24, allowing for identification 3 months before closest approach. Blair et al. 2002. Final Report to NASA Exploration Team, December 20, 2002. Jones et al. 2002. ASP Conf. Series Vol. 202 (M. Sykes, Ed.), pp. 141-154.

  18. SIMONE: interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (Smallsat Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other onboard systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

  19. POPULATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2013-03-01

    We develop a new method for identifying young stellar objects (YSOs) from star-forming regions using the photometry data from Spitzer's c2d Legacy Project. The aim is to obtain YSO lists as complete as possible for studying statistical properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages. The largest obstacle in identifying YSOs comes from background galaxies with similar spectral energy distributions to YSOs. Traditionally, selected color-color and color-magnitude criteria are used to separate YSOs and galaxies. However, since there is no obvious boundary between YSOs and galaxies in color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), those criteria may exclude faint YSOs near the boundary. In this paper, we separate the YSOs and galaxies in a multi-dimensional (multi-D) magnitude space, which is equivalent to using all variations of CMDs simultaneously. Comparing sources from molecular clouds to Spitzer's SWIRE data, which have a negligible amount of YSOs, we can naturally identify YSO candidates (YSOc) located outside of the galaxy-populated regions in the multi-D space. In the five c2d surveyed clouds, we select 322 new YSOc and miss/exclude 33 YSOc compared to Evans et al., and this results in 1313 YSOc in total. As a result, SFR increases 28% correspondingly, but the lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages remain unchanged. Compared to theories by Krumholz and McKee, our derived SFR suggests that star formation at a large scale is dominated by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields. Furthermore, we identify seven new very low luminosity objects.

  20. Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that active galactic nuclei activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M* >~ 1010Msolar), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting is linked to nature, nurture or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

  1. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et al

    2006-01-01

    , 4227 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-4227. NLN is the official publication of the American Association for Neo- Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western Euro- pean Editor: Gilbert Tournoy, Leuven; Eastern European... Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. x + 207 pp. $70. In this erudite and absorbing book, Paul Botley provides a context for some of the seminal translations from Greek into Latin which were made in the fifteenth and sixteenth...

  2. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2003-01-01

    , and activities his leader?s holiness and the divine origin of his mandate. To this end, he analyses Savonarola?s prophecies, the source of the most pointed criticism by his adversaries, REVIEWS 157 placing them in their proper historical and religious contexts... Narr Verlag a new series, ?NeoLatina,? where the papers of those meetings were published. The twenty-one articles of the first volume explore the intertextual relations between the poetry of the German ?errrant humanist? Conrad Celtis (1459...

  3. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et. al

    2010-01-01

    -sided as well. Eugenio Garin, for example, wrote that ?Filelfo always proposes to the powerful the same bargain: in exchange for writings in verse or prose, a certain number of zecchini, or florins, or ducats? (?L?opera di Francesco Filelfo,? in Storia di... Milano, vol. 7: L?et? sforzesca dal 1450 al 1500, Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1956, 545). Yet a neo-latin news 233 careful reading of Book 4 of the Odes reveals more than a simple hack for hire. The opening pair of poems...

  4. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et al.

    2007-01-01

    , Texas A&M University) ? ?uvres compl?tes, Tome I: Basiorum liber et Odarum liber. By Jean Second. Ed. and com. by Roland Guillot. Paris: Honor? Champion, 2005. The Basiorum liber of Johannes Secundus is among the most celebrated of all neo- Latin... scholars?indeed, there is material 80 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS enough there for a book-length study of its own?his choice seems injudi- cious for what is meant to be a critical edition of the poetry of Johannes Secundus. Of course, any analysis...

  5. EXPLORENEOs. I. DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2010-09-15

    We have begun the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe some 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its Warm Spitzer mode. From these measurements and catalog optical photometry we derive albedos and diameters of the observed targets. The overall goal of our ExploreNEOs program is to study the history of near-Earth space by deriving the physical properties of a large number of NEOs. In this paper, we describe both the scientific and technical construction of our ExploreNEOs program. We present our observational, photometric, and thermal modeling techniques. We present results from the first 101 targets observed in this program. We find that the distribution of albedos in this first sample is quite broad, probably indicating a wide range of compositions within the NEO population. Many objects smaller than 1 km have high albedos ({approx}>0.35), but few objects larger than 1 km have high albedos. This result is consistent with the idea that these larger objects are collisionally older, and therefore possess surfaces that are more space weathered and therefore darker, or are not subject to other surface rejuvenating events as frequently as smaller NEOs.

  6. Deliverable water from small NEOs to DRLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Sercel, Joel; Morenz, Karen; Gertsch, Leslie S.

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a simplified mission model to estimate the quantity of deliverable water from small NEOs to distant retrograde lunar orbit (DRLO) as a function of Earth-return trip time and ?v. Our model is designed to be analytically simple, computationally efficient, and close enough to optimal to provide a realistic but conservative assessment of the relevant parameters. The challenge stems from the fact that we are not considering a mission to a specific, known target, but rather missions to the ensemble of NEOs in a model population. To further simplify the analysis we treat Earth's heliocentric orbit as circular with a semi-major axis of 1 au and zero inclination.

  7. A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

    2007-08-01

    ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.We will present the mission targets, scenarios and techniques that have been proposed.

  8. The Missing CV Population: Results From An Objective Prism Survey

    E-print Network

    C. Tappert; T. Augusteijn; J. Maza

    2001-09-28

    We present the results of a search for cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the Calan-Tololo survey. We detected a total number of 21 CVs, 12 of them are previously unknown objects. Our results suggest that the mismatch between the theoretically predicted sample and the observed one is not due to observational bias but has to be resolved by a revision of the theoretical models.

  9. Population statistics of faint stellar and non-stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbergh, S.

    1979-01-01

    A disc and halo population model is constructed to fit star counts and color data down to V approximately 23 at absolute value of b = 90 deg. This model is used to predict star counts and colors down to V approximately 30. Deviations from these extrapolated relationships provide constraints on the number of faint quasars and black dwarf stars. It is shown that extra-galactic globular clusters start contributing significantly to star counts at V approximately 25 and are more numerous than stars for V 31. Morphological studies of galaxies with approximately 0.5, were made with the space telescope. Significant constraints on theoretical models that describe the evolution of clusters of galaxies are provided.

  10. Physical characterization of fast rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the physical characteristics of fast rotator NEOs (sub-km sizes with H > 22) is important for two reasons: to establish properties that can constraint models of their potential hazard, and to learn about the origin and the evolution of the solar system. Technically it is difficult to cover different ranges of wavelengths using one telescope with one instrument. Setting up a network of telescopes with different instruments observing simultaneously the same object will efficiently contribute to the characterization of NEOs.ART (Arizona Robotic Telescope) is a University of Arizona initiative whose goal is to use local 2-m size telescopes to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects covering the visible and the near- infrared wavelengths. We plan to use three telescopes of the ART project to observe fast rotator NEOs: 1) VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet) with VATT-4K optical imager for photometry to estimate colors, lightcurves to get the rotation rate, and estimate the phase angle function of NEOs, 2) Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) with BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy, and 3) Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet) with a near-infrared instrument.We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate, color, and type have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h, 2011 PT of 0.17 +/- 0.05 h, 2014 SC324 of 0.36 +/- 0.43 h, 2014 WF201 of 1.00 +/- 0.03 h. Of these objects, 2014 HM2, 2014 FA, 2014 SB145, 2011 PT fall among X-type asteroids; 2014 KS, 2014 WF are likely to be C-type; and 2014 SC 324 is a D-type.

  11. Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population

    E-print Network

    Marta Volonteri; Francesco Haardt; Kayhan Gultekin

    2008-02-05

    We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that AGN activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M>1e10 solar masses), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting, is linked to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive ob jects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

  12. Optimization of deflection of a big NEO through impact with a small one.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  13. Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  14. , -CNRS JRL NEO Ee Sian Florent LAMIRAUX -CNRS JRL -CNRS JRL,

    E-print Network

    Lamiraux, Florent

    presents a planning strategy for picking up objects in changing environment with a humanoid robot , -CNRS JRL NEO Ee Sian Florent LAMIRAUX -CNRS JRL -CNRS JRL, A Picking up Motion Strategies for Humanoid Robot in Changing Environment Hiroyuki TSUKAGOSHI (U. Tsukuba, JRL/AIST-CNRS), NEO Ee Sian

  15. Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic…

  16. Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

  17. Searching for Astroids: Modifying the LSST MOPS Pipeline to Find NEOs in DECam/Blanco Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Trilling, D. E.; Fuentes, C.; Allen, L.; Axelrod, T. S.; Larson, S. M.; Christensen, E.; DECam NEO Survey Team

    2013-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs), Solar System bodies that pass close to the Earth, are of great interest to both the scientific and impact hazard communities. The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) pipeline was designed to find NEOs in Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-STARRS 1 data. However, by modifying several of the settings in MOPS it is possible to use it on NEO survey data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope. We tested MOPS’ capabilities on synthetic data sets that contain implanted NEOs and noise and determined the limits of MOPS’ effectiveness in terms of noise, NEO sky velocity, and so on. MOPS will not only be a valuable tool for the DECam and Spitzer surveys but these projects will also serve as an opportunity to test MOPS on real data before construction of LSST begins. Funded by the NSF through grant number AST-1004107

  18. Debiased Populations of Kuiper Belt Objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) discovered nearly 500 Kuiper belt objects during 1998-2005 (Elliot et al. 2005, AJ, 129, 1117). Of these objects, 146 objects are classified as Classical, 44 as Scattered, 18 as Centaurs, and 104 as resonant objects in 16 different resonances, the most populous of which is the 3:2, with 52 objects. The search fields used by DES are fully characterized, enabling us to calculate the probability that an object with the discovered orbital and physical parameters would have been detected by the DES. These probabilities can be used to estimate the true populations of objects in different dynamical classes. Knowing the true populations allows characterization of the current dynamical distributions and constraint of the current total mass of the Kuiper Belt, important keys to understanding the evolution of the outer solar system. One method for calculating probabilities is to use a maximum-likelihood model characterized by probability density functions for H-magnitude, semimajor axis (a), eccentricity (e) and inclination (i), within the ranges of these parameters defined by the DES discoveries. We have employed this method to estimate the numbers of objects in the most populated DES dynamical classes. We will present the methodology, limitations to our technique, and the results to date.

  19. Multiple Populations for Multiple Objectives: A Coevolutionary Technique for Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhi-Hui Zhan; Jingjing Li; Jiannong Cao; Jun Zhang; Chung, H S-H; Yu-Hui Shi

    2013-04-01

    Traditional multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) consider multiple objectives as a whole when solving multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). However, this consideration may cause difficulty to assign fitness to individuals because different objectives often conflict with each other. In order to avoid this difficulty, this paper proposes a novel coevolutionary technique named multiple populations for multiple objectives (MPMO) when developing MOEAs. The novelty of MPMO is that it provides a simple and straightforward way to solve MOPs by letting each population correspond with only one objective. This way, the fitness assignment problem can be addressed because the individuals' fitness in each population can be assigned by the corresponding objective. MPMO is a general technique that each population can use existing optimization algorithms. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted for each population, and coevolutionary multiswarm PSO (CMPSO) is developed based on the MPMO technique. Furthermore, CMPSO is novel and effective by using an external shared archive for different populations to exchange search information and by using two novel designs to enhance the performance. One design is to modify the velocity update equation to use the search information found by different populations to approximate the whole Pareto front (PF) fast. The other design is to use an elitist learning strategy for the archive update to bring in diversity to avoid local PFs. CMPSO is comprehensively tested on different sets of benchmark problems with different characteristics and is compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms. The results show that CMPSO has superior performance in solving these different sets of MOPs. PMID:22907971

  20. ExploreNEOs. III. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 65 POTENTIAL SPACECRAFT TARGET ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M.; Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Bhattacharya, B.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A.; Emery, J. P.; Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M.; Penprase, B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2011-04-15

    Space missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently a manned mission to an NEO was announced as a NASA goal. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor primitive low-albedo objects. For the vast majority of NEOs, the albedo is unknown. Here we report new constraints on the size and albedo of 65 NEOs with rendezvous {Delta}v <7 km s{sup -1}. Our results are based on thermal-IR flux data obtained in the framework of our ongoing (2009-2011) ExploreNEOs survey using NASA's 'Warm-Spitzer' space telescope. As of 2010 July 14, we have results for 293 objects in hand (including the 65 low-{Delta}v NEOs presented here); before the end of 2011, we expect to have measured the size and albedo of {approx}700 NEOs (including probably {approx}160 low-{Delta}v NEOs). While there are reasons to believe that primitive volatile-rich materials are universally low in albedo, the converse need not be true: the orbital evolution of some dark objects likely has caused them to lose their volatiles by coming too close to the Sun. For all our targets, we give the closest perihelion distance they are likely to have reached (using orbital integrations from Marchi et al. 2009) and corresponding upper limits on the past surface temperature. Low-{Delta}v objects for which both albedo and thermal history may suggest a primitive composition include (162998) 2001 SK162, (68372) 2001 PM9, and (100085) 1992 UY4.

  1. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

    2013-01-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

  2. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, N.; Trilling, D.; Thomas, C.; Willman, M.; Grundy, W.; Roe, H.; Christensen, E.; Person, M.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Busch, M.

    2013-10-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA’s IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

  3. Statistical Estimation of Orbital Debris Populations with a Spectrum of Object Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. -l; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J. -C; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital debris is a real concern for the safe operations of satellites. In general, the hazard of debris impact is a function of the size and spatial distributions of the debris populations. To describe and characterize the debris environment as reliably as possible, the current NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2000) is being upgraded to a new version based on new and better quality data. The data-driven ORDEM model covers a wide range of object sizes from 10 microns to greater than 1 meter. This paper reviews the statistical process for the estimation of the debris populations in the new ORDEM upgrade, and discusses the representation of large-size (greater than or equal to 1 m and greater than or equal to 10 cm) populations by SSN catalog objects and the validation of the statistical approach. Also, it presents results for the populations with sizes of greater than or equal to 3.3 cm, greater than or equal to 1 cm, greater than or equal to 100 micrometers, and greater than or equal to 10 micrometers. The orbital debris populations used in the new version of ORDEM are inferred from data based upon appropriate reference (or benchmark) populations instead of the binning of the multi-dimensional orbital-element space. This paper describes all of the major steps used in the population-inference procedure for each size-range. Detailed discussions on data analysis, parameter definition, the correlation between parameters and data, and uncertainty assessment are included.

  4. Euphrosyne As An NEO Source: Spectral Properties and Inferences from Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-11-01

    The Euphrosyne family is interpreted as ejecta from an impact into 31 Euphrosyne, a large C-class asteroid in the outer part of the main belt. Recent work by Masiero et al. suggests that Euphrosyne family members may preferentially find their way into the NEO population, and presumably from there into the meteorite collections of the world.Interestingly, observations of Euphrosyne in the 3-µm spectral region by Takir et al. and Rivkin et al. show it to have a rounded band shape and a band center near 3.1 µm. Such a band shape has never been seen in any meteorite spectra collected to date, but these characteristics are reminiscent of 24 Themis and 65 Cybele, whose spectra have been interpreted as having bands due to ice frost and organic materials. The spectra of Euphrosyne family objects, and those NEOs thought to have originated in that family, therefore may show how icy objects evolve as they move from the asteroid belt to orbits near 1 AU and how they may (or may not) be represented in the meteorite record. Alternately, they may give rise to new interpretations of the absorptions that have not yet been considered.We will discuss the combined implications of Euphrosyne’s spectrum and family dynamics, and the opportunities for better understanding the nature of outer belt asteroids that observations of the Euphrosyne family provide.

  5. A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

    2007-08-01

    ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... .) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials. It involves a main spacescraft which will allow the determination of important physical properties of the target (shape, mass, crater distribution . . . ) and which will take samples by a touch-and-go procedure, a Lander for in-situ investigation of the sampling site, and sampling depending on technological development and resource allocations, a re-entry capsule, and scientific payloads. We will present the mission targets, scenarios and techniques that have been proposed.

  6. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    E-print Network

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2015-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na I lines at 8200 A found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted it as evidence for unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally-extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 A (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related with the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling sign of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, wh...

  7. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    ; Eastern European Editors: Jerzy Axer, Barbara Milewska-Wazbinska, and Katar- zyna Tomaszuk, Centre for Studies in the Classical Tradition in Poland and East-Central Europe, University of Warsaw. Found- ing Editors: James R. Naiden, Southern Oregon... in the built realm. As such, space is not a void, but the result of an accumulative circumstance, perceptible and knowable but not defined in the way that solid objects are. This discussion of nu- anced ways of understanding space is instructive to today?s...

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  9. cyNeo4j: connecting Neo4j and Cytoscape

    PubMed Central

    Summer, Georg; Kelder, Thomas; Ono, Keiichiro; Radonjic, Marijana; Heymans, Stephane; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We developed cyNeo4j, a Cytoscape App to link Cytoscape and Neo4j databases to utilize the performance and storage capacities Neo4j offers. We implemented a Neo4j NetworkAnalyzer, ForceAtlas2 layout and Cypher component to demonstrate the possibilities a distributed setup of Cytoscape and Neo4j have. Availability and implementation: The app is available from the Cytoscape App Store at http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/cyneo4j, the Neo4j plugins at www.github.com/gsummer/cyneo4j-parent and the community and commercial editions of Neo4j can be found at http://www.neo4j.com. Contact: georg.summer@gmail.com PMID:26272981

  10. Bioengineering endothelialized neo-corneas using donor-derived corneal endothelial cells and decellularized corneal stroma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin San; Williams, James K; Greven, Margaret; Walter, Keith A; Laber, Patrick W; Khang, Gilson; Soker, Shay

    2010-09-01

    Corneal transplantation is a common transplant procedure performed to improve visual acuity by replacing the opaque or distorted host tissue by clear healthy donor tissue. However, its clinical utility is limited due to a lack of high quality donor corneas. Bioengineered neo-corneas, created using an expandable population of human donor-derived corneal endothelial cells (HCEC), could address this current shortage. The objectives of this study were to establish HCEC isolation and culture protocols and to investigate the feasibility of bioengineering corneal tissue constructs by seeding the cells on decellularized human corneal stroma. HCECs were removed from the discarded corneas of eye donors by enzymatic digestion. Cells were expanded and evaluated for their expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1). Donor corneal stromas were cut to 120-200 microm thickness slices using a microtome and then decellularized. Extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were measured after decellularization. To engineer neo-corneas, 130 HCEC/mm(2) were seeded on decellularized human corneal stromas. The resulting constructs were placed in growth medium for 14 days and then analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histology, and immunocytochemistry. Seeded cells retain expression of the functional markers Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and ZO-1 and constructs have biomechanical properties similar to those of normal corneas. These results indicate that construction of neo-corneas, using HCECs derived from discarded donor corneas and decellularized thin-layer corneal stromas, may create a new source of high quality corneal tissue for transplantation. PMID:20541797

  11. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  12. The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2013-09-01

    The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a “potentially hazardous asteroid” (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m). These are big enough to cause, in the case of impact with Earth, destructive effects on a regional scale. Smaller objects can still produce major damage on a local scale, while the largest NEOs could endanger the survival of living species. Therefore, several national and international observational efforts have been started (i) to detect undiscovered NEOs and especially PHAs, (ii) to determine and continuously monitor their orbital properties and hence their impact probability, and (iii) to investigate their physical nature. Further ongoing activities concern the analysis of possible techniques to mitigate the risk of a NEO impact, when an object is confirmed to be on an Earth colliding trajectory. Depending on the timeframe available before the collision, as well as on the object’s physical properties, various methods to deflect a NEO have been proposed and are currently under study from groups of experts on behalf of international organizations and space agencies. This paper will review our current understanding of the NEO population, the scientific aspects and the ongoing space- and ground-based activities to foresee close encounters and to mitigate the effects of possible impacts.

  13. Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Cameron, J.; Jain, A.; Kline, H.; Lim, C.; Mazhar, H.; Myint, S.; Nayar, H.; Patton, R.; Pomerantz, M.; Quadrelli, M.; Shakkotai, P.; Tso, K.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Space Exploration Analysis and Simulation (SEAS) task, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is using physics-based simulations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to explore potential surface and near-surface mission operations at Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The simulator is under development at JPL and can be used to provide detailed analysis of various surface and near-surface NEO robotic and human exploration concepts. In this paper we describe the SEAS simulator and provide examples of recent mission systems and operations concepts investigated using the simulation. We also present related analysis work and tools developed for both the SEAS task as well as general modeling, analysis and simulation capabilites for asteroid/small-body objects.

  14. A concept of cost-saving space system designed for the detection of NEOs (EKOZONT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugarov, Andrey; Savanov, Igor; Shustov, Boris

    2015-09-01

    In recent years many countries put effort to build systems to detect and to monitor near Earth objects (NEOs) with a size down to 100m that could lead to catastrophic results in case of collision with the Earth. EKOZONT is a concept of cost-effective space system designed for the detection of NEOs down to size of 100 m not later than 15-25 days before the possible collision with the Earth.

  15. De-biased populations of Kuiper belt objects from the deep ecliptic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF {sub 32} to a minimum of 1.5 × 10{sup –7} for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU {sub 185}. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of ? = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 ? H ? 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power law with ? = 0.42 ± 0.02. This is consistent with a knee in the H-distribution around H = 7.2 as reported elsewhere. Based on the Classical-derived magnitude distribution, the total number of objects (H ? 7) in each class is: Classical (2100 ± 300 objects), Scattered (2800 ± 400), 3:2 (570 ± 80), 2:1 (400 ± 50), 5:2 (270 ± 40), 7:4 (69 ± 9), 5:3 (60 ± 8). The independent estimate for the number of Centaurs in the same H range is 13 ± 5. If instead all objects are divided by inclination into 'Hot' and 'Cold' populations, following Fraser et al., we find that ?{sub Hot} = 0.90 ± 0.02, while ?{sub Cold} = 1.32 ± 0.02, in good agreement with that work.

  16. Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, David

    2011-01-01

    Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

  17. Historicism and neo-Kantianism.

    PubMed

    Beiser, Fred

    2008-12-01

    This article treats the conflict between historicism and neo-Kantianism in the late nineteenth century by a careful examination of the writings of Wilhelm Windelband, the leader of the Southwestern neo-Kantians. Historicism was a profound challenge to the fundamental principles of Kant's philosophy because it seemed to imply that there are no universal and necessary principles of science, ethics or aesthetics. Since all such principles are determined by their social and historical context, they differ with each culture and epoch. Windelband attempted to respond to the challenge of this relativism by either broadening Kantian principles, so that they could accommodate the results of historicism, or by reformulating Kantian principles, so that they were impregnable to historical change. The article examines both aspects of Windelband's strategy in some detail, noting the many changes and different formulations in his views. A final section considers some of the difficulties of Windelband's strategy and concludes that, despite its heroic efforts, it was a failure. PMID:19391374

  18. NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; McMillan, R. S.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Spahr, T.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Watkins, J.; and others

    2011-12-20

    With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

  19. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-08-01

    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the albedo distribution of NEOs with those of their potential source populations. These projects are supported by NASA and the Spitzer Science Center.

  20. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    PubMed Central

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  1. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) -- Science Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Siu, Hosea; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of other parts of the Solar System they provide insight to more distant populations. Their small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them ideal laboratories for studying ongoing processes of planetary evolution. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. And the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for a variety of planetary mission scenarios. However, in spite of their importance, only the largest NEOs are well studied and a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist.MANOS is a multi-year physical characterization survey, originally awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS is targeting several hundred mission-accessible, sub-km NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths to provide a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Accessing these targets is enabled through classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in the northern and southern hemispheres. Our observing strategy is designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.Early progress from MANOS includes: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied NEOs, (3) detection of the fastest known rotation period of any minor planet in the Solar System, (4) an investigation of the influence of planetary encounters on the rotational properties of NEOs, (5) dynamical models for the evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (6) development of a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data products while providing a portal to facilitate observation planning and coordination within the small body observer community. We will present highlights of these early MANOS science results.

  2. Constraints to the Cold Classical KBO population from HST observations of faint objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, David; Grundy, William

    2015-11-01

    The size distribution of the known Kuiper Belt Objects has been described by a double power law, with a break at R magnitude 25. There are two leading interpretations to this break: 1) It is the result of the collisional evolution among these KBOs, with the objects smaller than the break being the population most affected by collisional erosion. 2) The size distribution break is primordial, set during the Kuiper Belt formation.The low inclination Kuiper Belt Objects, the Cold Classical population, is thought to have been dynamically isolated since the formation of the Solar System, and thus only collisions between Cold Classicals would have affected their size distribution. If the size distribution is collisional, it probes parameters of the Kuiper Belt history: strengths of the bodies, impact energies and frequency, and the the number of objects. If the distribution is primordial, it reveals parameters of the Kuiper Belt accretion, as well as limits on its subsequent collisional history.In this work, we obtained new HST observations of 5 faint Cold Classicals, which we combine with previous HST observations, to examine the distribution of two properties of the smallest KBOs: colors and binary fraction. These two properties can differentiate between a primordial and a collisional origin of the size distribution break. If the smaller bodies have been through extensive collisional evolution, they will have exposed materials from their interiors, which has not been exposed to weathering, and thus should be bluer than the old surfaces of the larger bodies. An independent constraint can be derived from the fraction of binary objects: the angular momentum of the observed binaries is typically too high to result from collisions, thus a collisionally-evolved population would have a lower binary fraction, due to the easier separation of binaries, compared to the disruption of similar-sized bodies, and the easier disruption of the binary components, due to the smaller size.We will present the constraints to the color and binary fraction distributions we are measuring from these observations, which probe the smallest KBOs currently observable.

  3. INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Canalizo, Gabriela; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  4. Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office performed an assessment of the feasibility of using a near-term solar sail propulsion system to enable a single spacecraft to perform serial rendezvous operations at multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) within six years of launch on a small-to-moderate launch vehicle. The study baselined the use of the sail technology demonstrated in the mid-2000 s by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project and is scheduled to be demonstrated in space by 2014 as part of the NASA Technology Demonstration Mission Program. The study ground rules required that the solar sail be the only new technology on the flight; all other spacecraft systems and instruments must have had previous space test and qualification. The resulting mission concept uses an 80-m X 80-m 3-axis stabilized solar sail launched by an Athena-II rocket in 2017 to rendezvous with 1999 AO10, Apophis and 2001 QJ142. In each rendezvous, the spacecraft will perform proximity operations for approximately 30 days. The spacecraft science payload is simple and lightweight; it will consist of only the multispectral imager flown on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission to 433 Eros and 253 Mathilde. Most non-sail spacecraft systems are based on the Messenger mission spacecraft. This paper will describe the objectives of the proposed mission, the solar sail technology to be employed, the spacecraft system and subsystems, as well as the overall mission profile.

  5. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G (PI N. Moskovitz).

  6. The utilization of neural nets in populating an object-oriented database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms (i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

  7. NEOShield - A global approach to NEO Impact Threat Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    NEOShield is a European-Union funded project coordinated by the German Aero-space Center, DLR, to address near-Earth object (NEO) impact hazard mitigation issues. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The project is funded for a period of 3.5 years from January 2012 with a total of 5.8 million euros. The primary aim of the project is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. The NEOShield work plan consists of scientific investigations into the nature of the impact hazard and the physical properties of NEOs, and technical and engineering studies of practical means of deflecting NEOs. There exist many ideas for asteroid deflection techniques, many of which would require considerable scientific and technological development. The emphasis of NEOShield is on techniques that are feasible with current technology, requiring a minimum of research and development work. NEOShield aims to provide detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions, targeting NEOs of the kind most likely to trigger the first space-based mitigation action. Most of the asteroid deflection techniques proposed to date require physical contact with the threatening object, an example being the kinetic impactor. NEOShield includes research into the mitigation-relevant physical properties of NEOs on the basis of remotely-sensed astronomical data and the results of rendezvous missions, the observational techniques required to efficiently gather mitigation-relevant data on the dynamical state and physical properties of a threatening NEO, and laboratory investigations using gas guns to fire projectiles into asteroid regolith analog materials. The gas-gun investigations enable state-of-the-art numerical models to be verified at small scales. Computer simulations at realistic NEO scales are used to investigate how NEOs with a range of properties would respond to a pulse of energy applied in a deflection attempt. The technical work includes the development of crucial technologies, such as the autonomous guidance of a kinetic impactor to a precise point on the surface of the target, and the detailed design of realistic missions for the purpose of demonstrating the applicability and feasibility of one or more of the techniques investigated. Theoretical work on the blast deflection method of mitigation is designed to probe the circumstances in which this last line of defense may be the only viable option and the issues relating to its deployment. A global response campaign roadmap will be developed based on realistic scenarios presented, for example, by the discovery of an object such as 99942 Apophis or 2011 AG5 on a threatening orbit. The work will include considerations of the timeline of orbit knowledge and impact probability development, reconnaissance observations and fly-by or rendezvous missions, the political decision to mount a mitigation attempt, and the design, development, and launch of the mitigation mission. Collaboration with colleagues outside the NEOShield Consortium involved in complementary activities (e.g. under the auspices of the UN, NASA, or ESA) is being sought in order to establish a broad international strategy. We present a brief overview of the history and planned scope of the project, and progress made to date. The NEOShield project (http://www.neoshield.net) has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 282703.

  8. Criteria for the Formation of Population III Objects in the Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    T. Kitayama; H. Susa; M. Umemura; S. Ikeuchi

    2001-05-17

    We explore possibilities of collapse and star formation in Population III objects exposed to the external ultraviolet background (UVB) radiation. Assuming spherical symmetry, we solve self-consistently radiative transfer of photons, non-equilibrium H2 chemistry, and gas hydrodynamics. Although the UVB does suppress the formation of low mass objects, the negative feedback turns out to be weaker than previously suggested. In particular, the cut-off scale of collapse drops significantly below the virial temperature 10^4 K at weak UV intensities, due to both self-shielding of the gas and H2 cooling. Clouds above this cut-off tend to contract highly dynamically, further promoting self-shielding and H2 formation. For plausible radiation intensities and spectra, the collapsing gas can cool efficiently to temperatures well below 10^4 K before rotationally supported and the final H2 fraction reaches 10^{-3}. Our results imply that star formation can take place in low mass objects collapsing in the UVB. The threshold baryon mass for star formation is \\sim 10^9 solar mass for clouds collapsing at redshifts z \\simlt 3, but drops significantly at higher redshifts. In a conventional cold dark matter universe, the latter coincides roughly with that of the 1 \\sigma density fluctuations. Objects near and above this threshold can thus constitute `building blocks' of luminous structures, and we discuss their links to dwarf spheroidal/elliptical galaxies and faint blue objects. These results suggest that the UVB can play a key role in regulating the star formation history of the Universe.

  9. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. ? v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow us to obtain rotational light curves for objects down to V˜22, visible spectra down to V˜21, and near-IR spectra down to V˜19. MANOS primarily focuses on targets that are recently discovered. We employ a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable follow-up characterization within days or weeks after a target of interest is discovered. We will present a MANOS status report with an emphasis on noteworthy observations and ongoing efforts to achieve fully transparency by making target lists and data products publicly available online.

  10. A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

  11. Applications of MOPS to NEO searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Brian; Trilling, D.; Allen, L.; Earle, A.; Fuentes, C.; Myers, J.

    2013-10-01

    We are employing MOPS for two different NEO surveys. The first is a ground-based survey using the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope. We take transient source detections, create intra-night tracklets, and form inter-night tracks. We use find_orb to reject obviously bad orbits, and have successfully submitted over 100,000 measurements to the MPC. We have also adapted MOPS for use with a new Warm Spitzer NEO survey.

  12. A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

    2008-10-29

    This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

  13. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of taxonomic types that differs from both large NEOs and meteorites.We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G.

  14. Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids

    E-print Network

    Elvis, Martin

    Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ...

  15. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries have decided to integrate family planning programs with health services; and only 20% of African countries have announced socioeconomic development as an instrument to solve their population problems. PMID:12279355

  16. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) — First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Avner, Louis; Binzel, Richard; Burt, Brian; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Hinkle, Mary; Mommert, Michael; Person, Michael; Polishook, David; Schottland, Robert; Siu, Hosea; Thirouin, Audrey; Thomas, Cristina; Trilling, David; Wasserman, Lawrence; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO and has since expanded operations to include facilities at Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, where little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Observing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy enables the characterization of roughly 10% of newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits.To date MANOS has obtained data on over 200 sub-km NEOs and will ultimately provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present first results from the survey including: (1) the de-biased taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for small objects with high Earth-encounter probabilities, (3) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will help to facilitate observational planning for the small body observer community, and (4) physical properties derived from rotational light curves.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO, Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. We acknowledge funding support from NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G and an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz.

  17. Are Near Earth Objects the Key to Optimization Theory?

    E-print Network

    Formato, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    This note suggests that near earth objects and Central Force Optimization have something in common, that NEO theory may hold the key to solving some vexing problems in deterministic optimization: local trapping and proof of convergence. CFO analogizes Newton's laws to locate the global maxima of a function. The NEO-CFO nexus is the striking similarity between CFO's Davg and an NEO's Delta-V curves. Both exhibit oscillatory plateau-like regions connected by jumps, suggesting that CFO's metaphorical "gravity" indeed behaves like real gravity, thereby connecting NEOs and CFO and being the basis for speculating that NEO theory may address difficult issues in optimization.

  18. Effects of Earth Encounters on the Rotational Properties of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chit Siu, Ho; Keane, James T.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been shown to be significant factors in their evolution. Previous studies have examined the effects of these encounters on reflectance spectra, and effects such as spin state and shape changes have been studied for specific asteroids and through simulation. In this study, archive data from previous NEO surveys were used to investigate rotational frequencies as a function of minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID), which we use as a proxy for Earth encounter likelihood.When comparing objects of similar sizes, we find a highly significant difference in the dispersion of rotational frequency (p < 0.01; significant at a >99% confidence level) between NEO populations that were likely to have had an Earth encounter and those that are less likely to have had such an encounter. The encounter/non-encounter distinction is found at a dividing MOID value of 1 lunar distance (LD). These results were robust to changes in the size of the moving average window, as well as to removal of the smallest objects from the encounter population and the largest objects from the non-encounter population, which would be most strongly affected by a known size/spin period bias where smaller objects tend to have shorter periods. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean rotation rates of encounter and non-encounter objects, however, indicating that encounters cause greater dispersion, but do not preferentially spin objects up or down at a detectable level. Recent modeling work also lends credibility to the idea that NEO interactions with the Earth-Moon system as a whole may be leading to the dispersion difference boundary at 1 LD (Keane et al. 2015, DPS).

  19. SUBSTELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY YOUNG CLUSTERS (SONYC). II. THE BROWN DWARF POPULATION OF {rho} OPHIUCHI

    SciTech Connect

    Geers, Vincent; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lee, Eve; Lafreniere, David; Scholz, Alexander; Tamura, Motohide

    2011-01-01

    SONYC-Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters-is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of brown dwarfs (BDs) down to masses below the deuterium-burning limit in nearby star-forming regions. In this second paper, we present results on the {approx}1 Myr old cluster {rho} Ophiuchi, combining our own deep optical- and near-infrared imaging using Subaru with photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the candidates selected from iJK{sub s} photometry, we have confirmed three-including a new BD with a mass close to the deuterium limit-as likely cluster members through low-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also identify 27 substellar candidates with mid-infrared excess consistent with disk emission, of which 16 are new and 11 are previously spectroscopically confirmed BDs. The high and variable extinction makes it difficult to obtain the complete substellar population in this region. However, current data suggest that its ratio of low-mass stars to BDs is similar to those reported for several other clusters, though higher than what was found for NGC 1333 in Scholz et al.

  20. Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2014-11-01

    NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

  1. Marco Polo, a JAXA-ESA sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.

    2009-04-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). It is proposed to be performed in collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA). Both JAXA and ESA are currently performing Phase-A studies for this mission; within ESA, the mission is studied as part of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. The main objective of the mission is to return unmodified material from a primitive NEO to the Earth to allow its accurate analysis in ground-based laboratories. These primitive NEOs are part of the small body population that represents the leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago and carry records both of the Solar System's birth and early phases. In addition, the mission will allow studying the geological evolution and physical properties of small bodies. Marco Polo will provide the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the terrestrial planets and advance our understanding of some of the fundamental issues in the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, the Earth and possibly life itself. Determining the physical properties of a NEO will also help assessing mitigation strategies for the impact risk of such an object on the Earth. This presentation will focus on the ESA side of the assessment study. The technical development status in Europe will be presented.

  2. A concept of cost-saving space system designed for the detection of NEO's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugarov, Andrey; Shustov, Boris M.; Savanov, Igor

    A concept of space system designed for the detection of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) down to size of 100 m not later than 15-25 days before the possible collision with the Earth is described. The space system consists of one or two spacecrafts at low orbit. The main instrument is a wide-field survey telescope (0.75 m) with 7 deg field of view and mosaic detector. The survey speed of the system is one complete sky per day. In addition to the detection of NEOs the system will be capable to detect space debris and to carry out scientific research programs.

  3. Cost-Effective NEO Characterization Using Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Reinert, R.; Mitchell, S.

