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1

Easily Retrievable Objects among the NEO Population  

E-print Network

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judi...

Yárnoz, D García; McInnes, C R

2013-01-01

2

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

3

The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (<0.3 AU) to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; Volk, Christopher P.; Koontz, Steven L.; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Swenson, Charles

2014-01-01

4

The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30 to 420 days in duration and assuming chemical propulsion. Similar studies have been reported assuming high power electric propulsion for manned NEO rendezvous missions (11). The delta V requirement breakdown and mission profile data from references 10 and 11 are used as a basis for sizing the NEO Scout spacecraft and for conducting preliminary feasibility assessments using the Tsiokolvsky rocket equation, a (worst-case) delta V requirement of 10 km/sec, and a maximum spacecraft dry mass of 20 kg. Using chemical propellant for a 10 km/sec delta V drives spacecraft wet mass well above 300 kg so that chemical propulsion is a non-starter for the proposed mission profile and spacecraft wet mass limits. In contrast, a solar electric propulsion system needs only 8 kg of Xe propellant to accelerate the spacecraft to 10 km/sec in 163 days with 0.02 N of thrust and 500 W of power from1.6 sq m of 29% efficient solar panels. In a second example, accelerating a 4 kg payload to 7 km/sec over 180 days requires about 6.7 kg of propellant and 1.2 kg of solar panels (12 kg total spacecraft wet mass).

Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

2014-01-01

5

Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

Barbee, Brent W.

2015-01-01

6

A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as optical or radar sensors and simulate observation campaigns. The tool outputs field-of-view crossings and actual detections of the selected NEO population objects. Using the Observation Analysis users are able to process and plot the results of the Observation Simulation. In order to enable end-users to handle the tool in a user-intuitive and comfortable way, a GUI has been created based on the modular Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) technology. Through the GUI users can easily enter input data for the tool, execute it and view its output data in a clear way. Additionally, the GUI runs gnuplot to create plot pictures and presents them to the user. Furthermore, users can create projects to organise executions of the tool.

Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

7

Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

Mazanek, Daniel D.

2005-01-01

8

The LCOGT Near Earth Object (NEO) Follow-up Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), NEOWISE and PanSTARRS (PS1). Over 600 NEO candidates have been targeted so far this year with 250+ objects reported to the MPC, including 70 confirmed NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

2014-11-01

9

NEO-SURFACE: Near-Earth Objects --- SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) form a continuously replenished population of asteroids and dead comets that cross the Earth's orbit while orbiting the Sun. Our present knowledge of their physical properties is rather limited, especially for what concerns faint and newly-discovered objects, of which we have physical information for less than 10 % of the population. The most frequent technique to obtain physical characterizations of NEOs is the optical/NIR spectroscopy: by analyzing the object's spectral features, it is possible to detect minerals and compounds (e.g., silicates, organics, and products of aqueous-alteration processes) present on its surface, to put constraints on the thermal evolution (maximum temperature reached, aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism), as well as to establish possible links with objects belonging to other populations of small bodies (e.g., main-belt asteroids, and comets) and with meteorites. In order to increase the present knowledge of the physical properties of NEOs, we are carrying out a survey called NEO-SURFACE: Near Earth Objects --- SURvey oF Asteroids Close to the Earth (http://www.oa-roma.inaf.it/planet/NEOSurface.html). We perform V+NIR spectroscopy and photometry focusing our effort, first, on NEOs with possible close approaches with the Earth (PHAs, the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids), and, second, on NEOs easily accessible for future rendezvous space missions. In cases of NEOs causing an impact hazard, physical parameters are fundamental in order to estimate their response to non-gravitational forces (mainly to the Yarkovsky effect) and therefore model their future dynamical evolution. For suitable targets for space missions, the physical characterization is needed to guarantee both the technical feasibility and the high scientific return of the mission. The results collected until now will be presented and discussed.

Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; Brucato, J.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Rossi, A.

2014-07-01

10

NeoDys: Near Earth Objects: Dynamic Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NeoDys, a project developed at the University of Pisa in Italy, supplies data and services for all Near Earth Asteroids. Updated daily, researchers can find links to all NeoDys objects and observatories as well as data on Earth Impact Possibilities. Educators and students will find instructive explanations of Near-Earth Asteroids and three dimensional visualizations of the objects' orbits. Although at first glance some of the data may appear difficult to interpret, each page has a Help icon that thoroughly and clearly describes the information presented.

Milani, Andrea

11

Piloted operations at a near-Earth object (NEO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2006, NASA's Constellation Program sponsored a study to examine the feasibility of sending a piloted Orion spacecraft to a near-Earth object. NEOs are asteroids or comets that have perihelion distances less than or equal to 1.3 astronomical units, and can have orbits that cross that of the Earth. Therefore, the most suitable targets for the Orion Crew Exploration

Rob R. Landis; Paul A. Abell; David J. Korsmeyer; Thomas D. Jones; Daniel R. Adamo

2009-01-01

12

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

Adams, Robert B.

2008-01-01

13

ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [Joint Sciences Department, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: cristina.thomas@nau.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-15

14

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias

Pasquale Tricarico; E. C. Beshore; S. M. Larson; A. Boattini; G. V. Williams

2010-01-01

15

Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO`s is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today`s cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-08-25

16

Near earth object fuels (neo-fuels): Discovery, prospecting and use  

SciTech Connect

The 1992 discovery of a water-ice, near-Earth object (NEO) in the space near Earth is evaluated as a source of rocket fuel and life support materials for Earth orbit use. Nuclear thermal rockets using steam propellant are evaluated and suggested. The space geological formation containing such water-rich NEO's is described. An architecture couples near-Earth object fuels (neo-fuel) extraction with use in Earth orbits. Preliminary mass payback analyses show that space tanker systems fueled from space can return in excess of 100 times their launched mass from the NEO, per trip. Preliminary cost estimates indicate neo-fuel costs at Earth orbit can be 3 orders of magnitude below today's cost. A suggested resource verification plan is presented.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-08-25

17

An Urban Neo-Poverty Population-Based Quality of Life and Related Social Characteristics Investigation from Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate quality of life (QOL) and related characteristics among an urban neo-poverty population in northeast China, and to compare this population with a traditional poverty cohort.DesignThe research was a cross-sectional survey executed from June 2005 to October 2007, with a sample of 2940 individuals ages 36 to 55 in three different industrial cities of northeast China. Data were collected

Fengrong Ou; Kai Li; Qian Gao; Dan Liu; Jinghai Li; Liwen Hu; Xian Wu; E. Kale Edmiston; Yang Liu

2012-01-01

18

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

2007-01-01

19

Near-earth object (NEO) characterization at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) has demonstrated follow-up astrometry and photometry for near-earth objects (NEOs), with results published in the Minor Planet Circulars. Although this information is important for the cataloging of all NEOs, it does not provide all of the data needed to assess the potential hazard posed by these objects, i.e. composition, size, shape, and dynamics. AMOS has increased its capability by adding a six position filter wheel (in conjunction with Phillip's Laboratory's Geophysics Directorate and the University of Arizona), for use on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's CCD camera mounted on the AMOS 1.2 meter telescope. The paper provides the rationale for three-color photometry for determination of NEO characteristics, as well as preliminary results of the observations of several NEOs an main-belt asteroids. It also discusses the design of a photo-polarimeter, to be built in the near future, which will add more capability to AMOS, and determination of albedo and size of NEOs of particular interest to both the scientific and government communities.

Kervin, Paul W.; O'Connell, Daniel G.; Sydney, Paul F.; Medrano, Robert S.; Nishimoto, Daron L.; Africano, John L.; Tedesco, Edward; Lambert, John V.

1996-10-01

20

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

2007-05-01

21

High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions  

SciTech Connect

The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M. [Department of Advanced Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

22

Applying international space station (ISS) and solar-sail technology to the exploration and diversion of small, dark near earth objects (NEO's)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-Station technology, micron-thick 100-m solar sails, and a near-Earth propulsion system allow exploration of small, dark Near-Earth-Objects (NEO's) of cometary origin. Early crewed missions to NEO's could analyze the objects' properties and evaluate resource-mining possibilities. Later missions to Earth-threatening 100-m radius NEO's could deploy NEO-centered, high-area, low-mass reflective structures. The solar gravitational parameter (GMsun) on a NEO is slightly reduced

G. L. Matloff

1999-01-01

23

ExploreNEOs. I. Description and First Results from the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have begun the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe some 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 mum with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its Warm Spitzer mode. From these measurements and catalog optical photometry we derive albedos and diameters of the observed targets. The overall goal of our ExploreNEOs program is to study the history of near-Earth

D. E. Trilling; M. Mueller; J. L. Hora; A. W. Harris; B. Bhattacharya; W. F. Bottke; S. Chesley; M. Delbo; J. P. Emery; G. Fazio; A. Mainzer; B. Penprase; H. A. Smith; T. B. Spahr; J. A. Stansberry; C. A. Thomas

2010-01-01

24

NEO Survey: An Efficient Search for Near-Earth Objects by an IR Observatory in a Venus-like Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003 NASA commissioned a Science Definition Team (SDT) (Stokes, et al., 2003) to study the threats posed by Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), recommend efficient methods for detecting NEOs down to 140 meters in diameter, and suggest conceptual mitigation techniques. In this same time frame, Congress set the goal of cataloguing 90% of all NEOs down to 140 meters diameter by 2020. The SDT concluded that the infrared passband from ~5 to ~11 microns is the best for finding NEOs; that an aperture of 50 centimeters is sufficient; and that locating a NEO-finding observatory in a Venus-like orbit is ideal. Since then, NASA and its industrial partners (such as Ball Aerospace) have flown two very NEO-relevant deep-space missions-the Spitzer Space Telescope and Kepler. Herein, a high-reliability, credibly-costed design is presented based on Spitzer and Kepler that meets the 90%/140-m/2020 requirements for about $600 M. This design will also detect about 85% of all >100 meter NEOs, about 70% of all >65 meter NEOs, and about 50% of all >50 meter NEOs. These smaller NEOs constitute a newly recognized threat regime that cannot be efficiently found from the ground.

Arentz, Robert; Reitsema, Harold; van Cleve, Jeffrey; Linfield, Roger

2010-01-01

25

ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Obs. de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Ave. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-03-15

26

Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program seeks to address the fundamental question: What are the relationships between asteroids, comets, and meteorites? To answer this question, we are studying the population of asteroids near the Earth which likely contain both asteroids and extinct comets and which is the immediate source for meteorites. An analysis of new and existing visible wavelength spectral data for more than 100 (Near-Earth Objects) NEOs, and Keck albedo data for more than 20 NEOs is underway. New asteroid-meteorite links are being found, the NEO population and hazard is being characterized, and the extinct comet component is being constrained. These results are contained within the following publication work during the current period: 1 book, 2 book chapters, 1 published paper, 2 papers submitted, 2 papers in preparation, 1 Ph. D. thesis in preparation, and 7 meeting abstracts/presentations.

Binzel, Richard P.

2003-01-01

27

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

2014-01-01

28

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats  

PubMed Central

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named “Neo,” suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Rodgers, Chris C.; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

29

An High Resolution Near-Earth Objects Population Enabling Next-Generation Search Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, the dedicated search for kilometer-size near-Earth objects (NEOs), potentially hazardous objects (PHOs), and potential Earth impactors has led to a boost in the rate of discoveries of these objects. The catalog of known NEOs is the fundamental ingredient used to develop a model for the NEOs population, either by assessing and correcting for the observational bias (Jedicke et al., 2002), or by evaluating the migration rates from the NEOs source regions (Bottke et al., 2002). The modeled NEOs population is a necessary tool used to track the progress in the search of large NEOs (Jedicke et al., 2003) and to try to predict the distribution of the ones still undiscovered, as well as to study the sky distribution of potential Earth impactors (Chesley & Spahr, 2004). We present a method to model the NEOs population in all six orbital elements, on a finely grained grid, allowing us the design and test of targeted and optimized search strategies. This method relies on the observational data routinely reported to the Minor Planet Center (MPC) by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and by other active NEO surveys over the past decade, to determine on a nightly basis the efficiency in detecting moving objects as a function of observable quantities including apparent magnitude, rate of motion, airmass, and galactic latitude. The cumulative detection probability is then be computed for objects within a small range in orbital elements and absolute magnitude, and the comparison with the number of know NEOs within the same range allows us to model the population. When propagated to the present epoch and projected on the sky plane, this provides the distribution of the missing large NEOs, PHOs, and potential impactors.

Tricaico, Pasquale; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; Boattini, A.; Williams, G. V.

2010-01-01

30

Prevention sequence mechanisms (PSM) for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) based on a three parameter scheme based classification framework  

E-print Network

There is a significant amount of space debris from previous space endeavors left over by the Russians and the US, leave alone the possibility of collisions with Near Earth Objects (NEOs) like asteroids and comets. Currently, ...

Sahani, Rohan

2007-01-01

31

Comets in the near-Earth object population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the lifespan of near-Earth objects (NEOs) is shorter than the age of the Solar System, these objects originate elsewhere. Their most likely sources are the main asteroid belt and comets. Through physical observations we seek to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among “asteroids” catalogued as NEOs and thereby determine the fraction of “comet candidates” within the total NEO

Francesca DeMeo; Richard P. Binzel

2008-01-01

32

The Cometary Component Of The Near-Earth Object Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The problem of the origin of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs), whether predominantly cometary or asteroidal, hasattracted much recent interest. In this work, we consider NEOs to have perihelion distances q ! 1:4 AU and separate themaccording to their aphelion distances into two broad classes: Class 1 NEOs have aphelia Q ? 4:2 AU, allowing these objectspossibly to have close approaches

N. w. Harris; M. e. Bailey

33

Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the near-Earth objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far, but also because the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs

William F. Bottke Jr; Alessandro Morbidelli; Robert Jedicke; Jean-Marc Petit; Harold F. Levison; Patrick Michel; Travis S. Metcalfe

2002-01-01

34

Compositional Properties of Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-Earth object (NEO) population contains the immediate precursors to meteorites studied in our laboratories. All meteorites, by definition of their intersection with Earth, were NEOs prior to their arrival. Because NEOs have dynamical lifetimes that are short (due to collisions with the sun, planets, or ejection) compared with the age of the solar system, all currently observed asteroid-like NEOs

R. P. Binzel

2004-01-01

35

The Population of Tiny Near-Earth Objects Observed by NEOWISE  

E-print Network

Only a very small fraction of the asteroid population at size scales comparable to the object that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia has been discovered to date, and physical properties are poorly characterized. We present previously unreported detections of 106 close approaching near-Earth objects (NEOs) by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission's NEOWISE project. These infrared observations constrain physical properties such as diameter and albedo for these objects, many of which are found to be smaller than 100 m. Because these objects are intrinsically faint, they were detected by WISE during very close approaches to the Earth, often at large apparent on-sky velocities. We observe a trend of increasing albedo with decreasing size, but as this sample of NEOs was discovered by visible light surveys, it is likely that selection biases against finding small, dark NEOs influence this finding.

Mainzer, A; Grav, T; Masiero, J; Cutri, R M; Wright, E L; Nugent, C R; Stevenson, R; Clyne, E; Cukrov, G; Masci, F

2013-01-01

36

The Near-Earth Object Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the dynamics of a sample of 117 near-Earth objects (NEOs) over a time scale of 60 Myr. We find that while 10–20% end their lifetimes by striking a terrestrial planet (usually Venus or Earth), more than half end their lives in a Sun-grazing state, and about 15% are ejected from the Solar System. The median lifetime of our

Brett Gladman; Patrick Michel; Christiane Froeschlé

2000-01-01

37

Debiased Orbital and Size Distributions of the NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects but also because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs discovered or accidentally rediscovered by Spacewatch. Our method was to numerically integrate thousands of test bodies from four ``intermediate sources'': three in or adjacent to the main asteroid belt (Bottke et al. 2000, Science 288, 2190.) and one in the Kuiper belt (Levison and Duncan 1997, Icarus 127, 13). The test bodies which passed into the NEO region were tracked until they were eliminated. Next, we calculated the observational biases and assumed a functional form for the absolute magnitude (H) distribution associated with objects on those orbits. By merging the observational biases with our NEO dynamical ``roadmaps'' and an observed NEO H distribution, we produced a probability distribution which was fit to the biased NEO population. By testing a range of possible source combinations, a ``best-fit'' distribution was then deconvolved to provide the debiased orbital and H distributions for the NEO population as well as the relative importance of each NEO replenishment source. Our best-fit model predicts there are ~ 1010 H < 18 NEOs out to T > 2 (i.e., a < ~ 7.4 AU), with ~ 55% coming from the inner main belt (a < 2.5 AU), ~ 30% from the central main belt (2.5 < a < 2.8 AU), and ~ 15% from the Jupiter-family comet region. These results suggest that roughly 40% of the H < 18 NEOs have been found. The Amor, Apollo, and Aten populations contain 30%, 64%, and 6% of the H < 22 NEO population, respectively. The population of objects inside Earth's orbit (IEOs) are about 2% the size of the NEO population. Active and extinct comets make up a third of the entire km-sized NEO population with T > 2. These bodies mostly reside on orbits with 2 < T < 3.

Bottke, W. F.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Petit, J. M.; Levison, H. F.

2001-11-01

38

Exploring the Near Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a golden age for NEA research. We have discovered some 95% of the most threatening NEAs (those larger than 1 km, Mainzer et al. 2012), while ongoing surveys (e.g., Catalina Sky Survey) are finding many sub-km NEAs as well. NEA physical characterization studies by missions (e.g., NEARShoemaker), space-based telescopes (e.g., WISE), and ground-based observatories (e.g., Arecibo, IRTF), are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEAs are actually like. The OSIRIS-REx mission will return a sample from Bennu, a carbonaceous chondrite-like NEO in 2020, while President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025. The Feb. 15 explosion of an NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEAs. In my talk, I will discuss several recent advances in our understanding of the NEO population (e.g, how they go from their source regions to their observed orbits; what we know about the size and nature of the population). I will give particular attention to candidates for robotic and human missions, namely those NEOs on near-Earth like orbits. Recent work has shown that a population of asteroids exists that have been temporarily captured in orbit around Earth ("minimoons"). They offer an innovative, but heretofore uninvestigated, population of targets for human exploration because of their proximity to the Earth and their low geocentric velocities. By better understanding them, we can test theories of the creation, internal structure, and transport of small asteroids. The largest minimoons in the steady state population are 1 to 2 meters in diameter, sizable enough to be both scientifically interesting and potentially suitable as destinations.

Bottke, W.

2013-09-01

39

Population policies and education: exploring the contradictions of neo?liberal globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is increasingly characterised by profound income, health and social inequalities (Appadurai, 2000). In recent decades development initiatives aimed at reducing these inequalities have been situated in a context of increasing globalisation with a dominant neo?liberal economic orthodoxy. This paper argues that neo?liberal globalisation contains inherent contradictions regarding choice and uniformity. This is illustrated in this paper through an

Catherine Bovill; Margaret Leppard

2006-01-01

40

Population Policies and Education: Exploring the Contradictions of Neo-Liberal Globalisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The world is increasingly characterised by profound income, health and social inequalities (Appadurai, 2000). In recent decades development initiatives aimed at reducing these inequalities have been situated in a context of increasing globalisation with a dominant neo-liberal economic orthodoxy. This paper argues that neo-liberal globalisation…

Bovill, Catherine; Leppard, Margaret

2006-01-01

41

Identifying meteorite source regions through near-Earth object spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, gives important representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source locations, we seek to gain insight into the original Solar System formation locations

Cristina A. Thomas; Richard P. Binzel

2010-01-01

42

Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

2011-01-01

43

NEO-LISP: Deflecting near-earth objects using high average power, repetitively pulsed lasers  

SciTech Connect

Several kinds of Near-Earth objects exist for which one would like to cause modest orbit perturbations, but which are inaccessible to normal means of interception because of their number, distance or the lack of early warning. For these objects, LISP (Laser Impulse Space Propulsion) is an appropriate technique for rapidly applying the required mechanical impulse from a ground-based station. In order of increasing laser energy required, examples are: (1) repositioning specially prepared geosynchronous satellites for an enhanced lifetime, (2) causing selected items of space junk to re-enter and burn up in the atmosphere on a computed trajectory, and (3) safely deflecting Earth-directed comet nuclei and earth-crossing asteroids (ECA`s) a few tens of meters in size (the most hazardous size). They will discuss each of these problems in turn and show that each application is best matched by its own matrix of LISP laser pulse width, pulse repetition rate, wavelength and average power. The latter ranges from 100W to 3GW for the cases considered. They will also discuss means of achieving the active beam phase error correction during passage through the atmosphere and very large exit pupil in the optical system which are required in each of these cases.

Phipps, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Div.; Michaelis, M.M. [Univ. of Natal, Durban (South Africa). Physics Dept.

1994-10-01

44

The Population of Sedna-Like Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of wide-field survey based on CFHTLP which searched ˜ 100 deg2 (25.1 in g’). 91 NEW TNOs and Centaurs have been discovered, one of which was identified as Sedna-like objects. We also estimate the population of Sedna-like objects.

Chen, Y.-T.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gwyn, S.; Parker, A.; Suc, V.; Jordan, A.; Ip, W.-H.

2012-05-01

45

Bias-corrected population, size distribution, and impact hazard for the near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing the largest available data sets for the observed taxonomic (Binzel et al., 2004, Icarus 170, 259-294) and albedo (Delbo et al., 2003, Icarus 166, 116-130) distributions of the near-Earth object population, we model the bias-corrected population. Diameter-limited fractional abundances of the taxonomic complexes are A-0.2%; C-10%, D-17%, O-0.5%, Q-14%, R-0.1%, S-22%, U-0.4%, V-1%, X-34%. In a diameter-limited sample, ˜30% of the NEO population has jovian Tisserand parameter less than 3, where the D-types and X-types dominate. The large contribution from the X-types is surprising and highlights the need to better understand this group with more albedo measurements. Combining the C, D, and X complexes into a "dark" group and the others into a "bright" group yields a debiased dark-to-bright ratio of ˜1.6. Overall, the bias-corrected mean albedo for the NEO population is 0.14±0.02, for which an H magnitude of 17.8±0.1 translates to a diameter of 1 km, in close agreement with Morbidelli et al. (2002, Icarus 158 (2), 329-342). Coupling this bias corrected taxonomic and albedo model with the H magnitude dependent size distribution of (Stuart, 2001, Science 294, 1691-1693) yields a diameter distribution with 1090±180 NEOs with diameters larger than 1 km. As of 2004 June, the Spaceguard Survey has discovered 56% of the NEOs larger than 1 km. Using our size distribution model, and orbital distribution of (Stuart, 2001, Science 294, 1691-1693) we calculate the frequency of impacts into the Earth and the Moon. Globally destructive collisions (˜10 21 J) of asteroids 1 km or larger strike the Earth once every 0.60±0.1 Myr on average. Regionally destructive collisions with impact energy greater than 4×10 18 J (˜200 m diameter) strike the Earth every 56,000±6000 yr. Collisions in the range of the Tunguska event (4-8×10 16 J) occur every 2000-3000 yr. These values represent the average time between randomly spaced impacts; actual impacts could occur more or less closely spaced solely by chance. As a verification of these impact rates, the crater production function of Shoemaker et al. (1990, Geological Society of American Special Paper 247) has been updated by combining this new population model with a crater formation model to find that the observed crater production function on both the Earth and Moon agrees with the rate of crater production expected from the current population of NEOs.

Stuart, Joseph Scott; Binzel, Richard P.

2004-08-01

46

The Economics OF NEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

Schalkwyk, James D.

2014-01-01

47

Earth’s Nearest Neighbors: Dynamical integrations of NEO-Earth approaches in support of MANOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). In support of this telescopic survey, we are performing a suite of orbital integrations to investigate the dynamical evolution of the near-Earth asteroid population.Using orbital information from the Lowell Observatory AstOrb database and the swift orbital integration package, we compute the orbital history of every known NEO from present day to five hundred thousand years in the past. This orbital history is used to identify the temporal evolution of each NEO's minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) value, quantifying the physical distance between the orbits of a given NEO and that of a terrestrial planet. Due to the non-deterministic behavior of many NEO orbits beyond a few hundred years, these integrated MOIDs do not uniquely determine whether an NEO and a planet will actually encounter one another, bur rather provide a probabilistic metric for the proximity in which two objects can encounter one another. Integrated MOIDs can be a useful tool for correlating measured physical properties with high probabilities of planetary encounters (e.g. Binzel et al. 2010, Nature 463, 331).We will present the status of these orbital integrations. These integrations show a variety of dynamical histories, from objects that are stable over the integration limits to those that show chaotic behavior after approximately fifty to one hundred thousand years. These orbital integrations are being used to track the potentially hazardous object (PHA) population over time, to evaluate dynamical history for both specific objects and NEO sub-populations, and to estimate the evolution of NEO surface temperatures due to changing perihelion distances.