    2003-05-01

    We present a cost-effective multiple NEO rendezvous mission design optimized around the capabilities of Ball's 200-kg NEOX Solar Electric Propelled microsatellite. The NEOX spacecraft is 3-axis stabilized with better-than 1 milliradian pointing accuracy to serve as an excellent imaging platform; its DSN compatible telecommunications subsystem can support a 6.4-kbps downlink rate at 3 AU earth range. The spacecraft mass is <200kg at launch to allow launch as a cost-effective secondary payload. It uses proven SEP technology to provide 12km/s of Delta-V, which enables multiple rendezvous' in a single mission. Cost-effectiveness is optimized by launch as a secondary payload (e.g., Ariane-5 ASAP) or as a multiple manifest on a single dedicated launch vehicle (e.g., 4 on a Delta-II 2925). Following separation from the LV, we describe a candidate mission profile that minimizes cost by using the spacecraft's 12km/s of SEP Delta-V to allow orbiting up to 4 separate NEO's. Orbiting as opposed to flying by augments the mission's science return by providing the NEO mass and by allowing multiple phase angle imaging. The NEOX Spacecraft has the capability to support a 20kg payload drawing 100W average during SEP cruise, with >1kW available during the NEO orbital phase when the SEP thrusters are not powered. We will present a candidate payload suite that includes a visible/NIR imager, a laser altimeter, and a set of small, self-righting surface probes that can be used to assess the geophysical state of the object surface and near-surface environments. The surface probe payload notionally includes a set of cameras for imaging the body surface at mm-scale resolution, an accelerometer package to measure surface mechanical properties upon probe impact, a Langmuir probe to measure the electrostatic gradient immediately above the object surface, and an explosive charge that can be remotely detonated at the end of the surface mission to excavate an artificial crater that can be remotely observed from the orbiting spacecraft.

  4. Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Modeling

    E-print Network

    viewing navigation cameras. Standard spacecraft Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) func- tions the NEO surface. The NEO orbit is propagated from planetary ephemerides data and the option is available are incorporated into the simulation to provide attitude and position control. This NEO simulation is based upon

  5. Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

  6. Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

  7. 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter's Mill meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, R.; Haack, H.; Böhnhardt, H.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Williams, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: 2P/Encke is a short period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke owing to a good match of their orbital elements, even though the comet's activity is not strong enough to explain the number of observed meteors. Various small near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been discovered with orbits that can be linked to 2P/Encke and the Taurid meteoroid stream. Maribo and Sutter's Mill are CM type carbonaceous chondrite that fell in Denmark on January 17, 2009 and April 22, 2012, respectively. Their pre-atmospheric orbits place them in the middle of the Taurid meteoroid stream, which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites. Methods: To investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex associated NEOs, and CM chondrites exists, we performed photometric and spectroscopic studies of these objects in the visible wavelength range. We observed 2P/Encke and 10 NEOs on August 2, 2011 with the FORS instrument at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal (Chile). Results: Images in the R filter, used to investigate the possible presence of cometary activity around the nucleus of 2P/Encke and the NEOs, show that no resolved coma is present. None of the FORS spectra show the 700 nm absorption feature due to hydrated minerals that is seen in the CM chondrite meteorites. All objects show featureless spectra with moderate reddening slopes at ?< 800 nm. Apart for 2003 QC10 and 1999 VT25, which show a flatter spectrum, the spectral slope of the observed NEOs is compatible with that of 2P/Encke. However, most of the NEOs show evidence of a silicate absorption in lower S/N data at ?> 800 nm, which is not seen in 2P/Encke, which suggests that they are not related. Conclusions: Despite similar orbits, we find no spectroscopic evidence for a link between 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter's Mill meteorites. However, we cannot rule out a connection to the meteorites either, as the spectral differences may be caused by secondary alteration of the surfaces of the NEOs. Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile: Program 087.C-0788(A).

  8. Confronting a Neo-Nazi Hate Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furin, Terrance L.

    2007-01-01

    The peaceful quiet that often accompanies the warming of a mid-April morning in a rural/suburban school district outside Philadelphia was broken harshly when several alarmed high school students arrived at school with Neo-Nazi flyers. The flyers were designed to recruit new members into a hate group calling itself the Pottstown SS. In addition,…

  9. Creationism, Neo-Darwinism and Panspermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-10-01

    Creationists and neo-Darwinists have spent the past several decades engaged in a sullen trench warfare, occasionally firing at each other with little effect. We argue in this article that an acceptance of panspermia as a "third way" might lead to a long over-due reconciliation between the contending groups.

  10. De-biased populations of Kuiper Belt objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey

    E-print Network

    Adams, Elisabeth Rose

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits ...

  11. Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

    2008-09-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  12. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  13. De-biased Populations of Kuiper Belt Objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey

    E-print Network

    Adams, E R; Elliot, J L; Benecchi, S D; Buie, M W; Trilling, D E; Wasserman, L H

    2013-01-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998-2005. Extensive follow-up observations have yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002GF32 to a minimum of 3*10^-8 for the highly-eccentric Scattered object 2003FH127. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. Using the absolute magnitude (H-magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects vs. H magnitude for 8 classes with with at least 5 detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects, wh...

  14. Trans-Neptunian Objects Transiently Stuck in Neptune's Mean Motion Resonances: numerical simulations of the current population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tze Yeung Mathew; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Volk, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Inferring from observational data, it is well known that a large population of objects orbits the Sun in mean motion resonance with Neptune with semi-major axes in the range a=30-100AU. Many of these objects were likely caught into resonances by planetary migration---either smooth or stochastic---approximately 4 billion years ago. Some, however, scattered off Neptune and become transiently stuck in more recent events. The goal of this project is to form a testable model of the transient sticking population through numerical simulation. We calculate the relative likelihood of resonance sticking from the current scattering disk into a range of resonances. We confirm that transiently stuck objects are most prevalent in n:1 resonances, followed by n:2, n:3 and so on. The integrated time that objects spend stuck in resonance increases for resonances with longer orbital periods. We calculate the expected distribution of libration amplitudes for resonance angles of stuck objects and comment on implications for the origins of distant resonance populations.

  15. Materials co-orbiting with known NEO asteroids: Properties inferred from collision-produced dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin; Lai, Hairong; Delzanno, Gian Luca

    Materials co-orbiting with Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) can be potentially hazardous when their diameters are of tens of meters. Such co-orbiting material is produced when small meteoroids about several meters in diameter collide with parent bodies of much larger diameters. These materials will be dispersed in orbits around the associated NEOs, and therefore could enter the terrestrial atmosphere even when their ‘parent’ NEOs miss the Earth. However, due to the small dimensions of these materials, they are hard to discover by traditional surveys. The co-orbiting materials collide regularly with smaller interplanetary objects, since the smaller objects are quite numerous. The dust cloud released in the collisions, containing fine-sized particles, becomes charged and can perturb the ambient solar wind. The resultant interplanetary magnetic field structure is called interplanetary field enhancement (IFE) and can be detected by magnetometers carried by interplanetary spacecraft as the dust cloud is swept outward by the solar wind. We use the records of IFE occurrence to trace interplanetary collisions and thus identify co-orbiting materials of well-known NEOs with ecliptic plane crossing near to or inside the Earth’s orbit. We suggest that co-orbiting materials of asteroid 138175, whose descending node is inside Earth’s orbit at heliocentric ecliptic longitude of 206 ?, should be responsible for at least some IFEs detected in the longitude range between 195 ? and 225 ?. The mass and spatial distributions of the potentially associated IFEs indicate that these co-orbiting materials had diameters of tens of meters before the collisions and had significant dispersion about the asteroid’s orbit. We can apply this technique to inventory the co-orbiting materials of other known NEOs and obtain the number density, orbits and sizes distributions of the materials. Thus we can estimate their impact probability and issue alerts when the Earth approaches the orbits of the hazardous objects.

  16. Deflection of large near-earth objects

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1999-01-11

    The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

  17. Comparison of Opposition and Near Sun NEO Discoveries by the Catalina Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boattini, Andrea; Beshore, E. C.; Burton, D.; Garradd, G. J.; Gibbs, A. R.; Grauer, A. D.; Hill, R. E.; Kowalski, R. A.; Larson, S. M.; McNaught, R. H.

    2007-10-01

    The Catalina Sky Survey has been operating 3 telescopes for the past three years while extending its sky coverage into the far southern hemisphere but also towards lower solar elongations. Several recent studies (Chesley and Spahr 2002, Milani et al. 2005, Bernardi et al. 2005, Boattini PhD thesis 2007) have pointed out the importance of extending NEO searches at regions of the sky closer to the sun, despite the more challenging observing and orbital determination: to speed up the discovery of the largest unknown NEOs, to debias the known population by finding bodies with small aphelia and/or larger eccentricity/inclination and to encourage the discovery of PHAs in the so-called "sweet spots". In this work we compare orbital characteristics, size distributions, sky-plane densities, of NEOs discovered at different solar elongations (ecliptic longitude and latitude) by the CSS facilities between October 2004 and September 2007: in particular we focus on what has been found in the opposition region respect to areas closer ot the sun. Results from our sample ( 400 Amors, 500 Apollos and 100 Atens) will be analyzed and discussed in view also of refining observing strategies of future NEO surveys. This work is supported by the NASA NEOO program.

  18. Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonometti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Flight Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, postdeflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  19. Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonemetti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Right Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, post-deflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  20. Follow-up and Characterization of NEOs with the LCOGT Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim

    2013-10-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects. LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1). An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

  1. The role of near-Sun objects in determining the population of Chelyabinsk-type bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V.

    2014-07-01

    We have calculated the orbit of the Chelyabinsk object, applying the least-squares method directly to its astrometric positions (Emel'yanenko, Naroenkov, Jenniskens, Popova, 2014). A study of the backward dynamical evolution by integrating equations of motion for particles with orbits from the confidence region has shown that the majority of the Chelyabinsk clones reach the near-Sun state. An analysis of other meteorites with well-determined orbits also demonstrates frequent approaches of these bodies to the Sun in the past. In addition, we have found many observed near-Earth asteroids that had small perihelion distances in the past. In extreme near-Sun cases, asteroids should experience thermal and tidal disintegration. It is interesting to note that examples of such near-Sun objects are probably observed now as 'sunskirting comets'. Some members of the Kracht and Marsden families have been observed in a few apparitions. A detailed investigation of their forward motion shows that these bodies evolve to orbits of typical near-Earth objects. Thus they can generate Chelyabinsk-sized bodies in near-Earth space. We conclude that encounters of small bodies with the Sun play an important role in the production of near-Earth objects.

  2. Cochlear implantees: Analysis of behavioral and objective measures for a clinical population of various age groups.

    PubMed

    Greisiger, Ralf; Shallop, Jon K; Hol, Per Kristian; Elle, Ole Jakob; Jablonski, Greg Eigner

    2015-11-01

    Introduction As of 2014 more than 1200 patients have received a cochlear implant (CI) at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) and approximately half of them have been children. The data obtained from these patients have been used to develop a comprehensive database for a systematic analysis of several objective measurements and programming measurements. During the past 10 years, we have used an objective measurements protocol for our CI surgeries. Our intra-operative protocol includes: Evoked Compound Action Potentials (ECAP), visually observed Electrically evoked Stapedius Reflex Threshold (ESRT), and electrode impedances. Post-operative (Post-OP) programming sessions typically begin 4-6 weeks after surgery and continue on a scheduled basis. The initial programming data include threshold levels (T-levels) and comfortable levels (C-levels) for the different patient age groups. In this study, we compared initial stimulation levels and stimulation levels after at least 1 year of CI with objective measurements obtained intra-operatively. Method This study focused on the development of a comprehensive database of detailed intra-operative objective measures and post-OP programming measurements from a group of 296 CI patients who received the same type of CI and electrode configuration (Cochlear(®) Corporation CI with Contour(®) electrode). This group included 92 bilateral CI patients. Measurements from 388 CI devices were studied. Patients were divided into 5 different age groups at the age of implantation: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and above 20 years in order to investigate age-related differences in programming levels and objective measurements. For the comparison analysis we used T- and C-levels obtained after the last day of initial programming and also after at least 1 year implant use. These programming levels were then correlated with some of the intra-operative objective measurements. Results T-levels were found to be the lowest for the youngest patient group and increased with age. C-levels varied within age groups and frequency range. Patients above 20 years of age had the highest comfort levels in the low to mid-frequencies (electrodes 22-8) and the lowest comfort levels in the high-frequency range (electrodes 1-7). Correlation coefficients between intra-operative objective measurements and programming levels were found to be in the range of no correlation to moderate correlation. Adult patients had the most significant correlation coefficients between ECAP thresholds and T-levels in the low frequencies. The younger patients aged 10-20 years and 5-10 years had more significant correlations in the higher frequency channels compared to the other age groups. Intra-operative visually observed ESRTs and electrode impedances were not significantly correlated with initial or stable programming levels for the children or adults. Conclusion Analyzing initial and follow-up mapping levels from previous patients is very important for a CI Center in terms of quality control. The mean T/C-levels reported in this study can provide guidance to our programming audiologists and help them determine the initial programming levels to be stored in the speech processor, especially for very young patients. Unfortunately intra-operative objective measures in our study, such as ECAP, ESRT, and electrode impedances did not provide statistically significant correlations that may help to predict the programming T- and C-levels for all patients. However, we have observed cases where the intra-operative objective measures of ESRT and TECAP profiles were very similar to an individual's MAP profile. It was not possible, however, to determine why some patients did not have an objective measures profile that was similar to their programming levels profile. PMID:26642899

  3. Discovery of M class objects among the near-earth asteroid population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Gradie, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Broadband colorimetry, visual photometry, near-infrared photometry, and 10 and 20 micron radiometry of the near-earth asteroids (NEAs) 1986 DA and 1986 EB are used to show that these objects belong to the M class of asteroids. The similarity among the distributions of taxonomic classes among the 38 NEAs to the abundances found in the inner astoroid belt between the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances suggests that NEAs have their origins among asteroids in the vicinity of these resonances. The implied mineralogy of 1986 DA and 1986 EB is mostly nickel-iron metal; if this is indeed the case, then current models for meteorite production based on strength-related collisional processes on asteroidal surfaces predict that these two objects alone should produce about one percent of all meteorite falls. Iron meteorites derived from these near-earth asteroids should have low cosmic-ray exposure ages.

  4. Intergalactic H_2 Photodissociation and the Soft UV Background Produced by Population III Objects

    E-print Network

    Benedetta Ciardi; Andrea Ferrara; Tom Abel

    1999-04-09

    We study the effects of the ionizing and dissociating photons produced by PopIII objects on the surrounding intergalactic medium. We find that the typical size of a H_2 photodissociated region, R_d ~ 1-5 kpc, is smaller than the mean distance between sources at z ~ 20-30, but larger than the ionized region by a factor depending on the detailed properties of the emission spectrum. This implies that clearing of intergalactic H_2 occurs before reionization of the universe is complete. In the same redshift range, the soft-UV background in the Lyman-Werner bands, when the intergalactic H and H_2 opacity is included, is found to be J_LW ~ 1d-30 - 1d-27 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} Hz^{-1}. This value is well below the threshold required for the negative feedback of PopIII objects on the subsequent galaxy formation to be effective in that redshift range.

  5. Two decades of Neo-Marxist class analysis and health inequalities: A critical reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Muntaner, Carles; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Prins, Seth J

    2015-01-01

    Most population health researchers conceptualize social class as a set of attributes and material conditions of life of individuals. The empiricist tradition of ‘class as an individual attribute' equates class to an ‘observation', precluding the investigation of unobservable social mechanisms. Another consequence of this view of social class is that it cannot be conceptualized, measured, or intervened upon at the meso- or macro levels, being reduced to a personal attribute. Thus, population health disciplines marginalize rich traditions in Marxist theory whereby ‘class' is understood as a ‘hidden' social mechanism such as exploitation. Yet Neo-Marxist social class has been used over the last two decades in population health research as a way of understanding how health inequalities are produced. The Neo-Marxist approach views social class in terms of class relations that give persons control over productive assets and the labour power of others (property and managerial relations). We critically appraise the contribution of the Neo-Marxist approach during the last two decades and suggest realist amendments to understand class effects on the social determinants of health and health outcomes. We argue that when social class is viewed as a social causal mechanism it can inform social change to reduce health inequalities. PMID:26345311

  6. Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC) VIII: Substellar population in Lupus 3

    E-print Network

    Muzic, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent C; Jayawardhana, Ray; Marti, Belen Lopez

    2014-01-01

    SONYC -- Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters -- is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO-4m telescope, covering ~1.4 sqdeg on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 MSun, for Av \\leq 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and Teff \\leq 3000K, i.e. are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Halp...

  7. Klenot near-Earth-object follow-up program --- next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

    2014-07-01

    NEO research is a great challenge just now --- for science, for exploration, and for planetary defence. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic, has pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of Near Earth Objects since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements has helped to improve the inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO population. It was ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008. A fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. A new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013. The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation. Along with huge hardware changes we have decided for essential changes in software and the whole KLENOT work-flow. Using the current higher computing power available, enhancing and updating our databases and astrometry program, the core of our software package, will prove highly beneficial. Moreover, the UCAC4 as the more precise astrometric star catalog was implemented. Both the system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used in the framework of the KLENOT Project are described here, including methods for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry. Methods and techniques used for the KLENOT Project are also discussed. Sources of particular inaccuracies of astrometric measurements as input data for orbit computations were identified. Then we have searched for ways to eliminate them and this effort still continues. The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. This step opens new possibilities for the KLENOT Project, the long-term European Contribution to Monitoring and Cataloging Near Earth Objects. More than 3000 minor planet and comet astrometric positions including NEA measurements were published from September 2013 to March 2014. The 1.06-m KLENOT telescope is still the largest telescope in continental Europe used exclusively for observations of asteroids and comets. Full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. Considering our results and long-time experience obtained at the Klet Observatory, we have a large potential to contribute to recent NEO efforts. We also plan to discuss an international dimension of NEO astrometric follow-up, crucial for reasonable results. A meaningful connection and collaboration with the next generation ground-based and space surveys will be important. The cooperation with and through the Minor Planet Center, the worldwide clearinghouse for small solar system bodies astrometric observations and orbits, is an essential feature of NEO efforts. We also plan to cooperate and directly take part with the ESA's SSA-NEO Programme as a part of European network of cooperating sensors.

  8. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy reported that some giant elliptical galaxies show extraordinarily strong Na I absorption lines and suggested that this is the evidence of unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later studied galaxies with unexpectedly strong Na D absorption lines (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that the origins of NEOs are different for different types of galaxies. According to their study, the origin of Na D excess seems to be related to interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, but there seems to be no contributions from ISM in smooth-looking early-type galaxies. In order to test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in Na D lines of NEOs. We hypothesized that if Na D absorption line is related to ISM, the absorption line is more likely to be blueshifted in the spectrum by the motion of ISM caused by outflow. Many of late-type NEOs show blueshifted Na D absorption lines, so their origin seems related to ISM. On the other hand, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show Doppler departure and Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM, which is consistent with the finding of Jeong et al.

  9. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on-orbit assembly also becomes apparent, as availability of a HLV alone does not provide sufficient payload capabilities for any manned mission targeting NEOs.

  10. Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar Population in Lupus 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muži?, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; López Martí, Belén

    2014-04-01

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ~1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ?, for AV <= 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff <= 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H? or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) - (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 087.C-0386 and 089.C-0432, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's programs 2010A-0054 and 2011A-0144.

  11. Substellar objects in nearby young clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar population in Lupus 3

    SciTech Connect

    Muži?, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Martí, Belén López

    2014-04-20

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (?1 Myr), nearby (?200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ?1.4 deg{sup 2} on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M {sub ?}, for A{sub V} ? 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T {sub eff} ? 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H{sub ?} or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T {sub eff} = (4120 ± 175) – (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later.

  12. Pan-STARRS NEO surveying: The preliminary orbit problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, T.; Chesley, S.; Heasley, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2004-11-01

    The University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS project will be a deep (R ˜ 24) wide field ( ˜ 7 deg2) survey, with the goal of cataloging 90% of Potentially Hazardous Objects that are larger than about 300m diameter. It will be capable of surveying 6000 deg2/night enabling discovery rates almost two orders of magnitude greater than all existing surveys combined. No existing PHO follow-up facility can match the expected depth and discovery rate. With this in mind, it is important to select an intelligent discovery and follow-up cadence, not only for easy night-to-night linking, but also for high-quality orbit determination and efficient use of telescope time. With these concerns, we simulated a typical set of Pan-STARRS NEO observations using the Bottke et al. [1] NEO model, 0".1 RMS astrometry, and standard horizon and magnitude limits for Mauna Kea. Various cadences were investigated, including 2, 3, and 4-night data sets, with each observation night separated by four days. In addition, we varied the number of observations each night between 2 and 3 visits, with visits separated by 30 minutes. The impact of these choices on preliminary orbit determination, post-fit element uncertainties, and sky-plane uncertainties was studied. These simulations indicate that 3 observations per night is largely unnecessary, and that orbit determination using only two nights of data is not acceptable for our needs. Pairs of observations spaced by 30 minutes, and 3 or 4 separate nights of data over the corresponding 8 or 12-night interval provide well-determined orbital elements and small sky-plane uncertainties. [1] W.F. Bottke, R. Jedicke, A. Morbidelli, J.-M. Petit, B. Gladman, Science, 288, 2190-2194 (2000).

  13. Astrometric Results of NEOs from the Characterization and Astrometric Follow-up Program at Adler Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nault, Kristie A.; Brucker, Melissa J.; Hammergren, Mark; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Mike R.

    2015-11-01

    We present astrometric results of near-Earth objects (NEOs) targeted in fourth quarter 2014 and in 2015. This is part of Adler Planetarium’s NEO characterization and astrometric follow-up program, which uses the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). The program utilizes a 17% share of telescope time, amounting to a total of 500 hours per year. This time is divided up into two hour observing runs approximately every other night for astrometry and frequent half-night runs approximately several times a month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et. al.) and light curve studies (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al.).Observations were made using Seaver Prototype Imaging Camera (SPIcam), a visible-wavelength, direct imaging CCD camera with 2048 x 2048 pixels and a field of view of 4.78’ x 4.78’. Observations were made using 2 x 2 binning.Special emphasis has been made to focus on the smallest NEOs, particularly around 140m in diameter. Targets were selected based on absolute magnitude (prioritizing for those with H > 25 mag to select small objects) and a 3? uncertainty less than 400” to ensure that the target is in the FOV. Targets were drawn from the Minor Planet Center (MPC) NEA Observing Planning Aid, the JPL What’s Observable tool, and the Spaceguard priority list and faint NEO list.As of August 2015, we have detected 670 NEOs for astrometric follow-up, on point with our goal of providing astrometry on a thousand NEOs per year. Astrometric calculations were done using the interactive software tool Astrometrica, which is used for data reduction focusing on the minor bodies of the solar system. The program includes automatic reference star identification from new-generation star catalogs, access to the complete MPC database of orbital elements, and automatic moving object detection and identification.This work is based on observations done using the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We acknowledge the support from the NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G and thank the University of Chicago Astronomy and Astrophysics Department for observing time in 2014.

  14. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 000--000 (0000) Printed 13 June 2001 (MN L A T E X style file v1.3) NEO velocity distributions and consequences for the

    E-print Network

    probabilities of iridium deposition, and the velocity distributions at impact of each NEO population, the only, and an anomalously high abundance of iridium and other plat­ inum group elements (Alvarez et al. 1980). Iridium

  15. Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Fergal

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

  16. What Future for Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The paper first examines the context that has given student engagement a very strong profile in higher education. It identifies neo-liberalism as the driving force in the present higher education context and argues that student engagement enjoys an elective affinity with it. While neo-liberalism is dominant, student engagement will be strong. But…

  17. Objectives, designs and populations of the European Asclepios study on occupational hazards to male reproductive capability.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P; Joffe, M; Danscher, G; Apostoli, P; Bisanti, L; Giwercman, A; Kolstad, H A; Thonneau, P; Roeleveld, N; Vanhoorne, M

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the Asclepios program was to examine occupational risk factors for the male reproductive system. The program focused on occupational exposure to fungicides (farmers, greenhouse workers, and vineyard workers), styrene (laminators in the reinforced plastics industry) and inorganic lead (battery workers, foundry workers, and lead smelters). Questionnaire studies of time to pregnancy were combined with longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of semen quality. The 8 data-collecting centers addressed 6553 male workers and contributed time-to-pregnancy values on the 3077 most recent pregnancies. Data collection was by interview or self-collection. The average response rate across all exposures and centers was 69.8%. The Asclepios project is the first international multicenter research project on environmental risks to male reproductive function. A protocol for epidemiologic research on occupational risk factors to the male reproductive system was developed, and links between epidemiologic and experimental units were established. The majority, but not all, of the studies was completed within the given time frame. PMID:10235411

  18. Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; Hopkins, R.; Chapman, J.; White, S.; Bonometti, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Kalkstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This document reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of Near Earth Objects (NEO's) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are then given of an MSFC-led study, intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. An existing program, used to model the NE0 threat, was extensively modified and is presented here. Details of various analytical tools, developed to evaluate the performance of proposed technologies for protection against the NEO threat, are also presented. Trajectory tools, developed to model the outbound path a vehicle would take to intercept or rendezvous with a target asteroid or comet, are described. Also, details are given of a tool that was created to model both the un-deflected inbound path of an NE0 as well as the modified, post-deflection, path. The number of possible options available for protection against the NE0 threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. The major output from this work was a novel process by which the relative effectiveness of different threat mitigation concepts can be evaluated during future, more detailed, studies. In addition, several new or modified mathematical models were developed to analyze various proposed protection systems. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work. It is hoped that this study will serve to raise the level attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

  19. Comparison of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), the NEO-PI, and the NEO-PI-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trull, Timothy J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Relations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Psychopathology Five (PSY-5), and the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and its revision (NEO-PI-R) were studied for 170 community adults and 57 clinical patients. Correlations between the instruments showed meaningful relations between the two…

  20. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Performance: A General Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O.; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J.; Sauder, Katherine A.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Design: Representative cross-sectional study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. Interventions: None. Measurements: Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration ? 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: ? 6 h of sleep (“normal sleep duration”) and < 6 h of sleep (“short sleep duration”). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. Results: No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Conclusions: Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the “executive control of attention.” These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Calhoun S; Bixler EO; Pejovic S; Karataraki M; Liao D; Vela-Bueno A; Ramos-Platon MJ; Sauder KA; Vgontzas AN. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in neuropsychological performance: a general population study. SLEEP 2010;33(4):459-465. PMID:20394314

  1. Near-Earth Asteroids 2006 RH120 And 2009 BD: Proxies For Maximally Accessible Objects?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Chodas, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study(NHATS): http://neo.jpl.nasa.govnhats/. As of mid-July 2015: 1,434 of the 12,778 currently known NEAs are more astrodynamically accessible than is Mars (requiring less Delta v and or less flight time for round-trip missions). Within those 1,434 NEAs: 605 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less Delta v (9 km/s) than the lunar surface. 51 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less v (5 km/s) than low circular lunar orbit. NEO population statistical models:Tens of thousands of NEAs greater than 100 m yet to be discovered. At least several million NEAs less than or equal to100 m in size (down to approximately 3 m in size) yet to be discovered. How accessible are the NEAs that haven't yet been discovered?

  2. Ideological principles of Neo-Byurakan Cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    There exists an insurmountable antagonism between the Classical and the Byurakan approaches on the origins of celestial bodies. The Classical approach states that celestial bodies arise from the condensation of gases, gravitational compression; and according to the Byurakan conception, they come into existence due to the explosions, differentiation of compact, superdense bodies. Rejecting each other, the supporters of these two polarized views do not accept that those two trends, differentiation and integration, dispersion and unity are interconnected and mutually conditioned processes: there are always cases of dispersion and differentiation in integration and unity and vice versa. Neo-Byurakan theory distinguishes two types of physical symmetries: substantial and relational symmetries. The types of substantial symmetry are: Symmetry of positive and negative gravitational charges (masses), Symmetry of particles and antiparticles (matter and antimatter). The types of relational symmetry are: Symmetry of differentiation and integration, Symmetry of homogeneity and inhomogeneity, Symmetry of statics (or stationarity) and dynamics, Symmetry of great unity, of strong and electroweak forces and interactions, Symmetry of electroweak unity, of weak and electromagnetic forces. As the above mentioned examples show, substantial symmetries are related to the basic types of matter; and relational symmetries to the interactions of these types. Both types can be explicit and implicit. Neo-Byurakan cosmogony puts forward a range of new ideas: 1.Being a part of Gc?? Cosmology, it differentiates and identifies the concepts of "Eternal Universe", "our Universe" and "Metagalaxy". Viewing Metagalaxy as a subsystem of our universe, as a unity of all galaxies and their clusters, it defines the basic equations which express the basic physical parameters of Metagalaxy, describes its structure, giving a physical explanation to the homogeneity of the large-scale structure of Metagalaxy, mentioning the laws and peculiarities of its origination and evolution. 2.Admitting the fact of its expansion, Neo-Byurakan theory considers that during evolution all physical parameters of Metagalaxy change, including not only the volume and average density but also the mass of Metagalaxy. And it means that the Friedman-Gamow theory of Fireball cannot be ascribed to Metagalaxy, especially to our Universe. A hypothesis is put forward, according to which the concept of Fireball or Big Bang refers to and accurately describes the differentiation and evaluation of compact, superdense superclusters of galaxies through explosion. The immediate components of the large-scale homogeneity of Metagalaxy are superclusters of galaxies. They are similar physical systems belonging to the same class, which have similar structures, and though they arise at different times, they undergo similar phases of evolution.

  3. Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

  4. CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-06-20

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

  5. Characterizing Subpopulations within the near-Earth Objects with NEOWISE: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Giorgini, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are ~4700 ± 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

  6. Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

  7. A New Standardized Stimulus Set for Studying Need-of-Help Recognition (NeoHelp)

    PubMed Central

    Brielmann, Aenne A.; Stolarova, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open-access standardized visual stimuli set for investigation of need-of-help recognition and invite researchers to use and extend it. PMID:24409294

  8. 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter's Mill meteorites

    E-print Network

    Tubiana, C; Michelsen, R; Haack, H; Boehnhardt, H; Fitzsimmons, A; Williams, I P

    2015-01-01

    The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke owing to a good match of their orbital elements, even though the comet's activity is not strong enough to explain the number of observed meteors. Various small NEOs have been discovered with orbits that can be linked to 2P and the Taurid meteoroid stream. Maribo and Sutter's Mill are CM type carbonaceous chondrites that fell in Denmark on Jan 17, 2009 and Apr 22, 2012, respectively. Their pre-atmospheric orbits place them in the middle of the Taurid meteoroid stream, which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P could be the parent body of CM chondrites. To investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P, the Taurid complex associated NEOs, and CM chondrites exists, we performed photometric and spectroscopic studies of these objects in the visible wavelength range. We observed 2P and 10 NEOs on Aug 2, 2011 with FORS at the VLT. Images in the R filter, used to investigate the possible presence of cometary activity around the nucleus of ...

  9. Neo-vernacular trends towards the recent past in Greece

    E-print Network

    Zographaki, Stephania G

    1986-01-01

    In economically advanced countries, fragments of the past are preserved, or new environments are created to match this past image. The reappropriation of old forms includes what can be called the neo-vernacular as a way ...

  10. NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.

    2008-12-01

    NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from 45 different datasets with daily, weekly, and/or monthly temporal resolutions, with more datasets currently under development. The imagery from these datasets is produced in coordination with several data partners who are affiliated either with the instrument science teams or with the respective data processing center. NEO is a system of three components -- website, WMS (Web Mapping Service), and ftp archive -- which together are able to meet the wide-ranging needs of our users. Some of these needs include the ability to: view and manipulate imagery using the NEO website -- e.g., applying color palettes, resizing, exporting to a variety of formats including PNG, JPEG, KMZ (Google Earth), GeoTIFF; access the NEO collection via a standards-based API (WMS); and create customized exports for select users (ftp archive) such as Science on a Sphere, NASA's Earth Observatory, and others.

  11. The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard; Weryk, Robert; Schunova, Eva; Carter Chambers, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned.The PS1+PS2 surveys now extend south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep southern sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The Pan-STARRS telescopes are very efficient at detecting cometary activity. PS1 discovered almost half of the new comets in 2014, and discovered 10 comets in 10 nights in November 2014.The discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO follow-up resources, particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs, and the corresponding hazard to Earth. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid redirect mission.

  12. The Pan-STARRS Synthetic Solar System Model: A Tool for Testing and Efficiency Determination of the Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grav, Tommy; Jedicke, Robert; Denneau, Larry; Chesley, Steve; Holman, Matthew J.; Spahr, Timothy B.

    2011-04-01

    We present here the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) Synthetic Solar System Model (S3M), the first-ever attempt at building a comprehensive flux-limited model of the major small-body populations in the solar system. The goal of the S3M is to provide a valuable tool in the design and testing of the MOPS software, and will be used in the monitoring of the upcoming Pan-STARRS 1 all-sky survey, which started science operations during late spring of 2010. The model is composed of synthetic populations of near-Earth objects (NEOs with a subpopulation of Earth impactors), the main-belt asteroids (MBAs), Jovian Trojans, Centaurs, trans-Neptunian objects (classical, resonant, and scattered trans-Neptunian objects [TNOs]), Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), long-period comets (LPCs), and interstellar comets. The model reasonably reproduces the true populations to a minimum of V = 24.5 , corresponding to approximately the expected limiting magnitude for Pan-STARRS's ability to detect moving objects. The NEO synthetic population has been extended to H < 25 (corresponding to objects of about 50 m in diameter), allowing for close flybys of the Earth to be modeled.

  13. Multi-Object Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope’s Near Infrared Spectrograph: Observing Resolved Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Karoline; Karakla, Diane M.; Beck, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) will provide a multi-object spectroscopy mode through the four Micro-Shutter Arrays (MSAs). Each MSA is a grid of contiguous shutters that can be configured to form slits on more than 100 astronomical targets simultaneously. The combination of JWST’s sensitivity and superb resolution in the infrared and NIRSpec’s full wavelength coverage from 0.6 to 5 ?m will open new parameter space for studies of galaxies and resolved stellar populations alike. We describe a NIRSpec MSA observing scenario for obtaining spectroscopy of individual stars in an external galaxy, and investigate the technical challenges posed by this scenario. We examine the multiplexing capability of the MSA as a function of the possible MSA configuration design choices, and investigate the primary sources of error in velocity measurements and the prospects for minimizing them. We give examples of how this and other use cases are guiding development of the NIRSpec user interfaces, including proposal planning and pipeline calibrations.

  14. Temporal Neuropathological and Behavioral Phenotype of 6Neo/6Neo Pompe Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, Richard L.; Taksir, Tatyana; Fidler, Jonathan; Zhao, Michael; Dodge, James C.; Passini, Marco A.; Raben, Nina; Thurberg, Beth L.; Cheng, Seng H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.

    2009-01-01

    Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease II) is caused by mutations in the acid ?-glucosidase gene. The most common form is rapidly progressive with glycogen storage, particularly in muscle, that leads to profound weakness, cardiac failure, and death by the age of two years. Although usually considered a muscle disease, glycogen storage also occurs in the CNS. We evaluated the progression of neuropathological and behavioral abnormalities in a Pompe disease mouse model (6neo/6neo) that displays many features of the human disease. Homozygous mutant mice store excess glycogen within large neurons of hindbrain, spinal cord, and sensory ganglia by the age of one month; accumulations then spread progressively within many CNS cell types. “Silver degeneration” and Fluoro-Jade C stains revealed severe degeneration in axon terminals of primary sensory neurons at three to nine months. These abnormalities were accompanied by progressive behavioral impairment on rotorod, wire hanging and foot fault tests. The extensive neuropathological alterations in this model suggest that therapy of skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders by systemic enzyme replacement therapy may not be sufficient to reverse functional deficits due to CNS glycogen storage, particularly early-onset, rapidly progressive disease. A better understanding of the basis for clinical manifestations is needed to correlate CNS pathology with Pompe disease manifestations. PMID:18648322

  15. Asteroid Detection with the Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Granvik, M.; Wainscoat, R.

    We will present the first asteroid and comet discoveries by the Pan-STARRS prototype telescope (PS1) using the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS). The MOPS was designed to be capable of detecting fast moving objects whizzing by the Earth as well as those moving as slowly as the fastest proper motion stars. We will discuss the design of the MOPS and its efficiency, accuracy, and reliability as determined from long term realistic simulations with synthetically generated objects in the presence of false detections. Our simulations with a synthetic but realistic NEO population indicate that PS1 will discover more of these hazardous objects in its 3.5 year mission than all existing surveys have identified since asteroids were first discovered more than 200 years ago. In particular, we will show that PS1 has a high efficiency for discovering objects that will actually impact the Earth in the next 100 years.

  16. How to Communicate Near Earth Objects with the Public - Klet Observatory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticha, Jana; Tichy, Milos; Kocer, Michal

    2015-08-01

    Near-Earth Object (NEO) research is counted among the most popular parts of communicating astronomy with the public. Increasing research results in the field of Near-Earth Objects as well as impact hazard investigations cause growing interest among general public and media. Furthermore NEO related issues have outstanding educational value. So thus communicating NEO detection, NEO characterization, possible impact effects, space missions to NEOs, ways of mitigation and impact warnings with the public and media belong to the most important tasks of scientists and research institutions.Our institution represents an unique liaison of the small professional research institution devoted especially to NEO studies (the Klet Observatory, Czech Republic) and the educational and public outreach branch (the Observatory and Planetarium Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic). This all has been giving us an excellent opportunity for bringing NEO information to wider audience. We have been obtaining a wide experience in communicating NEOs with the public more than twenty years.There is a wide spectrum of public outreach tools aimed to NEO research and hazard. As the most useful ones we consider two special on-line magazines (e-zins) devoted to asteroids (www.planetky.cz) and comets (www.komety.cz) in Czech language, educational multimedia presentations for schools at different levels in planetarium, summer excursions for wide public just at the Klet Observatory on the top of the Klet mountain, public lectures, meetings and exhibitions. It seems to be very contributing and favoured by public to have opportunities for more or less informal meetings just with NEO researchers from time to time. Very important part of NEO public outreach consists of continuous contact with journalists and media including press releases, interviews, news, periodical programs. An increasing role of social media is taken into account through Facebook and Twitter profiles.The essential goal of all mentioned NEO public communication and educational tools is to bring relevant, clear, comprehensive and up to date information to students, educators, wide public and media.

  17. Neo-Latin News, Volume 60, Numbers 1 & 2 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig

    2012-01-01

    -century news Vol. 60, Nos. 1 & 2. Jointly with SCN. NLN is the official publica- tion of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western European Editor: Gilbert Tournoy, Leuven; Eastern European... Association of Neo-Latin Studies, and we also have a growing number of special issues of journals devoted to the subject (e.g., ?Annotations manuscrites dans les livres da la Renaissance,? Bulletin du bibliophile 2010, issue 2), books on marginalia (e...

  18. Analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect in neo-Newtonian theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Salako, I. G.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2015-12-01

    We address the issues of the scattering of massless planar scalar waves by an acoustic black hole in neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics. We then compute the differential cross section through the use of the partial wave approach in the neo-Newtonian theory which is a modification of the usual Newtonian theory that correctly incorporates the effects of pressure. We mainly show that the scattering of planar waves leads to a modified analogue Aharonov-Bohm effect due to a nontrivial response of the parameters defining the equation of state.

  19. Indigenous knowledge in the science curriculum: avoiding neo-colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Ann

    2008-09-01

    Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial practices, Western science educators ought to consider the notion of cultural mediators. This position, I argue, infers an obligation to take responsibility for their actions and to consider postcolonial discourses as a way of understanding the relationships and dialogue between different ways of knowing.

  20. Acylated neo-clerodanes and 19-nor-neo-clerodanes from the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-08-01

    Scutefolides A1 and A2, two acylated neo-clerodanes with a 19,18-?-lactone, scutefolides B1, B2 and C, three 19-nor-neo-clerodanes, together with scutefolides D, E1, E2 and F, four neo-clerodanes, were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the aerial parts of Scutellaria coleifolia. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of four of these compounds were elucidated by the CD exciton chirality method. Cytotoxic activities of scutefolides D-F against four cancer cell lines (KB, A549, HeLa, and MCF7) were also evaluated, but they were inactive. PMID:26026223

  1. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  2. Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Don; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a "pilot personality" does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

  3. Inhomogeneous deformation of a cone of Neo-Hookean material 

    E-print Network

    Hariharakumar, Pradeep

    2001-01-01

    In this work we investigate, the nonlinear, elastic deformation of a cone made of a Neo-Hookean material. We use a semi-inverse method and assume a specific form of the displacement and the corresponding structure of the pressure field inside...

  4. Measuring Moral Thinking from a Neo-Kohlbergian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The neo-Kohlbergian model revises and extends Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development to better reflect advances in research and theory. In moving from Kohlberg's global stage model to a multi-process description of moral functioning, these modifications are most evident in the ways in which moral thinking is described,…

  5. Experimental acute myocardial infarction: telocytes involvement in neo-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manole, C G; Cisma?iu, V; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used rat experimental myocardial infarction to study the ultrastructural recovery, especially neo-angiogenesis in the infarction border zone. We were interested in the possible role(s) of telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cell very recently discovered in myocardim (see http://www.telocytes.com). Electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and analysis of several proangiogenic microRNAs provided evidence for TC involvement in neo-angiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy showed the close spatial association of TCs with neoangiogenetic elements. Higher resolution images provided the following information: (a) the intercellular space between the abluminal face of endothelium and its surrounding TCs is frequently less than 50 nm; (b) TCs establish multiple direct nanocontacts with endothelial cells, where the extracellular space seems obliterated; such nanocontacts have a length of 0.4–1.5 ?m; (c) the absence of basal membrane on the abluminal face of endothelial cell. Besides the physical contacts (either nanoscopic or microscopic) TCs presumably contribute to neo-angiognesis via paracrine secretion (as shown by immunocytochemistry for VEGF or NOS2). Last but not least, TCs contain measurable quantities of angiogenic microRNAs (e.g. let-7e, 10a, 21, 27b, 100, 126-3p, 130a, 143, 155, 503). Taken together, the direct (physical) contact of TCs with endothelial tubes, as well as the indirect (chemical) positive influence within the ‘angiogenic zones’, suggests an important participation of TCs in neo-angiogenesis during the late stage of myocardial infarction. PMID:21895968

  6. Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Donald; Schutte, Paul C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a 'pilot personality' does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

  7. Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

  8. Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

  9. The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and "effectiveness", as well as…

  10. An Innovative Solution to NASA's NEO Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wie, Bong; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) Phase 2 study entitled "An Innovative Solution to NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Impact Threat Mitigation Grand Challenge and Flight Validation Mission Architecture Development." This NIAC Phase 2 study was conducted at the Asteroid Deflection Research Center (ADRC) of Iowa State University in 2012-2014. The study objective was to develop an innovative yet practically implementable mitigation strategy for the most probable impact threat of an asteroid or comet with short warning time (< 5 years). The mitigation strategy described in this paper is intended to optimally reduce the severity and catastrophic damage of the NEO impact event, especially when we don't have sufficient warning times for non-disruptive deflection of a hazardous NEO. This paper provides an executive summary of the NIAC Phase 2 study results. Detailed technical descriptions of the study results are provided in a separate final technical report, which can be downloaded from the ADRC website (www.adrc.iastate.edu).

  11. Spacewatch Observations of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Scotti, James V.; Mastaler, Ronald A.; Tubbiolo, Andrew F.

    2015-08-01

    Spacewatch specializes in followup of NEOs of high priority while they are faint, producing an annual average of ~8500 lines of astrometry of ~1,000 different NEOs. We contribute to the removal of half of the objects that were retired from impact risk lists. Our observations at elongations as small as 46 deg support followup of hazardous NEOs and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. Per year we observe about 35 radar targets, 50 NEOs that were measured by NEOWISE, and 100 potential rendezvous destinations. In the last 3 years we have observed 50% of all NEOs observed in that time and 54% of all PHAs observed in that time. We lead in followup of provisionally designated PHAs while faint (V>= 22); contributing 41% of all such observations. With the Steward Obs. 0.9-m telescope, site code 691, we survey with a mosaic of CCDs near opposition and at low elongation in the east. Coverage is 1400 sq. deg per lunation; V mag limit ~20.5-21.7. The 12 yrs of uniform surveying will go live on the web in 2015 to support incidental astrometry & precoveries of NEOs. On the Spacewatch 1.8-m telescope, site code 291, the FOV = 20x20 arcmin and the pixel scale = 0.6 arcsec/pixel. V mag limit=23 and the astrometric residuals are +/-0.3 arcsec. Our output with the Bok 2.3-m & Mayall 4-m telescopes from 2010-2014 was 1316 lines of astrometry on 207 different NEOs, including 84 different PHAs. 343 observations were made of PHAs with V>=22. Our average calendar span extension on large PHAs is 6 mo, 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. We extend the span of calendar time coverage on PHAs an average of 3.8x. For 38 of 72 PHAs we added another observed opposition. With the Bok & Mayall we reduce uncertainties of orbital elements an average of a factor of 6 and the uncertainty of the time of perihelion passage an average of a factor of 19 (G. Williams 2014 private communication). We gratefully acknowledge NASA's NEO Observation Program, The IAU's Minor Planet Center, JPL's NEOWISE Team led by A. K. Mainzer, JPL's NEO Office, Kitt Peak National & Steward Observatories, the U. S. Naval Academy, the estates of R. L. Waland and R. S. Vail, and other private donors.

  12. The OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS)—population screening for undiagnosed valvular heart disease in the elderly: study design and objectives

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sean; d'Arcy, Joanna L; Loudon, Margaret A; Mant, David; Farmer, Andrew J; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an increasingly important cardiac condition, driven by an ageing population and lack of progress in the development of medical therapies. There is a dearth of accurate information to guide decision-makers in the development of strategies to combat VHD, and no population-based study has been performed specifically to investigate its contemporary epidemiology. This document describes the design and methodology of the OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS), which was conceived to address this need. Methods and analysis Participants aged 65?years and older attending a participating general practice in Oxfordshire, UK, are invited to attend a screening examination. Exclusion criteria include previously diagnosed VHD, inability to provide consent, terminal illness or excessive frailty. Demographics, a focused cardiovascular history and vital signs are recorded at the initial screening examination, accompanied by an echocardiogram. Any finding of significant VHD triggers a separate, more formal echocardiographic assessment (including acquisition of a three-dimensional dataset) and collection of blood samples for future genetic and biomarker analysis. Participants provide consent for longitudinal follow-up and enrolment in future cohort substudies. We also assess the acceptability of community-based echocardiographic examination and compare self-assessed quality of life between those with and without VHD. Conclusions OxVALVE-PCS will provide contemporary epidemiological data concerning the community prevalence of undiagnosed VHD, facilitate accurate deployment of scarce resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand for VHD-associated healthcare and create a series of subcohorts with carefully defined genotypes and echocardiographic phenotypes for long overdue clinical studies. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Southampton, UK; REC Ref: 09/H0502/58). Results Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:25332795

  13. Neo-sex chromosome inheritance across species in Silene hybrids.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, L A; Delph, L F

    2014-07-01

    Neo-sex chromosomes, which form through the major restructuring of ancestral sex chromosome systems, have evolved in various taxa. Such restructuring often consists of the fusion of an autosome to an existing sex chromosome, resulting in novel sex chromosome formations (e.g. X1X2Y or XY1Y2.). Comparative studies are often made between restructured sex chromosome systems of closely related species, and here we evaluate the consequences of variable sex chromosome systems to hybrids. If neo-sex chromosomes are improperly inherited across species, this could lead to aberrant development and reproductive isolation. In this study, we examine the fate of neo-sex chromosomes in hybrids of the flowering plants Silene diclinis and Silene latifolia. Silene diclinis has a neo-sex chromosome system (XY1Y2) that is thought to have evolved from an ancestral XY system that is still present in S. latifolia. These species do not hybridize naturally, and improper sex chromosome inheritance could contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated whether this major restructuring of sex chromosomes prevents their proper inheritance in a variety of hybrid crosses, including some F2 - and later-generation hybrids, with sex chromosome-linked, species-specific, polymorphic markers and chromosome squashes. We discovered that despite the differences in sex chromosomes that exist between these two species, proper segregation had occurred in hybrids that made it to flowering, including later-generation hybrids, indicating that neo-sex chromosome formation alone does not result in complete reproductive isolation between these two species. Additionally, hybrids with aberrant sex expression (e.g. neuter, hermaphrodite) also inherited the restructured sex chromosomes properly, highlighting that issues with sexual development in hybrids can be caused by intrinsic genetic incompatibility rather than improper sex chromosome inheritance. PMID:24739043

  14. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  15. The Las Cumbres Observatory (LCOGT) Network for NEO and Solar System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter telescopes to four locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with a planned network size of twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. This 1-meter network is in addition to the two 2-meter Faulkes Telescopes that have been operating since 2005. This network is very versatile and is designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects e.g. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), comets, asteroids and Kuiper Belt Objects and also for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network has been fully operational since 2014 May, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016-2017.I will describe the Solar System science research that is being carried out using the LCOGT Network with highlights from the LCOGT NEO Follow-up Network, long-term monitoring of the Rosetta spacecraft target comet 67P and comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) and work on Kuiper Belt Object occultation targets, including Pluto.

  16. ELSEVIER Physica D 89 (1996) 346-367 Spatio-angular order in populations of self-aligning objects

    E-print Network

    Keshet, Leah

    1996-01-01

    , as well as social phenomena. Analysis of the equations, and predictions in several test cases-organization of these populations. The order is not imposed by external bias or forces, but arises as a natural consequence and interactions. Typical exam- ples are herds, fish schools, and other highly structured animal aggregates, where

  17. The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chambers, Kenneth; Lilly, Eva; Weryk, Robert; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first telescope, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), has been conducting a survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is nearing completion. The telescope was commissioned using an incomplete focal plane with only 18 good detectors (60 required). The camera is presently being upgraded, and will be operated from October 2015 with 60 detectors (some engineering grade). A final upgrade to the camera in early 2016 will make the telescope fully operational.The two telescopes survey much of the sky accessible from Haleakala multiple times each lunation. The area surveyed ranges from +90 degrees in the north down to -47.5 degrees declination in the south. The “sweet spots” close to the Sun have been productive in discovery of large objects.The PS1 survey is becoming more mature and productive, having discovered more than half of all NEOs in 2015 to date, and more than 60% of the larger NEOs and PHAs discovered in 2015. Both PS1 and PS2 deliver excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs. PS1 has become the leading discover of comets, discovering more than half of the new comets in both 2014 and 2015.In good weather conditions, the discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 overwhelms the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. As a result, we needed to repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, with a complete focal plane, and when the G96 camera upgrade is complete, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, a better census of the NEOs in the sky, and better orbits for NEOs. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.Some early science highlights from the Pan-STARRS survey will be discussed.

  18. Monitoring NEO discoveries for imminent impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, Otto; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri

    2015-11-01

    We are setting up an automated service that will regularly compute asteroid-Earth collision probabilities for objects on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth-Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP). Our goal is to identify objects similar to 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA and provide enough warning time to allow for, e.g., detailed follow-up observations prior to a collision. Our system downloads all the new data on the NEOCP every 30 minutes and, for each object with new data, solves the orbital inverse problem which results in a sample of orbits that describes the typically highly-nonlinear orbital-element probability-density function (PDF). We then propagate the orbital-element PDF forward in time for 7 days and compute the collision probability as the weighted fraction of the sample orbits that impact the Earth. Our tests have shown that the system correctly predicts the collisions of 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA based on the very first astrometry batches available (collision probabilities greater than 70%). Using the same configuration we find that the collision probabilities for objects typically on the NEOCP, based on 4 weeks of continuous operations, are always less than 1 in 10 million.

  19. The inner solar system cratering record and the evolution of impactor populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom Robert, G.; Renu, Malhotra; Zhi-Yong, Xiao; Takashi, Ito; Fumi, Yoshida; Ostrach Lillian, R.

    2015-03-01

    We review previously published and newly obtained crater size-frequency distributions in the inner solar system. These data indicate that the Moon and the terrestrial planets have been bombarded by two populations of objects. Population 1, dominating at early times, had nearly the same size distribution as the present-day asteroid belt, and produced heavily cratered surfaces with a complex, multi-sloped crater size-frequency distribution. Population 2, dominating since about 3.8–3.7 Gyr, had the same size distribution as near-Earth objects (NEOs) and a much lower impact flux, and produced a crater size distribution characterized by a differential ?3 single-slope power law in the crater diameter range 0.02 km to 100 km. Taken together with the results from a large body of work on age-dating of lunar and meteorite samples and theoretical work in solar system dynamics, a plausible interpretation of these data is as follows. The NEO population is the source of Population 2 and it has been in near-steady state over the past ? 3.7–3.8 Gyr; these objects are derived from the main asteroid belt by size-dependent non-gravitational effects that favor the ejection of smaller asteroids. However, Population 1 was composed of main belt asteroids ejected from their source region in a size-independent manner, possibly by means of gravitational resonance sweeping during orbit migration of giant planets; this caused the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). The LHB began some time before ?3.9 Gyr, peaked and declined rapidly over the next ? 100 to 300 Myr, and possibly more slowly from about 3.8–3.7 Gyr to ?2 Gyr. A third crater population (Population S) consisted of secondary impact craters that can dominate the cratering record at small diameters.

  20. Stratified Sampling An important objective in any estimation problem is to obtain an estimator of a population parameter

    E-print Network

    Shalabh

    1 Chapter 4 Stratified Sampling An important objective in any estimation problem is to obtain sampling will yield a homogeneous sample and in turn, the sample mean will serve as a good estimator, then the sample drawn through simple random sampling is expected to provide a representative sample. Moreover

  1. The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Daniel J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.…

  2. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanos, Alceste; Xilouris, Manolis; Boumis, Panos; Bellas-Velidis, Ioannis; Maroussis, Athanasios; Dapergolas, Anastasios; Fytsilis, Anastasios; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Tsinganos, Kanaris

    2015-08-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar monitoring telescopes. NELIOTA is therefore expected to characterise the frequency and distribution of NEOs weighing as little as a few grams.

  3. Neo-Latin News, Volume 63, Numbers 1 & 2 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig

    2015-01-01

    , University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Graduate School, New York University. NEO-LATIN NEWS ? Poets and Princes. The Panegyric Poetry of Johannes Michael Nagonius. By Paul Gwynne. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2012. XXIV + 552 pp. + 12 illustrations... advice doubly to heart, as almost two decades have passed since his doctoral dissertation, ‘The Life and Works of Johannes Michael Nagonius, poeta laureatus, ca. 1450–ca.1510.’ The result is the first comprehensive study on Johannes Michael Nagonius...

  4. NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

  5. Nuclear fragmentation/dispersion modeling and simulation of hazardous near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinger, Brian; Wie, Bong; Dearborn, David

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development of simulation tools designed to be implemented as part of the mission design procedure for nuclear fragmentation and dispersion of a near-Earth object (NEO). A description of the methods used will be presented, followed by a discussion of the advanced GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computing technology applied to accelerate computation. Preliminary results of a fragmented NEO dispersion scenario emphasize global parameter search methods for use in engineering mission analysis. A model of the NEO fragmentation process is presented for a subsurface nuclear explosion and penetrating contact burst. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to establish a mean response of the target NEO to the fragmentation process. Resulting coherent masses are propagated through a model of solar system dynamics until the predetermined date of impact. On some orbits, the impacting mass can be reduced to lower than 0.1% of the NEO mass.

  6. Evolution beyond neo-Darwinism: a new conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results in epigenetics and related fields of biological research show that the Modern Synthesis (neo-Darwinist) theory of evolution requires either extension or replacement. This article examines the conceptual framework of neo-Darwinism, including the concepts of 'gene', 'selfish', 'code', 'program', 'blueprint', 'book of life', 'replicator' and 'vehicle'. This form of representation is a barrier to extending or replacing existing theory as it confuses conceptual and empirical matters. These need to be clearly distinguished. In the case of the central concept of 'gene', the definition has moved all the way from describing a necessary cause (defined in terms of the inheritable phenotype itself) to an empirically testable hypothesis (in terms of causation by DNA sequences). Neo-Darwinism also privileges 'genes' in causation, whereas in multi-way networks of interactions there can be no privileged cause. An alternative conceptual framework is proposed that avoids these problems, and which is more favourable to an integrated systems view of evolution. PMID:25568446

  7. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  8. Preliminary Light Curve Results of NEOs from the Characterization and Astrometric Follow-Up Program at Adler Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Hammergren, Mark; Sieben, Jennifer; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    We are nearing the halfway mark of a two-year program for near-Earth object (NEO) astrometric follow-up and characterization utilizing 500 hours of observing time per year with the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our observing is divided into two-hour blocks approximately every other night for astrometry (see poster by K. A. Nault et al.) and several half-nights per month for spectroscopy (see poster by M. Hammergren et al.) and light curve studies.We present preliminary results from variable photometry observations as part of the characterization portion of the Adler Planetarium’s NEO program. The frequent scheduling of half-night observing time allows us to capture data for small NEOs near the time when they are closest to Earth before their apparent magnitudes rapidly diminish beyond the range of detectability. We searched for variability in newly discovered NEOs that had close approaches to Earth near the time of observation. These include 2014 RQ17, 2014 SB145, 2014 SF304, 2014 WO4, 2014 WY119, and 2015 BC. In addition, we observed 2340 Hathor and 2007 EC when they each made a close approach to Earth to compare with light curves and magnitude variation constraints from previous apparitions. We will construct light curves for all of the objects listed above and determine rotational periods for those with sufficient temporal coverage.The targets were selected from candidates in the JPL NEO Earth Close Approaches table, Arecibo planetary radar targets, and the Goldstone asteroid radar schedule. Due to the sensitivity of AGILE, we restricted our targets to those with apparent magnitudes in V less than 19 magnitudes.Observations were made using the frame transfer CCD camera AGILE on the ARC 3.5-meter telescope. AGILE has a field-of-view of 2.2'x2.2' and a plate scale of 0.258”/pixel with 2x2 binning.This work is based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014

  9. Increasing Space Situational Awareness for NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel J. G. J.; Eggl, Siegfried; Thuillot, William

    2015-05-01

    Over the past years, Europe has strengthened its commitment to foster space situational awareness. Apart from the current efforts in tracking space weather, artificial satellites and space debris, Near Earth Asteroid threat assessment is a key task. NEOshield has been part of this European effort. We will give an overview over national projects and European programs with French participation such as PoDET, ESTERS, FRIPON, NEOShield, Gaia-FUN-SSO and Stardust. Future plans regarding Near Earth Object threat assessment and mitigation are described. The role of the IMCCE in this framework is discussed using the example of the post mitigation impact risk analyis of Gravity Tractor and Kinetic Impactor based asteroid deflection demonstration mission designs.

  10. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-04-15

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  11. ON THE NATURE OF SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS. I. DATA AND OBSERVED TRENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sung, Eon-Chang; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Oh, Kyuseok; Sarzi, Marc E-mail: yi@yonsei.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    Several studies have reported the presence of sodium excess objects having neutral atomic absorption lines at 5895 A (Na D) and 8190 A that are deeper than expected based on stellar population models that match the stellar continuum. The origin of these lines is therefore hotly debated. van Dokkum and Conroy proposed that low-mass stars ({approx}<0.3 M{sub Sun }) are more prevalent in massive early-type galaxies, which may lead to a strong Na I 8190 line strength. It is necessary to test this prediction, however, against other prominent optical line indices such as Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270, which can be measured with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than Na I 8190. We identified a new sample of roughly 1000 Na D excess objects (NEOs; {approx}8% of galaxies in the sample) based on Na D line strength in the redshift range 0.00 {<=} z {<=} 0.08 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 through detailed analysis of galaxy spectra. We explore the properties of these new objects here. The novelty of this work is that the galaxies were carefully identified through direct visual inspection of SDSS images, and we systematically compared the properties of NEOs and those of a control sample of galaxies with normal Na D line strengths. We note that the majority of galaxies with high velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub e} > 250 km s{sup -1}) show Na D excesses. Most late-type NEOs have strong H{beta} line strengths and significant emission lines, which are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. This result implies that the presence of the interstellar medium and/or dust contributes to the increase in Na D line strengths observed for these galaxies, which is in good agreement with the earlier study of Chen et al. who used the Na D line index to study outflow activity in star-forming disk galaxies. In contrast, the majority of early-type NEOs are predominantly luminous and massive systems, which is in agreement with the findings of van Dokkum and Conroy. However, we find that models used to reproduce the Na I 8190 line strengths that adopt a bottom-heavy initial mass function are not able to reproduce the observed Na D line strengths. By comparing the observed Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270 line strengths with those of the models, we identify a plausible range of parameters that reproduce the observed values. In these models, the majority of early-type NEOs are ''{alpha}-enhanced'' ([{alpha}/Fe] {approx} 0.3), ''metal-rich'' ([Z/H] {approx} 0.3), and, especially, ''Na-enhanced'' ([Na/Fe] {approx} 0.3). An enhanced Na abundance is a particularly compelling hypothesis for the increase in the strength of the Na D line index in our early-type NEOs that appear devoid of dust, both in their SDSS images and spectra.

  12. Associations between objectively assessed and questionnaire-based sedentary behaviour with BMI-defined obesity among general population children and adolescents living in England

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an emerging candidate risk factor for obesity in young people. Evidence to date is conflicting and it is unclear how different SB types are associated with obesity independently of physical activity. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a range of objectively measured and questionnaire-based SB indicators with obesity and body mass index (BMI) to assess whether these associations were independent of physical activity. Participants 4469 (705 with accelerometer data) children aged 5–15?years from the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes The outcome was adiposity, classified using age-specific and sex-specific BMI SD scores (continuous) and obesity cut-offs (binary). Questionnaire-based measures comprised TV time, non-TV sitting time (such as homework, drawing, time at a computer or playing video games), total sitting time (TV time+non-TV sitting time) and average daily MVPA time. Objective SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were measured using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, with cut-offs of 100 and 200 counts per minute for SB, and 2802 counts per minute for MVPA. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models examined associations between each indicator of sedentary time with obesity and BMI SD scores. Results TV time (but not non-TV sitting or objectively-measured SB) was consistently associated with higher levels of obesity and BMI SD score, even after adjusting for MVPA and other potential confounders. Weaker associations were observed for total sitting time. Conclusions TV viewing (but not other forms of objectively-measured or questionnaire-based sedentary time) was associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, TV time may be a reasonable target for obesity prevention in young populations. PMID:26088807

  13. The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

  14. Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-Y Chromosome of Drosophila Americana Americana

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Hnilicka, J.; Yu, A.; Guttman, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    The extent of genetic degeneration of the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana has been investigated. Three loci, coding for the enzymes enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and alcohol dehydrogenase, have been localized to chromosome 4 of D. a. americana, which forms the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes. Crosses between D. a. americana and D. virilis or D. montana showed that the loci coding for these enzymes carry active alleles on the neo-Y chromosome in all wild-derived strains of americana that were tested. Intercrosses between a genetically marked stock of virilis and strains of americana were carried out, creating F(3) males that were homozygous for sections of the neo-Y chromosome. The sex ratios in the F(3) generation of the intercrosses showed that no lethal alleles have accumulated on any of the neo-Y chromosomes tested. There was evidence for more minor reductions in fitness, but this seems to be mainly caused by deleterious alleles that are specific to each strain. A similar picture was provided by examination of the segregation ratios of two marker genes among the F(3) progeny. Overall, the data suggest that the neo-Y chromosome has undergone very little degeneration, certainly not to the extent of having lost the functions of vital genes. This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work. PMID:9093852

  15. The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. II. Dynamical Classification, the Kuiper Belt Plane, and the Core Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Kern, S. D.; Clancy, K. B.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Millis, R. L.; Buie, M. W.; Wasserman, L. H.; Chiang, E. I.; Jordan, A. B.; Trilling, D. E.; Meech, K. J.

    2005-02-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES)-a search optimized for the discovery of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with the Blanco and Mayall 4 m telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Kitt Peak National Observatory-has covered 550 deg2 from its inception in 1998 through the end of 2003. This survey has a mean 50% sensitivity at VR magnitude 22.5. We report here the discoveries of 320 designated KBOs and Centaurs for the period 2000 March through 2003 December and describe improvements to our discovery and recovery procedures. Our data and the data products needed to reproduce our analyses in this paper are available through the NOAO survey database. Here we present a dynamical classification scheme, based on the behavior of orbital integrations over 10 Myr. The dynamical classes, in order of testing, are ``Resonant,'' ``Centaur,'' ``Scattered-Near,'' ``Scattered-Extended,'' and ``Classical.'' (These terms are capitalized when referring to our rigorous definitions.) Of the 382 total designated KBOs discovered by the DES, a subset of 196 objects have sufficiently accurate orbits for dynamical classification. Summary information is given for an additional 240 undesignated objects also discovered by the DES from its inception through the end of 2003. The number of classified DES objects (uncorrected for observational bias) are Classical, 96; Resonant, 54; Scattered-Near, 24; Scattered-Extended, 9; and Centaur, 13. We use subsets of the DES objects (which can have observational biases removed) and larger samples to perform dynamical analyses on the Kuiper belt. The first of these is a determination of the Kuiper belt plane (KBP), for which the Classical objects with inclinations less than 5° from the mean orbit pole yield a pole at R.A.=273.92d+/-0.62d and decl.=66.70d+/-0.20d (J2000), consistent with the invariable plane of the solar system. A general method for removing observational biases from the DES data set is presented and used to find a provisional magnitude distribution and the distribution of orbital inclinations relative to the KBP. A power-law model fit to the cumulative magnitude distribution of all KBOs discovered by the DES in the VR filter yields an index of 0.86+/-0.10 (with the efficiency parameters for the DES fitted simultaneously with the population power law). With the DES sensitivity parameters fixed, we derive power-law indices of 0.74+/-0.05, 0.52+/-0.08, and 0.74+/-0.15, respectively, for the Classical, Resonant, and Scattered classes. Plans for calibration of the DES detection efficiency function and DES magnitudes are discussed. The inclination distribution confirms the presence of ``hot'' and ``cold'' populations; when the geometric sini factor is removed from the inclination distribution function, the cold population shows a concentrated ``core'' with a full width at half-maximum of approximately 4.6d, while the hot population appears as a ``halo,'' extending beyond 30°. The inclination distribution is used to infer the KBO distribution in the sky, as a function of latitude relative to the KBP. This inferred latitude distribution is reasonably consistent with the latitude distribution derived from direct observation, but the agreement is not perfect. We find no clear boundary between the Classical and Scattered classes either in their orbital inclinations with respect to the KBP or in their power-law indices in their respective magnitude distributions. This leaves open the possibility that common processes have shaped the distribution of orbital parameters for the two classes.

  16. A genome-wide linkage study of individuals with high scores on NEO personality traits.

    PubMed

    Amin, N; Schuur, M; Gusareva, E S; Isaacs, A; Aulchenko, Y S; Kirichenko, A V; Zorkoltseva, I V; Axenovich, T I; Oostra, B A; Janssens, A C J W; van Duijn, C M

    2012-10-01

    The NEO-Five-Factor Inventory divides human personality traits into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness. In this study, we sought to identify regions harboring genes with large effects on the five NEO personality traits by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals scoring in the extremes of these traits (>90th percentile). Affected-only linkage analysis was performed using an Illumina 6K linkage array in a family-based study, the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. We subsequently determined whether distinct, segregating haplotypes found with linkage analysis were associated with the trait of interest in the population. Finally, a dense single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array (Illumina 318K) was used to search for copy number variations (CNVs) in the associated regions. In the families with extreme phenotype scores, we found significant evidence of linkage for conscientiousness to 20p13 (rs1434789, log of odds (LOD)=5.86) and suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD >2.8) for neuroticism to 19q, 21q and 22q, extraversion to 1p, 1q, 9p and12q, openness to 12q and 19q, and agreeableness to 2p, 6q, 17q and 21q. Further analysis determined haplotypes in 21q22 for neuroticism (P-values = 0.009, 0.007), in 17q24 for agreeableness (marginal P-value = 0.018) and in 20p13 for conscientiousness (marginal P-values = 0.058, 0.038) segregating in families with large contributions to the LOD scores. No evidence for CNVs in any of the associated regions was found. Our findings imply that there may be genes with relatively large effects involved in personality traits, which may be identified with next-generation sequencing techniques. PMID:21826060

  17. On the existence of near-Earth-object meteoroid complexes producing meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J.; Madiedo, J.; Williams, I.

    2014-07-01

    It is generally thought that meteorites are formed as a result of collisions within the main belt of asteroids [1]. They are delivered onto Earth-crossing orbits because of the effects of orbital resonances, primarily with Jupiter. About 15 meteorites are known where their passage through the atmosphere was observed and recorded, allowing the parameters of the pre-encounter orbit to be derived [2]. The cosmic-ray-exposure ages (CREAs) are suggesting that most meteorites have been exposed to cosmic rays for tens of millions of years (Myrs) [3], re-enforcing the belief that the process of modifying the orbit from being near-circular in the main belt to highly elliptical as an Earth-crossing orbit was a gradual process like the effects of resonance. However, there is growing evidence that some meteorite could originate directly from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. A good example of this is the recent discovery of rare primitive groups in the Antarctic, an example being Elephant Moraine (EET) 96026: a C4/5 carbonaceous chondrite with a measured cosmic ray exposure age of only 0.28 Ma [4]. Here, we focus on recent dynamic links that have been established between meteorite-dropping bolides and NEOs that support the idea of short-life meteoroid streams that can generate meteoroids on Earth. The fact that such streams can exist allows rocky material from potentially-hazardous asteroids (PHA) to be sampled and investigated in the laboratory. The existence of meteoroid streams capable of producing meteorites has been proposed following the determination of accurate meteoroid orbits of fireballs obtained by the Canadian Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) [5]. Some asteroids in the Earth's vicinity are undergoing both dynamical and collisional evolution on very short timescales [6]. Many of these objects are crumbly bodies that originated from the collisions between main-belt asteroids during their life-time. An obvious method of forming these complexes is fracturing. Many asteroids are known to be rubble piles and such structures can be unstable during a close approach to a planet due to tidal forces. The irregular shape of many fast-rotators can allow the YORP effect to increase the spin rate, also leading to fracturing [7]. The escape speed from a fragmenting asteroid is considerably smaller than the orbital velocity so a large amount of the initial mass can be ejected. The fragmentation process is likely to produce many metre-sized rocks as well as few tens of meters fragmental asteroids that could form a complex of fragments, all moving on nearly identical orbits. The lifetime of such orbital complexes is quite short (few tens of thousand of years) as consequence of planetary perturbations[8], except perhaps for those cases exhibiting orbits with high inclination, where lifetimes can be considerably higher [9]. Catastrophic disruptions in the main asteroid belt have been extensively studied, but little is known about the relevance of the process in the NEO population. The Spanish Fireball Network (SPMN) regularly monitors the skies and is obtaining evidence that NEO complexes can be a source of meteorites. By performing backward integrations of meteoroid orbits and NEO candidates, previously identified by using our ORAS software to compute several orbital similarity criteria, we have identified several complexes associated with NEOs of chondritic nature [10-12] and even one, 2012 XJ_{112} of likely achondritic nature [13]. Another recent example was probably the Feb 15th, 2013 Chelyabinsk superbolide. The meteorites recovered were shocked to a very high level [14,15], and the ˜19-meter-diameter Chelyabinsk NEA was probably a monolithic single stone produced from its presumable progenitor, the 2.2 km in diameter asteroid (86039) [16]. This association should, however, be tested by performing backward integrations of both orbits.

  18. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

  19. Neo-sex chromosomes of Ronderosia bergi: insight into the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Gimenez, O M; Marti, D A; Cabral-de-Mello, D C

    2015-09-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved many times from morphologically identical autosome pairs, most often presenting several recombination suppression events, followed by accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. In Orthoptera, most species have an X0? sex chromosome system. However, in the subfamily Melanoplinae, derived variants of neo-sex chromosomes (neo-XY? or neo-X1X2Y?) emerged several times. Here, we examined the differentiation of neo-sex chromosomes in a Melanoplinae species with a neo-XY?/XX? system, Ronderosia bergi, using several approaches: (i) classical cytogenetic analysis, (ii) mapping via fluorescent in situ hybridization of some selected repetitive DNA sequences and microdissected sex chromosomes, and (iii) immunolocalization of distinct histone modifications. The microdissected sex chromosomes were also used as sources for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA-coding multigene families, to study variants related to the sex chromosomes. Our data suggest that the R. bergi neo-Y has become differentiated after its formation by a Robertsonian translocation and inversions, and has accumulated repetitive DNA sequences. Interestingly, the ex autosomes incorporated into the neo-sex chromosomes retain some autosomal post-translational histone modifications, at least in metaphase I, suggesting that the establishment of functional modifications in neo-sex chromosomes is slower than their sequence differentiation. PMID:25605041

  20. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower "Conscientiousness" and lower…

  1. Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Keumjoong

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as…

  2. Education Policy as Proto-Fascism: The Aesthetics of Racial Neo-Liberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that neo-liberal educational policy has emerged as a proto-fascist governmentality. This contemporary technology relies on State racisms and racial orderings manifested from earlier liberal and neo-liberal practices of biopower. As a proto-fascist technology, education policy, and school choice policies in particular, operate within a…

  3. Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.…

  4. Mathematics in Mind, Brain, and Education: A Neo-Piagetian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Because of their focus on psychological structures and operations, neo-Piagetian approaches to learning lend themselves to neurological hypotheses. Recent advances in neural imaging and educational technology now make it possible to test some of these claims. Here, we take a neo-Piagetian approach to mathematical learning in order to frame two…

  5. Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO M. S Experiment · Plasma Transport in NSTX · GTC-NEO Simula(on Results · Conclusions / Future Work M. S. Parsons - 4 October 2014 2014 Annual Mee(ng of the Mid

  6. Der soziologische Neo-Institutionalismus. Eine organisationstheoretische Analyse -- und Forschungsperspektive auf Schulische Organisationen (Sociological Neo-Institutionalism. An Organization--Theoretical Perspective Applied to the Analysis of and Research on School Organization).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefers, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Points out the potential in a neo-institutional perspective as applied to school organization. Sketches the theoretical foundations and current developments of sociological neo-institutionalism. Discusses the German school system and plans for school reform. Shows that from a neo-institutional perspective, school sector offers a variety of fields…

  7. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create a catalog of NEO diameters and albedos that can be used for a wide range of science goals. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We include in our target list only objects that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs (including results from our previous Spitzer program, ExploreNEOs, as well as objects observed by NEOWISE). We will present the status of the program and results to date, some nine months into the execution of the program. All observational and model results are published immediately online at nearearthobjects.nau.edu . Support for this work is provided by the Spitzer Science Center.

  8. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter; Giguere, P T; Bradley, P; Guzik, J A; Plesko, C; Wohletz, K; Johnson, L N; Boice, D C; Chocron, S; Ghosh, A; Goldstein, R; Mukerherjee, J; Patrick, W; Walker, J D

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  9. KLENOT Project - Near Earth Objects Follow-up Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Milos; Ticha, Jana; Kocer, Michal; Tichy, Milos

    2015-08-01

    Near Earth Object (NEO) research is important not only as a great challenge for science but also as an important challenge for planetary defense. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind.The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of NEOs since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements helped to make inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO distribution. It ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008.The fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. The new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013.The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation.Both the system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used in the framework of the KLENOT Project are described here, including methods for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry.The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. More than 8000 of minor planet and comet astrometric positions including NEA measurements were published from September 2013 to February 2015.The 1.06-m KLENOT telescope is still the largest telescope in continental Europe used exclusively for observations of asteroids and comets. Full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. Considering our results and long-time experience obtained at the Klet Observatory, we have the large potential to contribute to recent NEO efforts.Since October 2014 the KLENOT Project has been a part of European Space Agency Space Systém Awareness Programme (ESA-SSA) - NEO Segment - Cooperating Sensors.