Endicott, Thomas; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David; Burt, Brian

2014-11-01

48

A sensitive search for NEOs with the Dark Energy Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from the DECam NEO Survey. DECam (Dark Energy Camera) is a 520 Megapixel optical imager with a 3 square degree field of view on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The combination of large field of view and 4 meter aperture yield an étendue that far surpasses those of previous NEO searches. Our goals are to obtain a census of NEOs down to a detection limit of V=23, to measure the size distribution of small NEOs, and to characterize the population of earth-crossing objects (ECOs). In this contribution we describe our 30-night survey, scheduled to begin in the 2014A semester and to extend over three "A" (northern hemisphere Spring) semesters. We present preliminary results based on our pilot project conducted in January and April of this year and which resulted in our submitting approximately 100,000 astrometric measurements to the Minor Planet Center (observatory code W84), approximately 1% of which are NEOs. Details of extensive simulations and data processing performed with the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) can be found in a separate contribution (Burt et al.) at this meeting.

Allen, Lori; Trilling, D.; Burt, B.; Valdes, F.; Fuentes, C.; James, D.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Earle, A.; Herrera, D.; Brown, M.; Axelrod, T.

2013-10-01

49

Origin and dynamics of Near Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) evolves on orbits which can cross the orbit of the Earth. Most NEOs come from the asteroid belt via unstable zones associated with powerful or diffusive resonances. Their evolutionary paths and the statistical properties of their dynamics have been determined by massive numerical integrations. A steady-state model of their orbital and magnitude distributions has

Patrick Michel; Alessandro Morbidelli; William F. Bottke

2005-01-01

50

(Not yet) Dead Comets in the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are replenished from a number of source regions in the asteroid main belt, but also from the comets. Most of the objects of cometary origin in the NEOs have ceased their activity, making these 'dead comets' nearly indistinguishable from low-albedo asteroids. Knowledge of the fraction of cometary NEOs is important to constrain the amount of cometary, carbonaceous material that has been brought to the Earth. We propose to observe 9 NEOs that are likely to be dead comets, for which we will derive diameters and albedos using thermal modeling. The measurement of the albedo provides evidence for a possibly cometary nature. The results of this project will contribute to constraining the fraction of NEOs that are of cometary origin. Furthermore, it will help investigating a possible relationship between dynamical properties and the albedo. In addition, high dynamic range (HDR) observations of 3 of our sample targets will be used to search for cometary activity in these objects. This method has been successful in NEO (3552) Don Quixote, where it revealed activity driven by CO2 gas. Our observations will be supported by ground-based optical observations that will improve the accuracy of the albedo measurements and perform an independent search for activity.

Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph; McMillan, Robert; Reach, William; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Smith, Howard

2013-10-01

51

Multiple NEO Rendezvous Using Solar Sails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission concept is to assess the feasibility of using solar sail propulsion to enable a robotic precursor that would survey multiple Near Earth Objects (NEOs) for potential future human visits. Single spacecraft will rendezvous with and image 3 NEOs within 6 years of launch

Johnson, Les; Alexander, Leslie; Fabisinski, Leo; Heaton, Andy; Miernik, Janie; Stough, Rob; Wright, Roosevelt; Young, Roy

2012-01-01

52

ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A MassSpectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some

Hervé Cottin; B. Arezki; J. J. Berthelier; A. Bouabdellah; A. Boukrara; C. Briois; N. Carrasco; P. Gilbert; C. Engrand; N. Grand; M. Hilchenbach; H. Krüger; A. Makarov; C. Pennanech; P. Puget; E. Quirico; C. Szopa; L. Thirkell; P. Zapf; R. Thissen

2010-01-01

53

Identifying Near Earth Object Families  

E-print Network

The study of asteroid families has provided tremendous insight into the forces that sculpted the main belt and continue to drive the collisional and dynamical evolution of asteroids. The identification of asteroid families within the NEO population could provide a similar boon to studies of their formation and interiors. In this study we examine the purported identification of NEO families by Drummond (2000) and conclude that it is unlikely that they are anything more than random fluctuations in the distribution of NEO osculating orbital elements. We arrive at this conclusion after examining the expected formation rate of NEO families, the identification of NEO groups in synthetic populations that contain no genetically related NEOs, the orbital evolution of the largest association identified by Drummond (2000), and the decoherence of synthetic NEO families intended to reproduce the observed members of the same association. These studies allowed us to identify a new criterion that can be used to select real NEO families for further study in future analyses, based on the ratio of the number of pairs and the size of strings to the number of objects in an identified association.

Hai Fu; Robert Jedicke; Daniel D. Durda; Ronald Fevig; James V. Scotti

2005-05-12

54

ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer NEO survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key

J. P. Emery; D. Trilling; B. Bhattacharya; W. F. Bottke; S. Chesley; M. Delbo; G. Fazio; A. W. Harris; J. Hora; A. Mainzer; M. Mueller; B. Penprase; H. Smith; T. Spahr; J. Stansberry

2009-01-01

55

Modelling and Formal Verification of the NEO Protocol  

E-print Network

Modelling and Formal Verification of the NEO Protocol Christine Choppy, Anna Dedova, Sami peer-to-peer transaction protocol, called NEO, was proposed. To ensure its effective operation that must be guaranteed by the system. Thus, our objective aims at verifying critical properties of the NEO

Evangelista, Sami

56

NEOWISE Observations of Near-Earth Objects: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 mum, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known

A. Mainzer; T. Grav; J. Bauer; J. Masiero; R. S. McMillan; R. M. Cutri; R. Walker; E. Wright; P. Eisenhardt; D. J. Tholen; T. Spahr; R. Jedicke; L. Denneau; E. DeBaun; D. Elsbury; T. Gautier; S. Gomillion; E. Hand; W. Mo; J. Watkins; A. Wilkins; G. L. Bryngelson; A. Del Pino Molina; S. Desai; M. Gómez Camus; S. L. Hidalgo; I. Konstantopoulos; J. A. Larsen; C. Maleszewski; M. A. Malkan; J.-C. Mauduit; B. L. Mullan; E. W. Olszewski; J. Pforr; A. Saro; J. V. Scotti; L. H. Wasserman

2011-01-01

57

Two neo-Darwinisms.  

PubMed

There are two extant theories of evolution, each of which deserves the honourific "neo-Darwinism": Modern Synthesis Replicator theory and a theory I shall call Developmental Darwinism. The principal difference concerns the canonical unit of biological organization. Modern Synthesis replicator theory explains the process of evolution by appeal to the activities of genes or replicators. Developmental Darwinism explains the process of evolution by appeal to the capacities of organisms. In particular, it is the plasticity of organisms, manifested most distinctly during development, that causes adaptive evolution. Despite the fact that each, in its own way, traces its origin to the theory outlined by Darwin, they are radically different. The objectives of this essay are twofold: to underscore the differences between these theories, and to argue that Developmental Darwinism, though nascent, is a viable alternative to Modern Synthesis replicator theory. PMID:21162373

Walsh, Denis M

2010-01-01

58

Neo-newtonian theories  

E-print Network

General Relativity is the modern theory of gravitation. It has replaced the newtonian theory in the description of the gravitational phenomena. In spite of the remarkable success of the General Relativity Theory, the newtonian gravitational theory is still largely employed, since General Relativity, in most of the cases, just makes very small corrections to the newtonian predictions. Moreover, the newtonian theory is much simpler, technically and conceptually, when compared to the relativistic theory. In this text, we discuss the possibility of extending the traditional newtonian theory in order to incorporate typical relativistic effects, but keeping the simplicity of the newtonian framework. We denominate these extensions neo-newtonian theories. These theories are discussed mainly in the contexts of cosmology and compact astrophysical objects.

Fabris, J C

2015-01-01

59

Neo-newtonian theories  

E-print Network

General Relativity is the modern theory of gravitation. It has replaced the newtonian theory in the description of the gravitational phenomena. In spite of the remarkable success of the General Relativity Theory, the newtonian gravitational theory is still largely employed, since General Relativity, in most of the cases, just makes very small corrections to the newtonian predictions. Moreover, the newtonian theory is much simpler, technically and conceptually, when compared to the relativistic theory. In this text, we discuss the possibility of extending the traditional newtonian theory in order to incorporate typical relativistic effects, but keeping the simplicity of the newtonian framework. We denominate these extensions neo-newtonian theories. These theories are discussed mainly in the contexts of cosmology and compact astrophysical objects.

J. C. Fabris; H. Velten

2014-12-30

60

For how long is a NEO survey blind with respect to small impactors?  

E-print Network

In the framework of the European Space Situational Awareness program, we considered a network of telescopes capable of scanning all the observable sky each night, in order to determine the efficiency of discovering Near-Earth objects (NEOs) in the size range of the Tunguska-like asteroids, from 160 m down to 10 m. In the present paper we measure the performances of the proposed survey in terms of the time needed to discover with a reasonable advance at least 50% of the impactors in the considered population. Our results suggest that the studied survey would be a significant addition to the current NEO discovery efforts.

Farnocchia, D; Valsecchi, G B

2011-01-01

61

Near-Earth object velocity distributions and consequences for the Chicxulub impactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Öpik-based geometric algorithm is used to compute impact probabilities and velocity distributions for various near-Earth object (NEO) populations. The resulting crater size distributions for the Earth and Moon are calculated by combining these distributions with assumed NEO size distributions and a selection of crater scaling laws. This crater probability distribution indicates that the largest craters on both the Earth

S. V. Jeffers; S. P. Manley; M. E. Bailey; D. J. Asher

2001-01-01

62

Korean, NEO station in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint Near Earth Object (NEO) project team of Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO) has recently installed a 0.5-meter robotic telescope at the Sutherland Observatory in South Africa. This telescope with 2-degree FOV is operated in fully automated mode making daily reports on discoveries NEOs and other significant luminosity variability via internet. The KAO-YUO joint team plans to install similar facility in Australia and Chile soon making a network of survey telescopes for southern hemisphere. In spite of its small aperture size this network will be an important tool in identifying southern NEOs especially those in the form of comets. This paper summarizes the observatory system data handling and our parallel efforts to characterize NEOs with follow-up light curve investigation. The joint project is funded by the National Research Laboratory Program of Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (KAO) and by the Korean Research Foundation.

Han, Wonyong; Byun, Yong-Ik; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kang, Yong-Woo; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Sunyoup; Bae, Young-Ho; Yu, Sung Yeol

2005-01-01

63

Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

2011-01-01

64

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

-Universit?t Bochum in February of 2007. The subject was the Neo-Latin drama of the early modern period. neo-latin news 81 In ??Histrionum exercitus et scommata??Schauspieler, die Sp?che klopfen: Johannes Reuchlins Sergius und die Anf?nge der neulatein...- ischen Kom?die,? Matthias Dall?Asta focuses on Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522), a man who stands in many ways at the beginning of Neo-Latin comedy in Germany, with a special focus on his Sergius, a play that had an unusually broad reception. Johannes...

Kallendorf, Craig et al

2009-01-01

65

Objective basis of the common law of population.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of production. When nonconformity restricts production growth, social revolution results. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production always tends toward conformity from nonconformity. Conformity is the common law of population economy in all societies, and as the social law of population economy it can be sensed by studying Marxist theory, and through people's practical activities. PMID:12313979

Ma, S

1983-01-01

66

NEO-RIEMANNIAN Z12,  

E-print Network

: NEO-RIEMANNIAN : , , 20 µ 2013 #12; µ µ µµ µ µ µ. µ µ Z12, µ µ µ: neo-Riemannian µ, µ µ . µ , µ µ, - µ neo-Riemannian µ µ . µ µ µ neo-Riemannian µ µ µ µ . µ - µ, µ µ µµ. This thesis

Lambropoulou, Sofia

67

Earth and space-based NEO survey simulations: prospects for achieving the Spaceguard Goal  

E-print Network

Earth and space-based NEO survey simulations: prospects for achieving the Spaceguard Goal Robert and absolute magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) to simulate the performance of asteroid for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) greater than 1 km diameter by 2008 is impossible given contemporary surveying

Bottke, William F.

68

From Magnitudes to Diameters: The Albedo Distribution of Near Earth Objects and the Earth Collision Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently published model of the Near Earth Object (NEO) orbital–magnitude distribution (Bottke et al., 2002, Icarus156, 399–433.) relies on five intermediate sources for the NEO population: the ?6 resonance, the 3:1 resonance, the outer portion of the main belt (i.e., 2.8–3.5 AU), the Mars-crossing population adjacent to the main belt, and the Jupiter family comet population. The model establishes

A. Morbidelli; R. Jedicke; W. F. Bottke; P. Michel; E. F. Tedesco

2002-01-01

69

Justification of NEO impact mitigation activities by risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of impacts of near-Earth objects (NEOs) on Earth is a typical high-consequence and low-probability risk. The relevance of this threat is often unrecognised by governments and therefore proposals for activities on NEO impact mitigation are frequently rejected. The Risk Management approach clearly categorises this risk as a \\

C. Gritzner; S. Fasoulas

2002-01-01

70

Neo: learning conceptual knowledge by sensorimotor interaction with an environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in philosophy, linguistics, developmentalpsychology and artificial intelligence make itpossible to envision a developmental path for an artificialagent, grounded in activity-based sensorimotorrepresentations. This paper describes how Neo, an artificialagent, learns concepts by interacting with itssimulated environment. Relatively little prior structureis required to learn fairly accurate representationsof objects, activities, locations and other aspects ofNeo's...

Paul R. Cohen; Marc S. Atkin; Tim Oates; Carole R. Beal

1997-01-01

71

The Pilot Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey: Probing the size distribution of the most abundant Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Warm Spitzer search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs), bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. Previous work has measured the properties of larger NEOs, but the physical properties of the smallest and most numerous NEOs are poorly constrained. We will capitalize on Spitzer's unparalleled sensitivity and unique geometry to measure the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters, where completeness from previous surveys is poor. This allows us to probe the dynamical history of near-Earth space and meet the Congressional mandate to determine the impact threat from objects >140 m. This project will also serve as a scientific and technical pathfinder for a future large Spitzer proposal that will increase our knowledge of the small NEO size distribution by another order of magnitude. Both projects will also be sensitive to previously unseen NEO populations. This proposed work significantly surpasses recent results from both our ExploreNEOS program and NEOWISE. Future ground- and space-based missions have been proposed to carry out similar work at costs of $500M or more, but this fundamental work can be done now, with Spitzer, for far less money. Our team has unmatched scientific and technical expertise in observations and modeling of Spitzer-observed NEOs.

Trilling, David; Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Fuentes, Cesar; Harris, Alan; Hora, Joseph; Mommert, Michael; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

2012-12-01

72

The Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets with orbits that intersect or pass near that of our planet. About 400 NEOs are currently known, but the entire population contains perhaps 3000 objects with diameters larger than 1 km. These objects, thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets, are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research. They carry records of the solar system's birth and the geologic evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary region. Because collisions of NEOs with Earth pose a finite hazard to life, the exploration of these objects is particularly urgent. Devising appropriate risk-avoidance strategies requires quantitative characterization of NEOS. They may also serve as resources for use by future human exploration missions. The scientific goals of a focused NEO exploration program are to determine their orbital distribution, physical characteristics, composition, and origin. Physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and spin properties, have been measured for approximately 80 NEOs using observations at infrared, radar, and visible wavelengths. Mineralogical compositions of a comparable number of NEOs have been inferred from visible and near-infrared spectroscopy. The formation and geologic histories of NEOs and related main-belt asteroids are currently inferred from studies of meteorites and from Galileo and Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft flybys of three main-belt asteroids. Some progress has also been made in associating specific types of meteorites with main-belt asteroids, which probably are the parent bodies of most NEOs. The levels of discovery of NEOs in the future will certainly increase because of the application of new detection systems. The rate of discovery may increase by an order of magnitude, allowing the majority of Earth-crossing asteroids and comets with diameters greater than 1 km to he discovered in the next decade. A small fraction of NEOs are particularly accessible for exploration by spacecraft. To identify the exploration targets of highest scientific interest, the orbits and classification of a large number of NEOs should be determined by telescopic observations. Desired characterization would also include measurements of size, mass, shape, surface composition and heterogeneity, gas and dust emission, and rotation. Laboratory studies of meteorites can focus NEO exploration objectives and quantify the information obtained from telescopes. Once high-priority targets have been identified, various kinds of spacecraft missions (flyby, rendezvous, and sample return) can be designed. Some currently operational (Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous [NEAR]) or planned (Deep Space 1) U.S. missions are of the first two types, and other planned U.S. and Japanese spacecraft missions will return samples. Rendezvous missions with sample return are particularly desirable from a scientific perspective because of the very great differences in the analytical capabilities that can be brought to bear in orbit and in the laboratory setting. Although it would be difficult to justify human exploration of NEOs on the basis of cost-benefit analysis of scientific results alone, a strong case can be made for starting with NEOs if the decision to carry out human exploration beyond low Earth orbit is made for other reasons. Some NEOs are especially attractive targets for astronaut missions because of their orbital accessibility and short flight duration. Because they represent deep space exploration at an intermediate level of technical challenge, these missions would also serve as stepping stones for human missions to Mars. Human exploration of NEOs would provide significant advances in observational and sampling capabilities. With respect to ground based telescopic studies, the recommended baseline is that NASA and other appropriate agencies suupport research programs for interpreting the spectra of near-Earth objects (NEOs), continue and coordinate currently supported surveys to discover and determine th

1998-01-01

73

Properties and evolution of NEO families created by tidal disruption at Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the coherence and detectable lifetimes of synthetic near-Earth object (NEO) families created by catastrophic disruption of a progenitor as it suffers a very close Earth approach. The closest or slowest approaches yield the most violent ‘s-class’ disruption events where the largest remaining fragment after disruption and reaccumulation retains less than 50% of the parent’s mass. The resulting fragments have a ‘string of pearls’ configuration after their reaccummulation into gravitationally bound components (Richardson, D.C., Bottke, W.F., Love, S.G. [1998]. Icarus 134, 47-76). We found that the average absolute magnitude (H) difference between the parent body and the largest fragment is ?H?1.0. The average slope of the absolute magnitude (H) distribution, N(H)?10, for the fragments in the s-class families is steeper than the slope of the NEO population (Mainzer, A., et al. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 743, 156) in the same size range. The es remain coherent as statistically significant clusters of orbits within the NEO population for an average of ?barc=(14.7±0.6)×103 yr after disruption. The detectable lifetimes of tidally disrupted families are extremely short compared to the multi-Myr and -Gyr lifetimes of main belt families due to the chaotic dynamical environment in NEO space-they are detectable with the techniques developed by Fu et al. and Schunová et al. (Fu, H., Jedicke, R., Durda, D.D., Fevig, R., Binzel, R.P. [2005]. Icarus 178(2), 434-449 and Schunová, E., Granvik, M., Jedicke, R., Gronchi, G., Wainscoat, R., Abe, S. [2012]. Icarus 220, 1050-1063) for an average duration (?bardet) ranging from about 2000 to about 12,000 years for progenitors in the absolute magnitude (Hp) range from 20 to 13 corresponding to diameters in the range from about 0.5 to 10 km respectively. The maximum absolute magnitude of a progenitor capable of producing an observable NEO family (i.e. detectable by our family finding technique) is Hp,max=20 (about 350 m diameter). The short detectability lifetime explains why zero NEO families have been discovered to-date. Nonetheless, every tidal disruption event of a progenitor with diameter greater than 0.5 km is capable of producing several million fragments in the 1-10 m diameter range that can contribute to temporary local density enhancements of small NEOs in Earth’s vicinity. We expect that there are about 1200 objects in the steady state NEO population in this size range due to tidal disruption assuming that one 1 km diameter NEO tidally disrupts at Earth every 2500 years. These objects may be suitable targets for asteroid retrieval missions due to their Earth-like orbits with corresponding low v? which permits low-cost missions. The fragments from the tidal disruptions evolve into orbits that bring them into collision with terrestrial planets or the Sun or they may be ejected from the Solar System on hyperbolic orbits due to deep planetary encounters. The end-state for the fragments from a tidal disruption at Earth have ?5× the collision probability with Earth compared to the background NEO population.

Schunová, Eva; Jedicke, Robert; Walsh, Kevin J.; Granvik, Mikael; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Haghighipour, Nader

2014-08-01

74

Realistic survey simulations for kilometer class near Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new Near Earth Object (NEO) survey simulator which incorporates the four-dimensional population model of 4668 NEOs [Bottke, W.F., Morbidelli, A., Jedicke, R., Petit, J.-M., Levison, H.F., Michel, P., Metcalfe, T.S., 2002. Icarus 156, 399–433] and the observing strategies of most asteroid search programs. With the recent expansion of survey capabilities, previous simulators focused on a specific survey

Hong-Kyu Moon; Yong-Ik Byun; Sean N. Raymond; Timothy Spahr

2008-01-01

75

Coordination of NEO Observers in South-America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present the discovery of NEOs is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. None of the 6 existing survey programs can reach declinations below -30deg. Nevertheless, there are two small surveys ready to start in the near future in the southern hemisphere: an extension of the Catalina Sky Survey using the Uppsala Schmidt in Siding Spring and the Project BUSCA in Uruguay. Many of the NEOs discovered by the northern surveys could reach the southern sky, with declinations unreachable for a northern observer. Furthermore, the recovery of an asteroid in subsequent oppositions could come indistinctly in the northern and southern sky. A network of well-equipped observers in the southern region is then a must in a campaign to catalog the NEO population. In view of this situation, the Planetary Society, through its NEO grant, have already supported many observers in the Southern Hemisphere. The planetary science community in South America has considerably grown in the last 10 years. We have well-known research groups in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Those groups have established many scientific links by exchanging graduate students and through several meetings. In particular, we have already hold two Workshop in Planetary Science in South America in 1999 (La Plata, Argentina) and 2000 (Montevideo, Uruguay) with more than 25 participants each. Recently, in February 2002, we organized a Workshop of NEO observers in Montevideo with the participation of more than 20 professional and amateurs observers from: Argentina: Obs. Ast. Felix Aguilar - Yale University (San Juan) and CRICYT (Mendoza); Brazil: Obs. Abraes de Moraes (San Pablo), Obs. Wykrota (Belo Horizonte) and Observatorio Nacional (Rio de Janeiro); Paraguay: Obs. Nacional de Asuncion and Sociedad de Estudios Astronómicos (Asunción) Uruguay: Depto. Astronomía - Fac. Ciencias, Obs. Ast. Los Molinos and Obs. Kappa Crucis (Montevideo). Among the resolutions of the Workshop, we highlight: * Creation of the "Asociación Spaceguard SudAmérica - SouthAmerican Spaceguard Association" to give a frame for the coordination of our activities * Established a web service to exchange information about our observing plans, objects in need of follow-up only reachable by southern observers, software exchange, etc. * Support the efforts of the astronomers of the Cordoba and La Plata Observatory to catalog the archive plates, useful for pre-discovery images. The members of our group own or have access to more than a dozen telescopes up to 60cm in size. We have already created a discussion list (spaceguard-sa@fisica.edu.uy) to start our coordination efforts.

Tancredi, G.

76

Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.  

PubMed

Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

2012-10-01

77

Maximizing the detection of near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary bodies with a perihelion equal or less than 1.3 astronomical units (au) are called near-Earth objects (NEOs). These objects are divided into 4 sub-families, two of them cross Earth's orbit and may be a potential hazard for the planet. The Tunguska event and the incident in Chelyabinsk last year have shown the devastating destructiveness of NEOs with a size of only approximately 40 and 20 meters, respectively. To predict and identify further threats, telescopic NEO surveys currently extend our knowledge of the population of these objects. Today (March 2014) approximately 10,700 NEOs are known. Based on an extrapolation of the current population, Bottke et al. (2002) predict a total number of N?(1.0±0.5)×10^{8} NEOs up to an absolute magnitude of H = 30.5 mag. Additionally, Bottke et al. (2002) computed a de-biased model of the expected orbital elements distribution of the NEOs. They have investigated the theoretical distribution of NEOs by a dynamical simulation, following the orbital evolution of these objects from several source regions. Based on both models we performed simulations of the detectability of the theoretical NEO population for certain telescopes with certain properties. The goal of these simulations is to optimize the search strategies of NEO surveys. Our simulation models the optical telescope attributes (main and secondary mirror size, optical throughput, field-of-view), the electronics (CCD Camera, pixel size, quantum efficiency, gain, exposure time, pixel binning, dark / bias noise, Signal-to-Noise ratio), atmospheric effects (seeing, sky background illumination) and the brightness and angular velocity of the NEOs. We present exemplarily results for two telescopes, currently developed by the European Space Agency for a future NEO survey: the so-called Fly-Eye Telescope, a 1-m effective aperture telescope with a field of view of 6.5×6.5 deg^2 and the Test-Bed Telescope, with an aperture of 56 cm and a field of view of 2.2×2.2 deg^2. The results of both telescopes can be easily adapted to other telescopes with similar properties. We show different observation strategies to maximize the detection rate of undiscovered NEOs depending on different telescope operation modes (exposure time, pixel binning) and different sky conditions (seeing, sky background brightness).

Albin, T.; Albrecht, S.; Koschny, D.; Drolshagen, G.