  10. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  11. NELIOTA: ESA's new NEO lunar impact monitoring project with the 1.2m telescope at the National Observatory of Athens

    E-print Network

    Bonanos, A Z; Boumis, P; Bellas-Velidis, I; Maroussis, A; Dapergolas, A; Fytsilis, A; Charmandaris, V; Tsiganis, K; Tsinganos, K

    2015-01-01

    NELIOTA is a new ESA activity launched at the National Observatory of Athens in February 2015 aiming to determine the distribution and frequency of small near-earth objects (NEOs) via lunar monitoring. The project involves upgrading the 1.2m Kryoneri telescope at the National Observatory of Athens, procuring two fast-frame cameras, and developing a software system, which will control the telescope and the cameras, process the images and automatically detect NEO impacts. NELIOTA will provide a web-based user interface, where the impact events will be reported and made available to the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this 3.5 year activity is to design, develop and implement a highly automated lunar monitoring system, which will conduct an observing campaign for 2 years in search of NEO impact flashes on the Moon. The impact events will be verified, characterised and reported. The 1.2m telescope will be capable of detecting flashes much fainter than current, small-aperture, lunar m...

  12. Loco-regional control after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and conservative treatment for locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Levy, Antonin; Borget, Isabelle; Bahri, Manel; Arnedos, Monica; Rivin, Eleonor; Vielh, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Rimareix, Françoise; Bourgier, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving treatment (BCT) has been validated for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rates between BCT and mastectomy in patients receiving radiation therapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). A retrospective data base was used to identify all patients with breast cancer undergoing NCT from 2002 to 2007. Patients with initial metastatic disease were excluded from this analysis. LRR was compared between those undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Individual variables associated with LRR were evaluated. Two hundred eighty-four patients were included, 111 (39%) underwent BCT and 173 (61%) mastectomy. Almost all patients (99%) in both groups received postoperative radiation. Pathologic complete response was seen in 37 patients, of which 28 underwent BCT (p < 0.001). Patients receiving mastectomy had more invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.007) and a higher American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (p < 0.001) at diagnosis than those with BCT. At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, the loco-regional control rate was 91% (95% CI: 86-94%). The 10-year LRR rate was similar in the BCT group (9.2% [95% CI: 4.9-16.7%]) and in the mastectomy group (10.7% [95% CI: 5.9-15.2%]; p = 0.8). Ten-year overall survival (OS) rates (63% [95% CI: 46-79%] in the BCT group; 60% [95% CI: 47-73%] in the mastectomy group, p = 0.8) were not statistically different between the two patient populations. Multivariate analysis showed that AJCC stage ? III (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8; p = 0.02), negative PR (HR: 6; 95% CI: 1.2-30.6, p = 0.03), and number of positive lymph nodes ?3 (HR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of LRR. Ten-year OS was similar in the BCT and in the mastectomy group (p = 0.1). The rate of LRR was low and did not significantly differ between the BCT and the mastectomy group after NCT. Randomized trials assessing whether mastectomy can be safely omitted in selected breast cancer patients (nonstage III tumors or those which do not require adjuvant hormone suppression) which respond to NCT are required. PMID:24890310

  13. Object detection Object detection

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    · driver assistance, autonomous driving · content-based image search · smart object counting · automatic Federer, Eiffel tower, ... · Object category detection · pedestrians, cars, faces, dogs, ... · semantic license plates, zip codes, checks · faces - automatic focus and color adjustment · people, cars, roadsigns

  14. Object detection Object detection

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    · driver assistance, autonomous driving · content-based image search · smart object counting · automatic Federer, Eiffel tower, ... ! · Object category detection · pedestrians, cars, faces, dogs, ... · semantic license plates, zip codes, checks · faces - automatic focus and color adjustment · people, cars, roadsigns

  15. Neo-nationalist ideology : a discourse theoretical approach to the SNP and the CSU 

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Claire Nicole

    2002-07-11

    The concept of ideology's theory-building potential has been under-exploited in studies of contemporary nationalism. This study offers a novel approach to 'neo-nationalism' by defining it as an ideology, embedding it in a ...

  16. Reclaimed genealogies: reconsidering the ancestor figure in African American women writers’ neo-slave narratives 

    E-print Network

    Milatovic, Maja

    2014-11-25

    This thesis examines the ancestor figure in African American women writers’ neoslave narratives. Drawing on black feminist, critical race and whiteness studies and trauma theory, the thesis closely reads neo-slave ...

  17. The Neo-Conservative Critique of National Educational Policy: A Revision of the Revisionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M.

    1979-01-01

    In examining the book "The Changing Politics of Education," the author attacks neo-conservative revisionism that claims that the goals of national policy are either impossible to achieve or undesirable because they frustrate popular will. (Author/IRT)

  18. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  19. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

    2012-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure shows an example of this capability where the Brazil Nut problem is simulated: as the container full of granular material is vibrated, the large ball slowly moves upwards. This capability was expanded to account for anchors of different shapes and penetration velocities, interacting with granular soils.

  20. Object extraction Object extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    ("house", "lake") · usually solved jointly as detection: identify all objects of a certain class · object methods · for well-defined corners ­ least-squares matching pixel ­ human (stereoscopic) >0.3 pixel ­ least-squares matching pixel ­ human (stereoscopic) >0.3 pixel #12;Semi-automatic extraction

  1. The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

    2014-07-01

    The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

  2. The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact. PMID:24758585

  3. Neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourabit, T.; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Ayadi, A.; Benouar, D.; Ben Suleman, A.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Cheddadi, A.; Chourak, M.; ElGabry, M. N.; Harbi, A.; Hfaiedh, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Kacem, J.; Ksentini, A.; Jabour, N.; Magrin, A.; Maouche, S.; Meghraoui, M.; Ousadou, F.; Panza, G. F.; Peresan, A.; Romdhane, N.; Vaccari, F.; Zuccolo, E.

    2014-04-01

    North Africa is one of the most earthquake-prone areas of the Mediterranean. Many devastating earthquakes, some of them tsunami-triggering, inflicted heavy loss of life and considerable economic damage to the region. In order to mitigate the destructive impact of the earthquakes, the regional seismic hazard in North Africa is assessed using the neo-deterministic, multi-scenario methodology (NDSHA) based on the computation of synthetic seismograms, using the modal summation technique, at a regular grid of 0.2 × 0.2°. This is the first study aimed at producing NDSHA maps of North Africa including five countries: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. The key input data for the NDSHA algorithm are earthquake sources, seismotectonic zonation, and structural models. In the preparation of the input data, it has been really important to go beyond the national borders and to adopt a coherent strategy all over the area. Thanks to the collaborative efforts of the teams involved, it has been possible to properly merge the earthquake catalogues available for each country to define with homogeneous criteria the seismogenic zones, the characteristic focal mechanism associated with each of them, and the structural models used to model wave propagation from the sources to the sites. As a result, reliable seismic hazard maps are produced in terms of maximum displacement ( D max), maximum velocity ( V max), and design ground acceleration.

  4. Evolution by epigenesis: farewell to Darwinism, neo- and otherwise.

    PubMed

    Balon, Eugene K

    2004-01-01

    In the last 25 years, criticism of most theories advanced by Darwin and the neo-Darwinians has increased considerably, and so did their defense. Darwinism has become an ideology, while the most significant theories of Darwin were proven unsupportable. The critics advanced other theories instead of 'natural selection' and the survival of the fittest'. 'Saltatory ontogeny' and 'epigenesis' are such new theories proposed to explain how variations in ontogeny and novelties in evolution are created. They are reviewed again in the present essay that also tries to explain how Darwinians, artificially kept dominant in academia and in granting agencies, are preventing their acceptance. Epigenesis, the mechanism of ontogenies, creates in every generation alternative variations in a saltatory way that enable the organisms to survive in the changing environments as either altricial or precocial forms. The constant production of two such forms and their survival in different environments makes it possible, over a sequence of generations, to introduce changes and establish novelties--the true phenomena of evolution. The saltatory units of evolution remain far-from-stable structures capable of self-organization and self-maintenance (autopoiesis). PMID:15612191

  5. Hayabusa's follow-on mission for surface and sub-surface sample return from a C-type NEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime; Yoshikawa, M.; Yano, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Nakazawa, S.; Mimamino, H.; Terui, F.; Saiki, T.; Nishiyama, K.; Kubota, T.; Okada, T.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Ogawa, N.; Okamoto, C.; Takagi, Y.; Tachibana, S.; Nakamura, R.; Hirata, N.; Demura, H.

    n JAXA's Long-term Vision 2005-2025, acquiring the capability of deep space round trip be-yond the Earth-Moon system is one of key elements for the future space exploration and that has been Hayabusa's primary engineering goal. According to the solar system exploration sci-ence roadmap set by ISAS and JSPEC in 2007, a programmatic approach to small body sample returns from S-type, C-type and then P/D-type asteroids as well as dormant comets, i.e., 'the further, the smaller, the more primitive strategy', is recommended for strengthening Japan's unique position in the field of space exploration. In a more recent international context, NEOs and Martian satellites have been identified as critical targets for the future human space explo-ration en route to Mars; thus their robotic precursor missions with the round trip capability have become more important than ever. Thus, Hayabusa's immediate follow-on mission, nicknamed so far as 'Hayabusa-2', is to aim establishing round trip exploration capability with both technical and operational heritage and lessons leaerned from the original Haybusa mission. It will also conduct in-situ observation and surface and sub-surface sample returns of a C-type NEO after Hayabusa's investigation and sampling attempt at Itokawa, a sub-km, S-type NEO. Important to be reminded is that C-type asteroid exploration is not just matching with carbona-ceous chondrites and interplanetary dust but also enhancing chances to discover new extrater-restrial materials unknown to us today that may become clues to decode interactions among organic, inorganic compounds and "water" kept in various forms inside the object. These three groups of asteroidal materials are basic constituents of the planet Earth, its ocean and its life. Also physical probing inside solid planetary bodies has been recognized as an effective tool to open new scientific insights. By excavating sub-surface materials with artificial physical in-teractions such as an impactor operation, this mission may yield for the first time that space weathering effects on carbonaceous asteroids by comparing between superficially exposed sam-ples and freshly excavated sub-surface samples, as well as possible surface material motilities, levitation, re-accumulation, and other local geological activities induced by inputs of external kinetic energy. This paper summarizes both engineering and scientific objectives as well as instruments and enabling technology currently being developed of this mission.

  6. Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  7. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

  8. [Proposals for social class classification based on the Spanish National Classification of Occupations 2011 using neo-Weberian and neo-Marxist approaches].

    PubMed

    Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Carrasco, José Miguel; Espelt, Albert; Ferrando, Josep; Borrell, Carme

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the new National Classification of Occupations (Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones [CNO-2011]) is substantially different to the 1994 edition, and requires adaptation of occupational social classes for use in studies of health inequalities. This article presents two proposals to measure social class: the new classification of occupational social class (CSO-SEE12), based on the CNO-2011 and a neo-Weberian perspective, and a social class classification based on a neo-Marxist approach. The CSO-SEE12 is the result of a detailed review of the CNO-2011 codes. In contrast, the neo-Marxist classification is derived from variables related to capital and organizational and skill assets. The proposed CSO-SEE12 consists of seven classes that can be grouped into a smaller number of categories according to study needs. The neo-Marxist classification consists of 12 categories in which home owners are divided into three categories based on capital goods and employed persons are grouped into nine categories composed of organizational and skill assets. These proposals are complemented by a proposed classification of educational level that integrates the various curricula in Spain and provides correspondences with the International Standard Classification of Education. PMID:23394892

  9. Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A neo-piagetian analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    Most Piagetian formal operational reasoning tasks show horizontal decalage; that is, subjects pass certain tasks and fail others that have the same logical structure. The study reported here analyzes the importance of individual difference variables, as postulated by the neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone, in explaining subject performance in formal reasoning. A sample of 72 freshman students were administered a test of formal reasoning having 20 items of different types of reasoning, and the tests of the individual difference variables. Results obtained from multiple regression analyses show that Pascual-Leone's structural M-capacity (Ms) is the most consistent predictor of success in the different formal reasoning tasks, followed by Witkin's cognitive style, and to a much lesser degree Raven's progressive matrices, and Pascual-Leone's functional M-capacity (Mf). It was found that in the total score on the 20 items of formal reasoning, Ms accounted for 23.3% of the variance (R = 0.483, F = 6.39, p = 0.014) and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test, increased the multiple R significantly (F = 7.77, p = 0.007) and accounted for 7.6% of the variance. Mf and the Raven test did not make a significant contribution to the regression equation. Correlation coefficients among most of the items having the same reasoning pattern but different content are generally low but statistically significant (p < 0.01). Intercorrelations among items having the same formal reasoning pattern and content are fairly high (p < 0.001). These results emphasize the importance of individual difference variables: information-processing capacity (Pascual-Leone) and oversensitivity to potentially misleading information (Witkin). It is suggested that in order to understand student performance in formal reasoning tasks, we should expect horizontal decalages as a rule and not the exception, as Piaget had postulated. Educational implications are drawn.

  10. Innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap for neo-phallic reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Rubino, C; Figus, A; Dessy, L A; Alei, G; Mazzocchi, M; Trignano, E; Scuderi, N

    2009-03-01

    Many techniques have been described to create an aesthetic and functional neo-phallus after penile amputation or in female-to-male transsexuals. Microsurgical free-flap phalloplasty seems to be the preferred method of penile reconstruction. For many years the radial forearm free flap has been considered the best procedure, but other flaps have been attempted to minimize donor site morbidity and optimize outcome. Pedicled flaps are considered to be reliable and to decrease the risk of total failure. Recently, a one-stage non-microsurgical technique was described for phallic reconstruction in a young male patient. We report successful total phallic reconstruction in a female-to-male transsexual patient using an island pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. Urethral reconstruction was left as a possible further procedure due to patient's preference. A malleable soft silicone penile prosthesis was inserted within the flap and the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve stump was sutured to the dorsal clitoris branch from the pudendal nerve for flap sensation. After 6 months, the patient demonstrated successful aesthetic and functional reconstruction referring to satisfactory sexual activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an innervated island pedicled ALT flap used for female-to-male penile reconstruction in a transsexual patient. The pedicled ALT flap may be a reliable option to avoid visible scarring at the donor site on exposed parts of the body, and reduce the risk of total flap failure from microsurgical procedures for reconstruction of a neo-phallus in this increasing population of patients. PMID:18455975

  11. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38?±?0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11?±?0.43?g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28?°C and 200?rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  12. Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: Domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Cheat; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Phan, Chia-Wei; Tan, Yee-Shin; Raman, Jegadeesh; Anuar, Azliza Mad; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation benefits humankind as it deliberately encourages wild mushrooms to be commercially propagated while recycling agricultural wastes. Ganoderma neo-japonicum is a rare polypore mushroom found growing on decaying Schizostachyum brachycladium (a tropical bamboo) clumps in Malaysia. The Malaysian indigenous tribes including the Temuans and Temiars use the basidiocarps of G. neo-japonicum to treat various ailments including diabetes. In this study, the domestication of G. neo-japonicum in artificial logs of different agricultural residues was investigated. Sawdust promoted the mycelia spawn colonisation in the shortest period of 38?±?0.5 days. However, only sawdust and bamboo dust supported the primodia formation. Complex medium supported mycelium growth in submerged cultures and 27.11?±?0.43?g/L of mycelia was obtained after 2 weeks of cultivation at 28?°C and 200?rpm. Antioxidant potential in mushroom may be influenced by different cultivation and extraction methods. The different extracts from the wild and cultivated basidiocarps as well as mycelia were then tested for their antioxidant properties. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of mycelia and basidiocarps tested had varying levels of antioxidant activities. To conclude, domestication of wild G. neo-japonicum using agroresidues may ensure a continuous supply of G. neo-japonicum for its medicinal use while ensuring the conservation of this rare species. PMID:26213331

  13. Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Coburn, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health. PMID:14572920

  14. The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Richard G

    2009-06-01

    The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time. PMID:19442927

  15. Earth-Impact Modeling and Analysis of a Near-Earth Object Fragmented and Dispersed by Nuclear Subsurface Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinger, Brian; Wie, Bong; Dearborn, David

    2012-06-01

    Although various technologies, including nuclear explosions, kinetic impactors, and slow- pull gravity tractors, have been proposed for mitigating the impact threat of near-Earth objects (NEOs), there is no consensus on how to reliably deflect or disrupt such hazardous NEOs in a timely manner. This paper describes the orbital dispersion modeling, analysis, and simulation of an NEO fragmented and dispersed by nuclear subsurface explosions. It is shown that various fundamental approaches of Keplerian orbital dynamics can be effectively employed for the orbital dispersion analysis of fragmented NEOs. This paper also shows that, under certain conditions, proper disruption using a nuclear subsurface explosion with shallow burial is a feasible strategy, providing considerable impact damage reduction if all other approaches fail.

  16. Physical modeling and high-performance GPU computing for characterization, interception, and disruption of hazardous near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplinger, Brian Douglas

    For the past few decades, both the scientific community and the general public have been becoming more aware that the Earth lives in a shooting gallery of small objects. We classify all of these asteroids and comets, known or unknown, that cross Earth's orbit as near-Earth objects (NEOs). A look at our geologic history tells us that NEOs have collided with Earth in the past, and we expect that they will continue to do so. With thousands of known NEOs crossing the orbit of Earth, there has been significant scientific interest in developing the capability to deflect an NEO from an impacting trajectory. This thesis applies the ideas of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) theory to the NEO disruption problem. A simulation package was designed that allows efficacy simulation to be integrated into the mission planning and design process. This is done by applying ideas in high-performance computing (HPC) on the computer graphics processing unit (GPU). Rather than prove a concept through large standalone simulations on a supercomputer, a highly parallel structure allows for flexible, target dependent questions to be resolved. Built around nonclassified data and analysis, this computer package will allow academic institutions to better tackle the issue of NEO mitigation effectiveness.

  17. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  18. Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region

    SciTech Connect

    Panza, G. F.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F.; Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G.; Paskaleva, I.; Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P.; Herak, M.; Zaichenco, A.; Zivcic, M.

    2008-07-08

    A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

  19. Neoclassical study of temperature anisotropy in NSTX experiments using the GTC-NEO particle code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, David; Ethier, Stephane; Wang, Weixing

    2012-10-01

    Ion thermal transport in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) is often observed to be close to the neoclassical level. This makes self-consistent neoclassical simulations carried out with the GTC-NEO particle code highly relevant for studying transport-related issues in NSTX. GTC-NEO, which now treats multiple species of ion impurities[1], takes as input the experimental profiles from NSTX discharges and calculates fully non-local, self-consistent neoclassical fluxes and radial electric field. Given that the fraction of trapped particles is high in spherical tokamaks, one remarkable question is that of possible temperature anisotropy, which cannot be determined experimentally with the current diagnostics. Some experimental measurements assume the temperature anisotropy for the interpolation of raw data from diagnostics. This work describes new numerical diagnostics and computational improvements that were implemented in GTC-NEO to enable the study of temperature anisotropy.

  20. Neoclassical study of temperature anisotropy in NSTX experiments using the GTC-NEO particle code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, David; Ethier, Stephane; Wang, Weixing

    2012-10-01

    It is well-known that the level of ion transport in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) is close to the neoclassical level. This makes self-consistent neoclassical simulations carried out with the GTC-NEO particle code highly relevant for studying transport-related issues in NSTX. GTC-NEO, which now treats multiple species of ion impurities [1], takes as input the experimental profiles from NSTX discharges and calculates the fully non-local, self-consistent neoclassical fluxes and radial electric field. One unanswered question related to NSTX plasmas is that of possible ion temperature anisotropy, which cannot be determined experimentally with the current diagnostics. This work describes new numerical diagnostics and computational improvements that were implemented in GTC-NEO to enable the study of temperature anisotropy.[4pt] [1] R.A. Kolesnikov et al., Phy. Plasmas 17, 022506 (2010)

  1. Shape Similarity, Better than Semantic Membership, Accounts for the Structure of Visual Object Representations in a Population of Monkey Inferotemporal Neurons

    E-print Network

    Baldassi, Carlo

    The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual ...

  2. Specific Research Objectives and Scope by Institute - Intervention Research to Improve Native American Health (R01) Research Project Grant - National Cancer Institute - Cancer Control and Population Sciences

    Cancer.gov

    Native American populations have the lowest 5-year cancer survival rate and highest percentage of disseminated and ill-defined cancers of any subpopulation in the U.S. Poorer cancer survival rates have been attributed to many factors, among them inadequate access to health care, geographic isolation, later stage of detection, underutilization of treatment, poverty, and social and cultural barriers.

  3. Exploring near Earth object’s activity with cubesats: low surface brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Cesar; Diaz, Marcos; Falcon, Claudio; Clerc, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Ever smaller Near Earth Objects (NEOs) continue to be discovered, with most potentially hazardous ones already surveyed and ongoing plans for space missions to deflect and mine them in the near future. These transitional objects in relatively unstable orbits have recently experienced collisional or dynamical encounters that have sent them to Earth’s vicinity. Finding comet-like activity (sublimation and ejected dust) is necessary to understand their origin, recent history, and evolution. Mommert et al (2014) have recently discovered cometary activity on the third largest NEO (3552) Don Quixote using near-Infrared imaging from Spitzer/IRAC they detect both a coma and tail as extended emission they identify as CO2 ice sublimation. This activity has gone unnoticed due to either sporadic activity or the relatively low surface brightness in optical wavelengths of light reflecting off dust, 26 mag/arcsec2 which necessarily imposes an extreme bias against detection. We propose to find this activity directly in the optical by going above the atmosphere.We are developing a 6U Cubesat to carry a 20cm aperture telescope. The volume restrictions impose a deployment system design for the telescope. We will study the optimal mission and optical setup for our goals, including the feasibility of a novel coronagraph to increase the sensitivity. Detecting NEO activity requires stability and low instrumental noise over many hours. Atmosphere’s varying point spread function (PSF), coupled with the extended PSF of reflective telescopes, lead us to propose to develop the concept and technology to manage a refractive telescope in space with the potential inclusion of a coronagraph, optimized for detecting faint features near bright targets. The experiment considers targeting nearby NEOs and optimizing observations for low surface brightness.

  4. Extremism and Neo-Liberal Education Policy: A Contextual Critique of the Trojan Horse Affair in Birmingham Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers new insights into the effects of neo-liberal education policies on some Muslim majority schools in Birmingham. It critically reveals how the implementation of neo-liberal education policies, pursued by both Labour and Conservative Governments, has contributed to the failure of some mechanisms of school leadership and governance.…

  5. Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

    2014-01-01

    The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,…

  6. Low Openness on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory as a Risk Factor for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Michio; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI) may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. Methods We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n?=?35), remitted depressed patients (n?=?27), and healthy controls (n?=?66). We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. Results Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. Conclusions Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression. PMID:24019864

  7. Approaching cognitive-behavioral and existential therapy through Neo-Confucianism 

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Joffre Denis

    1984-01-01

    OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION Definition of Terms II. EXISTENTIAL THERAPY AND NEO-CONFUCIANISM Introduction Part One: Conscience and Change ~L- hih S*1E-Th y Psychology Neo-Confucianism Changing with the Needs of Society Part Two... The Link Between Axioms Two and Three . 118 Appropriate Discernment of Thought: A Personality Model Axiom Three: Conscience and Appro- priateness Axiom Four: Rectifying Affairs ~L' - h'h "R s 1 ' g 1 t ty Cion" 120 123 128 132 ~L'aa ? hih gth' 1...

  8. Shape Similarity, Better than Semantic Membership, Accounts for the Structure of Visual Object Representations in a Population of Monkey Inferotemporal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DiCarlo, James J.; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

    2013-01-01

    The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex. PMID:23950700

  9. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  10. The Italian version of the NEO PI-R: Conceptual and empirical support for the use of targeted rotation

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Earlier cross-cultural research on replicability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) suggested that personality trait structure is universal, but a recent study using an Italian translation has challenged this position. The present article reexamines the psychometric properties of the Italian NEO-PI-R and discusses the importance of orthogonal Procrustes rotation when the replicability of complex factor structures is tested. The arguments are supported by data from a slightly modified translation of the NEO-PI-R, which was administered to 575 Italian subjects. These data show a close replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Further, the validity of the Italian NEO-PI-R is supported by external correlates, such as demographic variables (age, sex, education), depression, and affect scales. PMID:19002272

  11. Objective Counts Page 1 of 6 No of Quantitative

    E-print Network

    (MAT) Minimum Number Naturally Produced Spawners Natural Spawners Population Growth Population Overall Risk Class Population Size Population Viability Status Population Weighted Area Productivity Abundance Threshold (MAT) Number Objective Overall Risk Class Population Viability Status Productivity

  12. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution. PMID:25917417

  13. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

  14. A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Rob R.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

  15. Object and spatial memory after neonatal perirhinal lesions in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alison R; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of the perirhinal cortex (PRh) to recognition memory is well characterized in adults, yet the same lesions have limited effect on recognition of spatial locations. Here, we assessed whether the same outcomes will follow when perirhinal lesions are performed in infancy. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal (Neo-PRh) lesions and control animals were tested in three operant recognition tasks as they reached adulthood: Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample (DNMS) and Object Memory Span (OMS), measuring object recognition, and Spatial Memory Span (SMS), measuring recognition of spatial locations. Although Neo-PRh lesions did not impact acquisition of the DNMS rule, they did impair performance when the delays were extended from 30s to 600s. In contrast, the same neonatal lesions had no impact on either the object or spatial memory span tasks, suggesting that the lesions impacted the maintenance of information across longer delays and not memory capacity. Finally, the magnitude of recognition memory impairment after the Neo-PRh lesions was similar to that previously observed after adult-onset perirhinal lesions, indicating minimal, or no, functional compensation after the early PRh lesions. Overall, the results indicate that the PRh is a cortical structure that is important for the normal development of mechanisms supporting object recognition memory. Its contribution may be relevant to the memory impairment observed with human cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without hippocampal sclerosis, but not to the memory impairment found in developmental amnesia cases. PMID:26593109

  16. Triton's surface age and impactor population revisited in light of Kuiper Belt fluxes: Evidence for small Kuiper Belt objects and recent geological activity

    E-print Network

    S. A. Stern; W. B. McKinnon

    1999-10-24

    Neptune's largest satellite, Triton, is one of the most fascinating and enigmatic bodies in the solar system. Among its numerous interesting traits, Triton appears to have far fewer craters than would be expected if its surface was primordial. Here we combine the best available crater count data for Triton with improved estimates of impact rates by including the Kuiper Belt as a source of impactors. We find that the population of impactors creating the smallest observed craters on Triton must be sub-km in scale, and that this small-impactor population can be best fit by a differential power-law size index near -3. Such results provide interesting, indirect probes of the unseen small body population of the Kuiper Belt. Based on the modern, Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud impactor flux estimates, we also recalculate estimated ages for several regions of Triton's surface imaged by Voyager 2, and find that Triton was probably active on a time scale no greater than 0.1-0.3 Gyr ago (indicating Triton was still active after some 90% to 98% of the age of the solar system), and perhaps even more recently. The time-averaged volumetric resurfacing rate on Triton implied by these results, 0.01 km$^3$ yr$^{-1}$ or more, is likely second only to Io and Europa in the outer solar system, and is within an order of magnitude of estimates for Venus and for the Earth's intraplate zones. This finding indicates that Triton likely remains a highly geologically active world at present, some 4.5 Gyr after its formation. We briefly speculate on how such a situation might obtain.

  17. Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of…

  18. Learning from the Neo-Liberal Movement: Towards a Global Justice Education Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary suggests that a countermovement for educational and social justice must learn from the dominant global neo-liberal movement and its successes in creating institutions and knowledge-making processes and networks. Local struggles for educational justice are important, but they need to be linked to a broader educational justice…

  19. Manipulating Images of Popular Culture upon Neo-Classical Theatre: "Tartuffe" at Susquehanna University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodd, Mary Jo

    Moliere's "Tartuffe" is an attack, not on religion, but on people who hide behind religion and exploit it. As a college professor in charge of student production searched for a director's concept for "Tartuffe," she realized that it would be unwise to attempt a museum staging of neo-classical theater with limited funding. She therefore chose a…

  20. Neopoints, and Neo Economies: Emergent Regimes of Value in Kids Peer-to-Peer Networks

    E-print Network

    Ito, Mimi

    Neopoints, and Neo Economies: Emergent Regimes of Value in Kids Peer-to-Peer Networks Mimi Ito' of childhood in such contexts involves kids gradually and receptively absorbing the culture and values, and one that we expect is shared by many people who spend time with kids is that they have never been

  1. Education, Culture, and Class Power: Basil Bernstein and the Neo-Marxist Sociology of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    The article examines Basil Bernstein's research on power relations in education, discussing class formation, class essentialism, and changing nature. It describes new ways of approaching relationships between culture and power, noting the neo-Marxist-oriented sociology of education, and stressing the importance of keeping class relations in the…

  2. Worlds of Knowledge, Cosmologies of Skills: Ethnography Outdoors in a Neo-Liberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Allen

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the signs that modernizing agendas in contemporary UK universities have not only reduced autonomy and marketized practices but have also stimulated the crystallization of a ramifying academic worldview, structurally consonant with neo-liberal horizons and new organizational vistas. Ethnographically, the account focuses…

  3. Neo-Liberalism and Practices of Selection in Arab Education in Israel: Between Control and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinson, Halleli; Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other national contexts, in Israel since the 1980s we have witnessed the emergence of neo-liberal policies in education. However, very little attention has been given to the ways in which they affect the school level and even less attention has been given to the impact of these policy changes on Arab schools in Israel. This article…

  4. Is Global Neo-Liberalism Shaping the Future of Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune

    2014-01-01

    With claims that neo-liberalism is the "specific defining political/economic paradigm of the age in which we live?…?" [Apple, Michael. 2006. "Educating the 'Right' Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality." New York: Taylor & Francis, 14.], an invited symposium at the 2012 International Convention on Science,…

  5. "Alternative" Education in Flanders, 1960-2000: Transformation of Knowledge in a Neo-Liberal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Coster, Tom; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The founding of "alternative" schools, mainly by parents or other individuals, has made New Education in Flanders tangible today for the general public. In this article, the authors set out to study the knowledge of the "emancipatory" starting points of the post-1968 movements and "alternative" schools in the neo-liberal Flemish educational…

  6. When State Centralism Meets Neo-Liberalism: Managing University Governance Change in Singapore and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, both the Singapore and Malaysia governments have introduced reforms along the lines of ideas and practices embedded in neo-liberalism. In the last decade or so, we have witnessed reforms being introduced to the higher education sectors in these Asian states,…

  7. Making Art Invisible: Visual Education and the Cultural Stagnation of Neo-Liberal Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of visual literacy may have resulted, in part, from some school authorities rushing the process of determining school curriculum. This article argues that the haste is reflective of pressure placed on educational discourse to conform to neo-liberal reforms of the sector, and is not the result of a careful and complex debate within…

  8. A tool for the quantification of radial neo-vessels in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenic assays

    E-print Network

    Signoroni, Alberto

    the responses. Although there are a lot of CAM-related blood vessel extraction tools, many and recent works chorioallantoic mem- brane (CAM). At day 11 of development CAM is completely vascularized and neo-vessels induced of the vessels present in the CAM macroscopic images. Based on conventional and dedicated image morphology tools

  9. Darwinian and neo-Darwinian selection mechanisms in bacteria: Effects on antibiotic resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darwin’s concept of survival of the fittest is as critical when applied to bacteria as it is to animals. Bacteria live in a highly competitive environment that is similar to the macrobiological world with its selective pressures. Neo-Darwinism views genes as selfish and as the ultimate unit of nat...

  10. Neo-Liberal Policy Agendas and the Problem of Inequality in Higher Education: The Ethiopian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    Under the influence of the external policy pressure of donors such as the World Bank, higher education in Ethiopia has witnessed a series of institutional and system-wide reforms. This article reviews selected policy documents to show key neo-liberal policy agendas endorsed in the reforms and explicate how they have affected social equity in the…

  11. The Inexorable Spread of a Newly Arisen Neo-Y Paris Veltsos, Irene Keller

    E-print Network

    The Inexorable Spread of a Newly Arisen Neo-Y Chromosome Paris Veltsos, Irene Keller¤ , Richard A Kingdom Abstract A newly arisen Y-chromosome can become established in one part of a species range of an autosome with the ancestral X-chromosome (thereby creating the Y and the `fused X'). Our principal finding

  12. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) Reveals a Neo-X Chromosome and Biased Gene Movement in

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    . Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH resultsComparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) Reveals a Neo-X Chromosome and Biased Gene Movement for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America, 2

  13. Enlightenment and the "Heart of Darkness": (Neo)Imperialism in the Congo, and Elsewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronach, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This article approaches the current state of qualitative inquiry by constructing an allegory of neo-imperialism. It is based substantively on a history and contemporary anthro-politics of the Congo and in particular the city of Kisangani; metaphorically on Conrad's unsettling deployment of that same place as "the heart of darkness"; and ironically…

  14. A Neo-Aristotelian Account of Education, Justice, and the Human Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2013-01-01

    This article sketches the contours of a neo-Aristotelian account of education, justice, and the human good, organized around a sequence of three increasingly distinctive features of the Aristotelian understanding of respect for persons as rational beings. The first and second of these features bear on important aspects of educational justice,…

  15. Cognitive Aspects of Change in Drawings: A Neo-Piagetian Theoretical Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    This study reconsiders a series of drawing tasks (Goodnow, 1978) in which children have to modify their stereotypical drawing of the human figure to represent a person in movement. Another task, in which children have to differentiate the drawing of a kangaroo from that of a person, is also considered. According to a neo-Piagetian model of drawing…

  16. Neo-Liberal "Governmentality" in the English and Japanese Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify common patterns in central authorities' steering of universities and the institutional power in neo-liberal higher education regimes. The paper examines the regulatory mechanisms of England and Japan through Foucault's idea of "governmentality" and utilises the concept of autonomy to identify the…

  17. The Neo-Liberal Education Policies of "Epimeleia Heautou": Caring for the Self in School Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo; Pitton, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues that neo-liberal education policy has capitalized on a historical concern to care for the self, or the Greek "epimeleia heautou". We discuss "epimeleia heautou" in relation to education policies that emphasize greater choice in curriculum offerings, and in relation to school choice policies more generally.…

  18. Re-Interpretation in Historiography: John Dewey and the Neo-Humanist Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmann, Johannes

    2004-01-01

    Did John Dewey's "new philosophy of education" really try to dissolve the whole block of tradition or is his debt namely to educational core-concepts of neo-humanism deeper than he was prepared to acknowledge? After some general remarks on the process of reception as productive re-adaptation and its implication for historiography I will deal with…

  19. The global impact distribution of Near-Earth objects

    E-print Network

    Rumpf, Clemens; Atkinson, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids that could collide with the Earth are listed on the publicly available Near-Earth object (NEO) hazard web sites maintained by the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA). The impact probability distribution of 69 potentially threatening NEOs from these lists that produce 261 dynamically distinct impact instances, or Virtual Impactors (VIs), were calculated using the Asteroid Risk Mitigation and Optimization Research (ARMOR) tool in conjunction with OrbFit. ARMOR projected the impact probability of each VI onto the surface of the Earth as a spatial probability distribution. The projection considers orbit solution accuracy and the global impact probability. The method of ARMOR is introduced and the tool is validated against two asteroid-Earth collision cases with objects 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA. In the analysis, the natural distribution of impact corridors is contrasted against the impact probability distribution to evaluate the distributions conformity with the uniform impact distribution assumpti...

  20. Robotic and Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  1. Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic. Methods We used the Neo-Socratic Dialogue (NSD) method which promotes philosophical discussion based on a case-study to address a question and formulate a consensus and answer in a group. The question chosen for the dialogue was: “What is a life-prolonging treatment?” A series of dialogues took place over a period of one and a half days. It was carried out by three groups in 2010 and 2011. Seven participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited per group. We analyzed the content of the discussion. Results Based on three case studies concerning different opinions about treatment options for an older dementia patient, a patient demanding chemotherapy, and a severely ill neonate, conditions for futile life-prolonging treatment were elucidated through NSD. Such treatments are those carried out for the sole purpose of prolonging life and are detrimental to the patient, and should be decided based foremost on the patient’s lack of desire for treatment, the consensus of those involved, and through social acceptance. These arguments are essentially consistent with ones on medical futility in the United States. By expressing the objective of healthcare and the requirement of social acceptance, participants were also able to elucidate issues related to the awareness of those involved and the medical environment. Compared to the end-of-life guidelines in Japan, the objective of treatment, its effects, and benefits were more specifically discussed with the patient’s intentions as the foremost consideration, rather than being limited to the terminal stage. Conclusions This small study contributed to elucidating the conditions and current problems of futile life-prolonging treatment through NSD. They would suggest more substantial guidelines and improvements on the administration of the treatment. PMID:24321531

  2. Breeding Objectives in Forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All breeding programs share one common objective – to improve a species for use within a target population of environments and a particular agricultural context. Beyond this common goal, the objectives of forage breeding programs are as varied as the species upon which they are based and the breeder...

  3. Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  4. Small Solar Electric Propulsion Spacecraft Concept for Near Earth Object and Inner Solar System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Jared J.; Randolph, Thomas M.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Baker, John D.; Strange, Nathan J.; Landau, Damon; Wallace, Mark S.; Snyder, J. Steve; Piacentine, Jamie S.; Malone, Shane; Bury, Kristen M.; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other primitive bodies are exciting targets for exploration. Not only do they provide clues to the early formation of the universe, but they also are potential resources for manned exploration as well as provide information about potential Earth hazards. As a step toward exploration outside Earth's sphere of influence, NASA is considering manned exploration to Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), however hazard characterization of a target is important before embarking on such an undertaking. A small Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft would be ideally suited for this type of mission due to the high delta-V requirements, variety of potential targets and locations, and the solar energy available in the inner solar system.Spacecraft and mission trades have been performed to develop a robust spacecraft design that utilizes low cost, off-the-shelf components that could accommodate a suite of different scientific payloads for NEO characterization. Mission concepts such as multiple spacecraft each rendezvousing with different NEOs, single spacecraft rendezvousing with separate NEOs, NEO landers, as well as other inner solar system applications (Mars telecom orbiter) have been evaluated. Secondary launch opportunities using the Expendable Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) Grande launch adapter with unconstrained launch dates have also been examined.