2014-07-01

78

POPULATIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We develop a new method for identifying young stellar objects (YSOs) from star-forming regions using the photometry data from Spitzer's c2d Legacy Project. The aim is to obtain YSO lists as complete as possible for studying statistical properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages. The largest obstacle in identifying YSOs comes from background galaxies with similar spectral energy distributions to YSOs. Traditionally, selected color-color and color-magnitude criteria are used to separate YSOs and galaxies. However, since there is no obvious boundary between YSOs and galaxies in color-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), those criteria may exclude faint YSOs near the boundary. In this paper, we separate the YSOs and galaxies in a multi-dimensional (multi-D) magnitude space, which is equivalent to using all variations of CMDs simultaneously. Comparing sources from molecular clouds to Spitzer's SWIRE data, which have a negligible amount of YSOs, we can naturally identify YSO candidates (YSOc) located outside of the galaxy-populated regions in the multi-D space. In the five c2d surveyed clouds, we select 322 new YSOc and miss/exclude 33 YSOc compared to Evans et al., and this results in 1313 YSOc in total. As a result, SFR increases 28% correspondingly, but the lifetimes of YSOs in different evolutionary stages remain unchanged. Compared to theories by Krumholz and McKee, our derived SFR suggests that star formation at a large scale is dominated by supersonic turbulence rather than magnetic fields. Furthermore, we identify seven new very low luminosity objects.

Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping, E-mail: shawinchone@gmail.com, E-mail: slai@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-03-01

79

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

: une nouvelle interpr?tation du Tim?e et de la R?publique? shows how Ficino trans- formed Platonic dialogue, establishing its critical approach in rela- tion to religious orthodoxy and the Neoplatonism of antiquity, and Christopher S. Celenza...?s ?Antiquit? tardive et platonisme florentin? proposes another account of the relation between Ficino and the NEO-LATIN NEWS 355 tradition of Neoplatonism, one that finds continuities in concep- tions of the soul and matter. In the last section, ?Lorenzo...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2003-01-01

80

Compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies: the black hole population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the distribution of massive black holes (MBHs) in the Virgo cluster. Observations suggest that active galactic nuclei activity is widespread in massive galaxies (M* >~ 1010Msolar), while at lower galaxy masses star clusters are more abundant, which might imply a limited presence of central black holes in these galaxy-mass regimes. We explore if this possible threshold in MBH hosting is linked to nature, nurture or a mixture of both. The nature scenario arises naturally in hierarchical cosmologies, as MBH formation mechanisms typically are efficient in biased systems, which would later evolve into massive galaxies. Nurture, in the guise of MBH ejections following MBH mergers, provides an additional mechanism that is more effective for low mass, satellite galaxies. The combination of inefficient formation, and lower retention of MBHs, leads to the natural explanation of the distribution of compact massive objects in Virgo galaxies. If MBHs arrive to the correlation with the host mass and velocity dispersion during merger-triggered accretion episodes, sustained tidal stripping of the host galaxies creates a population of MBHs which lie above the expected scaling between the holes and their host mass, suggesting a possible environmental dependence.

Volonteri, Marta; Haardt, Francesco; Gültekin, Kayhan

2008-03-01

81

Observed spectral properties of near-Earth objects: results for population distribution, source regions, and space weathering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements for 252 near-Earth (NEO) and Mars-crossing (MC) objects observed from 1994 through 2002 as a complement to the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS, http:\\/\\/smass.mit.edu\\/). Combined with previously published SMASS results, we have an internally consistent data set of more than 400 of these objects for investigating trends related to size, orbits,

Richard P. Binzel; Andrew S. Rivkin; J. Scott Stuart; Alan W. Harris; Schelte J. Bus; Thomas H. Burbine

2004-01-01

82

Semirealism or Neo-Aristotelianism? Stathis Psillos  

E-print Network

Semirealism or Neo-Aristotelianism? Stathis Psillos Received: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 15, science is consistent with both neo- Aristotelianism and neo-Humeanism. But, along with many others, he thinks that a neo-Aristotelian outlook best suits science. In other words, neo

Chakravartty, Anjan

83

Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A MassSpectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some

Roland Thissen; B. Arezki; J. J. Berthelier; A. Bouabdellah; A. Boukrara; C. Briois; N. Carrasco; P. Gilbert; C. Engrand; N. Grand; M. Hilchenbach; H. Krüger; A. Makarov; C. Pennanech; P. Puget; E. Quirico; C. Szopa; L. Thirkell; P. Zapf; H. Cottin

2010-01-01

84

Low solar elongation searches for NEO: a deep sky test and its implications for survey strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey for NEOs aiming at 90% completeness for a given size range cannot ignore that a significant fraction of the population passes in the neighborhood of opposition either never or very rarely or only in very poor observing conditions. Thus, a fraction of the available telescope time needs to be used at low solar elongations in the so called "sweet spots". However, there are several penalties for such sweet spot observations: i) poorer observing conditions, implying a lower limiting magnitude; ii) shorter available observing time for each night; iii) more difficult orbit determination. Other classes of objects are poorly observed either because of higher apparent magnitude (especially Main Belt Asteroids, MBAs) or because of too slow motion (distant objects); however, this makes easier to find the NEOs. We have tested the observations and the mathematical methods of identification/orbit determination on two sweet spot test runs conducted in 2005. One performed at La Silla (ESO) with the 2.2-m and 3.5-m NTT and the other one conducted at Mauna Kea with 3.6-m CFHT and 8.3-m Subaru. Also, when short arc observations from different observing nights have to be identified, a specific difficulty occurs at the sweet spots: the same set of observations from three nights can be fitted to two incompatible orbits, in most cases including one NEO (often Aten) and one MBA. This can lead to two different failures in deciding wether a NEO has been discovered: a false positive leads to the waste of resources (follow-up, computations) for a MBA which would be more easily discovered at opposition, a false negative leads to the loss of the NEO which may not be reobservable soon. In this way we generated a large number of examples of possible discoveries with two well determined but incompatible solutions. Most of the MBA-NEO alternatives resulted in a known MBA or in a new designated one as soon as it was confirmed by a later observations. Of the 9 real NEOs detected, 1 has been confirmed by follow-up, 5 by identification with previously known NEA, 2 were precoveries; 1 has been lost due to telescope unavailability. These results served to define an efficient observing protocol.

Boattini, Andrea; Milani, A.; Gronchi, G. F.; Spahr, T.; Valsecchi, G. B.

2007-05-01

85

Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). This two spacecraft mission mimics the likely architecture approach that human explorers will use: a “mother ship”(MS) designed to get from Earth to the NEO and a “Small Body Lander”(SBL) that performs in situ investigation on or close to the NEO’s surface. The MS carries the SBL to the target NEO. Once at the target NEO, the MS conducts an initial reconnaissance in order to produce a high resolution map of the surface. This map is used to identify coordinates of interest which are sent to the SBL. The SBL un-docks from the MS to rendezvous with the NEO and collect data. Landings are possible, though the challenges of anchoring to the NEO surface are significant. The SBL design is flexible and adaptable, enabling science data collection on or near the surface. After surface investigations are completed on the first NEO, the SBL will return and autonomously rendezvous and dock with the MS. The MS then goes to the next NEO target. During transit to the next NEO, the SBL could be refueled by the MS, a TRL8 capability demonstrated on the DARPA/NASA Orbital Express mission in 2007, or alternately sized to operate without requiring refueling depending on the mission profile. The mission goals are to identify surface hazards; quantify engineering boundary conditions for future human visits, and identify resources for future exploitation. The mission goals will be accomplished through the execution of key mission objectives: (1) high-resolution surface topography; (2) surface composition and mineralogy; (3) radiation environment near NEO; and (4) mechanical properties of the surface. Essential SBL instruments include: a) LIDAR (Obj. 1); b) 3D, high- resolution hyperspectral imaging cameras (Obj. 2); c) radiation sensor package (Obj. 3); and d) strain gauges (Obj. 4). Additional or alternative instruments could include: e) x-ray fluorescence or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor package (Obj. 2); f) gamma ray/neutron spectrometry package (Obj. 2); and g) radiometer package (to address variations in thermal environment). The ability to reach, survey, sample, and analyze multiple NEOs at close proximity is an enormous capability that can enable NASA to rapidly achieve the primary Exploration Precursor Robotic Mission (xPRM) Program goal of characterizing NEOs for future human exploration. Instead of launching multiple dedicated missions to each NEO of interest, a multi-NEO sortie mission can be planned and executed to achieve the same mission objectives with one launch, dramatically reducing the cost of NEO exploration. Collectively, our NEO Exploration System Architecture provides solutions for a wide variety of exploration activities using a common spacecraft bus and common core instrumentation for the spacecraft. This engineering consistency will substantially improve the probability of mission success, increase the likelihood of maintaining an aggressive launch schedule, and decrease the total cost of multiple missions. NASA successfully used this approach with the robotic precursors leading up to the Apollo missions, and we see significant benefits from this same programmatic approach for the xPRM program.

Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Cook, T.; Smith, D.

2010-12-01

86

SIMONE: A fleet of Near-Earth Object rendezvous microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SIMONE (Spacecraft Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth) concept has recently been developed as part of an ESA-funded study (Near Earth Objects Space Mission Preparation). The SIMONE study, led by QinetiQ, with scientific aspects led by the Open University's Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, is to help understand the diversity of the NEO population using a fleet of

S. F. Green; N. S. Wells; A. J. Ball; F. Bernelli-Zazzera; E. Perozzi; M. Townend; R. G. Walker; J. C. Zarnecki

2003-01-01

87

Forest Management Under Uncertainty for Multiple Bird Population Objectives1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive manage- ment. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate

Clinton T. Moore; W. Todd Plummer; Michael J. Conroy

88

Setting Numerical Population Objectives for Priority Landbird Species1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the example of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, deriving numerical population estimates and conservation targets for priority landbird species is considered a desirable, if not necessary, element of the Partners in Flight planning process. Methodology for deriving such estimates remains in its infancy, however, and the use of numerical population targets remains controversial within the conservation and academic

Kenneth V. Rosenberg; Peter J. Blancher

89

MCDOWELLIAN NEO-MOOREANISM Duncan Pritchard  

E-print Network

1 MCDOWELLIAN NEO-MOOREANISM Duncan Pritchard University of Stirling ABSTRACT. It is claimed construals of neo-Mooreanism. I here evaluate the prospects for a McDowellian neo-Mooreanism and, in doing so

Edinburgh, University of

90

EXPLORENEOs. I. DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We have begun the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe some 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its Warm Spitzer mode. From these measurements and catalog optical photometry we derive albedos and diameters of the observed targets. The overall goal of our ExploreNEOs program is to study the history of near-Earth space by deriving the physical properties of a large number of NEOs. In this paper, we describe both the scientific and technical construction of our ExploreNEOs program. We present our observational, photometric, and thermal modeling techniques. We present results from the first 101 targets observed in this program. We find that the distribution of albedos in this first sample is quite broad, probably indicating a wide range of compositions within the NEO population. Many objects smaller than 1 km have high albedos ({approx}>0.35), but few objects larger than 1 km have high albedos. This result is consistent with the idea that these larger objects are collisionally older, and therefore possess surfaces that are more space weathered and therefore darker, or are not subject to other surface rejuvenating events as frequently as smaller NEOs.

Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Harris, A. W. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 North College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: david.trilling@nau.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-09-15

91

Properties and evolution of NEO families created by tidal disruption at Earth  

E-print Network

We have calculated the coherence and detectable lifetimes of synthetic near-Earth object (NEO) families created by catastrophic disruption of a progenitor as it suffers a very close Earth approach. The closest or slowest approaches yield the most violent `s-class' disruption events. We found that the average slope of the absolute magnitude (H) distribution, $N(H)\\propto10^{(0.55\\pm0.04)\\,H}$, for the fragments in the s-class families is steeper than the slope of the NEO population \\citep{mainzer2011} in the same size range. The families remain coherent as statistically significant clusters of orbits within the NEO population for an average of $\\bar\\tau_c = (14.7\\pm0.6)\\times10^3$ years after disruption. The s-class families are detectable with the techniques developed by \\citet{fu2005} and \\citet{Schunova2012} for an average duration ($\\bar\\tau_{det}$) ranging from about 2,000 to about 12,000 years for progenitors in the absolute magnitude ($H_p$) range from 20 to 13 corresponding to diameters in the range fr...

Schunová, Eva; Walsh, Kevin J; Granvik, Mikael; Wainscoat, Richard J; Haghighipour, Nader

2014-01-01

92

Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic investigation of near-Earth objects at ESO: first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent one of the most intriguing populations of Solar System bodies. These objects appear heterogeneous in all aspects of their physical properties, like shapes, sizes, spin rates, compositions etc. Moreover, as these objects represent also a real threat to the Earth, a good knowledge of their properties and composition is the necessary first step to evaluate mitigation

M. Lazzarin; S. Marchi; M. A. Barucci; M. Di Martino; C. Barbieri

2004-01-01

93

Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.

2005-01-01

94

The Missing CV Population: Results From An Objective Prism Survey  

E-print Network

We present the results of a search for cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the Calan-Tololo survey. We detected a total number of 21 CVs, 12 of them are previously unknown objects. Our results suggest that the mismatch between the theoretically predicted sample and the observed one is not due to observational bias but has to be resolved by a revision of the theoretical models.

C. Tappert; T. Augusteijn; J. Maza

2001-09-28

95

The Undiscovered Country: How Many Low-Delta-V Near-Earth Objects Remain to be Found?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low delta-v near-Earth objects (NEOs) are of great interest as targets for science and human missions, for possible retrieval to cis-lunar space and as potential resource targets for both exploration and commercial uses. This interest stems from the exponential nature of the rocket equation that imposes a harsh mass penalty on any mission to a higher delta-v. We have compared the known NEO population from the IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC) with the NEOSSat-1 model residence times for the NEO population (Greenstreet & Gladman, 2012) to assess how many undiscovered NEOs there are as a function of H magnitude and delta-v. We find that the median of known NEOs is at lower delta-v (7.3 km/s) than the model population (9.8 km/s), suggesting a bias toward detecting lower delta-v NEOs. To the precision of our data, which is as low as 40% for the 300-500 m diameter (D) objects, the bulk of the larger D>300 m NEOs have been found from delta-v<10.3 km/s. However in the 50 < D < 300 m range there are tens of thousands of delta-v < 10.3 km/s to be found. We examine the total number of undiscovered NEOs as a function of delta-v and find that to find at least 100 now unknown NEOs requires a threshold delta-v of 5.7 km/s, while to find at least 1000 of them requires a threshold delta-v of 6.2 km/s. These numbers can be used to determine mission delta-v requirements for a given number of suitable targets, that will likely be restricted by other criteria (size, composition, spin state) to a few percent of the total population.

Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis

2014-11-01

96

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

97

Optimization of deflection of a big NEO through impact with a small one.  

PubMed

Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

2014-01-01

98

Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One  

PubMed Central

Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

2014-01-01

99

Depletion of the Near-Earth-Asteroid Population at Small Perihelion Distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of near-Earth objects (NEOs) eventually collide with the Sun. Recently it has also become evident that the intense thermal radiation close to the Sun is able to slowly erode asteroid surfaces. We show that this thermal fatigue has observable implications on a larger scale: population models describing NEO orbit and absolute magnitude distributions predict that there should be more objects on low-perihelion orbits than what is observed. This suggests that a significant fraction of all NEOs disrupt at small perihelion distances and can thus no longer be detected. The assumption that, on average, near-Earth asteroids disrupt at perihelion distances less than about 20 solar radii leads to a virtually perfect agreement between observations and theory that increasingly complicated NEO population models otherwise fail to achieve.

Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bottke, Bill; Bolin, Bryce; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Michel, Patrick

2014-11-01

100

Near-Earth objects: Origins and need of physical characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important improvements have been made in recent years in understanding the likely origins of near-Earth objects (NEOs), and extensive observational campaigns are ongoing in order to assess their current inventory. From these studies we can hope to obtain a much better understanding of the different populations of minor bodies, their relationship with meteorites, and the overall history of the solar

A. Cellino; V. Zappala; E. F. Tedesco

2002-01-01

101

Towards Designing an Integrated Architecture for NEO Characterization, Mitigation, Scientific Evaluation, and Resource Utilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster reviews the planning and design for an integrated architecture for characterization, mitigation, scientific evaluation and resource utilization of near earth objects. This includes tracks to observe and characterize the nature of the threat posed by a NEO, and deflect if a significant threat is posed. The observation stack can also be used for a more complete scientific analysis of the NEO.

Adams, Robert B.; LaPointe, Michael; Wilks, Rod; Allen, Brian

2009-01-01

102

KLENOT Project 2002-2008 contribution to NEO astrometric follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-Earth object (NEO) research plays an increasingly important role not only in solar system science but also in protecting our planetary environment as well as human society from the asteroid and comet hazard. Consequently, interest in detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and the physical characterizing of these bodies has steadily grown. The discovery rate of current NEO surveys reflects progressive improvement in

Jana Ticha; Milos Tichy; Michal Kocer; Michaela Honkova

2009-01-01

103

Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic…

Miller, Brian

2014-01-01

104

Neo-Fregeanism Reconsidered  

E-print Network

1. Platonism. Mathematical Platonism is the view that mathematical objects exist. Traditional Platonists believe that a world with no mathematical objects is consistent; subtle Platonists believe that such a world would ...

Rayo, Agustin

105

Searching for Astroids: Modifying the LSST MOPS Pipeline to Find NEOs in DECam/Blanco Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs), Solar System bodies that pass close to the Earth, are of great interest to both the scientific and impact hazard communities. The Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) pipeline was designed to find NEOs in Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-STARRS 1 data. However, by modifying several of the settings in MOPS it is possible to use it on NEO survey data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the Blanco telescope. We tested MOPS’ capabilities on synthetic data sets that contain implanted NEOs and noise and determined the limits of MOPS’ effectiveness in terms of noise, NEO sky velocity, and so on. MOPS will not only be a valuable tool for the DECam and Spitzer surveys but these projects will also serve as an opportunity to test MOPS on real data before construction of LSST begins. Funded by the NSF through grant number AST-1004107

Earle, Alissa M.; Trilling, D. E.; Fuentes, C.; Allen, L.; Axelrod, T. S.; Larson, S. M.; Christensen, E.; DECam NEO Survey Team

2013-01-01

106

Compliance with the 2010 Nutritional Objectives for the Spanish Population in the Balearic Islands’ Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess compliance with the 2010 nutritional objectives for the Spanish population in the Balearic Islands’ adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition survey was carried out in adolescents (n = 1,231). Dietary habits were assessed by means of 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Differences in the percentage of compliers with the 2010 nutritional objectives and

Rosa Llull; Maria del Mar Bibiloni; Elisa Martínez; Antoni Pons; Josep A. Tur

2011-01-01

107

Neo-Logicism? An Ontological Reduction of Mathematics to Metaphysics  

E-print Network

Neo-Logicism? An Ontological Reduction of Mathematics to Metaphysics Edward N. Zalta Center-free metaphysical theory. This thesis ap- pears to be a version of mathematical platonism, for if correct, it would for abstract objects that forms part of the metaphysical theory can be reformulated as a principle that `looks

Zalta, Edward N.

108

ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.  

PubMed

Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses. PMID:24416362

Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

2014-01-01

109

Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s  

SciTech Connect

ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

1996-02-01

110

Sequence differentiation associated with an inversion on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes originate from pairs of autosomes that acquire controlling genes in the sex-determining cascade. Universal mechanisms apparently influence the evolution of sex chromosomes, because this chromosomal pair is characteristically heteromorphic in a broad range of organisms. To examine the pattern of initial differentiation between sex chromosomes, sequence analyses were performed on a pair of newly formed sex chromosomes in Drosophila americana. This species has neo-sex chromosomes as a result of a centromeric fusion between the X chromosome and an autosome. Sequences were analyzed from the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), big brain (bib), and timeless (tim) gene regions, which represent separate positions along this pair of neo-sex chromosomes. In the northwestern range of the species, the bib and Adh regions exhibit significant sequence differentiation for neo-X chromosomes relative to neo-Y chromosomes from the same geographic region and other chromosomal populations of D. americana. Furthermore, a nucleotide site defining a common haplotype in bib is shown to be associated with a paracentric inversion [In(4)ab] on the neo-X chromosome, and this inversion suppresses recombination between neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes. These observations are consistent with the inversion acting as a recombination modifier that suppresses exchange between these neo-sex chromosomes, as predicted by models of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:14668385

McAllister, Bryant F

2003-01-01

111

ExploreNEOs. III. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 65 POTENTIAL SPACECRAFT TARGET ASTEROIDS  

SciTech Connect

Space missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently a manned mission to an NEO was announced as a NASA goal. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor primitive low-albedo objects. For the vast majority of NEOs, the albedo is unknown. Here we report new constraints on the size and albedo of 65 NEOs with rendezvous {Delta}v <7 km s{sup -1}. Our results are based on thermal-IR flux data obtained in the framework of our ongoing (2009-2011) ExploreNEOs survey using NASA's 'Warm-Spitzer' space telescope. As of 2010 July 14, we have results for 293 objects in hand (including the 65 low-{Delta}v NEOs presented here); before the end of 2011, we expect to have measured the size and albedo of {approx}700 NEOs (including probably {approx}160 low-{Delta}v NEOs). While there are reasons to believe that primitive volatile-rich materials are universally low in albedo, the converse need not be true: the orbital evolution of some dark objects likely has caused them to lose their volatiles by coming too close to the Sun. For all our targets, we give the closest perihelion distance they are likely to have reached (using orbital integrations from Marchi et al. 2009) and corresponding upper limits on the past surface temperature. Low-{Delta}v objects for which both albedo and thermal history may suggest a primitive composition include (162998) 2001 SK162, (68372) 2001 PM9, and (100085) 1992 UY4.

Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M. [UNS-CNRS-Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 04 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: michael.mueller@oca.eu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-04-15

112

From Copenhagen to neo-Copenhagen interpretation  

E-print Network

Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism is demonstrated to yield a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

Willem M. de Muynck

2007-09-17

113

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of subkm NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA's IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, Nicholas; DeMeo, Francesca; Endicott, Thomas; Busch, Michael; Roe, Henry; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; Grundy, Will; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David

2013-01-01

114

Statistical Estimation of Orbital Debris Populations with a Spectrum of Object Size  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital debris is a real concern for the safe operations of satellites. In general, the hazard of debris impact is a function of the size and spatial distributions of the debris populations. To describe and characterize the debris environment as reliably as possible, the current NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2000) is being upgraded to a new version based on new and better quality data. The data-driven ORDEM model covers a wide range of object sizes from 10 microns to greater than 1 meter. This paper reviews the statistical process for the estimation of the debris populations in the new ORDEM upgrade, and discusses the representation of large-size (greater than or equal to 1 m and greater than or equal to 10 cm) populations by SSN catalog objects and the validation of the statistical approach. Also, it presents results for the populations with sizes of greater than or equal to 3.3 cm, greater than or equal to 1 cm, greater than or equal to 100 micrometers, and greater than or equal to 10 micrometers. The orbital debris populations used in the new version of ORDEM are inferred from data based upon appropriate reference (or benchmark) populations instead of the binning of the multi-dimensional orbital-element space. This paper describes all of the major steps used in the population-inference procedure for each size-range. Detailed discussions on data analysis, parameter definition, the correlation between parameters and data, and uncertainty assessment are included.

Xu, Y. -l; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J. -C; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

2008-01-01

115

Modelling the Population Distribution in Multi-objective Optimization by Generative Topographic Mapping  

E-print Network

Modelling the Population Distribution in Multi-objective Optimization by Generative Topographic on the Generative Topographic Mapping and can be regarded as an Estimation of Distribution Algorithm. It builds for every i {1, 2, . . . , m} and uj index j {1, 2, . . . , m}. A point x

Jin, Yaochu

116

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases,

J. R. Kasprzyk; P. M. Reed; B. R. Kirsch; G. W. Characklis

2009-01-01

117

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and

J. R. Kasprzyk; P. M. Reed; B. R. Kirsch; G. W. Characklis

2009-01-01

118

SMASS Near-Earth Object Survey: An Album of Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) undertaken at MIT has produced and published visible spectra for more than 1300 main-belt asteroids. The infrared extension of this program (SMASSIR) has produced near-infrared spectra for about 200 main-belt asteroids. In this poster we present visible and near-infrared spectral results for more than 300 near-Earth objects (NEOs) measured during the SMASS and SMASSIR programs and through ongoing observations at Kitt Peak, Palomar, IRTF, and Magellan observatories. The scientific goals for this sample are to deduce the compositional distribution of the near-Earth object population. Knowledge of this distribution will allow the origin and relative hazard of the NEO population to be better understood and will provide the basis for gaining further insights to asteroid-meteorite and asteroid-comet relationships. While a portion of our NEO sample has been published, spectral measurements are newly presented here for more than 250 NEOs. All published SMASS spectra are available at our website http://smass.mit.edu/. These new near-Earth object spectra will also be made available at the SMASS website at the time they are submitted for publication.

Binzel, R. P.; Harris, A. W.; Bus, S. J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Burbine, T. H.

2003-01-01

119

NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

2013-01-01

120

Near Earth Object Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) offers this Webpage (for another similar page from JPL, see the March 13, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) containing relevant information on Near Earth Objects (NEO). The site includes current tables with tracking data for potentially hazardous asteroids and their approaches towards earth, detailed information of recent NEO discoveries, and images of the objects themselves. An FAQ section and a variety of related links are also available here.