  5. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  6. Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects

    E-print Network

    Levison, Harold F.

    Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects William F. Bottke distribution computed from previous work and a probability function representing the observational biases combinations, a \\best-#12;t" NEO model was computed which (i) provided the debiased orbital and absolute

  7. Congressional Hearing on Near-Earth Objects Brings Reassurances and "What If" Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    Despite repeated reassurances from Obama administration officials that it is unlikely that a near-Earth object (NEO) could cause catastrophic damage on Earth anytime over the next several hundred years, members of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology kept raising "what if" questions at a 19 March hearing about threats from space.

  8. Infrared near-Earth-object survey modeling for observatories interior to the Earth's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M.

    2014-07-01

    The search for and dynamical characterization of the near-Earth population of objects (NEOs) has been a busy topic for surveys for many years. Most of the work thus far has been from ground-based optical surveys such as the Catalina Sky Survey and LINEAR. These surveys have essentially reached a complete inventory of objects down to 1 km diameter and have shown that the known objects do not pose any significant impact threat. Smaller objects are correspondingly smaller threats but there are more of them and fewer of them have so far been discovered. The next generation of surveys is looking to extend their reach down to much smaller sizes. From an impact risk perspective, those objects as small as 30--40 m are still of interest (similar in size to the Tunguska bolide). Smaller objects than this are largely of interest from a space resource or in-situ analysis efforts. A recent mission concept promoted by the B612 Foundation and Ball Aerospace calls for an infrared survey telescope in a Venus-like orbit, known as the Sentinel Mission. This wide-field facility has been designed to complete the inventory down to a 140 m diameter while also providing substantial constraints on the NEO population down to a Tunguska-sized object. I have been working to develop a suite of tools to provide survey modeling for this class of survey telescope. The purpose of the tool is to uncover hidden complexities that govern mission design and operation while also working to quantitatively understand the orbit quality provided on its catalog of objects without additional followup assets. The baseline mission design calls for a 6.5 year survey lifetime. This survey model is a statistically based tool for establishing completeness as a function of object size and survey duration. Effects modeled include the ability to adjust the field-of-regard (includes all pointing restrictions), field-of-view, focal plane array fill factor, and the observatory orbit. Consequences tracked include time-tagged detection times from which orbit quality can be derived and efficiency by dynamical class. The dominant noise term in the simulations comes from the noise in the background flux caused by thermal emission from zodiacal dust. The model used is sufficient for the study of reasonably low-inclination spacecraft orbits such as are being considered. Results to date are based on the 2002 Bottke NEA orbit-distribution model. The system can work with any orbit-distribution model and with any size-frequency distribution. This tool also serves to quantify the amount of data that will also be collected on main-belt objects by simply testing against the known catalog of bodies. The orbit quality work clearly shows the benefit of a self-followup survey such as Sentinel. Most objects discovered will be seen in multiple observing epochs and the resulting orbits will preclude losing track of them for decades to come (or longer). All of the ephemeris calculations, including investigation of orbit determination quality, are done with the OpenOrb software package. The presentation for this meeting will be based on results of modeling the Sentinel Mission and other similar variants. The focus will be on evaluating the survey completion for different dynamical classes as well as for different sized objects. Within the fidelity of such statistically-based models, the planned Sentinel observatory is well capable of a huge step forward in the efforts to build a complete catalog of all objects that could pose future harm to planet Earth.

  9. Precision Astrometry of Near Earth Objects at McDonald Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Andrew; Ries, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The McDonald astrometry group has been observing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) since 1998 with a 0.76m telescope. The main goal is to confirm newly discovered objects and follow-up known, but under-observed objects. NASA's mission to discover and catalogue 90 percent of NEOs larger than 1 km as soon as possible has been extended down to 140 m. The number of objects in the 140 m size range is much larger than the number of 1 km sized asteroids and thus, a collision is more likely to involve a smaller one. These objects are faint with absolute magnitudes 21.5 or larger. We are resuming the program concentrating on faint/small NEOs on the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope with the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow-up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams as it provides detectable images of a 19th magnitude source with a 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.7’ by 4.7’, with 0.276 ‘’/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the PSF for precision astrometry. Our first task is to characterize the plate solution, the transformation between the standard and pixel coordinates with the least number of coefficients, but removing all systematic errors from the residuals. We obtained images of M71 at three different airmasses during two nights in September. We also took exposures of asteroids with well-known orbits to test our astrometry. The results and the evaluation will be presented at the meeting. This research is funded by NASA NEO Program grant NNX12AG09G. Park, W.K., et al.,(2012), PASP, Vol. 124.

  10. Results from the LCOGT Near-Earth Object Follow-up Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) has deployed a homogeneous telescope network of nine 1-meter and two 2-meter telescopes to five locations in the northern and southern hemispheres, with plans to extend to twelve 1-meter telescopes at 6 locations. The versitility and design of this network allows for rapid response to target of opportunity events as well as the long-term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The network's global coverage and the apertures of telescopes available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of the nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). This is complimented by the two 2-meter telescopes at Haleakala (Hawaii) and Siding Spring Observatory. The telescope network has been fully operational since May 2014, and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. Future expansion to sites in the Canary Islands and Tibet are planned for 2016.The LCOGT near-Earth object group is using the network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), PanSTARRS (PS1) and NEOWISE, with several hundred targets being followed per year. Follow-up astrometry and photometry of radar-targeted objects and those on the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) lists are improving orbits, producing light curves and rotation periods, and better characterizing these NEOs. Recent results include the first period determinations for several of the Goldstone-targeted NEOs. In addition, we are in the process of building a NEO portal that will allow professionals, amateurs, and Citizen Scientists to plan, schedule, and analyze NEO imaging and spectroscopy observations and data using the LCOGT Network and to act as a coordination hub for the NEO follow-up efforts.

  11. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

  12. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The "Copernicus" crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth object (NEO) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. The paper also discusses NASA s current activities and future plans for NTP development that include system-level Technology Demonstrations - specifically ground testing a small, scalable NTR by 2020, with a flight test shortly thereafter.

  13. Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

    2009-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA’s Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  14. Personality and Leisure: How the NEO FFI personality domains influence free-time activity participation, motives and preferences 

    E-print Network

    Bassett, Kathryn S

    2009-07-03

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on the ways in which individuals spend their leisure time, focusing on television, Internet, and film. The personality variables of the NEO FFI (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness...

  15. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, L., Jr.; Kubica, J.; Jedicke, R.

    2007-10-01

    The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) team of the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS telescope is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 300 m, and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. MOPS relies on new, efficient, multiple-hypothesis KD-tree and variable-tree search algorithms to search the ˜10^{12} detection pairs that are expected per night. Candidate intra- and inter-night associations of detections are evaluated for consistency with a real solar system object, and orbits are computed. We describe the basic operation of the MOPS pipeline, identify pipeline processing steps that are candidates for multiple-hypothesis spatial searches, describe our implementation of those algorithms, and provide preliminary results for MOPS.

  16. Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  17. Energy solutions, neo-liberalism, and social diversity in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada's environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and 'smart growth'). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders' positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

  18. Superresonance Phenomenon from Acoustic Black Holes in Neo-Newtonian Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Ines. G. Salako; Abdul Jawad

    2015-03-27

    We explore the possibility of the acoustic analogue of a super-radiance like phenomenon, i.e., the amplification of a sound wave by reflection from the ergo-region of a rotating acoustic black hole in the fluid draining bathtub model in the presence of the pressure be amplified or reduced in agreement with the value of the parameter $\\gamma = \\left(1+ k\\; n \\; \\rho^{n-1}_{0} \\right)$. We remark that the interval of frequencies depend upon the neo-newtonian parameter $\\gamma$\\, ($\\bar{\\Omega}_H = \\frac{2}{1+\\gamma}\\;\\Omega_{H}$) and they can be wider or narrower. As a consequence, the tuning of the neo-newtonian parameter $\\gamma = \\left(1+ k\\; n \\; \\rho^{n-1}_{0} \\right)$ changes the rate of loss of the acoustic black hole mass.

  19. Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

  20. Toward Identifying Needed Investments in Modeling and Simulation Tools for NEO Deflection Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Its time: a) To bring planetary scientists, deflection system investigators and vehicle designers together on the characterization/mitigation problem. b) To develop a comprehensive trade space of options. c) To trade options under a common set of assumptions and see what comparisons on effectiveness can be made. d) To explore the synergy that can be had with proposed scientific and exploration architectures while interest in NEO's are at an all time high.

  1. NEEMO - NASA's Extreme Environment Mission Operations: On to a NEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Baskin, P. J.; Todd, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    During NEEMO missions, a crew of six Aquanauts lives aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aquarius Underwater Laboratory the world's only undersea laboratory located 5.6 km off shore from Key Largo, Florida. The Aquarius habitat is anchored 62 feet deep on Conch Reef which is a research only zone for coral reef monitoring in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The crew lives in saturation for a week to ten days and conducts a variety of undersea EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) to test a suite of long-duration spaceflight Engineering, Biomedical, and Geoscience objectives. The crew also tests concepts for future lunar exploration using advanced navigation and communication equipment in support of the Constellation Program planetary exploration analog studies. The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, Texas support this effort to produce a high-fidelity test-bed for studies of human planetary exploration in extreme environments as well as to develop and test the synergy between human and robotic curation protocols including sample collection, documentation, and sample handling. The geoscience objectives for NEEMO missions reflect the requirements for Lunar Surface Science outlined by the LEAG (Lunar Exploration Analysis Group) and CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials) white paper [1]. The BHP objectives are to investigate best meas-ures and tools for assessing decrements in cogni-tive function due to fatigue, test the feasibility study examined how teams perform and interact across two levels, use NEEMO as a testbed for the development, deployment, and evaluation of a scheduling and planning tool. A suite of Space Life Sciences studies are accomplished as well, ranging from behavioral health and performance to immunology, nutrition, and EVA suit design results of which will directly support the investigation of open questions and operational concepts that will enable NASA to continue its plan for planetary exploration.

  2. Aesthetic neo-glans reconstruction after penis-sparing surgery for benign, premalignant or malignant penile lesions

    PubMed Central

    Palminteri, Enzo; Fusco, Fernando; Berdondini, Elisa; Salonia, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the technique and results of penis-sparing surgery combined with a cosmetic neo-glans reconstruction for benign, pre-malignant or malignant penile lesions. Patients and methods Twenty-one patients (mean age 61 years) with penile lesions with a broad spectrum of histopathology underwent organ-sparing surgery with neo-glans reconstruction, using a free split-thickness skin graft harvested from the thigh. Three patients were treated by glans-skinning and glans-resurfacing, 10 by glansectomy and neo-glans reconstruction, four by partial penectomy and a neo-glans reconstruction, and four by neo-glans reconstruction after a traditional partial penectomy. Results The mean follow-up was 45 months; all patients were free of primary local disease. All patients were satisfied with the appearance of the penis after surgery, and recovered their sexual ability, although sensitivity was reduced as a consequence of glans/penile amputation. Conclusion In benign, premalignant or malignant penile lesions, penis-sparing surgery combined with a cosmetic neo-glans reconstruction can be used to assure a normally appearing and functional penis, while fully eradicating the primary local disease.

  3. Near Earth Objects - a threat and an opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Jonathan R.

    2003-05-01

    In the past decade the hazard posed to the Earth by Near Earth Objects (NEOs) has generated considerable scientific and public interest. A number of major films, television programmes and media reports have brought the issue to public attention. From an educational perspective an investigation into NEOs and the effects of impacts on the Earth forms a topical and dynamic basis for study in a huge range of subjects, not just scientific. There are clear routes to chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, but history, psychology, geography, palaeontology and geology are just a selection of other subjects involved. A number of projects have been established, mainly in the USA, to determine the extent of the hazard, and to develop ways of countering it, but the present situation is far from satisfactory. Current detection and follow-up programmes are underfunded and lack international coordination.

  4. The anatomy of the human genome: a neo-Vesalian basis for medicine in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    McKusick, V A

    2001-11-14

    Since 1956, the anatomy of the human genome has been described on the basis of chromosome studies, gene mapping, and DNA sequencing. The gross anatomy of Andreas Vesalius, published in 1543, played a leading role in the development of modern medicine. The objective of this article is to show that knowledge of genomic anatomy is having a comparably strong and pervasive influence on all of medicine. The research revealing human genome anatomy is reviewed. The insight provided by genome anatomy has brought about shifts of focus, both in research and in the clinic, eg, from genomics to proteomic and from the individually rare, single-gene disorders to common disorders. Genomic anatomy permits medicine to become more predictive and preventive. At the same time, diagnosis and treatment are rendered more sensitive, specific, effective, and safe. Hazards in misuse and misunderstanding of the information exist. Education of both the public and health professionals is vital if the full benefits of neo-Vesalian medicine are to be realized. PMID:11710895

  5. Neon Lights Up a Controversy: the Solar Ne/O Abundance

    E-print Network

    J. T. Schmelz; K. Nasraoui; J. K. Roames; L. A. Lippner; J. W. Garst

    2005-10-07

    The standard solar model was so reliable that it could predict the existence of the massive neutrino. Helioseismology measurements were so precise that they could determine the depth of the convection zone. This agreement between theory and observation was the envy of all astrophysics -- until recently when sophisticated three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of the solar atmosphere reduced the metal content by a factor of almost two. Antia & Basu (2005) suggested that a higher value of the solar neon abundance, Ne/O = 0.52, would resolve this controversy. Drake & Testa (2005) presented strong evidence in favor of this idea from a sample of 21 Chandra stars with enhanced values of the neon abundance, Ne/O = 0.41. In this paper, we have analyzed solar active region spectra from the archive of the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on Solar Maximum Mission, a NASA mission from the 1980s, as well as full-Sun spectra from the pioneering days of X-ray astronomy in the 1960s. These data seem consistent with the standard neon-to-oxygen abundance value, Ne/O = 0.15 (Grevesse & Sauval 1998). If these results prove to be correct, than the enhanced-neon hypothesis will not resolve the current controversy.

  6. Influence of ethnocentrism and neo-phobia on ethnic food consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camarena, Dena M; Sanjuán, Ana I; Philippidis, George

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade, a strong upsurge in Spanish immigration has fostered a thriving ethnic food market. To examine indigenous consumer predilections toward ethnic foods, a carefully designed choice experiment is employed, with particular focus on ethnocentricity and food neo-phobia traits on potential purchase decisions. Employing a two level nested logit model, consumers choose to accept/reject ethnic foods, with a positive response met by a further series of different ethnic cuisine and consumption scenario alternatives. Bivariate tests reveal that higher ethnocentric and neo-phobic segments possess common socio-demographic characteristics, whilst neo-phobia plays a significantly stronger role in determining the probability of rejection. Further tests reveal culturally similar Mexican food as the preferred ethnic food across all consumption scenarios. Moreover, the 'restaurant' is the favoured format of consumption, whilst there is evidence of a strong association between specific ethnic food types and consumption formats. The implications of our research suggest that in the short to medium turn, price is a strong strategic variable, whilst marketing strategies must successfully isolate and exploit specific 'ethnic food/consumption scenario' mixes. Finally, stronger messages emphasizing quality and convenience factors are seen as key to bolstering the underrepresented 'home preparation' ethnic food market in Spain. PMID:21513751

  7. NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Kevin; Herring, David

    2005-01-01

    The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, nontraditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NE0 will accomplish this goal by anticipating users expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

  8. Plain objects

    E-print Network

    Ting, Evelyn (Evelyn Huei Chung)

    2015-01-01

    Given the renewed status of the object in contemporary architectural discourse, this thesis explores the object's potential to participate in urban-scale field conditions despite its singularity and perceived autonomy from ...

  9. Dormant Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David E.; Knight, Matthew; Bottke, William F.; Thomas, Cristina; Delbo', Marco; Emery, Josh P.; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    The population of near-Earth objects comprises active comets and asteroids, covering a wide range of dynamical parameters and physical properties. Dormant (or extinct) comets, masquerading as asteroids, have long been suspected of supplementing the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. We present a search for asteroidal objects of cometary origin based on dynamical and physical considerations. Our study is based on albedos derived within the ExploreNEOs program and is extended by adding data from NEOWISE and the Akari asteroid catalog. We use a statistical approach to identify asteroids on orbits that resemble those of short-period near-Earth comets using the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, the aphelion distance, and the minimum orbital intersection distance with respect to Jupiter. We identify a total of 23 near-Earth asteroids from our sample that are likely to be dormant short-period near-Earth comets and, based on a de-biasing procedure applied to the cryogenic NEOWISE survey, estimate both magnitude-limited and size-limited fractions of the NEA population that are dormant short-period comets. We find that 0.3-3.3% of the NEA population with H <= 21, and 9(+2/-5)% of the population with diameters d >= 1 km, are dormant short-period near-Earth comets. We also present an observation program that utilizes the 1.8m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, AZ, to identify dormant comet candidates and search for activity in these objects. Our targets are NEAs on comet-like orbits, based on the dynamical criteria derived in the above study, that are accessible with the VATT (V <= 22). We identify dormant comets based on their optical spectral slope, represented by V-R color measurements, as albedo measurements for most of these objects are not available. For each target we measure and monitor its V magnitude in order to reveal activity outbreaks. We also search for extended emission around our targets using deep imaging and a point-spread-function subtraction technique that allows us to obtain an upper limit on the dust production rate in each target. We present preliminary results from this program. This work is supported in part by funding from the Spitzer Science Center.

  10. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): first photometric results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Moskovitz, N.; Binzel, R.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Person, M.; Polishook, D.; Thomas, C.; Trilling, D.; Willman, M.; Burt, B.; Hinkle, M.; Mommert, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a physical characterization survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that was originally awarded multi-year survey status by NOAO and recently has employed additional facilities available to Lowell Observatory and the University of Hawaii. Our main goal is to provide physical data, such as rotational properties and composition, for several hundred mission accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths.As of February 2015, 12,287 NEOs have been discovered. Despite this impressive number, physical information for the majority of these objects remains limited. Typical NEOs fade in a matter of days or weeks after their discovery, thus their characterization requires a challenging set of rapid response observations.Using a variety of 1-m to 4-m class telescopes, we aim to observe 5 to 10 newly discovered sub-km NEOs per month in order to derive their rotational properties. Such rotational data can provide useful information about physical properties, like shape, surface heterogeneity/homogeneity, density, internal structure, and internal cohesion. Here, we present early results of the MANOS photometric survey for more than 50 NEOs. One of the goals of this survey is to increase the number of sub-km NEOs whose short-term variability has been studied and to compile a high quality homogeneous database which may be used to perform statistical analyses.We report light curves from our first two years of observing and show objects with rotational periods from a couple of hours down to few seconds. We consider the spin rate distributions of several sub-samples according to their size and other physical parameters. Our results were merged with rotational parameters of other asteroids in the literature to build a larger sample. This allows us to identify correlations of rotational properties with orbital parameters. In particular, we want to study MOID vs. rotation period/morphology/elongation/amplitude, rotation properties vs spectral type/composition, etc. We are also planning to observe some objects at different epochs to potentially constrain shape and/or phase curves.

  11. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  12. Dependency denied: health inequalities in the neo-liberal era.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Marian; Bissell, Paul; Owen, Jenny

    2014-10-01

    The ways in which inequality generates particular population health outcomes remains a major source of dispute within social epidemiology and medical sociology. Wilkinson and Pickett's The Spirit Level (2009), undoubtedly galvanised thinking across the disciplines, with its emphasis on how income inequality shapes the distribution of health and social problems. In this paper, we argue that their focus on income inequality, whilst important, understates the role of neoliberal discourses and practises in making sense of contemporary inequality and its health-related consequences. Many quantitative studies have demonstrated that more neoliberal countries have poorer health compared to less neoliberal countries, but there are few qualitative studies which explore how neoliberal discourses shape accounts and experiences and what protections and resources might be available to people. This article uses findings from a qualitative psycho-social study employing biographical-narrative interviews with women in Salford (England) to understand experiences of inequality as posited in The Spirit Level. We found evidence for the sorts of damages resulting from inequality as proposed in The Spirit Level. However, in addition to these, the most striking finding was the repeated articulation of a discourse which we have termed "no legitimate dependency". This was something both painful and damaging, where dependency of almost any sort was disavowed and responsibility was assumed by the self or "othered" in various ways. No legitimate dependency, we propose, is a partial (and problematic) internalisation of neoliberal discourses which becomes naturalised and unquestioned at the individual level. We speculate that these sorts of discourses in conjunction with a destruction of protective resources (both material and discursive), lead to an increase in strain and account in part for well-known damages consequent on life in an unequal society. We conclude that integrating understandings of neoliberalism into theorising about inequality enriches sociological perspectives in this area. PMID:25137636

  13. Racism against the Mayan Population in Yucatan, Mexico: How Current Education Contradicts the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The discriminatory situation suffered by the Maya population in the Mexican state of Yucatan is discussed using the concept of neo-racism. Statistical evidence about the school system is presented, along with testimonies of Mayan speakers which uncover a phenomena frequently denied or obliterated by politically correct speeches that actually serve…

  14. Population of neutron unbound states via two-proton knockout reactions

    E-print Network

    N. Frank; T. Baumann; D. Bazin; A. Gade; J. -L. Lecouey; W. A. Peters; H. Scheit; A. Schiller; M. Thoennessen; J. Brown; P. A. DeYoung; J. E. Finck; J. Hinnefeld; R. Howes; B. Luther

    2007-08-20

    The two-proton knockout reaction 9Be(26Ne,O2p) was used to explore excited unbound states of 23O and 24O. In 23O a state at an excitation energy of 2.79(13) MeV was observed. There was no conclusive evidence for the population of excited states in 24O.

  15. NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the Japanese Hyabusa Mission to Itokawa. Also due to their close proximity to Earth, NEOs constitute the most likely set of celestial objects that will impact us in the relatively near future.

  16. A decision analysis approach for risk management of near-earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert C.; Jones, Thomas D.; Chapman, Clark R.

    2014-10-01

    Risk management of near-Earth objects (NEOs; e.g., asteroids and comets) that can potentially impact Earth is an important issue that took on added urgency with the Chelyabinsk event of February 2013. Thousands of NEOs large enough to cause substantial damage are known to exist, although only a small fraction of these have the potential to impact Earth in the next few centuries. The probability and location of a NEO impact are subject to complex physics and great uncertainty, and consequences can range from minimal to devastating, depending upon the size of the NEO and location of impact. Deflecting a potential NEO impactor would be complex and expensive, and inter-agency and international cooperation would be necessary. Such deflection campaigns may be risky in themselves, and mission failure may result in unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and costs of different potential NEO risk management strategies have not been compared in a systematic fashion. We present a decision analysis framework addressing this hazard. Decision analysis is the science of informing difficult decisions. It is inherently multi-disciplinary, especially with regard to managing catastrophic risks. Note that risk analysis clarifies the nature and magnitude of risks, whereas decision analysis guides rational risk management. Decision analysis can be used to inform strategic, policy, or resource allocation decisions. First, a problem is defined, including the decision situation and context. Second, objectives are defined, based upon what the different decision-makers and stakeholders (i.e., participants in the decision) value as important. Third, quantitative measures or scales for the objectives are determined. Fourth, alternative choices or strategies are defined. Fifth, the problem is then quantitatively modeled, including probabilistic risk analysis, and the alternatives are ranked in terms of how well they satisfy the objectives. Sixth, sensitivity analyses are performed in order to examine the impact of uncertainties. Finally, the need for further analysis, data collection, or refinement is determined. The first steps of defining the problem and the objectives are critical to constructing an informative decision analysis. Such steps must be undertaken with participation from experts, decision-makers, and stakeholders (defined here as "decision participants"). The basic problem here can be framed as: “What is the best strategy to manage risk associated with NEOs?” Some high-level objectives might be to minimize: mortality and injuries, damage to critical infrastructure (e.g., power, communications and food distribution), ecosystem damage, property damage, ungrounded media and public speculation, resources expended, and overall cost. Another valuable objective would be to maximize inter-agency/government coordination. Some of these objectives (e.g., “minimize mortality”) are readily quantified (e.g., deaths and injuries averted). Others are less so (e.g., “maximize inter-agency/government coordination”), but these can be scaled. Objectives may be inversely related: e.g., a strategy that minimizes mortality may cost more. They are also unlikely to be weighted equally. Defining objectives and assessing their relative weight and interactions requires early engagement with decision participants. High-level decisions include whether to deflect a NEO, when to deflect, what is the best alternative for deflection/destruction, and disaster management strategies if an impact occurs. Important influences include, for example: NEO characteristics (orbital characteristics, diameter, mass, spin and composition), impact probability and location, interval between discovery and projected impact date, interval between discovery and deflection target date, costs of information collection, costs and technological feasibility of deflection alternatives, risks of deflection campaigns, requirements for inter-agency and international cooperation, and timing of informing the public. The analytical aspects of decision analysis center on es

  17. Synthesis, structural characterization, aromatic characteristics, and metalation of neo-confused porphyrins, a newly discovered class of porphyrin isomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoshi; Lammer, Aaron D; Ferrence, Gregory M; Lash, Timothy D

    2014-05-01

    Neo-confused porphyrins represent a unique family of porphyrin isomers that retain overall aromatic characteristics by virtue of a 17-atom 18? electron delocalization pathway. These porphyrin analogues have a pyrrolic subunit linked in a 1,3-fashion so that a nitrogen atom is directly connected to a meso-bridging carbon. Pyrrole-3-carbaldehydes were shown to react with sodium hydride and 5-acetoxymethylpyrrole-2-carbaldehydes in DMF to give the crucial neo-confused dipyrrolic dialdehyde intermediates. MacDonald "2 + 2" condensation of the dialdehydes with a dipyrrylmethane afforded a dihydroporphyrinoid, and subsequent oxidation with 0.2% aqueous ferric chloride generated a series of fully conjugated neo-confused porphyrins. Unusual dihydroporphyrin byproducts were also identified. Reaction of neo-confused porphyrins with nickel(II) or palladium(II) acetate in refluxing acetonitrile gave excellent yields of the corresponding organometallic derivatives. Proton NMR spectroscopy demonstrates that the diatropic character of this system is diminished compared to regular porphyrins, although neo-confused porphyrins retain porphyrin-like UV-vis spectra. Protonation led to the sequential formation of mono- and dicationic species. Proton NMR spectra for the dications showed the presence of enhanced diamagnetic ring currents. PMID:24697282

  18. Galectin Binding to Neo-Glycoproteins: LacDiNAc Conjugated BSA as Ligand for Human Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Sophia; Laaf, Dominic; Elling, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate-lectin interactions are relatively weak. As they play an important role in biological recognition processes, multivalent glycan ligands are designed to enhance binding affinity and inhibitory potency. We here report on novel neo-glycoproteins based on bovine serum albumin as scaffold for multivalent presentation of ligands for galectins. We prepared two kinds of tetrasaccharides (N-acetyllactosamine and N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated) by multi-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis utilizing recombinant glycosyltransferases. Subsequent conjugation of these glycans to lysine groups of bovine serum albumin via squaric acid diethyl ester yielded a set of 22 different neo-glycoproteins with tuned ligand density. The neo-glycoproteins were analyzed by biochemical and chromatographic methods proving various modification degrees. The neo-glycoproteins were used for binding and inhibition studies with human galectin-3 showing high affinity. Binding strength and inhibition potency are closely related to modification density and show binding enhancement by multivalent ligand presentation. At galectin-3 concentrations comparable to serum levels of cancer patients, we detect the highest avidities. Selectivity of N,N-diacetyllactosamine terminated structures towards galectin-3 in comparison to galectin-1 is demonstrated. Moreover, we also see strong inhibitory potency of our scaffolds towards galectin-3 binding. These novel neo-glycoproteins may therefore serve as selective and strong galectin-3 ligands in cancer related biomedical research. PMID:26213980

  19. Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Cristina Ana

    2009-01-01

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, give the best representation of meteorite source bodies. ...

  20. Adjuvant Immunotherapy of Melanoma, and Development of New Approaches Using the Neo- Adjuvant Approach in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Diwakar; Tarhini, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the third most common skin cancer but the leading cause of death from cutaneous malignancies. While early-stage disease is frequently cured by surgical resection with excellent long-term survival, patients with deeper primary lesions (AJCC stage IIB-C) and those with microscopic (IIIA) or clinically evident regional lymph node or in-transit metastases (IIIB-C) have an increased risk of relapse and death–the latter approaching 70% or more at 5 years. In patients at high-risk of recurrence/metastases, adjuvant therapy with high-dose interferon alpha-2b (HDI) following definitive surgical resection has been shown to improve relapse free and overall survival. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have offered the prospect to improve regional recurrence risk and overall survival in several solid tumors. The advent of effective new molecularly targeted therapies for metastatic disease and new immunotherapies that overcome checkpoints of immune response have augmented the range of new options that are in current trial evaluation to determine their role as potential adjuvant therapies, alone and in combination with one another, and the established modality of IFN?. The differential characteristics of the host immune response between early and advanced melanoma provide a strong mechanistic rationale for the use of neo-adjuvant immunotherapeutic approaches in melanoma, and the opportunity to evaluate the mechanism of action suggest neoadjuvant trial evaluation for each of the new candidate agents and combinations of interest. Several neo-adjuvant trials have been conducted in the phase II setting, which have illuminated the mechanism of IFN?, as well as providing insight to the effects of anti-CTLA4 blocking antibodies. These agents (anti-CTLA4 blocking antibody ipilimumab [BMS], and BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib [Genentech]) are likely to be followed by other immunotherapies that may overcome the PD-1 checkpoint (anti-PD1 [BMS, Merck, Curetech] and anti-PDL-1[Genentech]) as well as other molecularly targeted agents such as the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenibin[GSK] and the MEK inhibitors trametinib [GSK] selumetinib [AZ] and MEK162 [Novartis] in the near future. Evaluation of the clinical role of these agents as adjuvant therapy will take years to accomplish to ascertain the relapse-free survival benefits and overall survival benefits of these agents, but neo-adjuvant exploration may provide early critical evidence of the therapeutic benefits, as well as clarifying the mechanisms of these agents alone and in combination. PMID:23608443

  1. The tacit-explicit connection: Polanyian integrative philosophy and a Neo-Polanyian medical epistemology.

    PubMed

    Jha, S R

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an approach to clinical practice aiming to resolve the dilemma of choosing between a mechanistic and a phenomenological model. The approach is an extension of Polanyi's epistemology. Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), devised an epistemology of science which overcomes the problem of detachment, inherent in the "mechanistic" approach, and resolves the problem of subjectivity troubling phenomenologists. His epistemology is known as Personal Knowledge. An extension of this epistemology, a Neo-Polanyian proposal, is offered as a more successful model for clinical practice than previous suggestions addressing the dilemma. PMID:10051790

  2. Metropolitan fragmentation and neo-localism in the periphery: revisiting the case of Curitiba.

    PubMed

    Klink, Jeroen; Denaldi, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Curitiba-centred narrative on the success of its urban planning experience will be qualified in light of the complexities of its metropolitan development trajectory. It will be claimed that the institutional vacuum that surrounds Brazilian metropolitan areas in general, and Greater Curitiba in particular, has been intensified by the emergence of a competitive and decentralised state spatial regime, which has consolidated a fragmented and neo-localist system of governance. Preliminary empirical evidence will be provided on the challenges that are being faced within the new regime in articulating socio-spatial, economic and environmental strategies in the direction of a more sustainable metropolitan future. PMID:22500346

  3. St.Augustine's 'notitia sui' related to Aristotle, the early neo-Platonists and Hegel

    E-print Network

    Booth, Edward Geoffrey Thornton

    1975-10-28

    TIT I A SUI t Related to . Aristotle, the early neo-Pla tonists and Hegel by Reverend Edward Go T. Booth, O. Po , MoAo A Thesis presented for the Degree of PhoDo in the University of Cambridge February 1975 . Revd Edward Geoffrey Thornton Booth... or the will Circle or Substance Thillicing Mens in equali ty wi th i .t self The Divine Prototype Footnotes to Chapter 5 EXCURSUS Hegel ' s Conception of Self-Knowledge seen in conjunction with Augustinets " A Hegelian hermeneutic of Augustine a) General...

  4. Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J.; Kubica, Jeremy; Pan-STARRS Team

    2005-12-01

    The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical astronomical surveying system - the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS). The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) client of the Pan-STARRS image processing pipeline is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) 300m in diameter and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. In developing its software, MOPS has created a synthetic solar system model (SSM) with over 10 million objects whose distributions of orbital characteristics matches those expected for objects that Pan-STARRS will observe. MOPS verifies its correct operation by simulating the survey and subsequent discovery of synthetically generated objects. MOPS also employs novel techniques in handling the computationally difficult problem of linking large numbers of unknown asteroids in a field of detections. We will describe the creation and verification of the Pan-STARRS MOPS SSM, demonstrate synthetic detections and observations by the MOPS, describe the MOPS asteroid linking techniques, describe accuracy and throughput of the entire MOPS system, and provide predictions regarding the numbers and kinds of objects, including as yet undiscovered "extreme objects", that the MOPS expects to find over its 10-year lifetime. Pan-STARRS is funded under a grant from the U.S. Air Force.

  5. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  6. Determination of neo- and D-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Cheesman, Alexander W; Godage, H Yasmin; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-05-01

    The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and D-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable (31)P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP(6)) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of D-chiro-IP(6)) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46-54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (D-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and D-chiro-IP(6) in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP(6) stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

  7. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

  8. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  9. The Neo-Liberalisation Policy Agenda and Its Consequences for Education in England: A Focus on Resistance Now and Possibilities for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisuria, Alpesh

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the way that neo-liberalism is becoming more entrenched in the fabric of the education system in England. The article begins by setting out a very brief historical trajectory of neo-liberalism to provide a working definition of a complex and disarticulated socio-political and economic system. In part two, this…

  10. From Desktop Toy to Educational Aid: Neo Magnets as an Alternative to Ball-and-Stick Models in Representing Carbon Fullerenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Jacqueline Y.; Yang, Min-Han; Lee, Chi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Neo magnets are neodymium magnet beads that have been marketed as a desktop toy. We proposed using neo magnets as an alternative building block to traditional ball-and-stick models to construct carbon allotropes, such as fullerene and various nanocone structures. Due to the lack of predetermined physical connections, the versatility of carbon…

  11. Acantholactam and pre-neo-kauluamine, manzamine-related alkaloids from the Indonesian marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Eguchi, Keisuke; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Takeya, Motohiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2014-06-27

    Two new manzamine alkaloids, acantholactam (3) and pre-neo-kauluamine (4), were isolated from the marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens along with manzamine A (1) and neo-kauluamine (2). Acantholactam contains a ?-lactam ring N-substituted with a (Z)-2-hexenoic acid moiety and is proposed to be biosynthetically derived from manzamine A by oxidative cleavage of the eight-membered ring. Compound 4 was converted to the dimer 2 during storage, suggesting nonenzymatic dimer formation. Among the four isolated compounds, 1, 2, and 4 showed proteasome inhibitory activity. PMID:24902064

  12. Integrating Competing Dimensional Models of Personality: Linking the SNAP, TCI, and NEO Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Yu, Lan; Miller, Joshua D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Trull, Timothy J.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that several inventories assessing both normal personality and personality disorders measure common dimensional personality traits (i.e., Antagonism, Constraint, Emotional Instability, Extraversion, and Unconventionality), albeit providing unique information along the underlying trait continuum. We used Widiger and Simonsen’s (2005) pantheoretical integrative model of dimensional personality assessment as a guide to create item pools. We then used Item Response Theory (IRT) to compare the assessment of these five personality traits across three established dimensional measures of personality: the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). We found that items from each inventory map onto these five common personality traits in predictable ways. The IRT analyses, however, documented considerable variability in the item and test information derived from each inventory. Our findings support the notion that the integration of multiple perspectives will provide greater information about personality while minimizing the weaknesses of any single instrument. PMID:22452759

  13. Infinitesimals as an issue in neo-Kantian philosophy of science

    E-print Network

    Thomas Mormann; Mikhail G. Katz

    2013-04-09

    We seek to elucidate the philosophical context in which one of the most important conceptual transformations of modern mathematics took place, namely the so-called revolution in rigor in infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis. Some of the protagonists of the said revolution were Cauchy, Cantor, Dedekind, and Weierstrass. The dominant current of philosophy in Germany at the time was neo-Kantianism. Among its various currents, the Marburg school (Cohen, Natorp, Cassirer, and others) was the one most interested in matters scientific and mathematical. Our main thesis is that Marburg neo-Kantian philosophy formulated a sophisticated position towards the problems raised by the concepts of limits and infinitesimals. The Marburg school neither clung to the traditional approach of logically and metaphysically dubious infinitesimals, nor whiggishly subscribed to the new orthodoxy of the "great triumvirate" of Cantor, Dedekind, and Weierstrass that declared infinitesimals conceptus nongrati in mathematical discourse. Rather, following Cohen's lead, the Marburg philosophers sought to clarify Leibniz's principle of continuity, and to exploit it in making sense of infinitesimals and related concepts.