121

Investigation of binary asteroids and NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laboratory of Observational Astrometry of the Central (Pulkovo) Observatory of RAS makes observations and investigations of binary and multiple asteroids and Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The observations are carried out with MTM-500M telescope, placed on Mount Astronomical Station of Pulkovo observatory (Northern Caucasus), and ZA-320M mirror astrograph of Pulkovo observatory. Also in this research work we used observations obtained with BTA telescope of Special Astrophysical Observatory. In this work results of investigations binary asteroids such as 22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 2006 VV2, 90 Antiope, 87 Sylvia, 762 Pulcova, 1313 Berna, 137170 (1999 HF1) and Near Earth Asteroids such as 2005 YU55 and 2008 TC3 will be presented.

Vereshchagina, I.; Sokov, E.; Gorshanov, D.; Devyatkin, A.; Romas, E.; L'vov, V.; Slesarenko, V.; Rastegaev, D.; Balega, Yu.; Maximov, A.; Diachenko, V.; Malogolovec, E.; Kouprianov, V.; Naiden, Ya.

2012-09-01

122

TMAP: A NEO follow-up program utilizing undergraduate observers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the spring of 2000 we began TMAP (Table Mountain Astrometry Project), a program designed to provide timely astrometric followup of newly discovered near-Earth asteroids. Relying on undergraduate observers from the local California State Universities, we have to date been involved with the over 50 NEO and new comet discoveries. This is a significant fraction of all near-Earth asteroids discovered over the time period. All observations are performed at JPL's Table Mountain Facility near Wrightwood California using the 0.6-meter telescope equipped with a Photometrics LN cooled 1k CCD mounted at the cassegrain focus. With this system we can routinely detect objects to R=20.5. We have typically scheduled two runs per month on weekends bracketing the new moon. The student observers man the telescope are trained to select and obtain R-band images of candidates from the Minor Planet Center's NEO Confirmation Page (http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/cfa/ps/NEO/TheNEOPage.html). The astrometry is then reduced and submitted to the Minor Planet Center the following day. TMAP has proven to be an efficient way both to obtain much needed astrometric measurements of newly discovered small bodies as well as to involve undergraduate researchers in planetary research. The limiting magnitudes provided by the 0.6-meter partially fills the gap between the extremely helpful and dedicated amateur astromitrists and the followup that the NEO detection programs do themselves. This work is supported by NASA.

Ramirez, C.; Deaver, D.; Martinez, R.; Foster, J.; Kuang, L.; Ates, A.; Anderson, M.; Mijac, M.; Gillam, S.; Hicks, M. D.

2000-10-01

123

Spaced based infrared detection and characterization of near earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infrared space-based survey system would be an invaluable adjunct to the ground based visible searches for the discovery of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). It would significantly increase the discovery rate of NEOs and would have unique capabilities to probe their physical character. An infrared NEO survey compensates for the bias of visible searches to preferentially discover high albedo objects

Stephan D. Price; Michael P. Egan

2001-01-01

124

Bias-corrected population, size distribution, and impact hazard for the near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the largest available data sets for the observed taxonomic (Binzel et al., 2004, Icarus 170, 259–294) and albedo (Delbo et al., 2003, Icarus 166, 116–130) distributions of the near-Earth object population, we model the bias-corrected population. Diameter-limited fractional abundances of the taxonomic complexes are A-0.2%; C-10%, D-17%, O-0.5%, Q-14%, R-0.1%, S-22%, U-0.4%, V-1%, X-34%. In a diameter-limited sample, ?30%

Joseph Scott Stuart; Richard P Binzel

2004-01-01

125

Fanaroff-Riley I galaxies as the parent populations of BL Lacertae objects. III - Radio constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is increasing support for the idea that BL Lacertae objects are dominated by beamed emission from a relativistic jet aligned with the line of sight. If so, the most likely parent objects are Fanaroff-Riley type I (F-R I) radio galaxies. This hypothesis is tested by determining the ratio of number densities of the two populations in a manner appropriate for flux-limited samples. Through a direct comparison of predicted and observed luminosity functions, it is shown that available radio samples of F-R I galaxies and BL Lac objects are fully consistent with the beaming hypothesis. The model makes specific predictions about the luminosity function of BL Lacertae objects and their radio counts below currently observed levels.

Urry, C. M.; Padovani, P.; Stickel, M.

1991-01-01

126

Near-Earth-object survey progress and population of small near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the total population vs. size of NEAs and the completion of surveys is the same thing since the total population is just the number discovered divided by the estimated completion. I review the method of completion estimation based on ratio of re-detected objects to total detections (known plus new discoveries). The method is quite general and can be used for population estimations of all sorts, from wildlife to various classes of solar system bodies. Since 2001, I have been making estimates of population and survey progress approximately every two years. Plotted below, left, is my latest estimate, including NEA discoveries up to August, 2012. I plan to present an update at the meeting. All asteroids of a given size are not equally easy to detect because of specific orbital geometries. Thus a model of the orbital distribution is necessary, and computer simulations using those orbits need to establish the relation between the raw re-detection ratio and the actual completion fraction. This can be done for any sub-group population, allowing to estimate the population of a subgroup and the expected current completion. Once a reliable survey computer model has been developed and ''calibrated'' with respect to actual survey re-detections versus size, it can be extrapolated to smaller sizes to estimate completion even at very small size where re-detections are rare or even zero. I have recently investigated the subgroup of extremely low encounter velocity NEAs, the class of interest for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), recently proposed by NASA. I found that asteroids of diameter ˜ 10 m with encounter velocity with the Earth lower than 2.5 km/sec are detected by current surveys nearly 1,000 times more efficiently than the general background of NEAs of that size. Thus the current completion of these slow relative velocity objects may be around 1%, compared to 10^{-6} for that size objects of the general velocity distribution. Current surveys are nowhere near complete, but there may be fewer such objects than have been suggested. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that at least a couple such discovered objects are known to be not real asteroids but spent rocket bodies in heliocentric orbit, of which there are only of the order of a hundred. Brown et al. (Nature 503, 238-241, 2013, below right, green squares are a re-plot of my blue circles on left plot) recently suggested that the population of small NEAs in the size range from roughly 5 to 50 meters in diameter may have been substantially under-estimated. To be sure, the greatest uncertainty in population estimates is in that range, since there are very few bolide events to use for estimation, and the surveys are extremely incomplete in that size range, so a factor of 3 or so discrepancy is not significant. However, the population estimated from surveys carried still smaller, where the bolide frequency becomes more secure, disagrees from the bolide estimate by even less than a factor of 3 and in fact intersects at about 3 m diameter. On the other hand, the shallow-sloping size-frequency distribution derived from the sparse large bolide data diverges badly from the survey estimates, in sizes where the survey estimates become ever-increasingly reliable, even by 100-200 m diameter. It appears that the bolide data provides a good "anchor" of the population in the size range up to about 5 m diameter, but above that one might do better just connecting that population with a straight line (on a log-log plot) with the survey-determined population at larger size, 50-100 m diameter or so.

Harris, A.

2014-07-01

127

The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

Harris, Alan W.

2012-10-01

128

The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth object (NEO) population includes both asteroids (NEAs) and comet nuclei (NECs) whose orbits have perihelion distances q<1.3 AU and which can approach or cross that of the Earth. A NEA is defined as a “potentially hazardous asteroid” (PHA) for Earth when its minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) comes inside 0.05 AU and it has an absolute magnitude H<22 mag (i.e. mean diameter > 140 m). These are big enough to cause, in the case of impact with Earth, destructive effects on a regional scale. Smaller objects can still produce major damage on a local scale, while the largest NEOs could endanger the survival of living species. Therefore, several national and international observational efforts have been started (i) to detect undiscovered NEOs and especially PHAs, (ii) to determine and continuously monitor their orbital properties and hence their impact probability, and (iii) to investigate their physical nature. Further ongoing activities concern the analysis of possible techniques to mitigate the risk of a NEO impact, when an object is confirmed to be on an Earth colliding trajectory. Depending on the timeframe available before the collision, as well as on the object’s physical properties, various methods to deflect a NEO have been proposed and are currently under study from groups of experts on behalf of international organizations and space agencies. This paper will review our current understanding of the NEO population, the scientific aspects and the ongoing space- and ground-based activities to foresee close encounters and to mitigate the effects of possible impacts.

Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.

2013-09-01

129

De-biased Populations of Kuiper Belt Objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF 32 to a minimum of 1.5 × 10-7 for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU 185. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of ? = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 <= H <= 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best fit by a power law with ? = 0.42 ± 0.02. This is consistent with a knee in the H-distribution around H = 7.2 as reported elsewhere. Based on the Classical-derived magnitude distribution, the total number of objects (H <= 7) in each class is: Classical (2100 ± 300 objects), Scattered (2800 ± 400), 3:2 (570 ± 80), 2:1 (400 ± 50), 5:2 (270 ± 40), 7:4 (69 ± 9), 5:3 (60 ± 8). The independent estimate for the number of Centaurs in the same H range is 13 ± 5. If instead all objects are divided by inclination into "Hot" and "Cold" populations, following Fraser et al., we find that ?Hot = 0.90 ± 0.02, while ?Cold = 1.32 ± 0.02, in good agreement with that work.

Adams, E. R.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Benecchi, S. D.; Buie, M. W.; Trilling, D. E.; Wasserman, L. H.

2014-09-01

130

Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

Small, David

2011-01-01

131

Planetary protection issues for the MarcoPolo NEO sample return mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MarcoPolo mission has been selected as an M-class candidate for assessment study within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through a competitive process the final candidate will be selected at the end of the year 2011. The primary goal of this mission is to return samples of material from a Near Earth Object (NEO) to Earth. An automated system will collect material from the top surface layer with a mass of around 100g. The actual sampling sequence is preceded by an intensive mapping and characterisation campaign of the target body by remote sensing instruments on an orbiting spacecraft. The collected material will be transferred to a return capsule that enters Earth's atmosphere and lands. The proposed candidate targets are primitive objects of various spectral classes. In a current process based on scientific evaluation, engineering and programmatic requirements the list of objects will be narrowed down to a short list of prime target bodies. The delivery of alien material to Earth using a spacecraft places this mission in Category V according to COSPAR planetary protection rules. Depending on the target or region of a target the mission is subclassified as "none-restricted" or" restricted" return. The latter implies a severe impact on the complexity of the mission architecture due to much higher technological constraints and sample handling procedures on Earth. Among the NEO population there is a large variety of very different objects. Only a few are assessed on the basis of planetary protection rules. Future small body exploration missions like MarcoPolo require the assessment and categorisation according to the biologic potential of the respective target body. This presentation will assess the proposed mission according to the COSPAR planetary protection rules as adopted by ESA.

Romstedt, Jens; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawagushi, Jun; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Pillinger, Judith; Prieur, Daniel; Yano, Hajime; Agnolon, David; Binzel, Richard P.

132

Optimization environments and the NEOS server  

SciTech Connect

The authors are interested in the development of problem-solving environments that simplify the formulation of optimization problems, and the access to computational resources. Once the problem has been formulated, the first step in solving an optimization problem in a typical computational environment is to identify and obtain the appropriate piece of optimization software. Once the software has been installed and tested in the local environment, the user must read the documentation and write code to define the optimization problem in the manner required by the software. Typically, Fortran or C code must be written to define the problem, compute function values and derivatives, and specify sparsity patterns. Finally, the user must debug, compile, link, and execute the code. The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an Internet-based service for optimization providing information, software, and problem-solving services for optimization. The main components of NEOS are the NEOS Guide and the NEOS Server. The current version of the NEOS Server is described in Section 2. The authors emphasize nonlinear optimization problems, but NEOS does handle linear and nonlinearly constrained optimization problems, and solvers for optimization problems subject to integer variables are being added. In Section 4 the authors begin to explore possible extensions to the NEOS Server by discussing the addition of solvers for global optimization problems. Section 5 discusses how a remote procedure call (RPC) interface to NEOS addresses some of the limitations of NEOS in the areas of security and usability. The detailed implementation of such an interface raises a number of questions, such as exactly how the RPC is implemented, what security or authentication approaches are used, and what techniques are used to improve the efficiency of the communication. They outline some of the issues in network computing that arise from the emerging style of computing used by NEOS.

Gropp, W.; More, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

1997-03-01

133

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

134

Assessing the U.S. presidents using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.  

PubMed

This article describes the use of objective psychological instruments, including the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), to assess the personalities of all 41 U.S. presidents to date. We briefly report our findings pertaining to the average profile of chief executives on the NEO PI-R and summarize data on two of our most illustrious presidents, Washington and Lincoln. We review a typology of presidents based on our data. Finally, we summarize the results of our investigation of the Big Five personality dimensions and facets that are related to presidential success (i.e., historical greatness). The project and findings are discussed in terms of the use of the NEO PI-R in psychohistorical research and assessment. PMID:11151965

Rubenzer, S J; Faschingbauer, T R; Ones, D S

2000-12-01

135

Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

1993-01-01

136

Shape fabrics in populations of rigid objects in 2D: Estimating finite strain and vorticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape fabrics of elliptical objects in rocks are usually assumed to develop by passive behaviour of inclusions together with the surrounding material leading to shape-based strain analysis methods belonging to the Rf/ ? family. By deriving the probability density function for populations of rigid ellipses deforming in a general 2D deformation, a method is developed which can be used to estimate both finite strain and the kinematic vorticity number. Statistical parameters are theoretically derived and their behaviours under various kinematic conditions are investigated. The maximum likelihood method from statistics is used to produce a numerical method for estimating deformation parameters from natural populations. A simulation study demonstrates that finite strain can be estimated well for both low and high applied finite strains, whereas the kinematic vorticity number is well estimated only in the case of high finite strains ( Rs > 40), and that large sample numbers (?1000) are required.

Mulchrone, Kieran F.

2007-09-01

137

LSST: Comprehensive NEO Detection, Characterization, and Orbits  

E-print Network

(Abridged) The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. Solar System mapping is one of the four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. In a continuous observing campaign of pairs of 15 second exposures of its 3,200 megapixel camera, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be visited about 1000 times. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Equally important, due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. Detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from LSST site at Cerro Pachon, shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, by optimizing sky coverage, the ongoing simulations suggest that the LSST system, with its first light in 2013, can reach the Congressional mandate of cataloging 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by 2020.

Z. Ivezic; J. A. Tyson; M. Juric; J. Kubica; A. Connolly; F. Pierfederici; A. W. Harris; E. Bowell; the LSST Collaboration

2007-01-17

138

LSST: Comprehensive NEO detection, characterization, and orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has Solar System mapping as one of its four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. We will describe detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from Cerro Pachon in Chile, the LSST site, which shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, simulations also show that LSST can reach the completeness of 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by optimizing observing cadence andextending the survey lifetime to 12 years. In addition to detecting and determining orbits for these PHAs, LSST will also provide valuable data on their physical characteristics through accurate color and variability measurements, which can be used to determine approximate taxonomical types, better size estimates by constraining albedos, rotation periods, and shape characteristics; thus constraining PHA properties relevant for risk mitigation strategies.

Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne

2014-11-01

139

A Solar-Powered Near Earth Object Resource Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an offshoot of a project to study means of forming massive radiation- shielded structures using Near Earth Object (NEO) materials. The topic is the conceptual design of a solar-powered robotic craft to land on, attach to, and extract materials from, a typical NEO. A solar-powered trajectory to a candidate NEO is used to estimate requirements. A reconfigurable

Thilini Rangedera; Ravi Vanmali; Nilesh Shah; Waqar Zaidi; Narayanan Komerath

2005-01-01

140

INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-08-01

141

NEOShield - A global approach to NEO Impact Threat Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOShield is a European-Union funded project coordinated by the German Aero-space Center, DLR, to address near-Earth object (NEO) impact hazard mitigation issues. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The project is funded for a period of 3.5 years from January 2012 with a total of 5.8 million euros. The primary aim of the project is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. The NEOShield work plan consists of scientific investigations into the nature of the impact hazard and the physical properties of NEOs, and technical and engineering studies of practical means of deflecting NEOs. There exist many ideas for asteroid deflection techniques, many of which would require considerable scientific and technological development. The emphasis of NEOShield is on techniques that are feasible with current technology, requiring a minimum of research and development work. NEOShield aims to provide detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions, targeting NEOs of the kind most likely to trigger the first space-based mitigation action. Most of the asteroid deflection techniques proposed to date require physical contact with the threatening object, an example being the kinetic impactor. NEOShield includes research into the mitigation-relevant physical properties of NEOs on the basis of remotely-sensed astronomical data and the results of rendezvous missions, the observational techniques required to efficiently gather mitigation-relevant data on the dynamical state and physical properties of a threatening NEO, and laboratory investigations using gas guns to fire projectiles into asteroid regolith analog materials. The gas-gun investigations enable state-of-the-art numerical models to be verified at small scales. Computer simulations at realistic NEO scales are used to investigate how NEOs with a range of properties would respond to a pulse of energy applied in a deflection attempt. The technical work includes the development of crucial technologies, such as the autonomous guidance of a kinetic impactor to a precise point on the surface of the target, and the detailed design of realistic missions for the purpose of demonstrating the applicability and feasibility of one or more of the techniques investigated. Theoretical work on the blast deflection method of mitigation is designed to probe the circumstances in which this last line of defense may be the only viable option and the issues relating to its deployment. A global response campaign roadmap will be developed based on realistic scenarios presented, for example, by the discovery of an object such as 99942 Apophis or 2011 AG5 on a threatening orbit. The work will include considerations of the timeline of orbit knowledge and impact probability development, reconnaissance observations and fly-by or rendezvous missions, the political decision to mount a mitigation attempt, and the design, development, and launch of the mitigation mission. Collaboration with colleagues outside the NEOShield Consortium involved in complementary activities (e.g. under the auspices of the UN, NASA, or ESA) is being sought in order to establish a broad international strategy. We present a brief overview of the history and planned scope of the project, and progress made to date. The NEOShield project (http://www.neoshield.net) has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 282703.

Michel, Patrick

2015-03-01

142

The utilization of neural nets in populating an object-oriented database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms (i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

1989-01-01

143

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G (PI N. Moskovitz).

Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

2014-11-01

144

Neo-Griceanism -modified Gricean accounts (usually in  

E-print Network

Neo-Griceanism - modified Gricean accounts (usually in number and form of maxims or principles­632. Oxford: Blackwell. Received view - Neo-Gricean accounts are associated with the Default model, Relevance approach per se that forces the Neo-Gricean to Defaultism - some Neo-Gricean accounts are clearly

DeAngelis, Gregory

145

New Constraints on the Small Kuiper Belt Object Population from High-Resolution Images of Triton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triton serves as an effective witness plate for Kuiper belt objects due to Triton's proximity to the Kuiper Belt and relatively young surface. Stern and McKinnon (LPSC XXX, abs. #1766, 1999; AJ 119, 945-952, 2000) showed Triton's crater populations to be consistent with a population of sub-km Kuiper belt objects with an approximately b = -3 differential power-law size index, dominance of KBO over Oort cloud impactors, and surface ages under 0.5 Ga. Here we update these findings based on the 10-frame highest resolution image sequence taken by Voyager 2 in 1989, not included in our earlier work. These images suffer degrees of image smear due to uncompensated spacecraft motion, but with careful processing and analysis, meaningful crater counts can be extracted. We focus on regions of abundant and easily discriminated primary craters, such as Cipango Planum (10o N, 35o E), a nearly featureless, rolling volcanic plain. There, craters can be confidently identified down to 1 km diameter, implying Kuiper Belt impactors below 100 m in diameter. The corresponding crater size-frequency index in the 1-to-6 km diameter range is similar to slightly steeper than that for more global counts at larger sizes, but remains consistent with b = -3.

McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P. M.; Stern, S. A.

146

Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) - objectives and protocol.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

Odili, Augustine N; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

2014-09-01

147

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System through their compositional links to meteorites. As tracers of various regions within the Solar System they can provide insight to more distant, less accessible populations. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and non-gravitational dynamics. Knowledge of their physical properties is essential to impact hazard assessment. Finally, the proximity of NEOs to Earth make them favorable targets for robotic and human exploration. However, in spite of their scientific importance, only the largest (km-scale) NEOs have been well studied and a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. To address these issues we are conducting the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS), a fully allocated multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties including light curves, spectra, and astrometry. From this comprehensive catalog, we will derive global properties of the NEO population, as well as identify individual targets that are of potential interest for exploration. We will accomplish these goals for approximately 500 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescope assets in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded large survey status by NOAO to employ Gemini-N, Gemini-S, SOAR, the Kitt Peak 4 m, and the CTIO 1.3 m. Access to additional facilities at Lowell Observatory (DCT 4.3 m, Perkins 72'', Hall 42'', LONEOS), the University of Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey provide essential complements to this suite of telescopes. Targets for MANOS are selected based on three primary criteria: mission accessibility (i.e. ? v < 7 km/s), size (H > 20), and observability. Our telescope assets allow us to obtain rotational light curves for objects down to V˜22, visible spectra down to V˜21, and near-IR spectra down to V˜19. MANOS primarily focuses on targets that are recently discovered. We employ a regular cadence of remote and queue observations to enable follow-up characterization within days or weeks after a target of interest is discovered. We will present a MANOS status report with an emphasis on noteworthy observations and ongoing efforts to achieve fully transparency by making target lists and data products publicly available online.

Moskovitz, N.; Manos Team

2014-07-01

148

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases, and (4) rights, options, and leases subject to a critical reliability constraint used to represent a maximally risk averse case. The portfolio planning strategies were evaluated using a 10 year Monte Carlo simulation of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) within Texas. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, surplus water, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. Using an additional severe drought scenario, this work shows that leases and options can reduce the potential for critical supply failures when urban supply systems must contend with unexpected and severe extremes in both demand and water scarcity. In summary, this paper contributes a framework that couples interactive visualization and many-objective optimization to innovate urban water portfolio planning under uncertainty. The many-objective analysis of the LRGV case study shows that effective water portfolio planning can simultaneously improve the costs, efficiency, and reliability of urban water supply while ensuring adaptability and resiliency to future changes.

Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

2009-12-01

149

A Space-Based Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope in Support of Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning in 2025 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. As such, mission concepts have received much interest from the exploration, science, and planetary defense communities. One particular system that has been suggested by all three of these communities is a space-based NEO survey telescope. Such an asset is crucial for enabling affordable human missions to NEOs circa 2025 and learning about the primordial population of objects that could present a hazard to the Earth in the future.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

150

A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the range of possibilities. Once an object is generated, its radiation signature is calculated using a 1-dimensional deterministic transport code. Objects that do not make sense based on physics principles or other constraints are rejected. Thus, the model can be used to generate a population of spectral signatures that spans a large space, including smuggled nuclear material and nuclear weapons.

Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

2008-10-29

151

NERO: General concept of a NEO radiometric observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NERO (Near-Earth Objects Radiometric Observatory) is one of the six studies for possible missions dedicated to near-Earth objects, that were funded by the ESA in 2002-2003. NERO is a further development of previous studies already submitted to ESA (Sysiphos,Spaceguard-1). The general concept is that a small satellite equipped with both a CCD for visible wavelengths and an array for thermal IR measurements around 10 microns would be an ideal platform for simultaneously obtaining two of the major objectives of current NEO science, namely the physical characterization of the objects and the discovery of NEOs which are difficult to detect because they have orbits entirely or partly interior to the Earth's orbit. The NERO study included a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of different orbital options for the satellite (including L2 of Earth and L2 of Venus) and a preliminary simulation of the effectiveness in deriving reliable orbits of the newly detected objects. The main results of this study, including also a preliminary design of the payload (optics, detectors, cooling system, etc.) are briefly summarized.

Cellino, A.; Somma, R.; Tommasi, L.; Paolinetti, R.; Muinonen, K.; Virtanen, J.; Tedesco, E. F.

152

The near-Earth objects segment of the european space situational awareness program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a description of the SSA-NEO segment and presents its content, capabilities, and basic features. The SSA-NEO\\u000a segment is intended to estimate risks of collision of the known NEO objects with the Earth, to observe these objects, and\\u000a to support appropriate programs of international cooperation and measures of reducing this hazard.

G. Drolshagen; D. Koschny; N. Bobrinsky

2010-01-01

153

Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids  

E-print Network

Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ...

Elvis, Martin

154

Clinical Supervision and the Emerging Conflict between the Neo-Traditionalists and the Neo-Progressives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the conflict over the definition of clinical supervision from the neo-traditional and neo-progressive perspectives. It shows how this conflict affects teachers' assessment and assistance, and suggests possible areas of compromise and future directions the conflict may take. (TE)

Tracy, Saundra J.; MacNaughton, Robert H.

1989-01-01

155

A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.  

PubMed

It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries have decided to integrate family planning programs with health services; and only 20% of African countries have announced socioeconomic development as an instrument to solve their population problems. PMID:12279355

1982-01-01

156

A Strategy for Finding Near Earth Objects with the SDSS Telescope  

E-print Network

We present a detailed observational strategy for finding Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. We investigate strategies in normal, unbinned mode as well as binning the CCDs 2x2 or 3x3, which affects the sky coverage rate and the limiting apparent magnitude. We present results from 1 month, 3 year and 10 year simulations of such surveys. For each cadence and binning mode, we evaluate the possibility of achieving the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of 1 km NEOs (absolute magnitude H <= 18 for an albedo of 0.1). We find that an unbinned survey is most effective at detecting H <= 20 NEOs in our sample. However, a 3x3 binned survey reaches the Spaceguard Goal after only seven years of operation. As the proposed large survey telescopes (PanStarss; LSST) are at least 5-10 years from operation, an SDSS NEO survey could make a significant contribution to the detection and photometric characterization of the NEO population.