  14. Partial correction of murine hemophilia A with neo-antigenic murine factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R; Gao, G P; Chirmule, N; Tazelaar, J; Kazazian, H H

    2000-04-10

    We have previously reported a factor VIII knockout (FVIII KO) mouse model for hemophilia A. Here we demonstrate the presence of nonfunctional heavy chain factor VIII protein in the mouse, making it an excellent model for cross-reacting material (CRM)-positive hemophilia A patients, who express normal levels of a dysfunctional FVIII protein. We attempted to correct these mice phenotypically by transduction of wild-type mouse factor VIII cDNA delivered in an E1/E3-deleted adenoviral vector by tail vein injection. All treated mice displayed initial high-level FVIII expression that diminished after 1 month. Ten of 12 mice administered between 6 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(11) particles/mouse along with anti-CD4 antibody showed long-term FVIII activity (0.03-0.05 IU/ml, equivalent to 3-5% of normal FVIII) that corrected the phenotype. Wild-type murine FVIII was a neo-antigen to the KO mice, generating both cytotoxic and humoral immune responses. Immune suppression with anti-CD4 antibody abrogated these immune responses. These data demonstrate that despite the presence of endogenous FVIII protein the immune system still recognizes a species-specific transgene protein as a neo-antigen, eliciting a cytotoxic T cell response. This phenomenon may exist in the treatment of other genetic disorders by gene therapy. PMID:10779165

  15. Raven and the Center of Maffei 1: Multi-Object Adaptive Optics Observations of the Center of a Nearby Elliptical Galaxy and the Detection of an Intermediate Age Population

    E-print Network

    Davidge, T J; Lardiere, O; Bradley, C; Blain, C; Oya, S; Akiyama, M; Ono, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra that have an angular resolution of ~ 0.15 arcsec are used to examine the stellar content of the central regions of the nearby elliptical galaxy Maffei 1. The spectra were recorded at the Subaru Telescope, with wavefront distortions corrected by the RAVEN Multi-Object Adaptive Optics science demonstrator. The Ballick-Ramsey C_2 absorption bandhead near 1.76 microns is detected, and models in which 10 - 20% of the light near 1.8 microns originates from stars of spectral type C5 reproduce this feature. Archival NIR and mid-infrared images are also used to probe the structural and photometric properties of the galaxy. Comparisons with models suggest that an intermediate age population dominates the spectral energy distribution between 1 and 5 microns near the galaxy center. This is consistent not only with the presence of C stars, but also with the large HBeta index that has been measured previously for Maffei 1. The J-K color is more-or-less constant within 15 arcsec of the galaxy cen...

  16. Raven and the Center of Maffei 1: Multi-object Adaptive Optics Observations of the Center of a Nearby Elliptical Galaxy and the Detection of an Intermediate Age Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.; Andersen, D. R.; Lardière, O.; Bradley, C.; Blain, C.; Oya, S.; Akiyama, M.; Ono, Y. H.

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectra that have an angular resolution of ˜0.15 arcsec are used to examine the stellar content of the central regions of the nearby elliptical galaxy Maffei 1. The spectra were recorded at the Subaru Telescope, with wavefront distortions corrected by the RAVEN Multi-object Adaptive Optics science demonstrator. The Ballick-Ramsey C2 absorption bandhead near 1.76 ?m is detected, and models in which ˜10%-20% of the light near 1.8 ?m originates from stars of spectral type C5 reproduce the depth of this feature. Archival NIR and mid-infrared images are also used to probe the structural and photometric properties of the galaxy. Comparisons with models suggest that an intermediate age population dominates the spectral energy distribution between 1 and 5 ?m near the galaxy center. This is consistent not only with the presence of C stars, but also with the large H? index that has been measured previously for Maffei 1. The J - K color is more or less constant within 15 arcsec of the galaxy center, suggesting that the brightest red stars are well-mixed in this area. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Inactivation of Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water by Ultraviolet Light Technology: NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc.; Ultraviolet Water Treatment System, NeoTech D438™ (Report and VS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NeoTech Aqua Solutions, Inc. D438™ UV Water Treatment System was tested to validate the UV dose delivered by the system using biodosimetry and a set line approach. The set line for 40 mJ/cm2 measured Reduction Equivalent Dose (RED) was based on validation testing at three (3)...

  18. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondrite meteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km.

  19. Did high Neo-Tethys subduction rates contribute to early Cenozoic warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoareau, G.; Bomou, B.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Carry, N.; Marquer, D.; Donnadieu, Y.; Le Hir, G.; Vrielynck, B.; Walter-Simonnet, A.-V.

    2015-07-01

    The 58-51 Ma interval was characterized by a long-term increase of global temperatures (+4 to +6 °C) up to the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, 52.9-50.7 Ma), the warmest interval of the Cenozoic. It was recently suggested that sustained high atmospheric pCO2, controlling warm early Cenozoic climate, may have been released during Neo-Tethys closure through the subduction of large amounts of pelagic carbonates and their recycling as CO2 at arc volcanoes ("carbonate subduction factory"). To analyze the impact of Neo-Tethys closure on early Cenozoic warming, we have modeled the volume of subducted sediments and the amount of CO2 emitted at active arc volcanoes along the northern Tethys margin. The impact of calculated CO2 fluxes on global temperature during the early Cenozoic have then been tested using a climate carbon cycle model (GEOCLIM). We first show that CO2 production may have reached up to 1.55 × 1018 mol Ma-1 specifically during the EECO, ~ 4 to 37 % higher that the modern global volcanic CO2 output, owing to a dramatic India-Asia plate convergence increase. In addition to the background CO2 degassing, the subduction of thick Greater Indian continental margin carbonate sediments at ~ 55-50 Ma may also have led to additional CO2 production of 3.35 × 1018 mol Ma-1 during the EECO, making a total of 85 % of the global volcanic CO2 outgassed. However, climate modelling demonstrates that timing of maximum CO2 release only partially fit with the EECO, and that corresponding maximum pCO2 values (750 ppm) and surface warming (+2 °C) do not reach values inferred from geochemical proxies, a result consistent with conclusions arise from modelling based on other published CO2 fluxes. These results demonstrate that CO2 derived from decarbonation of Neo-Tethyan lithosphere may have possibly contributed to, but certainly cannot account alone for early Cenozoic warming, including the EECO. Other commonly cited sources of excess CO2 such as enhanced igneous province volcanism also appear to be up to one order of magnitude below fluxes required by the model to fit with proxy data of pCO2 and temperature at that time.

  20. Visible Wavelength Reflectance Spectra and Taxonomies of Near-Earth Objects from Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, Mark; Brucker, Melissa J.; Nault, Kristie A.; Gyuk, Geza; Solontoi, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are interesting to scientists and the general public for diverse reasons: their impacts pose a threat to life and property; they present important albeit biased records of the formation and evolution of the Solar System; and their materials may provide in situ resources for future space exploration and habitation.In January 2015 we began a program of NEO astrometric follow-up and physical characterization using a 17% share of time on the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). Our 500 hours of annual observing time are split into frequent, short astrometric runs (see poster by K. A. Nault et. al), and half-night runs devoted to physical characterization (see poster by M. J. Brucker et. al for preliminary rotational lightcurve results). NEO surface compositions are investigated with 0.36-1.0 ?m reflectance spectroscopy using the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) instrument. As of August 25, 2015, including testing runs during fourth quarter 2014, we have obtained reflectance spectra of 68 unique NEOs, ranging in diameter from approximately 5m to 8km.In addition to investigating the compositions of individual NEOs to inform impact hazard and space resource evaluations, we may examine the distribution of taxonomic types and potential trends with other physical and orbital properties. For example, the Yarkovsky effect, which is dependent on asteroid shape, mass, rotation, and thermal characteristics, is believed to dominate other dynamical effects in driving the delivery of small NEOs from the main asteroid belt. Studies of the taxonomic distribution of a large sample of NEOs of a wide range of sizes will test this hypothesis.We present a preliminary analysis of the reflectance spectra obtained in our survey to date, including taxonomic classifications and potential trends with size.Acknowledgements: Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA NEOO award NNX14AL17G, and thank the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics for observing time in 2014.

  1. Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for near-Earth object (NEO) exploration in order to follow U.S. Space Exploration Policy. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Traits: A Comparison of SCID-II BPD and NEO-PI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkin, John F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Hospitalized female patients with borderline personality disorder were assessed for Axis II disorders by the Structured Clinical Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID-II) and for personality traits with the NEO Personality Inventory. The relationship of results to social adjustment and the utility of…

  3. Mass Communication and the Development of a Shared Social Reality: The Neo-Nazi March in Skokie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz, Josephine R.

    A study examined the role of the mass media in the development of people's conceptions about a neo-Nazi march planned for Skokie, Illinois, in 1978. The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not and in what respects different types of people had developed common conceptions about the event and what role the mass media played in that…

  4. The Single Andigenum Origin of Neo-Tuberosum Potato Materials is not Supported by Microsatellite and Plastid Marker Analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neo-Tuberosum refers to cultivated potato adapted to long-day tuberization and a syndrome of related morphological and physiological traits, developed by intercrossing and selection of short-day adapted potatoes of the Solanum tuberosum Andigenum Group, native from the Andes of western Venezuela to ...

  5. Neo-Liberalism, Markets and Accountability: Transforming Education and Undermining Democracy in the United States and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, David

    2005-01-01

    Education in both England and the United States has undergone a profound change over the last two decades as part of neo-liberal and neoconservative political reforms. The reforms have been characterized by efforts to standardize the curriculum, to implement standardized tests in order to hold students, teachers, and schools accountable, to…

  6. A Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Anaphora in English and Korean: A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sok-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores discourse anaphora in English and Korean by using a neo-Gricean pragmatic approach with corpus-based data. Very little study of Korean discourse anaphora has yet taken place at the inter-sentential level, except works looking at zero anaphor and a logophoric reflexive pronoun "caki" "self." This…

  7. Germany's National Socialism and America's "New Left": A Comparative Study of Two-Neo-Romantic Political Movements and Their Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casmir, Fred L.

    Neo-Romantic aspects of Hitler's National Socialism Movement in Germany and the New Left movement in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s are detailed in this paper. Following a discussion of fundamental concepts, the paper analyzes the Romantic bases of the two movements, including their use of nonverbal symbols; their views on morality,…

  8. The LCOGT near-Earth-object follow-up network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, T.

    2014-07-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network that will eventually consist of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres [1]. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make the LCOGT network ideal for follow-up and characterization of a wide range of solar-system objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper-belt objects, comets) and in particular near-Earth objects (NEOs). There are 3 classes to the telescope resources: 2-meter aperture, 1-meter aperture and 0.4-meter aperture. We have been operating our two 2-meter telescopes since 2005 and began a specific program of NEO follow-up for the Pan-STARRS survey in October 2010. The combination of all-sky access, large aperture, rapid response, robotic operation and good site conditions allows us to provide time-critical follow-up astrometry and photometry on newly discovered objects and faint objects as they recede from the Earth, allowing the orbital arc to be extended and preventing loss of objects. These telescope resources have greatly increased as LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment, designated as ''Version 1.0'', with the installation, commissioning and ongoing operation of nine 1-meter telescopes. These are distributed among four sites with one 1-meter at McDonald Observatory (Texas), three telescopes at Cerro Tololo (Chile), three telescopes at SAAO (South Africa) and the final two telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). In addition to the 1-meter network, the scheduling and control system for the two 2-meter telescopes have been upgraded and unified with that of the 1-meter network to provide a coherent robotic telescopic network. The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and Pan-STARRS (PS1) with additional targets coming from the NEOWISE satellite and the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Robotic observations of NEOs and other solar-system objects have been routinely carried out for several years on the 2-m and 1-m telescopes, with over 20,000 positional and magnitude measurements reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) in the last two years. We have developed software to automatically fetch candidates from Pan-STARRS and the MPC Confirmation Page, compute orbits and ephemerides, plan and schedule observations on the telescopes and retrieve the processed data [2]. The program is being expanded which will allow us to greatly increase the amount of survey discoveries that are followed-up, obtain accurate astrometry and provide important characterization data in the form of colors, lightcurves, rotation rates and spectra for NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. Priority for follow-up is now given to the fainter and most southern targets on the Confirmation Page, objects that are scheduled for Goldstone/Arecibo radar targeting and those objects which could become potential mission destinations for spacecraft. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. With the increase in time available from the LCOGT 1-meter network and commissioning of low-resolution spectrographs on the 2-meter telescopes for moving objects, this will produce a large advance in capabilities for NEO follow-up and characterization. This will produce an unprecedented network for NEO follow-up, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere where there is currently a shortage of suitable facilities. We will continue to develo

  9. The 1999 Crafoord Prize lectures. Neo-Lamarckian experimentalism in America: origins and consequences.

    PubMed

    Cook, G M

    1999-12-01

    The 1890s and the first decades of the twentieth century saw a vigorous debate about the mechanisms of evolutionary change. On one side, August Weismann defended the selectionist hypothesis; on the other, Herbert Spencer defended neo-Lamarckian theory. Supporters of Spencer, notably the American paleontologist and evolutionary theorist Henry Fairfield Osborn, recognized that the questions raised by Weismann and Spencer could only be settled experimentally. They called for the application of experimental methods, and the establishment of a new institution for the purpose of confirming the inheritance of acquired characters. To a great extent, the experimental program championed by Osborn and others was implemented and, although it failed to reveal soft inheritance and was soon eclipsed by Mendelian and chromosomal genetics, it did make significant and lasting contributions to evolutionary biology. Thus the importance of methodological and institutional innovation and theoretical pluralism to the progress of science is illustrated and underscored. PMID:10672643

  10. Structure- and species-dependent insecticidal effects of neo-clerodane diterpenes.

    PubMed

    González-Coloma, A; Gutiérrez, C; Miguel del Corral, J M; Gordaliza, M; de la Puente, M L; San Feliciano, A

    2000-08-01

    Several natural neo-clerodane diterpenoids isolated from Linaria saxatilis and some semisynthetic derivatives were tested against several insect species with different feeding adaptations. The antifeedant tests showed that the oliphagous Leptinotarsa decemlineata was the most sensitive insect, followed by the aphid Myzus persicae. The polyphagous Spodoptera littoralis was not deterred by these diterpenoids; however, following oral administration, some of these compounds did have postingestive antifeedant effects on this insect. In general terms, the antifeedant effects of these compounds were species-dependent and more selective than their toxic/postingestive effects. The study of their structure-activity relationships showed that both the decalin moiety and the chain at C-9 determined their bioactivity. Furthermore, the presence of a 4,18-epoxy/diol moiety was an important feature for both the antifeedant and the toxic/postingestive effects. PMID:10956169

  11. Newton-Machian analysis of Neo-tychonian model of planetary motions

    E-print Network

    Popov, Luka

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system will be performed in two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. First model is well-known Copernican system, which assumes the Sun is at rest and all the planets orbit around it. Second one is less-known model developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and other planets orbit around the Sun. The term "Neo-tychonian system" refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

  12. Newtonian-Machian analysis of the neo-Tychonian model of planetary motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Luka

    2013-03-01

    The calculation of the trajectories in the Sun-Earth-Mars system is performed using two different models, both in the framework of Newtonian mechanics. The first model is the well-known Copernican system, which assumes that the Sun is at rest and that all the planets orbit around it. The second is a less well-known model, developed by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), according to which the Earth stands still, the Sun orbits around the Earth, and the other planets orbit around the Sun. The term ‘neo-Tychonian system’ refers to the assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. It is the aim of this paper to show the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of these systems, under the assumption of Mach's principle.

  13. Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2008-12-01

    In his 1960 paper Man-Machine Symbiosis, Licklider predicted that human brains and computing machines will be coupled in a tight partnership that will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. Today we are on the threshold of resurrecting the vision of symbiosis. While Licklider’s original vision suggested a co-equal relationship, here we discuss an updated vision, neo-symbiosis, in which the human holds a superordinate position in an intelligent human-computer collaborative environment. This paper was originally published as a journal article and is being published as a chapter in an upcoming book series, Advances in Novel Approaches in Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence.

  14. CDRP - Target Populations

    Cancer.gov

    Home About CDRP Background The Challenge Ahead Health Disparities Cooperative Planning Grant Objective and Scope U56 Award Mechanism Target Populations Funded Institutions Funded Institutions Programs' Presentations CDRP Symposium Presentations Clinical

  15. Population Issues & Policies Population Issues

    E-print Network

    Huang, Youqin

    ? How? Is population growth detrimental to economic development? Does population growth lead to environmental degradation? Figure 3.1 The basic (and wrong) Malthusian ideas about the growth of population1 Unit 6: Population Issues & Policies Population Issues Can we feed the growing world population

  16. The Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer: An Imaging Mid-IR Spectrometer for the Marco Polo NEO Sample Return Cosmic Vision Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S.; Reininger, F.; Green, S. F.; Mortimer, H.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the Asteroid Thermal Mapping Spectrometer (ATMS) instrument, a compact imaging mid-IR Fourier transform spectrometer currently being developed at the University of Oxford for NEO remote sensing applications.

  17. Evidence-based robust design of deflection actions for near Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiani, Federico; Vasile, Massimiliano; Gibbings, Alison

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the robust design of deflection actions for near Earth objects (NEO). In particular, the case of deflection by means of solar-pumped laser ablation is studied here in detail. The basic idea behind laser ablation is that of inducing a sublimation of the NEO surface, which produces a low thrust thereby slowly deviating the asteroid from its initial Earth threatening trajectory. This work investigates the integrated design of the space-based laser system and the deflection action generated by laser ablation under uncertainty. The integrated design is formulated as a multi-objective optimisation problem in which the deviation is maximised and the total system mass is minimised. Both the model for the estimation of the thrust produced by surface laser ablation and the spacecraft system model are assumed to be affected by epistemic uncertainties (partial or complete lack of knowledge). Evidence Theory is used to quantify these uncertainties and introduce them in the optimisation process. The propagation of the trajectory of the NEO under the laser-ablation action is performed with a novel approach based on an approximated analytical solution of Gauss' variational equations. An example of design of the deflection of asteroid Apophis with a swarm of spacecraft is presented.

  18. Dynamics of asteroids and near-Earth objects from Gaia astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

    2012-12-01

    Gaia is an astrometric mission that will be launched in spring 2013. There are many scientific outcomes from this mission and as far as our Solar System is concerned, the satellite will be able to map thousands of main belt asteroids (MBAs) and near-Earth objects (NEOs) down to magnitude ?20. The high precision astrometry (0.3-5 mas of accuracy) will allow orbital improvement, mass determination, and a better accuracy in the prediction and ephemerides of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). We give in this paper some simulation tests to analyse the impact of Gaia data on known asteroids's orbit, and their value for the analysis of NEOs through the example of asteroid (99942) Apophis. We then present the need for a follow-up network for newly discovered asteroids by Gaia, insisting on the synergy of ground and space data for the orbital improvement.

  19. Tectonic imbrication of Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes in the central Pontides, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, A. I.; Tuysuz, O.; Satir, M.; Eren, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    The geology of the Sakarya Zone in the Pontides is shaped by the Paleo-Tethyan (latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic), and Neo-Tethyan (Late Cretaceous to Tertiary) subduction, accretion and collision events. In the Central Pontides these tectonics events are reflected in the two east-west trending belts, which make up the region. In the north, along the Black Sea coast there is a belt, ~35 km wide, dominated by the Cretaceous to Eocene siliciclastic turbidites, over 6 km in thickness. In the south there is a large region, the Kargi metamorphic complex, made up of Triassic and Cretaceous metamorphic rocks. The thick flysch sequences in the northern belt were formed during the back-arc rifting leading to the opening of the Black Sea. The main structure in this belt is a large pop-up anticline, the Cangaldag anticline, which is associated with north-vergent thrusts in the north, and south vergent thrusts in the south. The contact between the Cretaceous-Eocene flysch belt and the Karg? metamorphic complex is a major south-vergent Eocene thrust zone, over 200 km in length. Thin neritic Eocene sequences below the thrust, and unconformably overlying the metamorphic rocks constrain the age of the thrusting as mid-Eocene. The Kargi metamorphic complex consists of south-vergent thrust slices of metabasic rock, marble, phyllite, ultramafic rock and eclogite, which are believed to represent Paleo-Tethyan subduction-accretion complexes. Rare fossils in the carbonates indicate that some of these rocks were deposited during the Permian. Some of the crystalline thrust slices in the Kargi complex are unconformably overlain by thin pelagic Senonian limestones, and thick siliciclastic turbidites, which constrains the age of thrust stacking as Late Cretaceous. Within the Kargi massif a large ultramafic-eclogite body, 35 km long and 6 km thick, occurs as a thrust slice between two other thrust sheets of Permo-Triassic metabasite, marble and phyllite. This Elekdag ultramafic-eclogite thrust slice was previously also regarded as part of the Palaeo-Tethyan (Triassic) subduction-accretion complex. However, recent isotopic dating of the Elekdag eclogites have yielded Cretaceous ages, indicating that Palaeo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes were thrust imbricated during the Late Cretaceous subduction. A similar observation was recently reported from the Eskisehir region, 370 km to the west, where Triassic blueschists and eclogites are imbricated with the Upper Cretaceous accretionary complexes. Close association of Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan accretionary complexes along the Izmir-Ankara suture indicates that the latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic Cimmeride orogeny in Turkey was of accretional rather than collisional nature, and that the Izmir-Ankara suture represents a long-lived plate boundary of late Palaeozoic to early Tertiary age.

  20. Gnie mcanique Multi Objective Optimisation of the

    E-print Network

    Psaltis, Demetri

    -II, a popular multi-objective genetic algorithm, which considers a population of individuals and lets it tend.01 The optimisation was performed with a population of size 48 and over 100 generations. The final population is handled by a modified dominance definition. Max area Min height Min force The optimiser has managed

  1. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  2. The elastostatic plane strain mode I crack tip stress and displacement fields in a generalized linear neo-Hookean elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Creton, Costantino; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2015-11-01

    A general asymptotic plane strain crack tip stress field is constructed for linear versions of neo-Hookean materials, which spans a wide variety of special cases including incompressible Mooney elastomers, the compressible Blatz-Ko elastomer, several cases of the Ogden constitutive law and a new result for a compressible linear neo-Hookean material. The nominal stress field has dominant terms that have a square root singularity with respect to the distance of material points from the crack tip in the undeformed reference configuration. At second order, there is a uniform tension parallel to the crack. The associated displacement field in plane strain at leading order has dependence proportional to the square root of the same coordinate. The relationship between the amplitude of the crack tip singularity (a stress intensity factor) and the plane strain energy release rate is outlined for the general linear material, with simplified relationships presented for notable special cases.

  3. Estimation of tectonic stress rates from NeoKinema models in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Bird, P.; Kagan, Y.; Jackson, D.

    2004-12-01

    We applied 2-D kinematic F-E program NeoKinema to estimate long-term-average velocity, fault slip rates, and strain rate field in southern California. We use weighted least-squares to fit the input data (geological fault slip rates, geodetic benchmark velocities, and horizontal principal stress directions) and invert the velocity field. The grid is composed of mostly 7-km spherical-triangle finite element and 4-km fault bands. Geological fault slip rates, geodetic velocities, and stress directions are from California Geological Survey 2002, SCEC Community Motion Map3.0, and World Stress Map 2003, respectively. We have calculated ˜60 models to explore two tuning parameters to find the optimal model. Currently the best model has RMS discrepancies of ˜1.6 sigma for geodesy, ˜0.9 sigma for fault data, and ˜0.35 sigma for stress direction. The long-term-average velocity field is continuously/self-consistently corrected for temporary fault locking by summing the contributions of the faults that move freely at a constant rate below a locking depth with the slip rate determined in the optimized NeoKinema model. At present a constant locking depth is used for all faults and regular dislocation patches with constant dip angles are used in the correction. We do not consider the locking contributions from seismic slip in non-faulted elements as they are likely small. We computed strain rate from the "corrected" velocity field. The tectonic stressing rate is computed from strain rate assuming constant elastic modulus. Current results show that maximum tectonic shear stress accumulation concentrates around the major fast-moving faults such as San Andreas, San Jacinto etc. and that stress rate decays away from the faults. The newly derived tectonic stressing rate provides a better estimate of stress from plate tectonics since it utilizes the information from both geodetic and geologic data without preassuming any block dynamics. The comparison with tectonic stress rates estimated from rigid block models would expect to reveal new insights provided by this kinematic approach. The new estimation of tectonic stress accumulation, along with incremental stress release from each earthquake in the catalog, will allow us to test various earthquake interaction and triggering hypotheses.

  4. Validation of the NeoFilm for Yeast and Mold Method for Enumeration of Yeasts and Molds in Select Foods.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    NeoFilm Yeast and Mold (Y&M), also known as Sanita-kun Yeasts and Molds, is a simple, effective device used for the enumeration of yeasts and molds. It consists of a nonwoven fabric on which a layer of microbial nutrients is deposited in a film. A 1 mL sample homogenate is applied to the membrane and this, in turn, is incubated for 48-72 h at 25°C. Sample homogenates were prepared using two different diluents for customer convenience: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and 0.1% peptone water. In comparative testing of breaded chicken nuggets, dry pet food, orange juice concentrate, yogurt, and cake mix, there were statistically significant differences in the counts obtained by the NeoFilm Y&M and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods only in the following instances: medium level for orange juice with PBS as diluent and low level for pet food with 0.1% peptone water as diluent, where reference method counts were higher than those of NeoFilm; medium level for cake mix with PBS, and low and medium levels for cake mix with 0.1% peptone water, where NeoFilm produced higher counts than the reference method. In addition to the method comparison study with five matrixes, robustness and stability/lot-to-lot testing were also performed. Results of robustness testing showed no significant effect on results even with perturbation to three assay parameters simultaneously. Results of testing of three lots of devices ranging in age from 2 to 26 months post-manufacture showed no significant differences in performance. PMID:26086258

  5. Validity of personality measurement in adults with anxiety disorders: psychometric properties of the Spanish NEO-FFI-R using Rasch analyses

    PubMed Central

    Inchausti, Felix; Mole, Joe; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Spanish NEO Five Factor Inventory–Revised (NEO-FFI-R) using Rasch analyses, in order to test its rating scale functioning, the reliability of scores, internal structure, and differential item functioning (DIF) by gender in a psychiatric sample. The NEO-FFI-R responses of 433 Spanish adults (154 males) with an anxiety disorder as primary diagnosis were analysed using the Rasch model for rating scales. Two intermediate categories of response (‘neutral’ and ‘agree’) malfunctioned in the Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scales. In addition, model reliabilities were lower than expected in Agreeableness and Neuroticism, and the item fit values indicated each scale had items that did not achieve moderate to high discrimination on its dimension, particularly in the Agreeableness scale. Concerning unidimensionality, the five NEO-FFI-R scales showed large first components of unexplained variance. Finally, DIF by gender was detected in many items. The results suggest that the scores of the Spanish NEO-FFI-R are unreliable in psychiatric samples and cannot be generalized between males and females, especially in the Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness scales. Future directions for testing and refinement should be developed before the NEO-FFI-R can be used reliably in clinical samples. PMID:25954224

  6. Are oxygen and neon enriched in PNe and is the current solar Ne/O abundance ratio underestimated?

    E-print Network

    W. Wang; X. -W. Liu

    2008-06-13

    A thorough critical literature survey has been carried out for reliable measurements of oxygen and neon abundances of planetary nebulae (PNe) and HII regions. By contrasting the results of PNe and of HII regions, we aim to address the issues of the evolution of oxygen and neon in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in the late evolutionary phases of low- and intermediate-mass stars (LIMS), as well as the currently hotly disputed solar Ne/O abundance ratio. Through the comparisons, we find that neon abundance and Ne/O ratio increase with increasing oxygen abundance in both types of nebulae, with positive correlation coefficients larger than 0.75. The correlations suggest different enrichment mechanisms for oxygen and neon in the ISM, in the sense that the growth of neon is delayed compared to oxygen. The differences of abundances between PNe and HII regions, are mainly attributed to the results of nucleosynthesis and dredge-up processes that occurred in the progenitor stars of PNe. We find that both these alpha-elements are significantly enriched at low metallicity (initial oxygen abundance oxygen in intermediate mass stars (IMS) of low initial metallicities and in more massive stars, a conjecture that requires verification by further theoretical studies. This result also strongly suggests that both the solar neon abundance and the Ne/O ratio should be revised upwards by ~0.22 dex from the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval values or by ~0.14 dex from the Grevesse & Sauval values.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and neo-piagetian theories in problem solving: perspectives on a new epistemology and theory development.

    PubMed

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2011-04-01

    In this study, an attempt is made to integrate Nonlinear Dynamical Systems theory and neo-Piagetian theories applied to creative mental processes, such as problem solving. A catastrophe theory model is proposed, which implements three neo-Piagetian constructs as controls: the functional M-capacity as asymmetry and logical thinking and the degree of field dependence independence as bifurcation. Data from achievement scores of students in tenth grade physics were analyzed using dynamic difference equations and statistical regression techniques. The cusp catastrophe model proved superior comparing to the pre-post linear counterpart and demonstrated nonlinearity at the behavioral level. The nonlinear phenomenology, such as hysteresis effects and bifurcation, is explained by an analysis, which provides a causal interpretation via the mathematical theory of self-organization and thus building bridges between NDS-theory concepts and neo-Piagetian theories. The contribution to theory building is made, by also addressing the emerging philosophical, - ontological and epistemological- questions about the processes of problem solving and creativity. PMID:21382259

  8. GENERAL LEDGER OBJECT CODES Liability Objects Liability Objects

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    GENERAL LEDGER OBJECT CODES ­ Liability Objects Liability Objects 2101 Travel Advance Clearing 2102 American Heritage Universal Life 2207 New York Life Whole Life 2208 Garnishments Payable 2209 Earned Income

  9. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing ?-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  10. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Rovatsos, Michail; Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. The Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) (chromosome number 2n?=?22) possesses heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes with heterochromatic W. The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) (2n?=?22 in males, 21 in females), the second most popular chameleon species in the world pet trade, exhibits a rather rare Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W system of multiple sex chromosomes, which most likely evolved from W-autosome fusion. Notably, its neo-W chromosome is partially heterochromatic and its female-specific genetic content has expanded into the previously autosomal region. Showing clear evidence for genotypic sex determination in the panther chameleon, we resolve the long-standing question of whether or not environmental sex determination exists in this species. Together with recent findings in other reptile lineages, our work demonstrates that female heterogamety is widespread among amniotes, adding another important piece to the mosaic of knowledge on sex determination in amniotes needed to understand the evolution of this important trait. PMID:26286647

  11. Female heterogamety in Madagascar chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae: Furcifer): differentiation of sex and neo-sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Amniotes possess variability in sex determining mechanisms, however, this diversity is still only partially known throughout the clade and sex determining systems still remain unknown even in such a popular and distinctive lineage as chameleons (Squamata: Acrodonta: Chamaeleonidae). Here, we present evidence for female heterogamety in this group. The Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) (chromosome number 2n?=?22) possesses heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes with heterochromatic W. The panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) (2n?=?22 in males, 21 in females), the second most popular chameleon species in the world pet trade, exhibits a rather rare Z1Z1Z2Z2/Z1Z2W system of multiple sex chromosomes, which most likely evolved from W-autosome fusion. Notably, its neo-W chromosome is partially heterochromatic and its female-specific genetic content has expanded into the previously autosomal region. Showing clear evidence for genotypic sex determination in the panther chameleon, we resolve the long-standing question of whether or not environmental sex determination exists in this species. Together with recent findings in other reptile lineages, our work demonstrates that female heterogamety is widespread among amniotes, adding another important piece to the mosaic of knowledge on sex determination in amniotes needed to understand the evolution of this important trait. PMID:26286647

  12. Evaluation of automatic neonatal brain segmentation algorithms: the NeoBrainS12 challenge.

    PubMed

    Išgum, Ivana; Benders, Manon J N L; Avants, Brian; Cardoso, M Jorge; Counsell, Serena J; Gomez, Elda Fischi; Gui, Laura; H?ppi, Petra S; Kersbergen, Karina J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Melbourne, Andrew; Moeskops, Pim; Mol, Christian P; Kuklisova-Murgasova, Maria; Rueckert, Daniel; Schnabel, Julia A; Srhoj-Egekher, Vedran; Wu, Jue; Wang, Siying; de Vries, Linda S; Viergever, Max A

    2015-02-01

    A number of algorithms for brain segmentation in preterm born infants have been published, but a reliable comparison of their performance is lacking. The NeoBrainS12 study (http://neobrains12.isi.uu.nl), providing three different image sets of preterm born infants, was set up to provide such a comparison. These sets are (i) axial scans acquired at 40 weeks corrected age, (ii) coronal scans acquired at 30 weeks corrected age and (iii) coronal scans acquired at 40 weeks corrected age. Each of these three sets consists of three T1- and T2-weighted MR images of the brain acquired with a 3T MRI scanner. The task was to segment cortical grey matter, non-myelinated and myelinated white matter, brainstem, basal ganglia and thalami, cerebellum, and cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles and in the extracerebral space separately. Any team could upload the results and all segmentations were evaluated in the same way. This paper presents the results of eight participating teams. The results demonstrate that the participating methods were able to segment all tissue classes well, except myelinated white matter. PMID:25487610

  13. Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

    El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 ? y ~3 ? por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

  14. Isolation and identification of a new neo-clerodane diterpenoid from Teucrium chamaedrys L.

    PubMed

    Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan; Isnac, Besir; Aksit, Huseyin; Sen, Ozkan; Genc, Nusret; Demirtas, Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. is an aromatic and medicinal plant used as traditional medicine. Aerial parts of the plant material were dried and extracted with hexane-dichloromethane (extract 1), ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (extract 2) and methanol-dichloromethane (extract 3) in a ratio of 1:1 at rt successively. The solvents were evaporated to give crude extracts. Extract 1 was suspended in water at 60°C then partitioned successively with hexane and ethyl acetate to give hexane and ethyl acetate portions. After the column chromatography (silica gel) of ethyl acetate extract, one new and four known compounds were isolated. The new compound was named as 1(12S,18R)-15,16-epoxy-2?,6?-dihydroxy-neo-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-20,l2-olide-l8,l9-hemiacetal (teuchamaedryn D) (4). The known compounds were teucrin A (1), dihydroteugin (2), teucroxide (3), syspirensin A (5). The chromatographic methods were also applied for extract 3 to isolate verbascoside (6) and teucrioside (7). The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including LC-TOF/MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR. PMID:26264529

  15. Gastric neo-adenocarcinoma arising in a gastric tube after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Faisal; Kerr, Joana; Going, James J; Fullarton, Grant

    2015-05-01

    A 69-year-old man, seven years post Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, was diagnosed to have a moderately differentiated 4?cm, malignant ulcer within the gastric tube remnant on an endoscopic biopsy. His original presentation was with a T1N0 oesophageal adenocarcinoma, histologically intestinal in type with inflammatory features. He presented with anaemia and melena due to a malignant ulcer in the mid body of his gastric tube on an endoscopy which was confirmed to be a gastric neo-adenocarcinoma on biopsy. He underwent right posterolateral thoracotomy and a wedge resection of the gastric tube including the tumour. Pathology confirmed a T3 N0 (0/7 lymph nodes) with clear margins moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of intestinal phenotype with papillary features and was reported to be a histopathologically new tumour. Proposed surgical treatments in such patients are dependent on patient's fitness for major resection and may vary from Endoscopic Mucosal Resection to partial resection with preservation of right gastroepiploic vessels or total gastrectomy with intestinal interposition via a retromediastinal route. We suggest that regular endoscopic surveillance may be indicated in such post-oesophagectomy patients as the number of patients developing gastric tube cancers may increase with improve survival of those patients. PMID:25652293

  16. Climate-induced changes in lake ecosystem structure inferred from coupled neo- and paleoecological approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saros, Jasmine E.; Stone, Jeffery R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Slemmons, Krista; Spanbauer, Trisha; Schliep, Anna; Cahl, Douglas; Williamson, Craig E.; Engstrom, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the 20th century, surface water temperatures have increased in many lake ecosystems around the world, but long-term trends in the vertical thermal structure of lakes remain unclear, despite the strong control that thermal stratification exerts on the biological response of lakes to climate change. Here we used both neo- and paleoecological approaches to develop a fossil-based inference model for lake mixing depths and thereby refine understanding of lake thermal structure change. We focused on three common planktonic diatom taxa, the distributions of which previous research suggests might be affected by mixing depth. Comparative lake surveys and growth rate experiments revealed that these species respond to lake thermal structure when nitrogen is sufficient, with species optima ranging from shallower to deeper mixing depths. The diatom-based mixing depth model was applied to sedimentary diatom profiles extending back to 1750 AD in two lakes with moderate nitrate concentrations but differing climate settings. Thermal reconstructions were consistent with expected changes, with shallower mixing depths inferred for an alpine lake where treeline has advanced, and deeper mixing depths inferred for a boreal lake where wind strength has increased. The inference model developed here provides a new tool to expand and refine understanding of climate-induced changes in lake ecosystems.

  17. Privatization and Psychoanalysis: The Impact of Neo-liberalism on Freud's Tool of Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Graybow, Scott; Eighmey, Jennifer; Fader, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines the historical links between psychoanalysis, social progressivism and the political Left. It then details the process by which those links were undone such that today psychoanalysis and mental health services in general are alienated from their radical roots. The paper posits this process of alienation is continued today via the neo-liberal phenomenon of privatization, which has profound implications for clients seeking mental health treatment especially those of minority status or who are economically oppressed. Today, access to effective mental health treatment is linked to one's economic status, and people of all class backgrounds seem less likely to receive mental health interventions that promote awareness of the oppressive political and economic forces they face. The paper includes two clinical vignettes illustrating the inequalities that are inherent to the privatized mental healthcare system. The paper calls for a return to the ideals and practices of the progressive psychoanalysis that defined the inter-war era of the last century. PMID:26211328

  18. On emergence: a neo-psychoanalytic essay on change and science.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Clay C

    2011-01-01

    The neo-psychoanalytic paradigm re-establishes the connection between psychodynamics and evolution. This allows us to transcend the limitations of dualistic metapsychology, and to make seminal contributions to traditional science. The new paradigm employs the concept of emergence, the potential for change in the evolutionary and clinical process. Emergence is described as originating with the Big Bang, but also is reflected at much higher levels, for example, biochemistry, or the capacity of the evolved mind to produce insights in psychotherapy. The constraints of dualistic theories are examined. A neuron-based view of change illustrates the evolution of traditional science as well as the neuron, itself. The new mind paradigm recognizes individual, familial, communitarian, and global reciprocal influences mediated by culture and illustrated by the extended mind and the democratic spirit. Thus both traditional and psychodynamic sciences are undergoing revolutionary changes in their common efforts to better understand the mechanisms of knowledge, relationship and consciousness. The boundaries of the self and the consultation suite are also expanded in this view. Following a survey of invagination, the work is concluded by an application of emergence theory to the creationist controversy and Freud's views of religion. PMID:21902508

  19. Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Concept Simulation of Operations in Proximity to a Near Earth Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This paper details a project to simulate the dynamics of a proposed Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and modeling the control of this spacecraft. A potential mission of the MMSEV would be to collect samples from a Near-Earth Object (NEO), a mission which would require the spacecraft to be able to navigate to an orbit keeping it stationary over an area of a spinning asteroid while a robotic arm interacts with the surface.

  20. Marco Polo: Near Earth Object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object. The Marco Polo proposal was submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context, and on October 2007 passed the first evaluation process. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class that cannot be related to known meteorite types, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge on the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of the life on Earth.

  1. MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawagushi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.

    2009-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Current exobiological scenarios for the origin of Life invoke an exogenous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth: it has been proposed that primitive bodies could have brought these complex organic molecules capable of triggering the pre-biotic synthesis of biochemical compounds. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with the Earth pose a finite hazard to life. For all these reasons, the exploration of such objects is particularly interesting and urgent. The scientific objectives of MARCO POLO will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Moreover, MARCO POLO provides important information on the volatile-rich (e.g. water) nature of primitive NEOs, which may be particularly important for future space resource utilization as well as providing critical information for the security of Earth. MARCO POLO is a proposal offering several options, leading to great flexibility in the actual implementation. The baseline mission scenario is based on a launch with a Soyuz-type launcher and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC) carrying a possible Lander named SIFNOS, small hoppers, sampling devices, a re-entry capsule and scientific payloads. The MSC leaves Earth orbit, cruises toward the target with ion engines, rendezvous with the target, conducts a global characterization of the target to select a sampling site, and delivers small hoppers (MINERVA type, JAXA) and SIFNOS. The latter, if added, will perform a soft landing, anchor to the target surface, and make various in situ measurements of surface/subsurface materials near the sampling site. Two surface samples will be collected by the MSC using “touch and go” manoeuvres. Two complementary sample collection devices will be used in this phase: one developed by ESA and another provided by JAXA, mounted on a retractable extension arm. After the completion of the sampling and ascent of the MSC, the arm will be retracted to transfer the sample containers into the MSC. The MSC will then make its journey back to Earth and release the re-entry capsule into the Earth’s atmosphere.

  2. The Pan-STARRS Moving Object Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J.; Kubica, J.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration

    2005-08-01

    The Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii is developing a large optical astronomical surveying system - the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS - see Kaiser's invited presentation on the survey at this meeting). The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) client of the Pan-STARRS image processing pipeline is developing software to automatically discover and identify >90% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) 300m in diameter and >80% of other classes of asteroids and comets. In developing its software, MOPS has created a synthetic solar system model (SSM) with over 10 million objects whose distributions of orbital characteristics matches those expected for objects that Pan-STARRS will observe. MOPS verifies its correct operation by simulating the survey and subsequent discovery of synthetically generated objects. MOPS also employs novel techniques in handling the computationally difficult problem of linking large numbers of unknown asteroids in a field of detections. We will describe the creation and verification of the Pan-STARRS MOPS SSM, demonstrate synthetic detections and observations by the MOPS, describe the MOPS asteroid linking techniques, describe accuracy and throughput of the entire MOPS system, and provide predictions regarding the numbers and kinds of objects, including as yet undiscovered ``extreme objects", that the MOPS expects to find over its 10-year lifetime.

  3. neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Eung Tae; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Chul; Jin, Qinghao; Jang, Hari; Lee, Dongho; Ahn, Jong Seog; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-25

    Three new neo-clerodane diterpenoids (1-3) along with 12 known compounds (4-15) were isolated from a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Scutellaria barbata. The structures of 1-3 were determined by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data as well as HRESIMS values. All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 1-4, 7, and 10-12 were found to inhibit nitric oxide production with IC50 values ranging from 20.2 to 35.6 ?M. PMID:26331882

  4. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  5. Bird Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes changes in bird populations in the contiguous U.S and southern Canada from 1966 to 2003. Bird populations are an important component of biological diversity, and trends in bird populations can reflect the influences of changes in landscape and habi...

  6. Stabilizing population.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Mitchell, J

    1998-04-01

    This article is a reprint of the Worldwatch Institute's "State of the World Report," Chapter 10: "Building a New Economy." 16 countries reached zero population growth by 1997. 33 countries have stabilized population, which amounts to 14% of world population. It is estimated that by 2050 population will include an additional 3.6 billion people beyond the present 6 billion. About 60% of the added population will be in Asia, an increase from 3.4 billion in 1995 to 5.4 billion in 2050. China's current population of 1.2 billion will reach 1.5 billion. India's population is expected to rapidly rise from 930 million to 1.53 billion. Populations in the Middle East and North Africa are expected to double in size. Sub-Saharan population is expected to triple in size. By 2050, Nigeria will have 339 million people, which was the entire population of Africa in 1960. There is a great need to stabilize population in a number of currently unstabilized countries. In 1971, Bangladesh and Pakistan had the same population; however, by 2050, Pakistan, without a strong commitment to reducing population growth, will have 70 million more people than Bangladesh. Population stabilization will depend on removal of physical and social barriers that prevent women from using family planning services and thereby help them control their own unwanted fertility. Stabilization will require poverty alleviation and removal of the need for large families. Family size is reduced with lower infant and child mortality risk, increased education, a higher legal age of marriage, and investment in stabilization programs. Solutions to global population growth cannot wait for health reform and budget deficit reductions. PMID:12293723

  7. Science versus the stars: a double-blind test of the validity of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and computer-generated astrological natal charts.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Alyssa Jayne; Vyse, Stuart

    2008-07-01

    The authors asked 52 college students (38 women, 14 men, M age = 19.3 years, SD = 1.3 years) to identify their personality summaries by using a computer-generated astrological natal chart when presented with 1 true summary and 1 bogus one. Similarly, the authors asked participants to identify their true personality profile from real and bogus summaries that the authors derived from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; P. T. Costa Jr. & R. R. McCrae, 1985). Participants identified their real NEO-FFI profiles at a greater-than-chance level but were unable to identify their real astrological summaries. The authors observed a P. T. Barnum effect in the accuracy ratings of both psychological and astrological measures but did not find differences between the odd-numbered (i.e., favorable) signs and the even-numbered (i.e., unfavorable) signs. PMID:18649494

  8. MOST - Moving Object Search Tool For NEOWISE And IRSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Kevin K.; Groom, S.; Teplitz, H.; Cutri, R.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new web-based tool that will enable researchers to look for serendipitously observed solar system objects contained in the images held by the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) including the single-epoch exposures from WISE. The principal function of MOST is to help researchers to recover NEO, MBA and comet pre-discovery images, that will enable orbit refinement and photometry. MOST takes as input an object name or set of orbital parameters. MOST is able to identify images containing the moving object along the calculated path within the requested time interval. It starts with computing an orbital path spanning the observation times, and fitting a series of search regions covering the path. It then retrieves all the image meta-data within the search regions using an IRSA search function. A post filter utilizing image corner positions and object position computed from image frame time is then employed to identify individual frames containing the object. MOST will be released in April 2011 for use with the WISE archive. MOST will be incorporated with other IRSA archive search and analysis tools to facilitate fast identification and retrieval of images containing moving objects. It will later be expanded to search other IRSA image holdings, including the Spitzer Heritage Archive. MOST development is sponsored in part by The NEOWISE program, NASA Planetary Division.

  9. The search for Near Earth Objects - why dark skies are critically important

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainscoat, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Impact of Earth by asteroids is perhaps the only natural disaster that can be prevented. If an asteroid that will impact Earth can be identified sufficiently early, it is possible to modify its orbit to eliminate the impact. As a consequence, a major effort is presently underway to identify Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that may present a threat to Earth. The impact of a 20-meter diameter object near Chelyabinsk, Russia, provided a spectacular reminder of the threat that these objects present. Although no deaths were caused, injuries and a large amount of property damage were caused.The search for NEOs is mostly funded by NASA. The principal search telescopes are the Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey, located near Tucson, Arizona. Both of these locations are seriously threatened by light pollution. A new survey, ATLAS, will commence shortly, with one telescope located on Haleakala, Maui, and the other telescope located on Mauna Loa, Hawaii (which is less threatened).Artificial light (i.e., light pollution) at these observing sites raises the sky background, and makes faint objects harder or impossible to see.Searches for Near Earth Objects typically use very broad passbands in order to obtain the maximum amount of light. These passbands typically stretch from 400 to 820 nm. As such, they are very vulnerable to the changes in lighting that are occurring across the globe, with widespread introduction of blue-rich white lighting. It is critically important in all of these locations to limit the amount of blue light that is so readily scattered by the atmosphere.A network of followup telescopes, spread across the planet, play a crucial role in the discovery of NEOs. After a new NEO is identified by the survey telescopes such as Pan-STARRS and Catalina, additional observations must be secured to establish its orbit, and in order to determine whether it poses a threat to Earth. The majority of these followup telescopes are at locations that are impacted by light pollution, and this seriously impacts their ability to secure additional observations.

  10. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Multifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs.

    PubMed

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Boterberg, Veerle; Dubruel, Peter; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan; Geris, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds) becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells) in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial 'design of experiments' approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid) and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology. PMID:26076131

  12. Multifactorial Optimization of Contrast-Enhanced Nanofocus Computed Tomography for Quantitative Analysis of Neo-Tissue Formation in Tissue Engineering Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Kerckhofs, Greet; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Boterberg, Veerle; Dubruel, Peter; Luyten, Frank P.; Schrooten, Jan; Geris, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    To progress the fields of tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine, development of quantitative methods for non-invasive three dimensional characterization of engineered constructs (i.e. cells/tissue combined with scaffolds) becomes essential. In this study, we have defined the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography for three dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of in vitro engineered neo-tissue (i.e. extracellular matrix containing cells) in perfusion bioreactor-developed Ti6Al4V constructs. A fractional factorial ‘design of experiments’ approach was used to elucidate the influence of the staining time and concentration of two contrast agents (Hexabrix and phosphotungstic acid) and the neo-tissue volume on the image contrast and dataset quality. Additionally, the neo-tissue shrinkage that was induced by phosphotungstic acid staining was quantified to determine the operating window within which this contrast agent can be accurately applied. For Hexabrix the staining concentration was the main parameter influencing image contrast and dataset quality. Using phosphotungstic acid the staining concentration had a significant influence on the image contrast while both staining concentration and neo-tissue volume had an influence on the dataset quality. The use of high concentrations of phosphotungstic acid did however introduce significant shrinkage of the neo-tissue indicating that, despite sub-optimal image contrast, low concentrations of this staining agent should be used to enable quantitative analysis. To conclude, design of experiments allowed us to define the most optimal staining conditions for contrast-enhanced nanofocus computed tomography to be used as a routine screening tool of neo-tissue formation in Ti6Al4V constructs, transforming it into a robust three dimensional quality control methodology. PMID:26076131

  13. Population and Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  14. Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanka, Paskaleva; Mihaela, Kouteva; Franco, Vaccari; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2008-07-08

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

  15. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  16. Neo-deterministic definition of earthquake hazard scenarios: a multiscale application to India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rastogi, Bal K.; Vaccari, Franco; Cozzini, Stefano; Bisignano, Davide; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.; Ashish, Mr; Mir, Ramees R.

    2014-05-01

    The development of effective mitigation strategies requires scientifically consistent estimates of seismic ground motion; recent analysis, however, showed that the performances of the classical probabilistic approach to seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) are very unsatisfactory in anticipating ground shaking from future large earthquakes. Moreover, due to their basic heuristic limitations, the standard PSHA estimates are by far unsuitable when dealing with the protection of critical structures (e.g. nuclear power plants) and cultural heritage, where it is necessary to consider extremely long time intervals. Nonetheless, the persistence in resorting to PSHA is often explained by the need to deal with uncertainties related with ground shaking and earthquakes recurrence. We show that current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic waves generation and propagation processes, along with the improving quantity and quality of geophysical data, allow nowadays for viable numerical and analytical alternatives to the use of PSHA. The advanced approach considered in this study, namely the NDSHA (neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment), is based on the physically sound definition of a wide set of credible scenario events and accounts for uncertainties and earthquakes recurrence in a substantially different way. The expected ground shaking due to a wide set of potential earthquakes is defined by means of full waveforms modelling, based on the possibility to efficiently compute synthetic seismograms in complex laterally heterogeneous anelastic media. In this way a set of scenarios of ground motion can be defined, either at national and local scale, the latter considering the 2D and 3D heterogeneities of the medium travelled by the seismic waves. The efficiency of the NDSHA computational codes allows for the fast generation of hazard maps at the regional scale even on a modern laptop computer. At the scenario scale, quick parametric studies can be easily performed to understand the influence of the model characteristics on the computed ground shaking scenarios. For massive parametric tests, or for the repeated generation of large scale hazard maps, the methodology can take advantage of more advanced computational platforms, ranging from GRID computing infrastructures to HPC dedicated clusters up to Cloud computing. In such a way, scientists can deal efficiently with the variety and complexity of the potential earthquake sources, and perform parametric studies to characterize the related uncertainties. NDSHA provides realistic time series of expected ground motion readily applicable for seismic engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The methodology has been successfully applied to strategic buildings, lifelines and cultural heritage sites, and for the purpose of seismic microzoning in several urban areas worldwide. A web application is currently being developed that facilitates the access to the NDSHA methodology and the related outputs by end-users, who are interested in reliable territorial planning and in the design and construction of buildings and infrastructures in seismic areas. At the same, the web application is also shaping up as an advanced educational tool to explore interactively how seismic waves are generated at the source, propagate inside structural models, and build up ground shaking scenarios. We illustrate the preliminary results obtained from a multiscale application of NDSHA approach to the territory of India, zooming from large scale hazard maps of ground shaking at bedrock, to the definition of local scale earthquake scenarios for selected sites in the Gujarat state (NW India). The study aims to provide the community (e.g. authorities and engineers) with advanced information for earthquake risk mitigation, which is particularly relevant to Gujarat in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the region.

  17. Position Paper Object Mitosis

    E-print Network

    Position Paper Object Mitosis: A Systematic Approach To Splitting Objects Across Subsystems Stephen An experimental method, called object mitosis, is presented. Object mitosis is a systematic process for splitting between subsystems is discussed and object mitosis is shown to be a possible solution. 1. Introduction

  18. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  19. Cohort Profile: A prospective cohort study of objective physical and cognitive capability and visual health in an ageing population of men and women in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk 3)

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shabina A; Luben, Robert; Keevil, Victoria L; Moore, Stephanie; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Khawaja, Anthony P; Foster, Paul; Brayne, Carol; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) is a 10-country collaborative study in which EPIC-Norfolk is one of the UK centres. EPIC-Norfolk examined 25 639 men and women resident in East Anglia (aged 40–79 years), between 1993 and 1997. The EPIC collaboration was set up to examine the dietary determinants of cancer, but the remit in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort was broadened from the outset to include determinants of other health conditions and chronic diseases. EPIC-Norfolk completed a third round of health examinations (EPIC-Norfolk 3 or 3HC) in December 2011, on 8623 participants in the age range 48–92 years. EPIC-Norfolk focused on objective measures of cognitive function, physical capability and visual health, adapting this existing mid-life cohort to the current need to investigate healthy and independent living for ageing societies. With a wealth of longitudinal data and a biobank (including DNA) collected at up to three separate time points, EPIC-Norfolk offers the unique opportunity to investigate the association of lifestyle and biological factors, including genetic exposures, with a range of health outcomes in middle and later life. Information for data access can be found on the study website, details as given in this cohort profile. PMID:23771720

  20. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission in the ESA program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawaguchi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.

    2009-09-01

    Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near Earth Object. In October 2007 this mission passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the planets. This will allow us to improve our knowledge of the processes which governed the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, and possibly of life on Earth.

  1. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  2. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  3. 1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

  4. Development and Mass Production of a Mixture of LAB- and DIN-based Gadolinium-loaded Liquid Scintillator for the NEOS Short-baseline Neutrino Experiment

    E-print Network

    Ba Ro Kim; Boyoung Han; Eun-ju Jeon; Kyung Kwang Joo; H. J. Kim; Hyunsoo Kim; Jinyu Kim; Yeongduk Kim; Youngju Ko; Jaison Lee; Jooyoung Lee; Moohyun Lee; Kyungju Ma; Yoomin Oh; Hyangkyu Park; Kang-soon Park; Kyungmin Seo; Gwang-Min Seon; Kim Siyeon

    2015-11-16

    A new experiment, which is called as NEOS (NEutrino Oscillation at Short baseline), is proposed on the site of Hanbit reactors at Yonggwang, South Korea, to investigate a reactor antineutrino anomaly. A homogeneous NEOS detector having a 1000-L target volume has been constructed and deployed at the tendon gallery ~25 m away from the reactor core. A linear alkylbenzene (LAB) is used as a main base solvent of the NEOS detector. Furthermore, a di-isopropylnaphthalene (DIN) is added to improve the light output and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) ability. The ratio of LAB to DIN is 90:10. PPO (3 g/L) and bis-MSB (30 mg/L) are dissolved to formulate the mixture of LAB- and DIN-based liquid scintillator (LS). Then, ~0.5% gadolinium (Gd) is loaded into the LS by using the solvent-solvent extraction technique. In this paper, we report the characteristics of Gd-loaded LS (GdLS) for the NEOS detector and the handling during mass production.

  5. What Is Education for? Situating History, Cultural Understandings and Studies of Society and Environment against Neo-Conservative Critiques of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This article explores some of the debates about the nature and purpose of education in the social sciences in the Australian curricula. It examines recent attempts in studies of society and environment and history curricula to prepare students for global citizenship and responds to neo-conservative critiques that our "politically correct"…

  6. Standardizing Chaos: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Andina, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Violent conflict and humanitarian disasters such as floods, famines, or tsunamis, have existed since the start of human history. However, it is only recently that education in these emergency situations has emerged as a visible organizational field. We aim to use a unique theoretical application of sociological neo-institutionalism to explain the…

  7. Response Distortion in Normal Personality Assessment: Investigating Proposed Validity Scales for the NEO-PI-R in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineran, Kerrie R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992b) is an assessment of normal personality composition that is used in clinical counseling contexts as well as for personnel selection. There has been some debate regarding the necessity and usefulness of validity scales to detect response distortion on this instrument. Because the authors of the instrument, Costa…

  8. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  9. Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews aspects of population dynamics that may be conceptually important for biological control of mosquitoes. Density dependent population regulation among immature stages has important implications for biological control of mosquito populations, primarily because it can lead to compensatory or overcompensatory mortality due to additions of a biological control agent. This can result in control efforts leading to no change in the target population, or actual increases in the target population, respectively. Density dependent effects, and compensatory or overcompensatory mortality, appear to be most common in mosquitoes from container or highly ephemeral habitats. In permanent ground water habitats generalist predators appear to limit mosquito populations and so render mortality additive. Thus, biological control in permanent ground water habitats seems to have the highest likelihood of producing a satisfactory result. A central premise of classical biological control is that pest populations are reduced by enemies to stable equilibrium levels that are both below the pre-control equilibrium level, and well below the level producing detrimental effects. This premise results in predictions that successful biological control is likely to involve specialist enemies (usually parasitoids), with short generation times relative to the victim, high rates of successful search, rapid rates of increase, and needing only a few victims to complete their life cycle. These predictions largely fail for mosquito systems, in which successful biological control seems to be associated with generalist enemies that can kill a large portion of the target population, often causing local extinction, and can persist in the absence of the target organism. Biological control of mosquitoes appears to be inherently unstable, thus contrasting sharply with classical biological control. This review suggests a need for better data on density dependent regulation of mosquito populations. PMID:17853611

  10. Picturing objects in infancy.

    PubMed

    Shinskey, Jeanne L; Jachens, Liza J

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the other tested object representation by hiding both objects. On visible trials, infants reached more for the distractor, indicating they recognized the target object from its picture. On hidden trials, infants reached more for the target object, suggesting they formed a continued representation of the object based on its picture. Photograph color had no effect. Infants thus show picture-to-object transfer by 9 months with preferential reaching, even with black-and-white pictures. PMID:24779447

  11. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program. PMID:12341036

  12. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of NEO-PI-R Scales In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Brant, Larry J.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age trends in the five factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline up to age 80 in Neuroticism, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase up to age 70 in Conscientiousness. Some facets showed different curves from the factor they define. Birth cohort effects were modest, and there were no consistent Gender × Age interactions. Significant non-normative changes were found for all five factors; they were not explained by attrition but might be due to genetic factors, disease, or life experience. PMID:16248708

  13. Inhibition of human sPLA2 and 5-lipoxygenase activities by two neo-clerodane diterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Benrezzouk, R; Terencio, M C; Ferrándiz, M L; San Feliciano, A; Gordaliza, M; Miguel del Corral, J M; de la Puente, M L; Alcaraz, M J

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of two neo-clerodane diterpenoids, E-isolinaridial (EI) and its methylketone derivative (EIM), isolated from Linaria saxatilis var. glutinosa, on PLA2 and other enzyme activities involved in the inflammatory process was studied. Both compounds inhibited human synovial sPLA2 in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 0.20 and 0.49 microM, respectively, similar to scalaradial. Besides, these compounds decreased the cell-free 5-lipoxygenase activity and A23187-induced neutrophil LTB4 biosynthesis. Another function of human neutrophils, such as receptor-mediated degranulation, was also significantly reduced. In contrast, none of the compounds affected superoxide generation in leukocytes, or cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities in cell-free assays. PMID:10353635

  14. Short-course radiotherapy followed by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer – the RAPIDO trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current standard for most of the locally advanced rectal cancers is preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and, variably per institution, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Short-course preoperative radiation with delayed surgery has been shown to induce tumour down-staging in both randomized and observational studies. The concept of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has been proven successful in gastric cancer, hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and is currently tested in primary colon cancer. Methods and design Patients with rectal cancer with high risk features for local or systemic failure on magnetic resonance imaging are randomized to either a standard arm or an experimental arm. The standard arm consists of chemoradiation (1.8 Gy x 25 or 2 Gy x 25 with capecitabine) preoperatively, followed by selective postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy is optional and may be omitted by participating institutions. The experimental arm includes short-course radiotherapy (5 Gy x 5) followed by full-dose chemotherapy (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) in 6 cycles before surgery. In the experimental arm, no postoperative chemotherapy is prescribed. Surgery is performed according to TME principles in both study arms. The hypothesis is that short-course radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy increases disease-free and overall survival without compromising local control. Primary end-point is disease-free survival at 3 years. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, local control, toxicity profile, and treatment completion rate, rate of pathological complete response and microscopically radical resection, and quality of life. Discussion Following the advances in rectal cancer management, increased focus on survival rather than only on local control is now justified. In an experimental arm, short-course radiotherapy is combined with full-dose chemotherapy preoperatively, an alternative that offers advantages compared to concomitant chemoradiotherapy with or without postoperative chemotherapy. In a multi-centre setting this regimen is compared to current standard with the aim of improving survival for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01558921 PMID:23742033

  15. Multi-object spectroscopy of stars in the CoRoT fields. II. The stellar population of the CoRoT fields IRa01, LRa01, LRa02, and LRa06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Gandolfi, D.; Sebastian, D.; Deleuil, M.; Moutou, C.; Cusano, F.

    2012-07-01

    Context. With now more than 20 exoplanets discovered by CoRoT, it has often been considered strange that so many of them are orbiting F-stars, and so few of them K- or M-stars. Up to now, studies of the relation between the frequency of extrasolar planets and the spectral types, or masses of their host stars has been the realm of radial velocity surveys. Although transit search programs are mostly sensitive to short-period planets, they are ideal for verifying these results. This is because transit search programs have different selection biases than radial velocity surveys. To determine the frequency of planets as a function of stellar mass, we also have to characterize the sample of stars that was observed. Aims: We study the stellar content of the CoRoT-fields IRa01, LRa01 (=LRa06), and LRa02 by determining the spectral types of 11 466 stars. Nine planet-host stars have already been identified in these fields. Determing the spectral types of thousands of stars of which CoRoT obtained high-precision light-curves also makes a wide variety of other research projects possible. Methods: We used spectra obtained with the multi-object spectrograph AAOmega and derived the spectral types by using template spectra with well-known parameters. Results: We find that 34.8 ± 0.7% of the stars observed by CoRoT in these fields are F-dwarfs, 15.1 ± 0.5% G-dwarfs, and 5.0 ± 0.3% K-dwarfs. We conclude that the apparent lack of exoplanets of K- and M-stars is explained by the relatively small number of these stars in the observed sample. We also show that the apparently large number of planets orbiting F-stars is similarly explained by the large number of such stars in these fields. Given the number of F-stars, we would have expected to find even more F-stars with planets. Our study also shows that the difference between the sample of stars that CoRoT observes and a sample of randomly selected stars is relatively small, and that the yield of CoRoT specifically is the detection one hot Jupiter amongst 2100 ± 700 stars. Conclusions: We conclude that transit search programs can be used to study the relation between the frequency of planets and the mass of the host stars, and that the results obtained so far generally agree with those of radial velocity programs. Based on observations obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope in program 07B/040 and 08B/003.Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/543/A125

  16. Population Growth Change Population Size or Density

    E-print Network

    Caraco, Thomas

    1 Population Growth Change Population Size or Density Model Measurable Quantity (Observable Unbounded Growth Useful: Small Population Ecological Invasion, Dynamics of Rarity #12;8 2. b ) Estimate Population Size: N Consider Single Population Assume Identical Individuals 1. Plants, Sessile

  17. Population growth.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Despite efforts to reduce population growth, the World Bank projects a world population of 10 billion by 2050, with 7 billion living in developing countries. From October 1979 to September 1984, the US Agency for International Development (AID) funded the Research Triangle Institute's (RTI) Integrated Population and Development Planning (IPDP) project to assess rapid population growth effects in 25 developing countries. In October 1984, US AID extended funding for the program, nicknamed INPLAN, for 3 years, at a cost of $6.3 million. Up to 50% of people in developing countries are under age 15, a fact that guarantees large population increases for the next 50-75 years. Also, many regions have been slow to correlate high fertility with socioeconomic development, and in some areas, fertility is actually increasing. INPLAN aims to make governments more aware of population dynamics and to provide training and tools for effective development planning. 40% of INPLAN's work will be done in Africa, 25% in Latin America, and 20% in Asia, with some activity in the Near East. One project in Egypt, involving the use of model generation by microcomputer, was developed by RTI to show rural to urban migration and rapid population growth affects on the educational system. INPLAN expects to develop several other planning sector models on labor force and employment, health and family planning, food supply, housing, and urban development, and apply them to 20-25 countries. Another project provided 9 microcomputer systems and training to Nigerian government agencies. IMPLAN will purchase and distribute 60 such systems in the future. PMID:12314095

  18. Enhancing the Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, B. W.; Bowell, E.

    1999-09-01

    The Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS) uses a fully automated 59-cm Schmidt telescope to discover asteroids and comets that can approach the Earth. Secondary and tertiary scientific goals are, respectively, to discover other solar system bodies (main-belt asteroids, unusual asteroids, the largest TNOs), and, with extramural collaborators, to pursue a suite of non-solar system programs. Nightly observing started in March 1998, and to date we have discovered 13 near-Earth asteroids (2 Atens, 7 Apollos, and 4 Amors), and 4 comets (1 periodic). One of the Atens (1999 HF_1) is likely to be the largest known, and 8 of the Earth approachers are probably larger than 1 km in diameter. Comet Skiff (= C/1999 J_2) has the largest known cometary perihelion distance (7.5 AU). We have submitted about 200,000 observations of asteroids to the Minor Planet Center, of which 100,000 pertain to known objects or to unknown objects that have been designated. Thus we have quickly become the fifth largest generator of asteroid astrometric data over the last decade. In terms of the discovery of larger NEOs, our search effort has, in the past year, been second only to that of LINEAR. We are currently (July 1999) searching the sky at a steady monthly rate of about 6,000 deg(2) to a typical limiting magnitude of V = 18.4 (for moving objects at a 50% detection probability). By fall 1999, we hope to have installed a new CCD camera, which will afford twice the DQE, a FOV of 9 deg(2) (80% larger than that of our present camera), and more than a 50% increase in observational duty cycle. Later, we hope to improve the corrector plate's optical performance and to improve dome seeing. Together, these enhancements should allow us to increase monthly sky coverage (three passes per region) to 20,000 deg(2) --which represents the entire accessible dark sky--and to increase the search limiting magnitude to V = 19.2 or fainter. During the coming years, we expect to discover many hundreds of NEOs.

  19. The Relationship between the JobMatchTalent Test and the NEO PI-R: Construct Validation of an Instrument Designed for Recruitment of Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Danilo; Nima, Ali Al; Rappe, Catrin; Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Archer, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background Personality measures in recruitment situations need to (1) cover the Big-Five model of personality and (2) focus on interpersonal requirements of jobs. We investigated the relationship between the JobMatchTalent test and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R). The JobMatchTalent consists of three areas (i.e., Stability Patterns, Action Patterns, and Relation Patterns) divided in 10 main scales providing a deeper picture of the employee (e.g., Work Structure, Tolerance). Method The participants (N?=?390) were recruited from the professional network LinkedIn and completed online versions of both instruments. We used correlation analysis to investigate the construct validity of the JobMatchTalent test by identifying significant correlation coefficients no lower than ±.30 (i.e., convergent validity) and those with nonsignificant correlations (i.e., discriminant validity). Regression analyses were used to investigate the variance of the NEO PI-R dimensions that was explained by the JobMatchTalent test. Results Four of the NEO PI-R dimensions showed considerable overlap with the following JobMatchTalent main scales: (1) Work structure and Decision Characteristics, which both are measures of thoughtfulness, planning, and order (i.e., Conscientiousness); (2) Inner drive, Activity, Drive, Acting, and Communication, which represent different aspects of being outgoing and extrovert (i.e., Extraversion); (3) Tolerance and Social interest, which measure a person's interest and ability to create social relations (i.e., Agreeableness); and (4) Stress Index, a measure of emotional stability (i.e., the opposite of Neuroticism). All 5 NEO PI-R dimensions overlapped with the JobMatchTalent sub-scales. Conclusions The study suggests that 4 of the NEO PI-R dimensions are logically categorized along the JobMatchTalent main scales: (1) Order and Thoughtfulness, (2) Energy and Extraversion, (3) Social Adaptation and Interest, and (4) Emotion Control. Hence, it suggests substantial overlap between the instruments, but also that the two instruments cannot be considered as equivalent to assess individual differences in recruitment situations. PMID:24594872

  20. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  1. Deep Surveys for Inner Oort Cloud Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Tholen, David J.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    We are undertaking two deep wide-field surveys to discover extremely distant solar system objects. While our target solar system population is the Inner Oort Cloud objects such as 2012 VP113 and Sedna, we are also sensitive to other populations with high perihelia such as the Scattered Kuiper Belt Objects and the highest perihelion Kuiper Belt Objects which have similar arguments of perihelion to the Inner Oort Cloud Objects. These unusual populations are thought to consist primarily of highly eccentric objects which spend most of their orbits hundreds or thousands of AU from the sun. Large aperture telescopes are needed to reach the faintness limits, red magnitudes of 23.5 to 25, required for detection of even the large members of the population. In addition, wide fields of view are also needed since the sky density of the detectable members of the populations approach 1 in 100 square degrees even with large telescopes.Our primary discovery instruments are the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4 meter Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on Subaru Telescope at Maunakea. Each of these instruments has a tremendously wide field of view considering the size of the telescope they are mounted on. DECam has a field of view of about 3 square degrees and HSC has a field of view of about 1.75 square degrees. We will present our survey progress in terms of sky area covered and new objects discovered and highlight some of our more interesting findings.

  2. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  3. Regular Objects Combinatorics

    E-print Network

    Servatius, Brigitte

    . Regular Objects ­To a geometer - Platonic Solids #12;Regular Objects Combinatorics How many ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit ­To a topologist - Platonic Maps #12;Regular Objects Close Quit ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit ­To a graph theorist - Platonic

  4. Naturalizing Objectivity Rebecca Kukla

    E-print Network

    Galison, Peter L.

    285 Naturalizing Objectivity Rebecca Kukla University of South Florida Books reviewed in this essay: Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, Objectivity (Cambridge: Zone Books, 2007). Karen Barad, Meeting, 2007). We can understand objectivity, in the broadest sense of the term, as epistemic accountability

  5. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  6. Perspectives on the Near-Earth Object Impact Hazard After Chelyabinsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2013-12-01

    Until this year, the NEO impact hazard had been regarded as a theoretical example of a very low probability high consequence natural disaster. There had been no confirmed examples of fatalities directly due to asteroid or meteoroid strikes. (There still aren't.) The several megaton Tunguska event in 1908 was in a remote, unpopulated place. So human beings have been witnessing only the tiniest analogs of asteroid strikes, the night-sky meteors and occasional bolides, which - on rare occasions - yield meteoritic fragments that puncture holes in roofs. Though the NEO impact hazard has occasionally been treated in the natural hazards literature, interest primarily remained in the planetary science and aerospace communities. The Chelyabinsk asteroid impact on 15 February 2013 was a real disaster, occurring near a city with a population exceeding a million. Well over a thousand people were injured, thousands of buildings suffered at least superficial damage (mainly to windows), schools and sports facilities were closed, and emergency responders swarmed across the city and surrounding rural areas. While the consequences were very small compared with larger natural disasters, which kill tens of thousands of people annually worldwide, this specific case - for the first time - has permitted a calibration of the consequences of the rare impacts asteroid astronomers have been predicting. There now are reasons to expect that impacts by bodies tens of meters in diameter are several times more frequent than had been thought and each impact is more damaging than previously estimated. The Chelyabinsk event, produced by a 20 meter diameter asteroid, specifically suggests that asteroids just 15 meters diameter, or even smaller, could be very dangerous and damaging; indeed, a more common steeper impact angle would have produced more consequential damage on the ground. This contrasts with estimates a decade earlier [NASA NEO Science Definition Team report, 2003] that asteroids smaller than 40 to 50 meters diameter would explode harmlessly in the upper atmosphere. Given the observed size-frequency relation for NEOs, this means that dangerous impacts could be many tens of times more frequent than had been thought. New observing campaigns (e.g. ATLAS) oriented towards finding roughly half of the frequent smaller impactors meters to tens of meters in size during their final days to weeks before impact will soon result in warnings every few years of a potentially dangerous impact, perhaps requiring evacuation or instructions to shelter-in-place, even though most will turn out to be essentially harmless events. Warnings may become even more frequent as prudent emergency managers take into account the large uncertainties in sizes and destructive potential of these 'final plungers.' So emergency management officials around the world should at least be aware of the potential for a NEO impact to produce a real, if generally minor and local, natural disaster. Fortunately, success of the Spaceguard search for civilization-threatening large NEOs (> 1 km diameter) over the last 15 years has nearly retired the risk of global calamity by impact. So attention turns to the much smaller impacts that are far less dangerous, but soon will be frequently predicted and so cannot be ignored.

  7. Population success.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families. Access to contraceptives is, of course, a major influence on fertility decline. According to UNFPA some of the Latin American countries have the highest contraceptive use among developing countries. The countries of Asia come next and contraceptives are least used in sub-Saharan Africa where birth rates of 45/1000 are still common. The money for population programs, says the report, has come largely from developing countries themselves. A survey of 15 countries showed them to have contributed 67% out of their own budgets--the rest having come from external aid. And in programs aided by UNFPA the local input has been even higher. During 1979-1981 the developing countries themselves budgeted $4.6 for each dollar budgeted by UNFPA. The report also highlights some of the emerging problems for the next 2 decades--and which will be high on the agenda of the 1984 conference. These include "uncontrolled urban growth" in developing countries as well as an important change in overall population age structure as more and more old people survive. Aging populations are of particular concern to the developed countries but, as the report points out, even countries like China--which has achieved a steep drop in fertility and mortality--will face the problems of an aging population by the year 2000. PMID:12279227

  8. MCF-10A-NeoST: A New Cell System for Studying Cell-ECM and Cell-Cell Interactions in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zantek, Nicole Dodge; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Stewart, Jane; Hansen, Rhonda K.; Robinson, Daniel; Miao, Hui; Wang, Bingcheng; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bissell, Mina J.; Kinch, Michael S.

    2001-08-22

    There is a continuing need for genetically matched cell systems to model cellular behaviors that are frequently observed in aggressive breast cancers. We report here the isolation and initial characterization of a spontaneously arising variant of MCF-10A cells, NeoST, which provides a new model to study cell adhesion and signal transduction in breast cancer. NeoST cells recapitulate important biological and biochemical features of metastatic breast cancer, including anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness in threedimensional reconstituted membranes, loss of E-cadherin expression, and increased tyrosine kinase activity. A comprehensive analysis of tyrosine kinase expression revealed overexpression or functional activation of the Axl, FAK, and EphA2 tyrosine kinases in transformed MCF-10A cells. MCF-10A and these new derivatives provide a genetically matched model to study defects in cell adhesion and signaling that are relevant to cellular behaviors that often typify aggressive breast cancer cells.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 ?g/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by AgNPs have a significant role in apoptosis. The present findings suggest that AgNPs could contribute to the development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of a novel nanomedicine for the treatment of cancers. PMID:24265551

  10. NeoCASS: An integrated tool for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and MDO at conceptual design level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Luca; Ricci, Sergio; Travaglini, Lorenzo

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a design framework called NeoCASS (Next generation Conceptual Aero-Structural Sizing Suite), developed at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Politecnico di Milano in the frame of SimSAC (Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design) project, funded by EU in the context of 6th Framework Program. It enables the creation of efficient low-order, medium fidelity models particularly suitable for structural sizing, aeroelastic analysis and optimization at the conceptual design level. The whole methodology is based on the integration of geometry construction, aerodynamic and structural analysis codes that combine depictive, computational, analytical, and semi-empirical methods, validated in an aircraft design environment. The work here presented aims at including the airframe and its effect from the very beginning of the conceptual design. This aspect is usually not considered in this early phase. In most cases, very simplified formulas and datasheets are adopted, which implies a low level of detail and a poor accuracy. Through NeoCASS, a preliminar distribution of stiffness and inertias can be determined, given the initial layout. The adoption of empirical formulas is reduced to the minimum in favor of simple numerical methods. This allows to consider the aeroelastic behavior and performances, as well, improving the accuracy of the design tools during the iterative steps and lowering the development costs and reducing the time to market. The result achieved is a design tool based on computational methods for the aero-structural analysis and Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) of aircraft layouts at the conceptual design stage. A complete case study regarding the TransoniCRuiser aircraft, including validation of the results obtained using industrial standard tools like MSC/NASTRAN and a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, is reported. As it will be shown, it is possible to improve the degree of fidelity of the conceptual design process by including tailored numerical tools, overcoming the lacks of statistical methods. The result is a method minimally dependent on datasheets, featuring a good compromise between accuracy and costs.