Sean N. Raymond; Oliver J. Fraser; Arti Garg; Suzanne L. Hawley; Robert Jedicke; Gajus Miknaitis; Thomas Quinn; Constance M. Rockosi; Christopher W. Stubbs; Scott F. Anderson; Craig J. Hogan; Zeljko Ivezic; Robert H. Lupton; Andrew A. West; Howard Brewington; J. Brinkmann; Michael Harvanek; Scot J. Kleinman; Jurek Krzesinski; Dan Long; Eric H. Neilsen; Peter R. Newman; Atsuko Nitta; Stephanie A. Snedden

2004-01-21

157

Thermal Studies of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this proposal, we seek to apply the optical/thermal method to the measurement of the diameters and albedos of a large sample of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Whereas main-belt asteroids have been studied in large numbers, principally using thermal detections from the IRAS satellite, relatively few thermal observations of NEOs have been secured. This program capitalizes on our access to large telescopes and imaging thermal IR detectors in pursuit of the definitive set of albedo data on the NEOs.

Jewitt, David

2003-01-01

158

Physical and Dynamical Characterization of Near-Earth Objects by the NEON Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to accrue knowledge on the physical and dynamical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs), the recently established Nordic Near-Earth-Object Network (NEON) carries out a long-term photometric and astrometric NEO observing program at the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma (http:\\/\\/www.astro.helsinki.fi\\/ ˜psr\\/NEO\\/not_obs.html). The spin vector, shape, and surface properties of an individual NEO are estimated from photometric observations at

K. Muinonen; J. Virtanen; J. Torppa; M. Granvik; J. Näränen; K. Aksnes; T. Grav; G. Hahn; C.-I. Lagerkvist; H. Rickman; R. Michelsen

2004-01-01

159

Hunting for Buried Treasure: Prospecting for a Population of Compact Objects in the Galactic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe the observational campaign we have undertaken to determine the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained to date includes a deep Chandra survey; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey; and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. Astrometric cross-correlation of our ISAAC imaging with the revised X-ray source position catalogs from Muno et al. (2003, 2006) results in a statistically significant excess in the number of candidate IR counterparts to the 130 X-ray sources encompassed within our 26 ISAAC fields. Cross-correlation of our ISPI imaging of the central 17' square around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 Chandra sources, with the X-ray catalog reveals 2214 candidate IR counterparts. We explore the likelihood of these astrometric matches being actual physical counterparts and find that, statistically, 443+/-56 are likely to be true counterparts. We categorize these matches by X-ray and IR characteristics (hardness, colour, magnitude). After statistical analysis, we find that by selecting carefully from the subset of X-ray hard, highly reddened candidate matches, we can identify 91 IR sources which have a 45% probability of being true physical counterparts. In both the ISAAC and ISPI data we find an over-abundance of relatively unextinguished, bright, blue candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources as compared to the IR field star population. It is likely that these matches are dominated by local, massive X-ray active stars. We will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to perform a spectroscopic survey of the identified candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 Galactic Center Survey will have a dramatic impact on our knowledge of the Galactic accreting binary population.

Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; DeWitt, C.; Gosling, A. J.; Blundell, K.; Blum, R.; Olsen, K.; Sarajedini, A.

2010-02-01

160

The Young Stellar Object Population in the Vela-D Molecular Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the young stellar population in the Vela Molecular Ridge, Cloud-D, a star-forming region observed by both the Spitzer/NASA and Herschel/ESA space telescopes. The point-source, band-merged, Spitzer-IRAC catalog complemented with MIPS photometry previously obtained is used to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs), also including sources detected in less than four IRAC bands. Bona fide YSOs are selected by using appropriate color-color and color-magnitude criteria aimed at excluding both Galactic and extragalactic contaminants. The derived star formation rate and efficiency are compared with the same quantities characterizing other star-forming clouds. Additional photometric data, spanning from the near-IR to the submillimeter, are used to evaluate both bolometric luminosity and temperature for 33 YSOs located in a region of the cloud observed by both Spitzer and Herschel. The luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that some of these sources are representative of Class 0 objects with bolometric temperatures below 70 K and luminosities of the order of the solar luminosity. Far-IR observations from the Herschel/Hi-GAL key project for a survey of the Galactic plane are also used to obtain a band-merged photometric catalog of Herschel sources intended to independently search for protostars. We find 122 Herschel cores located on the molecular cloud, 30 of which are protostellar and 92 of which are starless. The global protostellar luminosity function is obtained by merging the Spitzer and Herschel protostars. Considering that 10 protostars are found in both the Spitzer and Herschel lists, it follows that in the investigated region we find 53 protostars and that the Spitzer-selected protostars account for approximately two-thirds of the total.

Strafella, F.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Elia, D.; Maruccia, Y.; Maiolo, B.; Massi, F.; Olmi, L.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.

2015-01-01

161

Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

2014-11-01

162

A comparative study of Neo Sampoon, Ortho Vaginal Tablets and Emko Vaginal Tablets in Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

Neo Sampoon is an effervescent contraceptive vaginal tablet manufactured in Japan that contains 60 mg of the spermicide menfegol. Ortho Vaginal Tablets (OVT) and Emko Vaginal Tablets (EVT), both containing 100 mg of the spermicide nonoxynol-9, were manufactured in the USA. The three products were compared in a randomized clinical trial conducted at the family planning clinics of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and the Kotobaabi Polyclinic in Accra, Ghana. Three-hundred volunteers participated. At 12 months, the life-table pregnancy rates were 9.6, 11.3 and 12.5 per 100 women in the Neo Sampoon, OVT and EVT groups, respectively (p greater than 0.10). More EVT than Neo Sampoon or OVT users discontinued because of discomfort as well as for other product-related reasons (p less than 0.01). The most common reason for discontinuation was the temporary absence of sexual partner, with more than 40% of the women overall terminating for this reason. The 12-month life-table continuation rates per 100 women were higher for the Neo Sampoon group (62.4) than the OVT group (48.6) or the EVT group (38.5) (p less than 0.01). The effectiveness of the three products seems to be similar, but Neo Sampoon and OVT appear to be more acceptable than EVT in this Ghanaian population. PMID:3002720

Lamptey, P; Klufio, C; Smith, S C; Feldblum, P J

1985-11-01

163

Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.  

PubMed

Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. PMID:23623452

Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

2013-10-30

164

The Network-Enabled Optimization System (neos) Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an environment for solvingoptimization problems over the Internet. Users submit optimization problems to theNEOS Server via e-mail, the World Wide Web, or the NEOS Submission Tool. TheNEOS Server locates the appropriate optimization solver, computes all additional information(for example, derivatives and sparsity patterns) required by the solver, linksthe optimization problem with the solver, and returns

Jorge J. Mor'e; Joseph Czyzyk; Michael P. Mesnier

1996-01-01

165

The MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a new joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. All spectroscopic observations obtained in this campaign are being made publicly available in near-real time.

Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Tokunaga, A.; Bus, S. J.

2005-01-01

166

A Swarm Of Micro-satellites For In Situ NEO Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crewed missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs), as well as reconnaissance for hazard reduction, for science, and for resource exploitation, require in situ robotic precursor missions. Because potential crewed mission targets have multiple requirements, even quite high probabilities for each single requirement lead to a need for multiple targets to be investigated. To ensure mission robustness, multiple good targets with well-spaced launch windows will be needed. Numerous robotic precursors, or order tens to hundreds, will thus be essential. These will have to be micro-satellites in order to be affordable. We describe a concept to place a few hundred Small Wandering Autonomous Reconnaissance Modules (SWARM) in a Solar orbit slightly interior to the Earth. These SWARM micro-satellites would first survey for NEOs, and then visit numerous NEOs as they come into energetically favorable locations.

Elvis, Martin; Landau, D.; Kasper, J.; Lantoine, G.; Marrese-Reading, C.; Mueller, J.; Russell, R. P.; Strange, N.; Ziemer, J. K.; Nash, A.; Yeomans, D.

2012-10-01

167

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from

K. Ward

2008-01-01

168

BIOCOSMOLOGY NEO-ARISTOTELISM Vol. 2, Nos. 1 & 2,  

E-print Network

6 BIOCOSMOLOGY ­ NEO-ARISTOTELISM Vol. 2, Nos. 1 & 2, Winter/Spring 2012 MOSAIC STRUCTURES Khroutski and his colleagues have been developing a neo-Aristotelian Biocosmological philosophical stance described by Khroutski. In the field of #12;7 BIOCOSMOLOGY ­ NEO-ARISTOTELISM Vol. 2, Nos. 1 & 2, Winter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism  

E-print Network

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism Duncan Pritchard University of Stirling, Stirling, UK Two of the main forms of anti-scepticism in the contemporary literature--namely, neo beliefs. Whilst it is ar- gued that neo-Mooreanism has a slight edge over attributer contextualism when

Edinburgh, University of

170

Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Modeling  

E-print Network

Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Modeling J. (Bob) Balaram , J. Cameron , A (NEOs). The simulator is under development at JPL and can be used to provide detailed analysis of various surface and near-surface NEO robotic and human exploration concepts. In this paper we describe

171

Neo: Learning Conceptual Knowledge by Sensorimotor Interaction with an Environment  

E-print Network

Neo: Learning Conceptual Knowledge by Sensorimotor Interaction with an Environment Paul R. Cohen agent, grounded in activity-based sensorimotor representations. This paper describes how Neo, an ar- ti and other aspects of Neo's experience. We show how classes (categories) can be abstracted from

Southern California, University of

172

NEW EDUCATORS' ORIENTATION (NEO) Recommended Make-up Guidelines  

E-print Network

NEW EDUCATORS' ORIENTATION (NEO) Recommended Make-up Guidelines So you missed the New Educators Department's TA Administrator. #12;NEO Workshops ­ Recommended Make-up Guidelines Media Site Link: http://mediasite.engr.wisc.edu/Mediasite/Viewer/?peid=88c299f99279412990d561264042bc711d Signature: _____ 3. NEO Welcome with COE Resources Available

Van Veen, Barry D.

173

Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

174

[Neo-Malthusianism in liberal propaganda].  

PubMed

The authors describe the development of neo-Malthusianism in Portugal from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present day. Consideration is given to the relationship between the growing use of birth control and the development of liberal attitudes toward education, sexuality, social behavior, militancy, and religion. PMID:12179870

Freire, J; Lousada, M A

1982-01-01

175

Confronting a Neo-Nazi Hate Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The peaceful quiet that often accompanies the warming of a mid-April morning in a rural/suburban school district outside Philadelphia was broken harshly when several alarmed high school students arrived at school with Neo-Nazi flyers. The flyers were designed to recruit new members into a hate group calling itself the Pottstown SS. In addition,…

Furin, Terrance L.

2007-01-01

176

Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next

David Morrison

2007-01-01

177

The Emergence of Neo-DBAE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes that the original theory and practice of discipline based art education (DBAE) of the 1980s are undergoing significant changes, and that Neo-DBAE is emerging in the 1990s. Changes in original DBAE theory and practice of the 1980s are discussed, and reasons for such changes are proposed. Some identified changes are: more…

Hamblen, Karen A.

178

Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

2007-01-01

179

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

180

Diameters And Albedos Of Three Subkilometer Near Earth Objects Derived From Spitzer Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are fragments of remnant primitive bodies that date from the era of Solar System formation. At present, the physical properties and origins of NEOs are poorly understood. We have measured (Trilling et al. 2008) thermal emission from three NEOs --- (6037) 1988 EG, 1993 GD, and 2005 GL --- with Spitzer's IRAC instrument at 3.6, 4.5,

David E. Trilling; M. Mueller; J. L. Hora; G. Fazio; T. Spahr; J. A. Stansberry; H. A. Smith; S. R. Chesley; A. K. Mainzer

2008-01-01

181

De-biased populations of Kuiper Belt objects from the Deep Ecliptic Survey  

E-print Network

The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits ...

Adams, E. R.

182

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

2008-09-01

183

Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

Academic Medicine, 1999

1999-01-01

184

Sad is heavy and happy is light: population stereotypes of tangible object attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population stereotypes describe ways in which people, often unconsciously, expect user interface elements to function. Thus they can provide powerful rules for designing intuitive interaction. The literature, however, documents only a few population stereotypes and most of them do not tap the full potential of tangible interaction. Here, we try to alleviate this situation by providing a theory and a

Jörn Hurtienne; Christian Stößel; Katharina Weber

2009-01-01

185

Objective evidence of rising population ability: a detailed examination of longitudinal chess data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising population intelligence should be impacting in the real world and performance in intellectual games such as chess may be good indices of such impact. Previous research suggests that chess players recently have been reaching high performance levels at younger and younger ages, consistent with rising population ability, but this conclusion is based on very limited data. Sample size was

Robert W. Howard

2005-01-01

186

NEO hazards : NEOShield and PoDET perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chelyabinsk event in 2013 has shown that asteroids - even of moderate size - must be considered as natural disasters that do present a non negligible risk to people and property. At an international level, several actions have been undertaken for developing awareness and warning strategies. The PoDET hub at IMCCE, for instance, encompasses research activities for orbit propagation and ephemerides of space debris, meteorite streams, and NEOs (asteroids, comets, meteoroids). For objects with diameters larger than approximately 100m the potential damage caused by an impact may warrant additional emergency measures, such as the implementation of a mitigation plan. Investigating such a scenario is the aim of the NEOShield FP7 project. In this contribution we present NEO related aspects of the PoDET and NEOShield programs. More specifically, we will discuss issues related to the target selection for an asteroid deflection demonstration mission as well as the post-mitigation orbit propagation for estimating possible changes in the impact risk of such target asteroids.

Eggl, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.; Bancelin, D.

2014-04-01

187

On the effect of populations in evolutionary multi-objective optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have be- come increasingly popular as multi-objective problem solving techniques. Most studies of MOEAs are empirical. Only recently, a few theoretical results have appeared. It is acknowledged that more theoretical research is needed. An important open problem is to understand the role of popu- lations in MOEAs. We present a simple bi-objective problem which em- phasizes

Oliver Giel; Per Kristian Lehre

2006-01-01

188

Deflection of large near-earth objects  

SciTech Connect

The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

Canavan, G.H.

1999-01-11

189

Contemporary issues in medicine--medical informatics and population health: report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.  

PubMed

The Association of American Medical Colleges established the Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP) to set forth program-level learning objectives that medical school deans and faculties can use as guides in reviewing their medical student education programs (initial phase), and to suggest strategies that they might employ in implementing agreed-upon changes in those programs (implementation phase). The publication of MSOP Report I in 1998 concluded the initial phase of the project by presenting 30 program-level learning objectives that represent a consensus within the medical education community on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students should possess before graduation from medical school. Report II, published here, is the work of two expert panels that focus on the two interrelated topics of medical informatics and population health for which Report I developed learning objectives. The Medical Informatics Panel identified five roles played by physicians--lifelong learner, clinician, educator-communicator, researcher, and manager--in which medical informatics plays a vital part, and defined one or more informatics learning objectives important for each role (e.g., the successful medical school graduate, in his or her role as a clinician, should be able to retrieve patient-specific information from a clinical information system). The panel then identified ways that schools might implement educational programs to address the various informatics learning objectives and to eventually embed informatics experiences throughout the curriculum rather than relying on an informatics course to achieve some or all of the objectives. The Population Health Perspective Panel developed a consensus definition of "population health perspective" (PHP); chose four types of populations to discuss (e.g., the geographic community); reviewed pressures for and against the implementation of a PHP in the curriculum (e.g., the cross-disciplinary nature of the topic is a barrier); named the fields that encompass training in a PHP (e.g., public health); listed several educational objectives, three principles to govern the design of educational activities, and a number of recommendations; and closed with a list of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that should be instilled by a successful PHP curriculum. PMID:10065054

1999-02-01

190

On future opportunities to observe gravitational scattering of main belt asteroids into NEO source regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and orbital properties of the current NEO population can be explained when one assumes that their primary origin lies in the asteroid main-belt and Jupiter-family comet (P<20 years) regions (Bottke et al. 2000a, 2002; Greenstreet et al. 2012; Mainzer et al. 2012). Orbital resonances with the Gas Giants within the main-belt which cause strong eccentricity-pumping are transport mechanisms that can carry main belt asteroids into the inner Solar System. Two well known resonances in this respect are the 2:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter as well as the nu 5 and nu 6 secular resonances. Since the average life-time of asteroids in resonances is much shorter than the age of the Solar System, a constant flux of asteroids into resonant regions is necessary in order to sustain the observed NEO population (Morbidelli et al. 2002).

Ivantsov, A.; Eggl, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

2014-12-01

191

Astrometrical positions of NEO inferred from CCD observations at Bucharest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show up the capability of the old Prin-Merz astrograph, completely renewed, to perform narrow-field astrometry. A highly accurate metrological system has been conceived in order to monitor, focus, and track the reference stars. Besides, a high quantum efficiency CCD camera based on a back illuminated chip, allows this instrument to "observe" celestial objects up to 18 magnitudes, in less than 30 seconds of exposure. Due to the small FOV of the instrument we use the most dense star catalogue available - USNO B1.0 which can provide us reference stars enough to compute an accurate plate solution. 2 NEO have been observed during the testing phase (3908) Nyx and (85640) 1998 OX4 and the results are presented in this paper. All the data have been submitted to the MPC.

Popescu, R.; Popescu, P.; Nedelcu, A.

2005-09-01

192

KLENOT Project 2002-2008 contribution to NEO astrometric follow-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth object (NEO) research plays an increasingly important role not only in solar system science but also in protecting our planetary environment as well as human society from the asteroid and comet hazard. Consequently, interest in detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and the physical characterizing of these bodies has steadily grown. The discovery rate of current NEO surveys reflects progressive improvement in a number of technical areas. An integral part of NEO discovery is astrometric follow-up crucial for precise orbit computation and for the reasonable judging of future close encounters with the Earth, including possible impact solutions. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) is aimed especially at the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up, and recovery of near-Earth objects. It ranks among the world’s most prolific professional NEO follow-up programs. The 1.06 m KLENOT telescope, put into regular operation in 2002, is the largest telescope in Europe used exclusively for observations of minor planets and comets, and full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. In this paper, we present the equipment, technology, software, observing strategy, and results of the KLENOT Project obtained during its first phase from March 2002 to September 2008. The results consist of thousands of precise astrometric measurements of NEOs and also three newly discovered near-Earth asteroids. Finally, we also discuss future plans reflecting also the role of astrometric follow-up in connection with the modus operandi of the next generation surveys.

Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

2009-01-01

193

Follow-up and Characterization of NEOs with the LCOGT Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects. LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1). An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

Lister, Tim

2013-10-01

194

Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Flight Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, postdeflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonometti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

2004-01-01

195

Survey of Technologies Relevant to Defense From Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This Technical Publication reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of near-Earth objects (NEOs) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are given of a Marshall Space Right Center-led study intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. Details of analytical tools, trajectory tools, and a tool that was created to model both the undeflected inbound path of an NEO as well as the modified, post-deflection path are given. A representative selection of these possible options was modeled and evaluated. It is hoped that this study will raise the level of attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R.; Bonemetti, J.; Chapman, J.; Fincher, S.; Hopkins, R.; Kalkstein, M.; Polsgrove, T.; Statham, G.; White, S.

2004-01-01

196

Efficiency tests for estimating the gas and stellar population parameters in Type 2 objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the efficiency of estimating characteristics of stellar populations (SP) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission using ULySS code. To analyze simultaneously AGN and SP components in the integrated spectrum of Type 2 active galaxies, we modeled the featureless continuum (FC) and emission lines, and we used PEGASE.HR stellar population models provided by ULySS. In order to validate the method, we simulated over 7000 integrated spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Spectra were generated using different characteristics of the featureless AGN continuum, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spectral ranges, properties of emission lines and single stellar population (SSP) model whose initial mass function (IMF) and abundance pattern is similar to the solar neighborhood. Simulated spectra were fitted with ULySS to evaluate the ability of the method to extract SP and AGN properties. We found that the analysis with ULySS can efficiently restore the characteristics of SP in spectra of Seyfert 2 AGNs, where signal-to-noise ratio is higher than 20, and where SP contributes with more than 10% to the total flux. Degeneracies between AGN and SP parameters increase with increasing the AGN continuum fraction, which points out the importance of simultaneous fitting of the FC and SP contributions.

Bon, N.; Popovi?, L. ?.; Bon, E.

2014-10-01

197

Fanaroff-Riley I galaxies as the parent population of BL Lacertae objects. II - Optical constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis is investigated that BL Lacertae objects are a subset of Fanaroff-Riley (FR) I galaxies dominated by beamed emission from a relativistic jet aligned with the line of sight. It is found that FR I galaxies, although of low radio luminosity, are bright optical galaxies. If the beaming hypothesis is correct, the optical luminosity function of BL Lac objects, including the effect of the host galaxy, can be approximated by a double power law with a given differential index. New estimates of the number counts of BL Lac objects are made which constrain their local number density for L(B) greater than about 6 x 10 to the 43rd ergs/s to be in the range 110-720/cu Gpc. The corresponding ratio between the total number densities of BL Lac objects and FR I galaxies is 0.003 to 0.02. This limits the Lorentz factor of the optical emission to the range 8-20, larger than that of the X-ray emitting plasma and roughly of the same order as the radio Lorentz factor.

Padovani, Paolo; Urry, C. Megan

1991-01-01

198

Fanaroff-Riley I galaxies as the parent population of BL Lacertae objects. I - X-ray constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis that BL Lacertae objects are a special subset of Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies, namely, those dominated by beamed emission from a relativistic jet aligned with the line of sight, is examined by looking at the relative number densities. The calculation depends primarily on observed quantities, including the X-ray luminosity function of Fanaroff-Riley type I galaxies. The model predicts the X-ray luminosity function of BL Lacertae objects, the shape of the X-ray counts below currently observed fluxes, and the velocity of the X-ray emitting jet. With Fanaroff-Riley type I galaxies as the parent population the flat luminosity function, the observed X-ray number counts, and the partial redshift distribution of BL Lacertae objects can be explained.

Padovani, P.; Urry, C. M.

1990-01-01

199

Meteorite source regions as revealed by the near-Earth object population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1--3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We first evaluate these results within the framework of taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5,6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral and mineralogical analysis (e.g. [7,8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. The source regions evaluated are Mars Crossers, ?_6 resonance, 3:1 resonance, the Outer Belt, and Jupiter Family Comets. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the innermost main-belt regions. V-types are relatively equally balanced between ?_6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. Asteroid taxonomy classes interpreted as analogous to meteorites with primitive compositions, B- and C-types, show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. Most strongly indicated is a Jupiter family comet source for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying a pronounced likelihood that these ''asteroidal'' bodies are extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless ''X-type'' category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference; even though they lack albedo measurements, they may be interpreted as originating from among ''P-type'' primitive objects common in the outer belt. Finally the Xe-class of near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites, show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin (confirming [11]) by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and ?_6 resonance pathways.

Binzel, R.; DeMeo, F.; Burt, B.; Polishook, D.; Burbine, T.; Bus, S.; Tokunaga, A.; Birlan, M.

2014-07-01

200

Basaltic asteroids in the Near-Earth Objects population: a mineralogical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims.We present reflectance spectra of three V-type Near-Earth Objects obtained at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and at the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope covering the near-infrared and visible range, respectively. The range from 0.5 to 2.5 mum, encompassing the 1 and 2 mum pyroxene features, allows a mineralogical characterization of these asteroids. Methods: .A preliminary analysis using the

R. Duffard; J. de León; J. Licandro; D. Lazzaro; M. Serra-Ricart

2006-01-01

201

X-ray scaling relations in Compact Group Galaxies: Compact Object Populations with Chandra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the latest results from an on-going campaign to understand nuclear and accreting binary activity, as well as diffuse emission, in compact groups (CGs) of galaxies. Using multi-wavelength data for a sample of 19 CGs, we have measured star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses (M*). Using Chandra data for this sample, we have detected X-ray point sources (both nuclear and non-nuclear), as well as X-ray diffuse emission. We have thus achieved a detailed characterization of the X-ray data, which allows us, for the first time, to systematically explore the form of the X-ray scaling relations between, on the one hand, point-source X-ray luminosity, Lx, due to X-ray binary populations, and, on the other hand, SFR and M* in this unique extragalactic environment. We compare the Lx-SFR-M* correlation in CGs to (1) the well established correlation for the general extragalactic X-ray binary population, and (2) the Lx vs. SFR results for Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs). Both CG galaxies and UVLGs are earlier Universe analogs, allowing us to explore Lx-SFR-M* evolution as a function of environment and cosmic time.

Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Brandt, W. N.; Johnson, K. E.; Charlton, J. C.; Gallagher, S.; Desjardins, T. D.; Lenkic, L.

2014-01-01

202

The Kestrel interface to the NEOS server.  

SciTech Connect

The NEOS Server provides access to optimization solvers through the Internet with a suite of interfaces. In particular, the Kestrel interface enables the remote solution of optimization problems within the AMPL and GAMS modeling languages. Problem generation, including the run-time detection of syntax errors, occurs on the local machine using any available modeling language facilities. Solution takes place on a remote machine, with the result returned in the native modeling language format for further processing. No significant differences exist between local and remote solutions. A byproduct of the Kestrel interface is the ability to solve in parallel multiple problems generated by a modeling language.