  11. Gimme That Real Old Time Religion: Re-embedding White Identities Through Ethnic Neo-Pagan Reconfigurations of European Heritage in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Furth, Brett H

    2015-08-05

    -Heathen Eurocentric traditions, while including several Heathen voices. 4 This research contributes to the growing discourse of emergent religious phenomena and will enrich our understanding of how individuals negotiate alternative religious identities, while... practitioners. Several scholars have recently begun to explore how Americans choose to self- identify with Eurocentric forms of Neo-Paganism, at least in part as a response to the perceived uprooting of identity in the face of globalization (Adler 1986...

  12. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious. Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of the

  13. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  14. Population education in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Lucan, T A

    1985-06-01

    The 1977 Sierra Leone 3 year population education project had 5 objectives: 1) to develop a core of Sierra Leoneans qualified in population education, 2) to integrate population education concepts into the curriculum for secondary schools and teachers colleges, 3) to train teachers already engaged in trial teaching in pilot schools in the new integrated curricula to give support to their colleagues, 4) to integrate population education into the whole Sierra Leone educational system, and 5) to create an awareness of the implications of population growth on the socioeconomic development of the country. A 1977 seminar on the Social Studies and Population Education Program discussed population issues and economic and social development. The strategy recommended at the seminar was that both the minor and the major revision approaches be used in the integration of population education concepts into the existing curriculum of the National Program in Social Studies for the lower secondary level. A Spiral Curriculum was established in 1981 constructed of 6 topics: 1) man's origins, development, and characteristics; 2) man's environment; 3) man's culture; 4) population and resources; 5) communication in the service of man; and 6) global issues-achievement and problems. Both at in-service and at pre-servicetraining, the enquiry method of teaching was emphasized. By the end of December 1981, the curriculum in Social Studies integrated with Population Education was completed for secondary schools and secondary teachers' colleges. The availability of the textbooks that secondary school students will take to their homes for their parents to read will contribute immensely to the attainment of the development objective of creating an awareness of the implications and consequences of population growth on the socioeconomic development of the country. PMID:12268125

  15. Light on population health status.

    PubMed

    Beyrer, K; Brauer, G W; Fliedner, T M; Greiner, C; Reischl, U

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. PMID:10083719

  16. Searching for dormant comets in the NEO region using data from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Brown, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Dormant comets (DCs) are objects that appear asteroidal but have cometary origins. Earth-approaching DCs may produce dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable as weak meteor showers at the Earth. However, identifying DCs is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from asteroids. Past asteroid-stream searches have produced some possible linkages between asteroids and meteor showers, the most notable being the Geminids and 3200 (Phaethon) and the Quadrantids and (196256) 2003 EH1. However, a comprehensive survey to look for all possible weak streams from recent DC activity, including dynamical formation and evolution of early dust trails has yet to be performed. Here we report on the progress of a DC meteoroid stream survey whereby we have identified all DC candidates whose orbits are such that recent (last several hundred years) dust release would be currently detectable at the Earth. We have simulated the evolution of dust trails for all candidate DC-stream objects and generate predictions for the characteristics of the associated DC shower at Earth. We then perform a cued survey for such streams among the 15 mega meteoroid orbits measured by CMOR since 2002, using a wavelet-based search algorithm with probe sizes tuned to the expected shower characteristics. The search is focused on ~300 Earth-approaching asteroids that have dynamical characteristics of comets (or asteroids in cometary orbits, ACOs). For some cases we will also discuss the connection between the meteor data and astrophysical observations of the parent body itself.

  17. Rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of Near Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Axelrod, Tim; Butler, Nat; Jedicke, Robert; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks later. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs. We will present results from our recently initiated program of rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. This technique is powerful and fast. We have written automated software that allows us to observe NEOs very soon after discovery. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques. We are on pace to characterize hundreds of NEOs per year.

  18. Influence of tumour stage at breast cancer detection on survival in modern times: population based study in 173?797 patients

    PubMed Central

    Saadatmand, Sepideh; Bretveld, Reini; Siesling, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of stage at breast cancer diagnosis, tumour biology, and treatment on survival in contemporary times of better (neo-)adjuvant systemic therapy. Design Prospective nationwide population based study. Setting Nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. Participants Female patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 (n=173?797), subdivided into two time cohorts on the basis of breast cancer diagnosis: 1999-2005 (n=80?228) and 2006-12 (n=93?569). Main outcome measures Relative survival was compared between the two cohorts. Influence of traditional prognostic factors on overall mortality was analysed with Cox regression for each cohort separately. Results Compared with 1999-2005, patients from 2006-12 had smaller (?T1 65% (n=60?570) v 60% (n=48?031); P<0.001), more often lymph node negative (N0 68% (n=63?544) v 65% (n=52?238); P<0.001) tumours, but they received more chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy (neo-adjuvant/adjuvant systemic therapy 60% (n=56?402) v 53% (n=42?185); P<0.001). Median follow-up was 9.8 years for 1999-2005 and 3.9 years for 2006-12. The relative five year survival rate in 2006-12 was 96%, improved in all tumour and nodal stages compared with 1999-2005, and 100% in tumours ?1 cm. In multivariable analyses adjusted for age and tumour type, overall mortality was decreased by surgery (especially breast conserving), radiotherapy, and systemic therapies. Mortality increased with progressing tumour size in both cohorts (2006-12 T1c v T1a: hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 1.78), but without a significant difference in invasive breast cancers until 1 cm (2006-12 T1b v T1a: hazard ratio 1.04, 0.88 to 1.22), and independently with progressing number of positive lymph nodes (2006-12 N1 v N0: 1.25, 1.17 to 1.32). Conclusions Tumour stage at diagnosis of breast cancer still influences overall survival significantly in the current era of effective systemic therapy. Diagnosis of breast cancer at an early tumour stage remains vital. PMID:26442924

  19. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  20. Magnetotactic bacterial production in response to Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in the Neo-Tethys Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savian, J. F.; Jovane, L.; Frontalini, F.; Trindade, R. I. F.; Coccioni, R.; Bohaty, S. M.; Wilson, P. A.; Florindo, F.; Roberts, A. P.; Catanzariti, R.; Iacoviello, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) at ~40 Ma is a warming event characterized in the deep Southern, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans by a distinct negative ?18O excursion over 500 kyr. In this work we report results of high-resolution paleontological, geochemical, and environmental magnetic investigations of the Monte Cagnero (MCA) section (Central Italy), which can be correlated on the basis of magneto- and biostratigraphic results to the MECO event. In the MCA section, an interval with a relative increase in eutrophic nannofossil taxa spans the culmination of the MECO warming and its aftermath and coincides with a positive carbon isotope excursion, and a peak in magnetite and hematite/goethite concentration. Our results suggest that magnetite peak reflects the appearance of putative magnetofossils, while the hematite/goethite apex is attributed to an enhanced detrital mineral contribution, likely as aeolian dust transported from the continent adjacent to the Neo-Tethys Ocean during a drier, more seasonal climate during the peak MECO warming. Based on our new data record, the MECO warming peak and its immediate aftermath are interpreted as a period of high primary productivity. Sea-surface iron fertilization is inferred to have stimulated high phytoplankton productivity, increasing organic carbon export to the seafloor and promoting enhanced biomineralization of magnetotactic bacteria, which are preserved as putative magnetofossils during the warmest periods of the MECO event in the MCA section.

  1. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of the Chemistry of Neo-formed Phases During the Dissolution of Phosphate Based Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Du Fou de Kerdaniel, Erwan; Clavier, Nicolas; Dacheux, Nicolas; Podor, Renaud

    2007-07-01

    Phosphate matrices are considered as potential candidates for the specific immobilization of tri- and tetravalent actinides. One of the main properties of interest of these matrices concerns their chemical durability. The chemical durability of the phosphate phases was studied with respect to the retention of actinides and developed using under- and over-saturation experiments. In this field, neo-formed phases were precipitated. Lanthanides were used as surrogates for trivalent actinides while uranium and thorium were used for tetravalent actinides. These phases were extensively characterized through several analytical and spectroscopic techniques (SEM, EPMA, XRD, micro - Raman, TRLFS). Secondary phosphate phases such as Nd{sub 1-2x}Ca{sub x}Th{sub x-y}U{sub y}(PO{sub 4},F) . 1/2 H{sub 2}O rhabdophane were identified during the dissolution of britholites. The precipitation of Nd{sub 1-2x}Ca{sub x}Th{sub x}PO{sub 4} . 1/2 H{sub 2}O rhabdophane was obtained and it appeared that there was a segregation between neodymium, calcium and thorium after a few days to several months depending on the thorium weight loadings and the precipitation time, thorium precipitating as TPHPH and neodymium as NdPO{sub 4} . 1/2 H{sub 2}O. Quantification of the solubility constants showed very low values that means that these phases exhibit some beneficial properties for the retention of radionuclides. (authors)

  2. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. Results We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. Conclusions We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization. PMID:22136458

  3. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  4. FROM KUIPER BELT OBJECT TO COMETARY NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    FROM KUIPER BELT OBJECT TO COMETARY NUCLEUS David Jewitt Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn body populations are related through a common origin in the Kuiper Belt, notably the Centaurs, the Jupiter Family Comets and certain dead-comets. But does primitive material from the Kuiper Belt survive

  5. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  6. Fast rotation of a subkilometer-sized near-Earth object 2011 XA{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Urakawa, Seitaro; Ohtsuka, Katsuhito; Abe, Shinsuke; Ito, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2014-05-01

    We present light curve observations and their multiband photometry for near-Earth object (NEO) 2011 XA{sub 3}. The light curve has shown a periodicity of 0.0304 ± 0.0003 days (= 43.8 ± 0.4 minutes). The fast rotation shows that 2011 XA{sub 3} is in a state of tension (i.e., a monolithic asteroid) and cannot be held together by self-gravitation. Moreover, the multiband photometric analysis indicates that the taxonomic class of 2011 XA{sub 3} is S-complex, or V-type. Its estimated effective diameter is 225 ± 97 m (S-complex) and 166 ± 63 m (V-type), respectively. Therefore, 2011 XA{sub 3} is a candidate for the second-largest, fast-rotating, monolithic asteroid. Moreover, the orbital parameters of 2011 XA{sub 3} are apparently similar to those of NEO (3200) Phaethon, but F/B-type. We computed the orbital evolutions of 2011 XA{sub 3} and Phaethon. However, the results of the computation and distinct taxonomy indicate that neither of the asteroids is of common origin.

  7. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Method Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ? 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Result Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%), 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3), 24% PR (n = 12), 62% SD (n = 31) and 8% PD (n = 4). Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%). Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50), cardiac toxicity (2/50), and CNS toxicity (4/50) leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. Conclusion The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS and DFS comparable to previously published data on neo-/adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting. However, the definitive role of chemotherapy remains unclear in the absence of large, randomized trials. Therefore, the current regimen can only be recommended within a clinical study, and a possibly increased risk of secondary leukemias has to be taken into account. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01382030, EudraCT 2004-002501-72 PMID:22152120

  8. Images of Axial Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  9. Peter Boros Object Recognition

    E-print Network

    Peter Boros Object Recognition Modelling and the Interface to a Control Strategy for Matching #12;#12;Peter Boros Object Recognition Modelling and the Interface to a Control Strategy for Matching Thesis Department of Computer and Information Science c Peter Boros ISBN 978-82-471-4364-3 (printed ver.) ISBN 978

  10. T-cell activation by transitory neo-antigens derived from distinct microbial pathways.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Alexandra J; Eckle, Sidonia B G; Birkinshaw, Richard W; Liu, Ligong; Patel, Onisha; Mahony, Jennifer; Chen, Zhenjun; Reantragoon, Rangsima; Meehan, Bronwyn; Cao, Hanwei; Williamson, Nicholas A; Strugnell, Richard A; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Mak, Jeffrey Y W; Fairlie, David P; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James

    2014-05-15

    T cells discriminate between foreign and host molecules by recognizing distinct microbial molecules, predominantly peptides and lipids. Riboflavin precursors found in many bacteria and yeast also selectively activate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, an abundant population of innate-like T cells in humans. However, the genesis of these small organic molecules and their mode of presentation to MAIT cells by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1 (ref. 8) are not well understood. Here we show that MAIT-cell activation requires key genes encoding enzymes that form 5-amino-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-A-RU), an early intermediate in bacterial riboflavin synthesis. Although 5-A-RU does not bind MR1 or activate MAIT cells directly, it does form potent MAIT-activating antigens via non-enzymatic reactions with small molecules, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, which are derived from other metabolic pathways. The MAIT antigens formed by the reactions between 5-A-RU and glyoxal/methylglyoxal were simple adducts, 5-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OE-RU) and 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), respectively, which bound to MR1 as shown by crystal structures of MAIT TCR ternary complexes. Although 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU are unstable intermediates, they became trapped by MR1 as reversible covalent Schiff base complexes. Mass spectra supported the capture by MR1 of 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU from bacterial cultures that activate MAIT cells, but not from non-activating bacteria, indicating that these MAIT antigens are present in a range of microbes. Thus, MR1 is able to capture, stabilize and present chemically unstable pyrimidine intermediates, which otherwise convert to lumazines, as potent antigens to MAIT cells. These pyrimidine adducts are microbial signatures for MAIT-cell immunosurveillance. PMID:24695216

  11. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  12. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  13. Measurement of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, THOMAS E.

    1993-01-01

    Although object relations theories are increasingly prominent in the psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic literature, efforts to study these phenomena empirically remain in their infancy. Researchers interested in studying intrapsychic processes have nonetheless attempted to assess levels of object relatedness, and several reports have documented both construct and predictive validity. This literature is reviewed, with special emphasis on the difficulties involved in the development of assessment instruments. The author summarizes reliability and validity data on the most widely used instruments in an effort to provide general guidelines for researchers interested in developing strategies for measuring object relations. PMID:22700124

  14. Philosophy of race meets population genetics.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections 'the discreteness objection', 'the visibility objection', 'the very important objection', and 'the objectively real objection.' After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical assumptions about the relevant meaning of 'race' or the nature of biological racial realism. In order to be constructive, I end by offering some advice for how we can productively critique attempts to defend biological racial realism based on recent human genetic clustering results. I also offer a clarification of the relevant human-population genetic research. PMID:25963045

  15. Objectives For Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluates present engineering education in efforts to establish clear plans and programs for the future. Suggests six objectives which seem to be appropriate for the American Society for Engineering Education to contribute effectively to the profession. (CC)

  16. Preservation of Digital Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

  17. Reverse engineering object recognition

    E-print Network

    Cox, David Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Any given object in the world can cast an effectively infinite number of different images onto the retina, depending on its position relative to the viewer, the configuration of light sources, and the presence of other ...

  18. Perceptual Organization Objective Organization

    E-print Network

    Carrasco, Marisa

    Perceptual Organization Objective Organization · Stimulus-driven · Governed by gestalt principles (proximity, similarity, good continuation, etc.) Subjective Organization · Conceptually-driven (~ attention Jonides, 1981 The Subjective Boundary Effect (SBE) Carrasco & Chang, P & P 1995 Subjective organization

  19. Introduction Object Tracking

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles H.

    ;Introduction ­ Vehicle Tracking Object Track vehicles on a highway Count them Implementation Real-time OpenCV with Shadow Detection" OpenCV implementation (without shadow detection) #12;Theory ­ Segmentation Background

  20. Statistical Object Recognition

    E-print Network

    Wells, William M. III

    1993-01-01

    Two formulations of model-based object recognition are described. MAP Model Matching evaluates joint hypotheses of match and pose, while Posterior Marginal Pose Estimation evaluates the pose only. Local search in pose ...

  1. Zircon U?Pb ages in Myanmar: Magmatic?metamorphic events and the closure of a neo-Tethys ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Chung, Sun-Lin; Oo, Thura; Lin, Te-Hsien; Hung, Chien-Hui

    2012-08-01

    Previous isotopic age studies have concluded that the main metamorphism in the Mogok Metamorphic belt (MMB) in Myanmar was Tertiary and caused by collision with or underthrusting by India. We present here results of zircon U-Pb age determinations on 18 samples from Myanmar, largely on intrusive rocks from the north-trending 550 km long Shan Scarps segment of the sickle-shaped MMB. The oldest determination is 491 Ma on orthogneiss north of Mandalay, interpreted as a protolith age and similar to the stratigraphic age of the Bawdwin Volcanics. Augen gneiss at Kyaukse has a 114 Ma protolith age. Our zircon U-Pb ages on undeformed intrusive rocks in the MMB range from Cretaceous to Miocene; the oldest (128 Ma), on a diorite near Yebokson, implies an earliest Cretaceous minimum age for regional metamorphism here. Younger ages on undeformed intrusions include 91 Ma on diorite at Mokpalin, 72 Ma on the weakly foliated garnet-bearing Nattaung granite, 44 and 48 Ma respectively on the MEC and Sedo granites, and 17-20 Ma on granite dykes. For the 128 Ma diorite, Sr and Nd isotopes indicative of a continental crust component, and mapped continuity of metamorphic host rocks, suggest correlation with mid early Cretaceous plutons in the eastern Transhimalayas. Zircon U-Pb ages for the MEC, Sedo and other granites within the MMB and Slate belt help to define a late Cretaceous to early Eocene age range for mostly ilmenite series peraluminous granites within the Western Granite belt and more restricted Western tin belt of Myanmar and southern Thailand. In the Wuntho-Popa arc west of the dextral Sagaing Fault, our new U-Pb zircon age of 105 Ma on diorite at Salingyi supports previous K-Ar ages (106-93 Ma) for pre-Tertiary intrusions. In the Cretaceous this arc may have occupied the Andaman Sea and continued northwards through the Mokpalin diorites and west of the MMB to the 103-80 Ma I-type plutons in the Gandise batholith of southern Tibet. We interpret the MMB and Slate belt as part of a Western Myanmar block separated in the Jurassic from the Shan Plateau to the east by the southwestward continuation of the Bangong-Nujiang-Luxi neo-Tethys I ocean. We relate most intrusive and metamorphic events in and near the MMB to westward subduction of this ocean and end-Jurassic collision of the Plateau with the overriding Western Myanmar-Slate belt block; to orogenic polarity reversal and early Cretaceous westward translation of the Plateau sequence over the suture zone; and to eastward subduction of the ancestral Indian Ocean or neo-Tethys II beneath Myanmar with generation of the Wuntho-Popa arc beginning before the late Cretaceous. The MMB includes meta-Plateau rocks near Mandalay but meta-Slate belt rocks to the north and south. Within the MMB, previous monazite-xenotime-thorite ages of Eocene-Oligocene, and Oligocene-early Miocene cooling ages on micas, with no deformation in Eocene granites, suggest a high-temperature thermal event related to intrusion of these and other granites during a previously proposed regional extension. Our data imply that the main fabric-forming metamorphic event in the MMB pre-dated the India-Asia collision.

  2. Neo-angiogenesis metabolic biomarker of tumor-genesis tracking by infrared joystick contact imaging in personalized homecare system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Hoekstra, Philip; Landa, Joseph; Vydelingum, Nadarajen A.

    2014-05-01

    We describe an affordable, harmless, and administrative (AHA) metabolic biomarker (MBM) for homecare cancer screening. It may save hundreds of thousands of women's and thousands of men's lives every year from breast cancer and melanoma. The goal is to increase the specificity of infrared (IR) imagery to reduce the false alarm rate (FAR). The patient's hands are immersed in icy cold water, about 11oC, for 30 seconds. We then compare two IR images, taken before and after the cold stimulus, and the difference reveals an enhanced signal and noise ratio (SNR) at tumorigenesis sites since the contraction of capillaries under cold challenge is natural to healthy capillaries, except those newly built capillaries during angiogenesis (Folkman, Nature 1995). Concomitant with the genome and the phenome (molecular signaling by phosphor-mediate protein causing inflammation by platelet activating factor (PAF) that transform cells from benign to malignant is the amplification of nitric oxide (NO) syntheses, a short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that dilates regional blood vessels; superseding normal autonomic nervous system regulation. A rapidly growing tumor site might implicate accumulation of ROS, for which NO can rapidly stretch the capillary bed system usually having thinning muscular lining known as Neo-Angiogenesis (NA) that could behave like Leaky In-situ Faucet Effect (LIFE) in response to cold challenge. To emphasize the state of art knowledge of NA, we mentioned in passing the first generation of an anticapillary growth drug, Avastin by Genetech; it is an antibody protein that is injected for metastasis, while the second generation drug; Sorafenib by Bayers (2001) and Sutent by Pfizer (2000) both target molecular signaling loci to block receptor associated tyrosine kinase induced protein phosphorylation in order to reverse the angiogenesis. Differentiating benign from malignant in a straightforward manner is required to achieve the wellness protocol, yet would become prohibitively expensive and impossible to follow through. For example, given the probability of detection (PD) about 0.1% over unspecified number of years (e.g. menopause years for breast cancer), one might need hundred thousand volunteers. We suggested a Time Reversal Invariant Paradigm (TRIP) (a private communication with Vatican) for gathering equivalent cancer symptom imagery from recovery histories of dozens of patients. We further mixed it with few % of recovered/non-sick cases for negative controls. Creating Virtual images and running videos of these, frame by frame, in two directions (forward and backward in time) resulted in identical Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) for both the computer Aided Target Recognition (AiTR) algorithm and the human radiological experts; namely PD versus FAR within the standard deviation; even though the physiology could be entirely different. Such a TRIP would be true taken by any memory-less instantaneous imagery devices (IR, ultrasound, X-rays, MRI excluding magnetic hysteresis memory). In summary, such an affordable, harmless, and administrative, neo-angiogenesis metabolic biomarker can help monitor the transitioning from benign to malignant states of high-risk home alone seniors and also monitor the progress of home alone seniors treatment at home. Therefore, Smartphone equipped with a day camera having IR spectral filtering for

  3. Some Contributions of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment Approach to Earthquake Risk Assessment for the City of Sofia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paskaleva, Ivanka; Kouteva-Guentcheva, Mihaela; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the outcome of the advanced seismic hazard and seismic risk estimates recently performed for the city of Sofia, based on the state-of-the-art of knowledge for this site. Some major results of the neo-deterministic, scenario-based, seismic hazard assessment approach (NDSHA) to the earthquake hazard assessment for the city of Sofia are considered. Further validations of the recently constructed synthetic strong motion database, containing site and seismic source-specific ground motion time histories are performed and discussed. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with regard to earthquake magnitude, seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and local geological site conditions. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, T n, format, converted to a capacity diagram in S a - S d format is discussed in the perspective of the Eurocode 8 provisions. A brief overview of the engineering applications of the seismic demand obtained making use of the NDSHA is supplied. Some applications of the outcome of NDSHA procedure for engineering purposes are shown. The obtained database of ground shaking waveforms and time-histories, computed for city of Sofia is used to: (1) extract maximum particle velocities; (2) calculate the space distribution of the horizontal strain factor Log10 ?; (3) estimate liquefaction susceptibility in terms of standard penetration test, N values, and initial over burden stress; (4) estimate damage index distribution; and (5) map the distribution of the expected pipe breaks and red-tagged buildings for given scenario earthquakes, etc. The theoretically obtained database, based on the simultaneous treatment of the data from many disciplines, contains data fully suitable for practical use. The proper use of this database can lead to a significant seismic vulnerability reduction and thus contributes to earthquake preparedness.

  4. Crustal heterogeneities beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake, Gujarat, India source zone: Seismological evidence for neo-tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    During the 1st decade of the 21st century, the study area of Talala, Saurashtra of western India witnessed three damaging earthquakes of moderate magnitude, year 2007 [Mw 5.0; Mw 4.8] and in the year 2011 [Mw 5.1] that generated public panic in the region. The last damaging moderate earthquake of the 20th October 2011 in Talala region (21.09°N;70.45°E), located at about 200 km south to the devastating 2001 Bhuj (23.412°N, 70.232°E) mainshock (Mw 7.6), jolted the entire Saurashtra region of Gujarat. A long series of aftershocks followed hereafter, recorded at nine seismograph/accelerograph stations. Hypocenters of aftershocks were relocated accurately using absolute and relative travel time (double-difference) method. In this study, we, for the first time, determined 3-D tomographic images of the upper crust beneath the 2011 Talala earthquake source zone by inverting about 1135 P and 1125 S wave arrival time data. Estimates of seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structures offer a reliable interpretation of crustal heterogeneities and their bearing on geneses of moderate earthquakes and their aftershock sequences beneath the source zone. It is found that the 2011 Talala mainshock hypocenter depth (6 km) is located near the boundary of the low and high velocity (Vp, Vs) and the source zone is associated with low-? anomalies guarded by the prominent high-? anomalies along the active fault zone having strike-slip motion beneath the earthquake source zone. The pattern of distribution of (Vp, Vs, ?) and its association with occurrences of aftershocks provide seismological evidence for the neo-tectonics in the region having left lateral strike-slip motion of the fault.

  5. Multicolor Photometry of Trans-neptunian Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Romon, J.; Veillet, C.

    2001-12-01

    We are continuing our photometric survey of the trans-neptunian and Centaur populations started in 1997. We report multicolor photometry for 17 objects. With these results combined with previous data (M. A. Barucci, A. Doressoundiram, M. Fulchignoni, D. Tholen, and M. Lazzarin 1999. Icarus142, 476-481; M. A. Barucci, J. Romon, A. Doressoundiram, and D. Tholen 2000. Astron. J.120, 496-500), we have at our disposal a homogeneous and high-quality set of color indices for 29 objects, numerous enough to make significant studies. The color-color diagrams confirm the wide and continuous spread of colors in the trans-neptunian object population. This diversity may be explained by the combined action of space weathering and collisional resurfacing. We do not find any correlation of colors with size or heliocentric distance, but we note an excess of red objects for perihelion distance greater than 40 AU. Furthermore, our results suggest also that highly inclined (e.g., i>17°) and eccentric objects are preferentially neutral. These objects may have suffered more collisional resurfacing than others.

  6. [Vietnam and its population].

    PubMed

    Veron, J

    1993-01-01

    Viet Nam's 1993 population of 72 million makes it the second largest country of Southeast Asia after Indonesia. Viet Nam's demographic transition is underway, but growth is still a rapid 2% annually, a sufficiently high rate to hinder socioeconomic development. The 1979 and 1989 censuses and the 1988 Demographic and Health Survey are the major recent sources of data on Viet Nam's population. Marriage is universal in Viet Nam. Men marry at 24.5 and women at 23.2 years on average. Fertility estimates based on nonadjusted census data indicate a total fertility rate for 1988-89 of 3.8 overall, 2.2 in urban areas, and 4.3 in rural areas. Regional differences resulting from contraceptive usage, educational differentials, and tabus regarding spacing are strong. The average household size is 5. Viet Nam's first fertility reduction policy was announced in 1963 and sought to improve the welfare of women to increase their productivity for the war effort. More recent family planning policies are based on the view that rapid demographic growth is one of the great obstacles to development. The objectives of the current policy are to reduce the growth rate to 1% by the end of the century, increase contraceptive prevalence, delay arrival of the first child, limit family size to 2 children or 3 for ethnic minorities, and increase birth intervals from 3 to 5 years. The program is voluntarist in nature but includes incentives and disincentives. Life expectancy at birth in 1989 was 67.5 years for women and 63 for men. Infant mortality was 37/1000, with regional differentials. The principal causes of hospital deaths are tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrhea. Objectives of the current health policy are to prevent infectious diseases, reinforce primary health care services, promote traditional medicine, achieve self-sufficiency in basic medicines, and improve environmental health and access to clean water. Viet Nam is one of the most densely populated Southeast Asian countries and is still 80% rural. The population is concentrated in the Red River delta, the Mekong delta, and the southeastern region including Ho Chi Minh City. The 4 main cities are Ho Chi Minh City with 3.2 million inhabitants,. Hanoi with 1.1 million, Hai Phong with 456,000, and Da Nang with 371,000. Although internal migration has not yet assumed great weight, there has been some rural exodus and movement from poor to richer regions. The policy of population redistribution to reduce density in the Red River delta and central coastal plain and to control city growth has led to some movement. 88% of the population over 10 was literate in 1989. Almost 75% of the population over age 13 is economically active. 71% of the economically active population is employed in agriculture, 12% in industry, and 7% in commerce. If current growth trends continue, Viet Nam is projected to have a population of 80 million in 2000 and 96 million in 2014. PMID:12178203

  7. Finding Near Earth Objects Before They Find Us!

    E-print Network

    known, activate National Warning System ­ Analogous to large re-entering space debris and/or hurricane and orbit determination if potential hazard is near term 8 #12;NEO Threat Notification Upon notification

  8. Ground-Based Near-Earth Object Studies in the post-Russian (Chelyabinsk) Meteor Airburst World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W. H.

    2013-09-01

    Public awareness of the danger of potentially hazardous asteroids has been heightened by the airburst of a meteor over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on February 15, 2013, which caused millions of dollars in damage from a shock wave that impacted structures and injured ~1500 people. Later that same day, a larger asteroid, 2012 DA14, made a close approach to the Earth, but harmlessly skimmed past. Further, other very close-approaching Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have recently posed threats to man-made space assets by passing through or very near the geosynchronous satellite zone. These events have lead to increased awareness and concern, and have subsequently served as a catalyst for deeper exploration of what is being done to mitigate such hazards, and whether more effort needs to be placed in this area of study. An NEO is designated as "potentially hazardous" when its orbit comes to within 0.05 AU of the Earth's orbit. Ground-based physical characterization studies of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) that are cataloged as potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) are very beneficial to any mitigation plan that might be devised if the risk of impact is high. After a well-defined orbit has been determined for a PHO, other physical parameters such as size, rotation rate, and composition are important. For the smallest PHOs being discovered, observational efforts must commence at or near the time of discovery to ensure favorable parameters for data collection. Otherwise, subsequent optimal apparitions for observing an asteroid or comet may be decades away. Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility are well positioned to acquire real-time physical information on PHOs since their ongoing NEO follow-up and characterization program collects data monthly throughout the year on the smallest, close-approaching NEOs being discovered. Over the past 5 years that this program has been in operation, spin rates for over 50 Near-Earth asteroids have been obtained, several of which are the fastest rotators in the Solar System. The rotation rate of an object can imply important information about its internal composition and degree of fracture, and thereby its collisional history. In particular, objects with sub-hour rotation periods are likely to have a non-negligible tensile strength. Knowing the material strength of a PHO has a direct bearing on any threat reduction plan. To address the renewed focus on asteroid threats, we will present new data obtained via photometric and spectroscopic techniques on the physical properties of several Earth-approaching asteroids that are potentially hazardous. We will discuss methods and techniques being employed to further reduce the threat of objects that may hit the Earth or airburst in the upper atmosphere, and the role ground-based telescopic monitoring plays in that endeavor.

  9. Objects of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  10. Objects of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Donald D.; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a “conscious agent.” We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  11. Automatic anatomy recognition of sparse objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Wang, Huiqian; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    A general body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology was proposed in our previous work based on hierarchical fuzzy models of multitudes of objects which was not tied to any specific organ system, body region, or image modality. That work revealed the challenges encountered in modeling, recognizing, and delineating sparse objects throughout the body (compared to their non-sparse counterparts) if the models are based on the object's exact geometric representations. The challenges stem mainly from the variation in sparse objects in their shape, topology, geographic layout, and relationship to other objects. That led to the idea of modeling sparse objects not from the precise geometric representations of their samples but by using a properly designed optimal super form. This paper presents the underlying improved methodology which includes 5 steps: (a) Collecting image data from a specific population group G and body region ? and delineating in these images the objects in ? to be modeled; (b) Building a super form, S-form, for each object O in ?; (c) Refining the S-form of O to construct an optimal (minimal) super form, S*-form, which constitutes the (fuzzy) model of O; (d) Recognizing objects in ? using the S*-form; (e) Defining confounding and background objects in each S*-form for each object and performing optimal delineation. Our evaluations based on 50 3D computed tomography (CT) image sets in the thorax on four sparse objects indicate that substantially improved performance (FPVF~2%, FNVF~10%, and success where the previous approach failed) can be achieved using the new approach.

  12. Smarter objects : programming physical objects with AR technology

    E-print Network

    Heun, Valentin Markus Josef

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a system that associates a virtual object with each physical object. These objects are connected to support a flexible and easy means of modifying the interface and behavior of a physical object. It ...

  13. Analysis of ejecta fate from proposed man-made impactors into near-Earth objects --- a NEOShield study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids measuring 100 meters across tend to impact the Earth once every 5,000 years on average [1]. Smaller bodies enter into the Earth's atmosphere more frequently, but may detonate before reaching the surface. Conversely, impacts from larger bodies are more rare [2], but can come with devastating global consequences to living species. In 2005, a United States Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect, by 2020, 90 percent of near-Earth objects (NEOs) having diameters of 140 meters or greater [3]. One year prior, ESA's Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel (NEOMAP) recommended the study of a kinetic impactor mission as a priority in the framework of NEO risk assessment [4]. A ''Phase-A'' study of such a mission, Don Quixote, took place at ESA until 2007. In accordance with NEOMAP and with the Target NEO Global Community's recommendations in 2011 [5], the NEOShield Project is being funded for 3.5 years by the European Commission in its FP7 program. NEOShield began in 2012 and is primarily, but not exclusively, a European consortium of research institutions and engineering industries that aims to analyze promising mitigation options and provide solutions to the critical scientific and technical obstacles involved in confronting threats posed by the small bodies in the neighborhood of the Earth's orbit [6]. To further explore the NEO threat mitigation via the strategy of kinetic impact, building upon the Don Quixote study, the idea is to target a specific NEO for impact and attempt to quantify the response. How long do ejecta remain aloft and where do they end up? Fragments that are ejected at high speeds escape, but what about material moving at or near the escape speed of the NEO or that suffer energy-dissipating collisions after being ejected? Where would be a ''safe'' location for an observing spacecraft during and subsequent to the impact? Here, we outline the early phases of an ongoing numerical investigation of the fate of the material ejected from a targeted spacecraft impact, part of a specific work package of NEOShield. To compute the initial, hypervelocity, phase of the impact (0.3 s), we use a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) impact code, specially written to model geologic materials [7], using the Tillotson equation of state, a standard Drucker-Prager yield criterion for rocky materials, and a modified Grady-Kip tensile fracture model relying on a Weibull distribution of incipient flaws [8]. To determine the fate of the ejecta, the output is then ported into the N-Body code, PKDGRAV, originally developed for cosmological modeling of large-scale structure at the University of Washington [9]; the code was then outfitted to handle collisions and adapted for planetary-science applications [10]. We take advantage of PKDGRAV's sophisticated neighbor-finding tree to run its gravity solver and search for contacts as part of a soft-sphere collisional routine [11]. Simulating the evolution of the ejecta cloud is complex, involving a lot of material moving at a wide range of speeds. The fastest-moving ejecta easily escape the weak pull of the asteroid's gravity, but the trajectories of material sent aloft at or near escape speed must be followed for weeks in order to determine their fate. Slow-moving material lingers in the weak gravitational field, potentially posing a risk to nearby spacecraft (e.g., the ''orbiter'' in the Don Quixote study), and obscuring data collection, by ground- and/or space-based detectors, in the aftermath of the impact. Results of the study will be furnished.

  14. Explaining the Objective-Subjective Memory Discrepancy in Epilepsy 

    E-print Network

    Russell, Helen

    2013-08-15

    Previous research has shown that epilepsy patients frequently report increased memory impairments compared to the normal population but that their performance on standardised memory tests does not reflect this, displaying an “objective...

  15. Population heterogeneity and causal inference

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Population heterogeneity is ubiquitous in social science. The very objective of social science research is not to discover abstract and universal laws but to understand population heterogeneity. Due to population heterogeneity, causal inference with observational data in social science is impossible without strong assumptions. Researchers have long been concerned with two potential sources of bias. The first is bias in unobserved pretreatment factors affecting the outcome even in the absence of treatment. The second is bias due to heterogeneity in treatment effects. In this article, I show how “composition bias” due to population heterogeneity evolves over time when treatment propensity is systematically associated with heterogeneous treatment effects. A form of selection bias, composition bias, arises dynamically at the aggregate level even when the classic assumption of ignorability holds true at the microlevel. PMID:23530202

  16. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D. (Cupertino, CA)

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  17. Invariance and Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

  18. Population protocols Impossibility results

    E-print Network

    Aspnes, James

    Population protocols Impossibility results Computation on graphs Computation by epidemic Conclusions Population Protocols James Aspnes Yale University January 29th, 2007 January 29th, 2007 Population Protocols #12;Population protocols Impossibility results Computation on graphs Computation by epidemic

  19. BSc Population and GeographyBSc Population

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    perspective · examines spatial variations in the size, composition, growth and distribution of populationsBSc Population and GeographyBSc Population and Geography Sabu Padmadas, PhD Professor of Demography 2015 #12;· integrates population studies and demographic phenomena (processes) in a geographical

  20. Global Population Profile: 2002. International Population Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Matthew; McDevitt, Thomas; Stanecki, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Global Population Profile: 2002 summarizes the most important trends in global population at the dawn of the 21st century. The presentation is organized around four themes: (1) Global Population; (2) Growth, Global Population; (3) Composition, Contraceptive Prevalence in the Developing World; and (4) the AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century. This…