Dolan, E. D.; Munson, T. S.

2001-07-24

203

Meteorite Source Regions as Revealed by the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1], [2], [3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We determine their taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5] [6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral analysis (e.g. [7],[8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the inner main-belt. V-types are relatively equally balanced between nu6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. B- and C-types show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. A Jupiter family comet source predominates for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying these "asteroidal" bodies may be extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless "X-type" category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference. Finally the Xe-class near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites seen in the Hungaria region[11], show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and nu6 resonance pathways. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Lazzarin, M. et al. (2004), Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 5, 21. [2] Thomas, C. A. et al. (2014), Icarus 228, 217. [3] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [4] Hasselmann, P. H., Carvano, J. M., Lazzaro, D. (2011) NASA PDS, EAR-A-I0035-5-SDSSTAX-V1.0. [5] Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. (2002). Icarus 158, 146. [6] DeMeo, F.E. et al. (2009), Icarus 202, 160. [7] Dunn et al. (2010) Icarus 208, 789. [8] Dunn et al. (2013) Icarus 222, 273. [9] Bottke, W.F. et al. (2002), Icarus 156, 399. [10] DeMeo, F., Binzel, R. P. (2007) Icarus 194, 436. [11] Gaffey, M. J. et al. (1992) Icarus 100, 95.

Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Burt, Brian J.; Polishook, David; Burbine, Thomas H.; Bus, Schelte J.; Tokunaga, Alan; Birlan, Mirel

2014-11-01

204

Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC) VIII: Substellar population in Lupus 3  

E-print Network

SONYC -- Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters -- is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO-4m telescope, covering ~1.4 sqdeg on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 MSun, for Av \\leq 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and Teff \\leq 3000K, i.e. are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Halp...

Muzic, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent C; Jayawardhana, Ray; Marti, Belen Lopez

2014-01-01

205

Klenot near-Earth-object follow-up program --- next generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEO research is a great challenge just now --- for science, for exploration, and for planetary defence. Therefore NEO discoveries, astrometric follow-up, orbit computations as well as physical studies are of high interest both to science community and humankind. The KLENOT Project of the Klet Observatory, South Bohemia, Czech Republic, has pursued the confirmation, early follow-up, long-arc follow-up and recovery of Near Earth Objects since 2002. Tens of thousands astrometric measurements has helped to improve the inventory of NEOs as well as to understand the NEO population. It was ranked among the world most prolific professional NEO follow-up programmes during its first phase from 2002 to 2008. A fundamental improvement of the 1.06-m KLENOT Telescope was started in autumn 2008. A new computer controlled paralactic mount was built to substantially increase telescope-time efficiency, the number of observations, their accuracy and limiting magnitude. The testing observations of the KLENOT Telescope Next Generation were started in October 2011. The new more efficient CCD camera FLI ProLine 230 was installed in summer 2013. The original Klet Software Package has been continually upgraded over the past two decades of operation. Along with huge hardware changes we have decided for essential changes in software and the whole KLENOT work-flow. Using the current higher computing power available, enhancing and updating our databases and astrometry program, the core of our software package, will prove highly beneficial. Moreover, the UCAC4 as the more precise astrometric star catalog was implemented. Both the system and strategy for the NEO follow-up observation used in the framework of the KLENOT Project are described here, including methods for selecting useful and important targets for NEO follow-up astrometry. Methods and techniques used for the KLENOT Project are also discussed. Sources of particular inaccuracies of astrometric measurements as input data for orbit computations were identified. Then we have searched for ways to eliminate them and this effort still continues. The modernized KLENOT System was put into full operation in September 2013. This step opens new possibilities for the KLENOT Project, the long-term European Contribution to Monitoring and Cataloging Near Earth Objects. More than 3000 minor planet and comet astrometric positions including NEA measurements were published from September 2013 to March 2014. The 1.06-m KLENOT telescope is still the largest telescope in continental Europe used exclusively for observations of asteroids and comets. Full observing time is dedicated to the KLENOT team. Considering our results and long-time experience obtained at the Klet Observatory, we have a large potential to contribute to recent NEO efforts. We also plan to discuss an international dimension of NEO astrometric follow-up, crucial for reasonable results. A meaningful connection and collaboration with the next generation ground-based and space surveys will be important. The cooperation with and through the Minor Planet Center, the worldwide clearinghouse for small solar system bodies astrometric observations and orbits, is an essential feature of NEO efforts. We also plan to cooperate and directly take part with the ESA's SSA-NEO Programme as a part of European network of cooperating sensors.

Ticha, J.; Tichy, M.; Kocer, M.; Honkova, M.

2014-07-01

206

Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friedrich Albert Lange was a German philosopher, political theorist, educator, and psy- chologist who outlined an objective psychology in the 1860s. This article shows how some of the most important worldviews of the nineteenth century (Kantianism, Marxism, and Darwinism) were combined creatively in his thought system. He was crucial in the de- velopment of neo-Kantianism and incorporated psycho-physiological research on

Thomas Teo

2002-01-01

207

Planetary protection issues for the MarcoPolo NEO sample return mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MarcoPolo mission has been selected as an M-class candidate for assessment study within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through a competitive process the final candidate will be selected at the end of the year 2011. The primary goal of this mission is to return samples of material from a Near Earth Object (NEO)

Jens Romstedt; M. A. Barucci; Makoto Yoshikawa; Detlef Koschny; Hermann Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; Marcello Coradini; Elisabetta Dotto; Ian A. Franchi; Simon F. Green; Jean-Luc Josset; Jun Kawagushi; Patrick Michel; Karri Muinonen; Juergen Oberst; Judith Pillinger; Daniel Prieur; Hajime Yano; David Agnolon; Richard P. Binzel

2008-01-01

208

Pan-STARRS NEO surveying: The preliminary orbit problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS project will be a deep (R ˜ 24) wide field ( ˜ 7 deg2) survey, with the goal of cataloging 90% of Potentially Hazardous Objects that are larger than about 300m diameter. It will be capable of surveying 6000 deg2/night enabling discovery rates almost two orders of magnitude greater than all existing surveys combined. No existing PHO follow-up facility can match the expected depth and discovery rate. With this in mind, it is important to select an intelligent discovery and follow-up cadence, not only for easy night-to-night linking, but also for high-quality orbit determination and efficient use of telescope time. With these concerns, we simulated a typical set of Pan-STARRS NEO observations using the Bottke et al. [1] NEO model, 0".1 RMS astrometry, and standard horizon and magnitude limits for Mauna Kea. Various cadences were investigated, including 2, 3, and 4-night data sets, with each observation night separated by four days. In addition, we varied the number of observations each night between 2 and 3 visits, with visits separated by 30 minutes. The impact of these choices on preliminary orbit determination, post-fit element uncertainties, and sky-plane uncertainties was studied. These simulations indicate that 3 observations per night is largely unnecessary, and that orbit determination using only two nights of data is not acceptable for our needs. Pairs of observations spaced by 30 minutes, and 3 or 4 separate nights of data over the corresponding 8 or 12-night interval provide well-determined orbital elements and small sky-plane uncertainties. [1] W.F. Bottke, R. Jedicke, A. Morbidelli, J.-M. Petit, B. Gladman, Science, 288, 2190-2194 (2000).

Spahr, T.; Chesley, S.; Heasley, J.; Jedicke, R.

2004-11-01

209

Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2005-01-01

210

Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar Population in Lupus 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ~1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ?, for AV <= 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff <= 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H? or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) - (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 087.C-0386 and 089.C-0432, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's programs 2010A-0054 and 2011A-0144.

Muži?, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; López Martí, Belén

2014-04-01

211

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP  

E-print Network

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP Bilan 2011-2012 et Projets 2012-2013 Conseil de labo du 26 juin 2012 Les membres de l'axe NEO-RESSAP ont été très actifs cette année et de

Naud Frédéric

212

NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

2000-01-01

213

Discriminant Validity of NEO-PIR Facet Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two analyses were conducted to examine the discriminant validity of 30 facet scales from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR). To examine cross-observer validity of specific variance in the facet scales, partial correlations between self-reports and peer (N = 250) and spouse (N = 68) ratings on the facets were calculated, controlling for the five common factors. All 60 convergent

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa

1992-01-01

214

Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

Finnegan, Fergal

2008-01-01

215

Into the beyond: A crewed mission to a near-Earth object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aside from the exploration of Mars, the objects that most capture our interest for a new human visit are the near-Earth objects (NEOs). These objects are ideal candidates for deep-space operations and explorations as we extend the human presence out into the solar system. The notion of a crewed mission to a NEO was first discussed in the Apollo era.

David J. Korsmeyer; Rob R. Landis; Paul A. Abell

2008-01-01

216

Near-Earth Objects: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale for the efforts to discover, track, and characterize Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are outlined. While great strides have taken place over the last few years with regard to NEO research, there still is a lack of large telescopes in the search process, a less than comprehensive effort to coordinate the search efforts, an under representation of search facilities outside

D. K. Yeomans; E. Asphaug; W. F. Bottke; P. G. Brown; A. Cellino; R. A. Fevig; U. Fink; C. W. Hergenrother; A. R. Hildebrand; S. M. Larson; J.-L. Margot; D. J. Tholen

2002-01-01

217

Physical properties of near-earth objects: open problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current unsatisfactory situation regarding physical characterization of the near-Earth objects (NEO) is briefly reviewed. Different techniques can be used to obtain basic information on NEO sizes and compositions. However, only a few of them can be efficiently applied in practice. The most productive approach is to obtain radiometric observations in the thermal infrared, plus visible and near-infrared spectroscopy or

A. Cellino

2001-01-01

218

Origin and Evolution of Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asteroids and comets on orbits with perihelion distance q < 1.3 AU and aphelion distance Q > 0.983 AU are usually called near-Earth objects (NEOs). It has long been debated whether the NEOs are mostly of asteroidal or cometary origin. With improved knowledge of resonant dynamics, it is now clear that the asteroid belt is capable of supplying most of

A. Morbidelli; W. F. Bottke Jr; P. Michel

1998-01-01

219

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics

David E. Trilling; B. Bhattacharya; W. Bottke; S. Chesley; M. Delbo; J. Emery; G. Fazio; A. Harris; J. Hora; A. Mainzer; M. Mueller; B. Penprase; H. Smith; T. Spahr; J. Stansberry

2009-01-01

220

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring The History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key

Joseph L. Hora; D. E. Trilling; C. A. Thomas; J. A. Stansberry; T. B. Spahr; H. A. Smith; B. E. Penprase; M. Mueller; A. K. Mainzer; A. W. Harris; G. G. Fazio; J. P. Emery; M. Delbo; S. R. Chesley; W. F. Bottke; B. Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

221

The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey: Exploring the history of the inner Solar System and near Earth space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near-Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics

David Trilling; Bidushi Bhattacharya; William Bottke; Steve Chesley; Marco Delbo; Joshua Emery; Giovanni Fazio; Alan Harris; Joseph Hora; Amy Mainzer; Michael Mueller; Bryan Penprase; Howard Smith; Timothy Spahr; John Stansberry

2008-01-01

222

Planetary Defense: Options for Deflection of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several recent near-miss encounters with asteroids and comets have focused attention on the threat of a catastrophic impact with the Earth. This document reviews the historical impact record and current understanding of the number and location of Near Earth Objects (NEO's) to address their impact probability. Various ongoing projects intended to survey and catalog the NEO population are also reviewed. Details are then given of an MSFC-led study, intended to develop and assess various candidate systems for protection of the Earth against NEOs. An existing program, used to model the NE0 threat, was extensively modified and is presented here. Details of various analytical tools, developed to evaluate the performance of proposed technologies for protection against the NEO threat, are also presented. Trajectory tools, developed to model the outbound path a vehicle would take to intercept or rendezvous with a target asteroid or comet, are described. Also, details are given of a tool that was created to model both the un-deflected inbound path of an NE0 as well as the modified, post-deflection, path. The number of possible options available for protection against the NE0 threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. The major output from this work was a novel process by which the relative effectiveness of different threat mitigation concepts can be evaluated during future, more detailed, studies. In addition, several new or modified mathematical models were developed to analyze various proposed protection systems. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work. It is hoped that this study will serve to raise the level attention about this very real threat and also demonstrate that successful defense is both possible and practicable, provided appropriate steps are taken.

Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; Hopkins, R.; Chapman, J.; White, S.; Bonometti, J.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Kalkstein, M.

2003-01-01

223

Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

Werner, Martin R.

2005-01-01

224

Database of Nordic Neo-Latin Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originating from a research project that involved latinists from all five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden), this database is currently maintained and edited by professors Lars Boje Mortensen and Karen Skovgaard-Petersen, Department of Greek and Latin, University of Bergen, Norway, and Peter Zeeberg, Institut for Graesk og Latin, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. It lists selected Latin texts, written between the reformation (c. 1530) and 1800, that pertain to Nordic people or locations. Scholars can search the database by keyword or by author, place of publication, language, and dedicatee. Visitors can also browse a list of current Neo-Latin scholars, consult a bibliography, view an historical map of Scandanavia, and read a brief note on the historical background of the region.

225

Endothelial ?1-adrenoceptors regulate neo-angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Intact endothelium plays a pivotal role in post-ischaemic angiogenesis. It is a phenomenon finely tuned by activation and inhibition of several endothelial receptors. The presence of ?1-adrenoceptors on the endothelium suggests that these receptors may participate in regenerative phenomena by regulating the responses of endothelial cells involved in neo-angiogenesis. Experimental approach: We evaluated the expression of the subtypes of the ?1-adrenoceptor in isolated endothelial cells harvested from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We explored the possibility these ?1-adrenoceptors may influence the pro-angiogenic phenotype of endothelial cells in vitro. In vivo, we used a model of hindlimb ischaemia in WKY rats, to assess the effects of ?1 adrenoceptor agonist or antagonist on angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb by laser Doppler blood flow measurements, digital angiographies, hindlimb perfusion with dyed beads and histological evaluation. Key results: In vitro, pharmacological antagonism of ?1-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells from WKY rats by doxazosin enhanced, while stimulation of these adrenoceptors with phenylephrine, inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, ERK and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation, cell migration and tubule formation. In vivo, we found increased ?1-adrenoceptor density in the ischaemic hindlimb, compared to non-ischaemic hindlimb, suggesting an enhanced ?1-adrenoceptor tone in the ischaemic tissue. Treatment with doxazosin (0.06?mg?kg?1?day?1 for 14 days) did not alter systemic blood pressure but enhanced neo-angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb, as measured by all our assays. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that the ?1-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells provide a negative regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:18084315

Ciccarelli, M; Santulli, G; Campanile, A; Galasso, G; Cervèro, P; Altobelli, G G; Cimini, V; Pastore, L; Piscione, F; Trimarco, B; Iaccarino, G

2007-01-01

226

Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces population as a group of the same kind of organisms in a given space at a given time. The activities in this section will provide students with the opportunity to define population, estimate populations in a community, and count and compare populations within a community. Students will gain the knowledge in describing plant and animal populations living in a community. They will also experiment with plant populations to control growth and development, not to mention discuss the effects of abiotic conditions on a community.

Janet R. Galle

2005-01-01

227

Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects  

E-print Network

Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects of the population genomics of humans. This 1000 genomes project is devoted to the exciting project, where the genomes of a 1000 individuals are to be sequenced in the next

Goldschmidt, Christina

228

Exploring a New Population of Compact Objects: X-ray and IR Observations of the Galactic Centre  

E-print Network

I describe the IR and X-ray observational campaign we have undertaken for the purpose of determining the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered by Chandra in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained for this project includes a deep Chandra survey of the Galactic Bulge; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS); and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. By cross-correlating the GC X-ray imaging from Chandra with our IR surveys, we identify candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources via astrometry. Using a detailed IR extinction map, we are deriving magnitudes and colors for all the candidates. Having thus established a target list, we will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to carry out a spectroscopic survey of the candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 Galactic Center Survey will have a dramatic impact on our knowledge of the Galactic accreting binary population.

Reba M. Bandyopadhyay; Andrew J. Gosling; Stephen E. Eikenberry; Michael P. Muno; Katherine M. Blundell; Philipp Podsiadlowski; Valerie J. Mikles; Curtis DeWitt

2008-08-04

229

Exploring a New Population of Compact Objects: X-ray and IR Observations of the Galactic Centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I describe the IR and X-ray observational campaign we have undertaken for the purpose of determining the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered by Chandra in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained for this project includes a deep Chandra survey of the Galactic Bulge; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. By cross-correlating the GC X-ray imaging from Chandra with our IR surveys, we identify candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources via astrometry. Using a detailed IR extinction map, we are deriving magnitudes and colors for all the candidates. Having thus established a target list, we will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to carry out a spectroscopic survey of the candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 Galactic Center Survey will have a dramatic impact on our knowledge of the Galactic accreting binary population.

Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Gosling, Andrew J.; Eikenberry, Stephen E.; Muno, Michael P.; Blundell, Katherine M.; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Mikles, Valerie J.; Dewitt, Curtis

2008-10-01

230

The SSA NEO Segment and Gaia: present opportunities and future developments E. Perozzi 1,3  

E-print Network

The SSA NEO Segment and Gaia: present opportunities and future developments E. Perozzi 1,3 , D is devoted to NEO hazard monitoring through the set-up and the operation of a dedicated data centre [1) and the coordination of NEO observations for discovery and follow-up. Thus the aim of the SSA NEO Segment is to become

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Neo4EMF, a Scalable Persistence Layer for EMF Amine Benelallam1  

E-print Network

Neo4EMF, a Scalable Persistence Layer for EMF Models Amine Benelallam1 , Abel G´omez1 , Gerson Suny a scalable persistence layer for EMF models that meets these requirements. Our persistence layer, Neo4EMF, is built on top of the popular graph database Neo4j. Neo4EMF is open-source, publicly available at [3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Philosophy 269 January 10, 2002 1 Humean and Neo-Humean (Deterministic) Causation  

E-print Network

Philosophy 269 January 10, 2002 1 Humean and Neo-Humean (Deterministic) Causation · Hume's Account (Review) · Challenges & Problems to Humean Causation · Mackie's Neo-Humean INUS Account & Hausman's Refinement · Summary and Simplification of Neo-Humean Response · Problems for Neo-Humean Accounts (and others

Fitelson, Branden

233

PUTNAM'S TRADTIONAL NEO-ESSENTIALISM NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)  

E-print Network

PUTNAM'S TRADTIONAL NEO-ESSENTIALISM NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) forthcoming might be called `neo-essentialism' about natural kinds. These views are otherwise essentialist, and consequently that neo-essentialism is not so neo after all. 1. ESSENTIALISM OLD AND NEW "Essentialism," we

Williams, Neil E.

234

An Item-Level Examination of the Factorial Validity of NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) is often used in field-based research and clinical studies as it is designed to measure the same personality dimensions as the longer NEO Personality Inventory in a shorter time frame. In this study, the authors examined the reliability and structural validity of the NEO-FFI scores at the item level in a…

Hull, Darrell M.; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Verdisco, Aimee E.

2010-01-01

235

NEOS: Optimization on the Internet Joseph Czyzyk y Jonathan H. Owen z Stephen J. Wright y  

E-print Network

NEOS: Optimization on the Internet Joseph Czyzyk y Jonathan H. Owen z Stephen J. Wright y June 30 and Northwestern University launched the NEOS project in late 1994 (NEOS=``Network­Enabled Optimization System to expand our vision for NEOS as the project pro­ gressed. We saw that interactive case studies to demon

Wright, Steve

236

Post Neo-Liberalism and the Humanities: What the Repressive State Apparatus Means for Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore how neo-liberal and post neo-liberal policies threaten the humanities in post-secondary education as a potential site of democratic dialogue and social transformation. We distinguish between neo-liberalism and post neo-liberalism on the basis of the latter's increased police suppression of democratic dissent. We are…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Leonard, Hugh A.

2012-01-01

237

CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Nugent, C. R., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

2012-06-20

238

Characterizing Subpopulations within the near-Earth Objects with NEOWISE: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are ~4700 ± 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Giorgini, J.; Spahr, T.; Cutri, R. M.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.

2012-06-01

239

Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

240

The Near-Earth Objects Follow-up Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightcurve observations of 16 near-Earth objects (NEOs) and 2 Mars-crossers in 1996–1999 from three observational sites are presented. Eight objects were observed shortly after their discovery within the follow-up program of NEO observations. We were able to determine rotation periods for 14 asteroids. For 8 objects (5626, 5732, 1998 FM5, 1998 FX2, 1998 UT18, 1998 VO33, 1999 RQ36, 1999 US3)

Yu. N. Krugly; I. N. Belskaya; V. G. Shevchenko; V. G. Chiorny; F. P. Velichko; S. Mottola; A. Erikson; G. Hahn; A. Nathues; G. Neukum; N. M. Gaftonyuk; E. Dotto

2002-01-01

241

A New Standardized Stimulus Set for Studying Need-of-Help Recognition (NeoHelp)  

PubMed Central

This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open-access standardized visual stimuli set for investigation of need-of-help recognition and invite researchers to use and extend it. PMID:24409294

Brielmann, Aenne A.; Stolarova, Margarita

2014-01-01

242

Two Dogmas of Neo-Empiricism Edouard Machery*  

E-print Network

. To take a simple example, according to neo-empiricists, Marie's conceptual knowledge about apples consists of the visual, olfactive, tactile, somato- sensory, and gustative representations of apples that are stored

Machery, Edouard

243

Neo-vernacular trends towards the recent past in Greece  

E-print Network

In economically advanced countries, fragments of the past are preserved, or new environments are created to match this past image. The reappropriation of old forms includes what can be called the neo-vernacular as a way ...

Zographaki, Stephania G

1986-01-01

244

A New Approach on the Long Term Dynamics of NEO's Under Yarkovsky Effect.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classical approach to the many-body problem is that of using special perturbation methods. Nowadays and due to the availability of high-speed computers is an essential tool in Space Dynamics which exhibits a great advantage: it is applicable to any orbit involving any number of bodies and all sorts of astrodynamical problems, especially when these problems fall into regions in which general perturbation theories are absent. One such case is, for example, that Near Earth Objects (NEO's) dynamics. In this field, the Group of Tether Dynamics of UPM (GDT) has developed a new regularisation scheme - called DROMO - which is characterised by only 8 ODE. This new regularisation scheme allows a new approach to the dynamics of NEO's in the long term, specially appropriated to consider the influence of the anisotropic thermal emission (Yarkovsky and YORP effects) on the dynamics. A new project, called NEODROMO, has been started in GDT that aims to provide a reliable tool for the long term dynamics of NEO's.

Peláez, Jesús; Urrutxua, Hodei; Bombardelli, Claudio; Perez-Grande, Isabel

2011-12-01

245

The political ideology of the neo?traditional family  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent and popular family values literature seeks to justify and enforce a neo?traditional family model of nuclear heterosexual families with gender differentiated roles. Adherents of this neo?traditional family form contend that their primary concern is with children and with family arrangements that enhance child well?being. We demonstrate that the arguments for child well?being in family values ideology are weak

Jyl J. Josephson; Cynthia Burack

1998-01-01

246

Early Neo-Confucian View of Chinese Buddhism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of this thesis gives the cultural background of the thousand-year old confrontation between a well sinicized India-born religion, Chinese Buddhism, and thereviving Chinese orthodoxy of the Sung period, Neo-Confucianism. Early Neo-Confucianist philosophers, namely Ch'eng Hao, Ch'eng I and Chu Hsi, attacked Buddhism on four main groilllds: historical and textual formulations, cosmology, metaphysics, and ethics -- both social and

Jacques-M. Langlais

1972-01-01

247

Orbital Analysis for Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For recently discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO) two body computations can be used to determine the minimum distance between the object's orbit and that of the Earth. Determinations can then be made for potential near-term threats to the Earth. This preliminary orbit analysis must be followed with planetary perturbation computations of the object's future motion to predict actual close Earth approaches.

Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.

1995-01-01

248

Impacting small Near Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a low-cost spacecraft to impact on a small, faint Near Earth Object (NEO), poses major challenges. This paper focuses on the terminal phase of such impact mission, analyzing the capability of autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) systems to compensate the deviations in the impact point to achieve a successful collision. The autonomous GNC system employs the

J. Gil-Fernández; R. Panzeca; C. Corral

2008-01-01

249

NEOKepler: Discovering Near-Earth Objects Using the Kepler Spacecraft  

E-print Network

We propose a new Kepler mission, called NEOKepler, that would survey near Earth's orbit to identify potentially hazardous objects (PHOs). To understand its surveying power, Kepler's large field of view produces an 'etendue' (A*Omega) that is 4.5 times larger than the best survey telescope currently in operation. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of NEOKepler using a double "fence post" survey pattern that efficiently detects PHOs. In a simulated 12-month survey, we estimate that NEOKepler would detect ~150 new NEOs with absolute magnitudes of less than 21.5, ~50 of which would be new PHOs. This would increase the annual PHO discovery rate by at least 50% and improve upon our goal of discovering 90% of PHOs by the end of 2020. Due to its heliocentric orbit, Kepler would also be sensitive to objects inside Earth's orbit, discovering more objects in its first year than are currently known to exist. Understanding this undersampled sub-population of NEOs will reveal new insights into the actual PHO dis...

Stevenson, Kevin B; Jedicke, Robert; Bottke, William; Denneau, Larry

2013-01-01

250

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from 45 different datasets with daily, weekly, and/or monthly temporal resolutions, with more datasets currently under development. The imagery from these datasets is produced in coordination with several data partners who are affiliated either with the instrument science teams or with the respective data processing center. NEO is a system of three components -- website, WMS (Web Mapping Service), and ftp archive -- which together are able to meet the wide-ranging needs of our users. Some of these needs include the ability to: view and manipulate imagery using the NEO website -- e.g., applying color palettes, resizing, exporting to a variety of formats including PNG, JPEG, KMZ (Google Earth), GeoTIFF; access the NEO collection via a standards-based API (WMS); and create customized exports for select users (ftp archive) such as Science on a Sphere, NASA's Earth Observatory, and others.

Ward, K.

2008-12-01

251

Discrepancy between subjectively reported symptoms and objectively measured clinical findings in dry eye: a population based analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the discrepancy between patient-reported symptoms and measured clinical findings and influencing factors in dry eye (DE). Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed in July–August 2007 in northeast China. The study was performed on populations originating from two rural districts that are respectively located approximately 377 and 177?km from our hospital. Participants 2600 eligible residents from 1300 households were identified; valid responses were obtained from 2262 residents (mean age 48 (range 12–88) years; 926 men and 1336 women; response rate 87%). Primary outcome measures Patient-reported symptoms of DE, tear film break up time (BUT) and Schirmer scores (Schirmer II). Results Subjects with normal BUT and Schirmer scores without any DE symptoms were defined as the control group. Those with abnormal BUT and Schirmer scores and symptoms of DE were defined as the DE group. Subjects with disparities between the occurrence of DE symptoms and measured clinical findings were regarded as the discrepancy. Out of 2262 subjects, the discrepant group contained 960 subjects (42.44%) with significant difference (?2=4.027, p=0.045<0.05). Factors that influenced the subjective reporting of DE symptoms included gender, smoking status, environment and age. Schirmer II test and tear film BUT values were remarkably different among control, DE and discrepant groups. Conclusions Development of DE can be related to many factors. It is of great importance to put forward the preclinical phase concept (patients who are symptomatic for DE and yet show no aqueous deficiency or evaporative signs) and to screen outpatients with DE-inducing features. Future interventions should focus on patients demonstrating a discrepancy between self-reported symptomology and measured clinical findings. PMID:25168038

Hua, Rui; Yao, Kai; Hu, Yuedong; Chen, Lei

2014-01-01

252

Dynamical 3-Space: neo-Lorentz Relativity  

E-print Network

The major extant relativity theories - Galileo's Relativity (GaR), Lorentz's Relativity (LR) and Einstein's Special Relativity (SR), with the latter much celebrated, while the LR is essentially ignored. Indeed it is often incorrectly claimed that SR and LR are experimentally indistinguishable. Here we show that (i) SR and LR are experimentally distinguishable, (ii) that comparison of gas-mode Michelson interferometer experiments with spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler shift data demonstrate that it is LR that is consistent with the data, while SR is in conflict with the data, (iii) SR is exactly derivable from GaR by means of a mere linear change of space and time coordinates that mixes the Galilean space and time coordinates. So it is GaR and SR that are equivalent. Hence the well-known SR relativistic effects are purely coordinate effects, and cannot correspond to the observed relativistic effects. The connections between these three relativity theories has become apparent following the discovery that space is an observable dynamical textured system, and that space and time are distinct phenomena, leading to a neo-Lorentz Relativity (nLR). The observed relativistic effects are dynamical consequences of nLR and 3-space. In particular a proper derivation of the Dirac equation from nLR is given, which entails the derivation of the rest mass energy mc^2

Reginald T Cahill

2012-07-05

253

Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are

M. A. Barucci; Makoto Yoshikawa; Detlef Koschny; Hermann Boehnhardt; J. Robert Brucato; Marcello Coradini; Elisabetta Dotto; Ian A. Franchi; Simon F. Green; Jean-Luc Josset; Patrick Michel; Jun Kawagushi; Karri Muinonen; Juergen Oberst; Hajime Yano; Richard P. Binzel

2008-01-01

254

Optical colors of 56 near-Earth objects: trends with size and orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of BVRIZ photometry of 56 near-Earth objects (NEOs) obtained with the 1-m Jacobus Kapteyn telescope on La Palma during 2000 and 2001. Our sample includes many NEOs with particularly deep 1-?m pyroxene\\/olivine absorption bands, similar to Q-type asteroids. We also classify three NEOs with particularly blue colors. No D-type asteroids were found, placing an upper limit

C. L Dandy; A Fitzsimmons; S. J Collander-Brown

2003-01-01

255

Physical Characterization Studies of Near-Earth Object Spacecraft Mission Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic asteroids and comets that come within a perihelion distance of 1.3 AU or less are defined as Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). These small bodies are in dynamically favorable positions as potential spacecraft mission targets. As a consequence, space missions to NEOs are underway or in development by several major agencies (e.g., NASA, ESA, JAXA), and recently, a manned mission to an NEO was announced as a NASA goal to be accomplished by the year 2025. Further, NASA has selected the OSIRIS-Rex unmanned spacecraft mission for launch in 2016. The spacecraft will rendezvous with and collect samples from the near-Earth asteroid 1999 RQ36. Ground-based monitoring efforts to find and characterize suitable targets for planned and existing spacecraft missions are in progress and require moderate to large-sized telescopes. Good candidate asteroids must have a well-defined orbit and be of a known spectral type. Knowledge of physical properties such as size, shape, internal structure, rotation rate (and whether the asteroid is tumbling) must also be derived. Acquiring more information about the physical nature of NEOs not only contributes to general scientific pursuits and preparation for spacecraft missions, but is important to better address the threat from dangerous NEOs having Earth-crossing orbits. Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory's (MRO) 2.4-meter telescope facility have an ongoing, comprehensive program to determine orbital and physical characterization information of newly discovered objects in the near-Earth population. The approach of the program is to leverage nightly astrometric follow-up work to obtain physical data (primarily rotation rates) on the most interesting, recently discovered NEOs, including promising spacecraft targets. This strategy allows one-of-a-kind, real-time access to the study of unique asteroids and comets before they leave the near-Earth vicinity. We will present new data obtained by photometric, spectroscopic, and other techniques on the physical properties of several Earth-approaching asteroids that are potential mission candidates. We will discuss collaborative efforts with researchers using radar to characterize prospective targets, and outline the synergy and increased science return of such an endeavor. In addition, we will present characterization results of the photometric properties of asteroid 1999 RQ36 at visible wavelengths including its rotation rate and phase function. These data were collected during the 2011-2012 apparition of the asteroid, which is the last opportunity for ground-based studies before OSIRIS-Rex is launched.

Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

2012-09-01

256

Factor structure of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and its relationship with the revised NEO personality inventory in a Japanese sample.  

PubMed

The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) was developed to assess 18 personality traits that provide a systematic representation of personality disorder. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAPP-BQ and the relationship between the DAPP-BQ and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in a heterogeneous general population sample (n = 1485). Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period was satisfactory for all scales. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors labeled "emotional dysregulation," "dissocial behavior," "inhibition," and "compulsivity" that accounted for 76.0% of the total variance. Subsequently, we investigated the relationships between the 18 dimensions and the 5 dimensions of the NEO-PI-R in a second heterogeneous general population sample (n = 717). Combined factor analysis of the 2 scales again yielded 4 factors accounting for 70.4% of the total variance. Finally, we used multiple regression analyses to examine the extent to which the 5 NEO-PI-R scales could be used to predict individual DAPP-BQ scales. These indicated that the NEO-PI-R does not have content that covers some DAPP-BQ dimensions, especially conduct problems, narcissism, and stimulus seeking. PMID:17067879

Maruta, Toshimasa; Yamate, Taketo; Iimori, Makio; Kato, Masaaki; Livesley, W John

2006-01-01

257

Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

258

Exploring a New Population of Compact Objects: X-ray and IR Observations of the Galactic Centre  

E-print Network

I describe the IR and X-ray observational campaign we have undertaken for the purpose of determining the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered by Chandra in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained for this project includes a deep Chandra survey of the Galactic Bulge; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS); and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. By cross-correlating the GC X-ray imaging from Chandra with our IR surveys, we identify candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources via astrometry. Using a detailed IR extinction map, we are deriving magnitudes and colors for all the candidates. Having thus established a target list, we will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to carry out a spectroscopic survey of the candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 G...

Bandyopadhyay, Reba M; Eikenberry, Stephen E; Muno, Michael P; Blundell, Katherine M; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Mikles, Valerie J; DeWitt, Curtis

2008-01-01

259

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) is a multi-year physical characterization survey to determine physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra) for several hundred NEOs. Early results from MANOS will be presented.

Moskovitz, N. A.; Burt, B.; Binzel, R. P.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Hinkle, M.; Mommert, M.; Person, M.; Polishook, D.; Siu, H.; Thirouin, A.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D.; Willman, M.

2015-01-01

260

An Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs lie at the intersection of science, space exploration, and civil defense. We propose here a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs to derive their diameters and albedos. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 11, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters to unprecedented accuracy, resolving a current controversy. We will also derive, through our albedo measurements, the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. This catalog will enable many other science investigations to be pursued by us and other researchers. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Migo; Smith, Howard

2014-12-01

261

Re-Challenging Taxanes in Recurrent Breast Cancer in Patients Treated with (Neo)Adjuvant Taxane-Based Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Docetaxel and paclitaxel are among the most active substances for the treatment of breast cancer. As both drugs are used today in adjuvant regimens, efficacy data from pivotal trials in the metastatic setting in taxanenaive populations cannot reliably be used as references. Patients and Methods: The Taxane Re-Challenge Cohort Study identified participants from 6 prospective (neo-)adjuvant taxane-based studies with

X. Xinrong; S. Sibylle; M. Michael; V. Volker; K. Kathrin; J. Jana; F. Frank; C. Christoph; R. Rolf; M. Maik; H. Holger; S. Sascha; K. Keyur; G. Gunter

2011-01-01

262

Re-Challenging Taxanes in Recurrent Breast Cancer in Patients Treated with (Neo)Adjuvant Taxane-Based Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: Docetaxel and paclitaxel are among the most active substances for the treatment of breast cancer. As both drugs are used today in adjuvant regimens, efficacy data from pivotal trials in the metastatic setting in taxanenaive populations cannot reliably be used as references. Patients and Methods: The Taxane Re-Challenge Cohort Study identified participants from 6 prospective (neo-)adjuvant taxane-based studies with

Xinrong Guo; Sibylle Loibl; Michael Untch; Volker Möbus; Kathrin Schwedler; Peter A. Fasching; Jana Barinoff; Frank Holms; Christoph Thomssen; Dirk M. Zahm; Rolf Kreienberg; Maik Hauschild; Holger Eidtmann; Sascha Tauchert; Keyur Mehta; Gunter von Minckwitz

2011-01-01

263

Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance of Earth on 8 September is a reminder of the need to further understand NEOs. During NASA's Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) Objectives Workshop, held in August in Washington, D. C., scientists examined rationales and goals for studying NEOs. Several recent documents have recognized NEO research as important as a scientific precursor for a potential mission to Mars, to learn more about the origins of the solar system, for planetary defense, and for resource exploitation. The October 2009 Review of Human Space Flight Plans Committee report (known as the Augustine report), for example, recommended a “flexible path ” for human exploration, with people visiting sites in the solar system, including NEOs. The White House's National Space Policy, released in June, indicates that by 2025, there should be “crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid.” In addition, NASA's proposed budget for fiscal year 2011 calls for the agency to send robotic precursor missions to nearby asteroids and elsewhere and to increase funding for identifying and cataloging NEOs.

Showstack, Randy

2010-09-01

264

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back

Maria Antonieta Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; E. Dotto; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawagushi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

2008-01-01

265

On future opportunities to observe gravitational scattering of main belt asteroids into NEO source regions  

E-print Network

Orbital resonances are believed to be responsible for the delivery of main belt asteroids to the inner Solar System. Several possibilities have been suggested to transport asteroids and their fragments into mean motion and secular resonances including non-gravitational forces and gravitational scattering. We investigate future resonance crossings of known asteroids that occur in the main belt over the next century. Our goal is to identify potentially observable injections of asteroids into source regions for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) as well as to determine the role of close encounters among main belt asteroids in this process.

Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William

2013-01-01

266

Mode-locked Lasers Applied to Deflecting a Near Earth Object on Collision Course with Earth  

E-print Network

We consider synchronized trains of sub-picosecond pulses generated by mode-locked lasers applied to deflection of near Earth objects (NEO) on collision course with Earth. Our method is designed to avoid a predicted collision of the NEO with Earth by at least the diameter of Earth. We estimate deflecting a 10,000 MT NEO, such as the asteroid which struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia to be feasible within several months using average power in the ten kilowatt range. We see this deflection method as scalable to larger NEO to a degree not possible using continuous laser systems.

Fork, Richard; Burgess, Luke; Bergstue, Grant

2013-01-01

267

Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous as a target selection criterion, as this choice can greatly increase the payload to the NEO. Few such ultra-low delta-v NEOs are currently known; only 65 of the 6699 known NEOs (March 2010) have delta-v <4.5 km/s, 2/3 of typical LEO-NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - short transit times, long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of accessible objects. Potentially there is at least an order of magnitude more ultra-low delta-v NEOs, but finding them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in that orbit, plus long arc determination of their orbits.

Elvis, Martin; McDowell, Jonathan; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Binzel, Richard P.

2011-10-01

268

NASA's Near-Earth Object Office  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are scientifically interesting remnants of the early solar system formation process, accessible resources for the raw materials necessary for colonizing the inner solar system in the next century, and objects that can threaten life on Earth.

Yeomans, D.; Chodas, P.; Chamberlin, A.

1999-01-01

269

Influence of Age, Sex, and Education on the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP) In a Healthy Normal Elderly Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of visual perception and cognition forms an important part of any general cognitive evaluation. We have studied the possible influence of age, sex, and education on a normal elderly Spanish population (90 healthy subjects) in performance in visual perception tasks. To evaluate visual perception and cognition, we have used the subjects performance with The Visual Object and Space

I. Herrera-Guzmaan; J. Peña-Casanova; J. P. Lara; E. Gudayol-Ferre ´; P. Böhm

2004-01-01

270

Neo-Newtonian cosmology: An intermediate step towards General Relativity  

E-print Network

Cosmology is a field of physics in which the use of General Relativity theory is indispensable. However, a cosmology based on Newtonian gravity theory for gravity is possible in certain circumstances. The applicability of Newtonian theory can be substantially extended if it is modified in such way that pressure has a more active role as source of the gravitational field. This was done in the neo-Newtonian cosmology. The limitation on the construction of a Newtonian cosmology, and the need for a relativistic theory in cosmology are reviewed. The neo-Newtonian proposal is presented, and its consequences for cosmology are discussed.

J. C. Fabris; Hermano Velten

2012-06-30

271

Neo-Newtonian cosmology: An intermediate step towards General Relativity  

E-print Network

Cosmology is a field of physics in which the use of General Relativity theory is indispensable. However, a cosmology based on Newtonian gravity theory for gravity is possible in certain circumstances. The applicability of Newtonian theory can be substantially extended if it is modified in such way that pressure has a more active role as source of the gravitational field. This was done in the neo-Newtonian cosmology. The limitation on the construction of a Newtonian cosmology, and the need for a relativistic theory in cosmology are reviewed. The neo-Newtonian proposal is presented, and its consequences for cosmology are discussed.

Fabris, J C

2012-01-01

272

Neo-Latin News, Volume 62, Numbers 3 & 4  

E-print Network

-third volume in the Amsterdam series (ASD, V-7), published in 2013, is the seventh within ordo V, that is, the category of religious works. Although the six minor writings related to religious instruction included in this volume are little known today... the Neo-Latin literature of his time, but also vernacular poets, most prominently the Pléiade. Salmon Macrin is one of many Neo-Latin authors who were greatly admired by their contemporaries but are little studied today. Most of Macrin’s works lack a...

Kallendorf, Craig

2014-01-01

273

Heating of near-Earth objects and meteoroids due to close approaches to the Sun  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that near-Earth objects (NEOs) during their orbital evolution may often undergo close approaches to the Sun. Indeed it is estimated that up to ~70 per cent of them end their orbital evolution colliding with the Sun. Starting from the present orbital properties, it is possible to compute the most likely past evolution for every NEO, and to

S. Marchi; M. Delbo; A. Morbidelli; P. Paolicchi; M. Lazzarin

2009-01-01

274

A Piloted Orion Flight to a Near-Earth Object: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of a piloted mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) was first discussed and analyzed in depth as part of the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989 (Davis et al., 1990). Since then, four other studies have examined the details of sending humans to NEOs (Nash, et al., 1989; Jones, et al., 1994, 2002; Mazanek, et al., 2005). The most

Rob R. Landis; Paul A. Abell; David J. Korsmeyer; Daniel R. Adamo; Edward T. Lu; Thomas D. Jones; David Morrison; Larry Lemke; Andrew Gonzales; Robert Gershman; Ted Sweetser; Lindley Johnson; Michael G. Hess

275

Policy perspectives from the UN international conference on near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Viewpoint, arising from a UN conference on the subject, proposes policies to increase awareness of the (small but serious) threat from near-Earth objects (NEOs) and to provide guidelines for cooperative observation, research and — if necessary — mitigation programmes. They include extending the Outer Space Treaty to take in NEOs and creating an amateur astronomers' observation network. It is

John L. Remo

1996-01-01

276

Mini-satellite exploration of very near earth space fuel objects  

SciTech Connect

A prospecting plan is presented to assay near Earth objects (NEO) for their potential to yield rocket fuel. The plan calls out small satellites as the near-term means to achieve low cost surveys and deep subsurface sampling of NEO composition. The water bearing classes of NEO to be considered are limited to those accessible in short time and with small thrusters. These include the water bearing clay objects (phylosilicates) at nearly trivial distances from Earth, and the recently identified water ice objects such as comet ([number sign]4015) 1979 VA. These objects are evaluated as small satellite prospecting and assay vehicle targets.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-09-19

277

Mini-satellite exploration of very near earth space fuel objects  

SciTech Connect

A prospecting plan is presented to assay near Earth objects (NEO) for their potential to yield rocket fuel. The plan calls out small satellites as the near-term means to achieve low cost surveys and deep subsurface sampling of NEO composition. The water bearing classes of NEO to be considered are limited to those accessible in short time and with small thrusters. These include the water bearing clay objects (phylosilicates) at nearly trivial distances from Earth, and the recently identified water ice objects such as comet ({number_sign}4015) 1979 VA. These objects are evaluated as small satellite prospecting and assay vehicle targets.

Zuppero, A.C.; Jacox, M.G.

1992-09-19

278

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference  

E-print Network

that serious ground damage may be caused by smaller NEOs than previously thought, and these strike the Earth-Earth asteroids, not comets, but we use "NEO" throughout this paper.) There is also considerable thinking, though

Chapman, Clark R.

279

The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned. It will initially supplement the PS1 search by targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) candidates from PS1. As its efficiency grows, PS2 also will search for NEOs, and will increase the sky coverage and cadence.PS1 is cooperating with the G96 telescope of the Catalina Sky Survey in terms of field selection. Between declinations of -30 and +40 degrees, the telescopes alternate 1 hour-wide RA stripes each night. This strategy has led to increased productivity, and eliminated accidental repeats of fields. The PS1 survey area has been extended south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep south sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 has discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014 to date, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The present discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.

Wainscoat, Richard J.; Bolin, Bryce; Chambers, Kenneth; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco; Schunova, Eva; Veres, Peter

2014-11-01

280

Close encounters of Near Earth Objects with large asteroids  

E-print Network

Close encounters of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with large asteroids are a possible source of systematic errors in trajectory propagations and asteroid mitigation. It is, thus, necessary to identify those large asteroids that have to be considered as perturbers in NEO orbit modeling. Using the Standard Dynamical Model we searched for encounters between the 1649 numbered Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and 2191 large asteroids having sizes greater than 20 km. In- vestigating the 21st century A.D. we have found 791 close encounters with 195 different large asteroids that lead to a substantial scattering of NEOs.

Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Gurfil, Pini

2014-01-01

281

Near Earth Object discovered via the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2004 June 14, Ken Pavitt, a Hampshire-based amateur astronomer, discovered a fast moving asteroid (SW40Dv). This was confirmed on the NEO Confirmation Page by Peter Birtwhistle and others and announced on MPEC 2004-L66 with the designation 2004 LA10. However, Ken does not own a telescope. He registered a few months ago with the University of Arizona's Spacewatch Fast Moving Objects (FMO) project, which is equivalent for asteroid discoverers to the SOHO archive for comet searchers, and provides an opportunity to search for NEOs (Near Earth Objects) using the World Wide Web.

McGee, H. W.

2004-10-01

282

NASA Space Missions to Asteroids: Protecting the Earth from NEO Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a general recognition of the hazard of impacts on Earth by comets and asteroids, but there is yet no consensus concerning international actions that should be taken to protect the planet from such impacts. An essential step in the analysis of the situation involves estimating the relative hazard posed by comets and asteroids of different sizes and orbits. All recent studies agree that the larger impacts pose the greater danger, and that our primary concern from the perspective of total risk should be on impacts that are large enough to cause global ecological catastrophe. These global catastrophes are also of special interest, since they (alone among natural disasters) have the potential to destroy civilization. Studies of the sensitivity of the Earth's environment suggest that the energy threshold energy for causing a global catastrophe is at about 1 million megatons, corresponding to impactor diameters of 1.5 to 2 km. This information leads naturally to a strategy of concentrating on the larger NEOs, say those 1 km or more in diameter. This is the rationale for the Spaceguard Survey, which must be the highest priority in mitigation efforts. The second question concerns the value of developing standing defensive systems that could deflect or destroy an incoming NEO. In the case of the asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, no such system is needed, since there will be ample time (at least several decades) between the discovery of the threatening object by Spaceguard and the requirement to take action against it. In the case of objects smaller than 1 km diameter, development of defensive systems is not cost-effective; there are many greater dangers to persons and property that are much more urgent. Only in the case of large long-period comets is there a rationale for standing defense systems. The question is also raised whether the risks inherent in developing and maintaining a defense system might be greater than the impact risks it is intended to guard against. These and related issues are the focus of much current international debate on defense of the planet against NEO impacts. Meanwhile, the most critical issue remains the expansion of the telescopic search for NEOs.

Morrison, David; Berry, William E. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

283

Neo-Classical Minimax Problems, Thresholding, and Adaptation David L. Donoho1 Iain M. Johnstone2  

E-print Network

Neo-Classical Minimax Problems, Thresholding, and Adaptation David L. Donoho1 Iain M. Johnstone2 other and to two other neo-classical problems: the problems of the bounded normal mean and of the risk. Recently, we have entered a neo-classical period, where modi#12;cations of the classical minimax problem

Donoho, David

284

Classification of Wordnet Personality Adjectives in the NEO PI-R Taxonomy bouchet@limsi.fr  

E-print Network

Classification of Wordnet Personality Adjectives in the NEO PI-R Taxonomy F. Bouchet bouchet of the NEO PI-R taxonomy related to the Five Factor Model. The classification process is not only based. Keywords: Personality traits adjectives, FFM and NEO PI-R taxonomies, Wordnet. 1 Introduction 1.1 Context

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

285

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

286

The Ned Davis Research Evolutionary Optimizer (NEO) is a tool that performs  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The Ned Davis Research Evolutionary Optimizer (NEO) is a tool that performs that form nearly optimal pro- grams for investment timing or asset allo- cation. The primary inputs to NEO- ing signals or asset allocation recommen- dations. 1. Introduction NEO is an efficient generator

Fernandez, Thomas

287

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials  

E-print Network

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials Oscar, the theory is used to determine onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean solids where the defects cavity in a Neo-Hookean block under multi-axial loading. Good agreement is found for a wide range

Nakamura, Toshio

288

Incipient Adult Personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle-School-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…

Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

289

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA  

E-print Network

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 1 NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system  

E-print Network

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system Florian Boudin and Juan the document set as a whole, as well as indi- vidual documents. We present NEO-CORTEX, a multi-document sum base formed by the NIST DUC-2005 and DUC-2006 data. Our experiments have shown that NEO- CORTEX

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

291

Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO  

E-print Network

Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO M. S Experiment · Plasma Transport in NSTX · GTC-NEO Simula(on Results · Conclusions(on of the APS *S. M. Kaye et al., Nucl. Fusion, 53 (2013) 05/12 #12;Why GTC-NEO

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

292

Puzzle-solving in Psychology: the Neo-Galtonian vs. Nomothetic Research Focuses  

E-print Network

Puzzle-solving in Psychology: the Neo-Galtonian vs. Nomothetic Research Focuses St´ephane Vautiera the neo-Galtonian and nomothetic approaches of psychological research. While the former focuses will call them paradigms. The first one has been called neo-Galtonian by Danziger (1987, 1990) and is most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

SOLAR MONITORING, FORECASTING, AND VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT AT SMUD NEO Virtus Engineering Inc.  

E-print Network

1 SOLAR MONITORING, FORECASTING, AND VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT AT SMUD James Bing NEO Virtus understand the state of forecasting, variability, and future impacts to our system, SMUD and NEO Virtus (HECO), BEW Engineering, Sunpower Corporation, and NEO Virtus Engineering. The full scope includes

Perez, Richard R.

294

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL  

E-print Network

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF MUSIC KENNETH OSHITA Abstract. Neo-Riemannian theory developed as the mathematical analysis of musical harmonies, but of sound- ing atonal. Neo-Riemannian theory not only allowed for the mathematical

May, J. Peter

295

Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO  

E-print Network

Computa(onal Study of Neoclassical Transport in NSTX using GTC-NEO M. S Experiment · Plasma Transport in NSTX · GTC-NEO Simula(on Results · Conclusions. Kaye et al., Nucl. Fusion, 53 (2013) 05/12 #12;Why GTC-NEO? · Ion thermal

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

296

How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo-Gricean account of indexical reference  

E-print Network

1 How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo- Gricean account of indexical and the interlocutive relationships developed throughout the discourse. The article also assesses the neo perspective at points of transition between units. My more major goal is to assess the extent to which one neo

Boyer, Edmond

297

A REALIZABLE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR FIBER-REINFORCED NEO-HOOKEAN SOLIDS  

E-print Network

A REALIZABLE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR FIBER-REINFORCED NEO-HOOKEAN SOLIDS Mart´in I. Idiarta for the effective stored-energy function of Neo-Hookean solids reinforced by a random distribution of anisotropic-reinforced Neo-Hookean solids is analyzed in the light of the new predictions. Mecánica Computacional Vol XXVIII

Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

298

A neo-institutionalist model of the diffusion of IFRS accounting standards  

E-print Network

A neo-institutionalist model of the diffusion of IFRS accounting standards Dominique Dufour standards known as the IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards). This model fits within the neo the adoption of these new standards is the neo- institutional framework and that the principal methodologies

Boyer, Edmond

299

Inferring compositional style in the neo-plastic paintings of Piet Mondrian by machine learning  

E-print Network

Inferring compositional style in the neo-plastic paintings of Piet Mondrian by machine learning of the neo-plastic works of Piet Mondrian to infer his compositional principles, to generate "faux" works of genuine works by this artist. Keywords: Piet Mondrian, stylometry, neo-plastic painting, abstract art

Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

300

The NEO Protocol for Large-Scale Distributed Database Systems: Modelling and Initial Verification  

E-print Network

The NEO Protocol for Large-Scale Distributed Database Systems: Modelling and Initial Verification and first analysis results carried out within the NEOPPOD project. A protocol, NEO, has been designed NEO. This protocol must also ensure both safety and reliability, which is not easy to achieve

Evangelista, Sami

301

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials  

E-print Network

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials Oscar-existing defects. In this article, the theory is used to determine onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo simulations for the growth of a small spherical cavity in a Neo-Hookean block under multi-axial loading. Good

Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

302

Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis Neo-angiogenesis a b s t r a c t Spectroscopic techniques have demonstrated dysregulation of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neo

Ottino, Julio M.

303

Socioeconomic status moderates the association between John Henryism and NEO PI-R personality domains  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate associations between John Henryism (JH) and NEO PI-R personality domains. JH—a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping with difficult psychosocial and economic stressors—has been associated with poor health, particularly among persons in lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Unfavorable personality profiles have also been frequently linked to poor health; however, no studies have yet examined what global personality traits characterize JH. METHODS Hypotheses were examined using data from a sample of 233 community volunteers (mean age: 33 years; 61% black and 39% white) recruited specifically to represent the full range of the SES gradient. Personality (NEO PI-R) and active coping (12-item John Henryism scale) measures and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis, independent of SES JH was positively associated with Conscientiousness (C; p<.001) and Extraversion (E; p<.001), while the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with Neuroticism (N; p=0.02) When examining associations between JH and combinations of NEO PI-R domains called “styles,” high JH was most strongly associated with a high E/high C “Go-Getters” style of activity while low JH was associated with the low E/high O “Introspectors” style. In facet level data, the most robust associations with JH were found for five C and five E facets. CONCLUSIONS High JH was associated with higher scores on C and E, but the combination of low JH and high SES was associated with higher scores on N. PMID:20100884

Stanton, Michael V.; Jonassaint, Charles R.; Williams, Redford B.; James, Sherman A.

2010-01-01

304

NEOS Server 4.0 Administrative Guide - Optimization Online  

E-print Network

May 30, 2002 ... 4.3 Taking Advantage of the NEOS Web Site . ..... A simple job submission from any interface can test most of the main Server scripts. ...... also provides further tips on how to use the admin:help facility. The Kill Job ...

2002-06-03

305

Neo-Latin News, Volume 61, Numbers 3 & 4  

E-print Network

;#28;#19;#29; seven?turns away from both #2;omism and Neo-Platonism. In fact, Pomponazzi denies the existence of demons, basing his argument only on Aristotle?s natural philosophy. #2;erefore the actions of God and angelic intelligences, the in?uence of the planets...

Kallendorf, Craig

2013-01-01

306

Rethinking academic identities in neo-liberal times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the impact of neo-liberal modes of governance on the ways in which we make sense of our world, as individuals, as academics and professionals. Traditional notions of academic freedom, autonomy and purpose, which have been central signifiers of academic identity no longer hold and bring into question what we are doing, of our role as academics. It

Suzy Harris

2005-01-01

307

Experimental acute myocardial infarction: telocytes involvement in neo-angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Abstract We used rat experimental myocardial infarction to study the ultrastructural recovery, especially neo-angiogenesis in the infarction border zone. We were interested in the possible role(s) of telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cell very recently discovered in myocardim (see http://www.telocytes.com). Electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and analysis of several proangiogenic microRNAs provided evidence for TC involvement in neo-angiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Electron microscopy showed the close spatial association of TCs with neoangiogenetic elements. Higher resolution images provided the following information: (a) the intercellular space between the abluminal face of endothelium and its surrounding TCs is frequently less than 50 nm; (b) TCs establish multiple direct nanocontacts with endothelial cells, where the extracellular space seems obliterated; such nanocontacts have a length of 0.4–1.5 ?m; (c) the absence of basal membrane on the abluminal face of endothelial cell. Besides the physical contacts (either nanoscopic or microscopic) TCs presumably contribute to neo-angiognesis via paracrine secretion (as shown by immunocytochemistry for VEGF or NOS2). Last but not least, TCs contain measurable quantities of angiogenic microRNAs (e.g. let-7e, 10a, 21, 27b, 100, 126-3p, 130a, 143, 155, 503). Taken together, the direct (physical) contact of TCs with endothelial tubes, as well as the indirect (chemical) positive influence within the ‘angiogenic zones’, suggests an important participation of TCs in neo-angiogenesis during the late stage of myocardial infarction. PMID:21895968

Manole, C G; Cisma?iu, V; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, L M

2011-01-01

308

Product Liability: A Neo-Austrian Based Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is an exercise in a neo-Austrian based economic analysis of product liability. After a short historical introduction, we take two of the basic premises of Austrian economic thought and see which system of product liability results. If costs are subjective and entrepreneurship is the essence of an efficient market process, a system of caveat emptor and vendor results.

Henk Folmer; Wim J. M. Heijman; Auke R. Leen

2002-01-01

309

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a 'pilot personality' does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Donald; Schutte, Paul C.

2004-01-01

310

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a "pilot personality" does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Don; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

311

Measuring Moral Thinking from a Neo-Kohlbergian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neo-Kohlbergian model revises and extends Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development to better reflect advances in research and theory. In moving from Kohlberg's global stage model to a multi-process description of moral functioning, these modifications are most evident in the ways in which moral thinking is described,…

Thoma, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

312

Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

Evans, Mary

2014-01-01

313

The (Absent) Politics of Neo-Liberal Education Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite its ideological saturation, recent neo-liberal education policy has been deeply depoliticising in the sense of reducing properly political concerns to matters of technical efficiency. This depoliticisation is reflected in the hegemony of a managerial discourse and the decontestation of terms like "quality" and "effectiveness", as well as…

Clarke, Matthew

2012-01-01

314

Exceptional Intellectual Performance: A Neo-Piagetian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual level, working memory capacity and domain-specific skills of two girls (aged 7 and 11 years old) and two boys (aged 9 and 10 years old) who displayed exceptional intellectual performance were investigated from Case's neo-Piagetian theoretical perspective. Five measures of conceptual level and two measures of working memory capacity…

Loewen, Susan

2006-01-01

315

OPTIMIZATION CASE STUDIES IN THE NEOS GUIDE JOSEPH CZY  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZATION CASE STUDIES IN THE NEOS GUIDE JOSEPH CZY â?? ZYK \\Lambda , TIMOTHY WISNIEWSKI y, case studies have proved to be an effec­ tive way to make the connection between theory and algorithms on the one hand and applications on the other. The typical case study encompasses problem description

Wright, Steve

316

Are Near Earth Objects the Key to Optimization Theory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note suggests that near earth objects and Central Force Optimization\\u000ahave something in common, that NEO theory may hold the key to solving some\\u000avexing problems in deterministic optimization: local trapping and proof of\\u000aconvergence. CFO analogizes Newton's laws to locate the global maxima of a\\u000afunction. The NEO-CFO nexus is the striking similarity between CFO's Davg and\\u000aan

Richard A. Formato

2009-01-01

317

Neo-sex chromosome inheritance across species in Silene hybrids.  

PubMed

Neo-sex chromosomes, which form through the major restructuring of ancestral sex chromosome systems, have evolved in various taxa. Such restructuring often consists of the fusion of an autosome to an existing sex chromosome, resulting in novel sex chromosome formations (e.g. X1X2Y or XY1Y2.). Comparative studies are often made between restructured sex chromosome systems of closely related species, and here we evaluate the consequences of variable sex chromosome systems to hybrids. If neo-sex chromosomes are improperly inherited across species, this could lead to aberrant development and reproductive isolation. In this study, we examine the fate of neo-sex chromosomes in hybrids of the flowering plants Silene diclinis and Silene latifolia. Silene diclinis has a neo-sex chromosome system (XY1Y2) that is thought to have evolved from an ancestral XY system that is still present in S. latifolia. These species do not hybridize naturally, and improper sex chromosome inheritance could contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated whether this major restructuring of sex chromosomes prevents their proper inheritance in a variety of hybrid crosses, including some F2 - and later-generation hybrids, with sex chromosome-linked, species-specific, polymorphic markers and chromosome squashes. We discovered that despite the differences in sex chromosomes that exist between these two species, proper segregation had occurred in hybrids that made it to flowering, including later-generation hybrids, indicating that neo-sex chromosome formation alone does not result in complete reproductive isolation between these two species. Additionally, hybrids with aberrant sex expression (e.g. neuter, hermaphrodite) also inherited the restructured sex chromosomes properly, highlighting that issues with sexual development in hybrids can be caused by intrinsic genetic incompatibility rather than improper sex chromosome inheritance. PMID:24739043

Weingartner, L A; Delph, L F

2014-07-01

318

The OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS)—population screening for undiagnosed valvular heart disease in the elderly: study design and objectives  

PubMed Central

Introduction Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an increasingly important cardiac condition, driven by an ageing population and lack of progress in the development of medical therapies. There is a dearth of accurate information to guide decision-makers in the development of strategies to combat VHD, and no population-based study has been performed specifically to investigate its contemporary epidemiology. This document describes the design and methodology of the OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS), which was conceived to address this need. Methods and analysis Participants aged 65?years and older attending a participating general practice in Oxfordshire, UK, are invited to attend a screening examination. Exclusion criteria include previously diagnosed VHD, inability to provide consent, terminal illness or excessive frailty. Demographics, a focused cardiovascular history and vital signs are recorded at the initial screening examination, accompanied by an echocardiogram. Any finding of significant VHD triggers a separate, more formal echocardiographic assessment (including acquisition of a three-dimensional dataset) and collection of blood samples for future genetic and biomarker analysis. Participants provide consent for longitudinal follow-up and enrolment in future cohort substudies. We also assess the acceptability of community-based echocardiographic examination and compare self-assessed quality of life between those with and without VHD. Conclusions OxVALVE-PCS will provide contemporary epidemiological data concerning the community prevalence of undiagnosed VHD, facilitate accurate deployment of scarce resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand for VHD-associated healthcare and create a series of subcohorts with carefully defined genotypes and echocardiographic phenotypes for long overdue clinical studies. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Southampton, UK; REC Ref: 09/H0502/58). Results Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:25332795

Coffey, Sean; d'Arcy, Joanna L; Loudon, Margaret A; Mant, David; Farmer, Andrew J; Prendergast, Bernard D

2014-01-01

319

Investigating the viability of photo-identification as an objective tool to study endangered sea turtle populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of using natural facial markings to identify individuals in an endangered breeding population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). We divided individual turtles into ten groups based on facial (post-ocular) scale patterns to facilitate rapid comparison of new images in a large photographic catalogue of known turtles (exceeding 400 unique individuals). The matching process was validated

Gail Schofield; Kostas A. Katselidis; Panayotis Dimopoulos; John D. Pantis

2008-01-01

320

Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELING OP ANIMAL POPULATIONS USING OBJECT ORIENTED SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OP BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Submitted to the Office... SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EF'FECTS O( BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER P, Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Approved as t. o style and content Ly L. sep Folse (Cha r of Committee) /L, w c we+ &/ William E. Grant...

German, Carl Duane

1992-01-01

321

Assessing the Five Factors of Personality in Adolescents: The Junior Version of the Spanish NEO-PI-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the development of a junior version of the Spanish (Castilian) NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (JS NEO) suitable for adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The psychometric properties of the new JS NEO were investigated using two samples of 2,733 and 983 adolescents in Spain. The results showed that the adult NEO-PI-R factor…

Ortet, Generos; Ibanez, Manuel I.; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Viruela, Ana; Mezquita, Laura

2012-01-01

322

The inner solar system cratering record and the evolution of impactor populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review previously published and newly obtained crater size-frequency distributions in the inner solar system. These data indicate that the Moon and the terrestrial planets have been bombarded by two populations of objects. Population 1, dominating at early times, had nearly the same size distribution as the present-day asteroid belt, and produced heavily cratered surfaces with a complex, multi-sloped crater size-frequency distribution. Population 2, dominating since about 3.8-3.7 Gyr, had the same size distribution as near-Earth objects (NEOs) and a much lower impact flux, and produced a crater size distribution characterized by a differential -3 single-slope power law in the crater diameter range 0.02 km to 100 km. Taken together with the results from a large body of work on age-dating of lunar and meteorite samples and theoretical work in solar system dynamics, a plausible interpretation of these data is as follows. The NEO population is the source of Population 2 and it has been in near-steady state over the past ˜ 3.7-3.8 Gyr; these objects are derived from the main asteroid belt by size-dependent non-gravitational effects that favor the ejection of smaller asteroids. However, Population 1 was composed of main belt asteroids ejected from their source region in a size-independent manner, possibly by means of gravitational resonance sweeping during orbit migration of giant planets; this caused the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). The LHB began some time before ˜3.9 Gyr, peaked and declined rapidly over the next ˜ 100 to 300 Myr, and possibly more slowly from about 3.8-3.7 Gyr to ˜2 Gyr. A third crater population (Population S) consisted of secondary impact craters that can dominate the cratering record at small diameters.

Strom, Robert G.; Renu, Malhotra; Xiao, Zhi-Yong; Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Fumi; Ostrach, Lillian R.

2015-03-01

323

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Near-Earth Object  

E-print Network

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis. 109-155), also known as the George E. Brown, Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act, directs the NASA of near-Earth Objects (NEO), including ground- based and space-based alternatives with technical

Chapman, Clark R.

324

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of

Walter Huebner; P T Giguere; P Bradley; J A Guzik; C Plesko; K Wohletz; L N Johnson; D C Boice; S Chocron; A Ghosh; R Goldstein; J Mukerherjee; W Patrick; J D Walker

2008-01-01

325

Internal structure of Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purposes of mitigation, the internal structure of near-Earth objects (NEOs) remains one of the most important but least understood parameters. From a science point of view, the internal structure is equally intriguing. Knowledge of the internal structure can reveal the collisional history, and in the case of comets, may also reveal the accretional history. Here we briefly review

Richard P. Binzel; Wlodek Kofman

2005-01-01

326

Near Earth Object Observations Presentation to  

E-print Network

Budget 2/18 #12;SMDTerminology · "Near Earth Objects (NEOs)"- any small body (comet or asteroid) passing Earth Asteroids (NEAs) · Near Earth Comets (NECs) ­ also called Earth Approaching Comets (EACs) ­ 84/12/10) · 3 months ops (~1/3 life) · Largest ~750 m · Smallest ~40m 8 · 5 are PHOs · 7 comets also found

Waliser, Duane E.

327

Mitigation of near-earth object impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our ability to survey and catalog potentially threatening Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) grows we will inevitably find some that are potentially threatening. Numerous authors have conjectured about potential mitigation schemes. These schemes include destruction or diversion via nuclear or chemical explosives if time is short. In the case of much longer warning times low-thrust diversion schemes, some taking advantage of

S. Worden; P. Brown

2002-01-01

328

Compromising positions: emergent neo-Fordisms and embedded gender contracts.  

PubMed

This paper adopts a regulation framework to chart the emergence of neo-Fordism as a flexible accumulation regime and mode of social regulation. Neo-Fordism relies on old Fordist principles as well as incorporating new models of emergent post-Fordisms; old and new social relationships, in their particular combination, specify the trajectory of national variants. I argue that Fordist bargains institutionalized the terms of a compromise between labour, capital and the state. These bargains embedded a male-breadwinner gender contract compromising women's positions and standardizing employment contracts around the needs, interests and authority of men. A focus on compromises and contracts makes visible the differentiated gender effects of work transformation in each country. PMID:10904999

Gottfried, H

2000-06-01

329

Database for geophysical and geological properties of NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with Earth have occurred in the past. About 150 impact structures on the Earth's continents have been identified. There may be many more impacts whose structures have eroded over time. Asteroids and comets still collide with the planets and will again colldie with the Earth. These are random events. No asteroid is now known to be on a collision course with the Earth and we do not know when the next catastrophic impact might occur. Many parameters are needed to develop credible mitigation or collision avoidance strategies. We know little about geophysical properties of NEOs. Here we report on progress on the database for geophysical and geological properties of NEOs and their analog materials. The database consists of four parts: An observational database a material properties database a database for mission and instrument development and a database useful for dissemination of projects and results and for public outreach.

Huebner, W. F.

2005-01-01

330

Tableau de comparaison : UA WorldCat/NEOS Libraries Catalogue/EBSCO Discovery Fonction Catalogue NEOS UA WorldCat EBSCO Discovery  

E-print Network

Tableau de comparaison : UA WorldCat/NEOS Libraries Catalogue/EBSCO Discovery Fonction Catalogue NEOS UA WorldCat EBSCO Discovery Recherche de livres Oui Oui Oui Recherche de livres électroniques Oui collections de livres électroniques suivantes ne sont pas présentement disponibles dans l'Ebsco Discovery

MacMillan, Andrew

331

Neo-Latin News, Volume 63, Numbers 1 & 2  

E-print Network

Oregon University, and J. Max Patrick, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Graduate School, New York University. NEO-LATIN NEWS ? Poets and Princes. The Panegyric Poetry of Johannes Michael Nagonius. By Paul Gwynne. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols... and improvement. Paul Gwynne took Horace’s advice doubly to heart, as almost two decades have passed since his doctoral dissertation, ‘The Life and Works of Johannes Michael Nagonius, poeta laureatus, ca. 1450–ca.1510.’ The result is the first comprehensive...

Kallendorf, Craig

2015-01-01

332

The technical developments in Neo-Disney's feature computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the significant meaning of the master techniques that have been used in the Neo-Disney phase by Disney and its partners. The paper first introduces some of the main highlights of this technical development and its implementation as a key feature of mainstream filmmaking in the 21st century. Hyper-reality, stylize digital imagery and animation is a breakthrough CGI

Simiao Wu

2012-01-01

333

Astronomy, Divination, and Politics in the Neo-Assyrian Empire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Celestial divination had an important role in the complex political and military machine of the Neo-Assyrian empire. Thousand of cuneiform documents dealing with celestial divination have come to light from the excavated archives of this period, as the Assurbanipal's library. Among them letters and reports enlight the relation of the king with his experts (ummânu), who performed divination and apotropaic rituals for his protection.

Verderame, Lorenzo

334

NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

Matney, Mark

2006-01-01

335

Near-Earth Objects: Targets for Future Human Exploration, Solar System Science, and Planetary Defense  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of near-Earth objects (NEOs) beginning circa 2025 - 2030 is one of the stated objectives of U.S. National Space Policy. Piloted missions to these bodies would further development of deep space mission systems and technologies, obtain better understanding of the origin and evolution of our Solar System, and support research for asteroid deflection and hazard mitigation strategies. This presentation will discuss some of the physical characteristics of NEOs and review some of the current plans for NEO research and exploration from both a human and robotic mission perspective.

Abell, Paul A.

2011-01-01

336

Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth-Objects at the Dawn of the Next Millennium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar, the most powerful ground-based technique for post discovery investigation of NEO's (near-Earth objects), can contribute a great deal to their exploration as well as to identification and mitigation of hazardous objects. My intentions in this article are to review the current state of NEO radar reconnaissance, examine the imminent prospects for this work as upgraded instrumentation becomes available, and propose construction of a next-generation radar telescope that, unlike any existing radar instrument, would be optimized for, and dedicated to, NEO radar.

Ostro, Steven J.

1997-01-01

337

The Role of Groundbased Radar in Near-Earth-Object Hazard Identification and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundbased radar is a key technique for the post-discovery reconnaissance of NEOs and is likely to play a central role in identification of possibly threatening objects during the foreseeable future.

Ostro, S. J.

1993-01-01

338

Effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-earth objects  

E-print Network

The effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been shown to be significant factors in their evolution. Previous studies have examined the effects of these encounters on ...

Siu, Ho Chit

2014-01-01

339

Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all known extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) have argument of perihelion close to 0°. An existing observational bias strongly favours the detection of ETNOs with arguments of perihelion close to 0° and 180° yet no objects have been found at 180°. No plausible explanation has been offered so far to account for this unusual pattern. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of comet 96P/Machholz 1, a bizarre near-Earth object (NEO) that may provide the key to explain the puzzling clustering of orbits around argument of perihelion close to 0° recently found for the population of ETNOs. Comet 96P/Machholz 1 is currently locked in a Kozai resonance with Jupiter such that the value of its argument of perihelion is always close to 0° at its shortest possible perihelion (highest eccentricity and lowest inclination) and about 180° near its shortest aphelion (longest perihelion distance, lowest eccentricity and highest inclination). If this object is a dynamical analogue (albeit limited) of the known ETNOs, this implies that massive perturbers must keep them confined in orbital parameter space. Besides, its future dynamical evolution displays orbital flips when its eccentricity is excited to a high value and its orbit turns over by nearly 180°, rolling over its major axis. This unusual behaviour, that is preserved when post-Newtonian terms are included in the numerical integrations, may also help understand the production of NEOs on retrograde orbits.

de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

2015-01-01

340

Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005), 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20-minute electrocardiogram, a general physical examination, an echocardiogram, and laboratory analyses of venous blood samples. On 200 participants, a 24-hour electrocardiogram is recorded. A detailed system of quality control ensures high data quality. A follow-up examination is planned. Discussion This study will help to elucidate pathways to CVD involving autonomic dysfunction and lifestyle factors which might be responsible for the CVD epidemic in some populations. PMID:16283930

Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Schumann, Barbara; Kors, Jan A; Swenne, Cees A; Kuss, Oliver; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes

2005-01-01

341

THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

Bianco, F. B. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lehner, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Mondal, S. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 129 (India); Giammarco, J. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Eastern University, 1300 Eagle Road, Saint Davids, PA 19087 (United States); Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coehlo, N. K. [Department of Statistics, University of California-Berkeley, 367 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32054, Taiwan (China); Cook, K. H. [Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Dave, R. [Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pater, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lissauer, J. J. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)], E-mail: fbianco@lcogt.net (and others)

2010-04-15

342

Constraining near-Earth object albedos using near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-albedo near-Earth objects (NEOs) are warm enough to emit detectable thermal flux at 2.5 ?m when near perihelion. Thermal radiation can account for 33% or more of the total flux for an object with an albedo ?0.04 at 1.0 AU. This is measurable using near-infrared spectroscopic instruments enabling albedos to be constrained for a larger sample of NEOs.

A. S. Rivkin; R. P. Binzel; S. J. Bus

2005-01-01

343

Traits de personnalit computationnels Enrichissement de la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R avec  

E-print Network

Traits de personnalité computationnels Enrichissement de la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R avec des gloses taxonomie NEO PI-R, en relation avec le Modèle des Cinq Facteurs (FFM ­ Five Factor Model). Le processus de dans les positions de l'arborescence définies par la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R, une phase de réarrangement

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

344

ON THE NATURE OF SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS. I. DATA AND OBSERVED TRENDS  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have reported the presence of sodium excess objects having neutral atomic absorption lines at 5895 A (Na D) and 8190 A that are deeper than expected based on stellar population models that match the stellar continuum. The origin of these lines is therefore hotly debated. van Dokkum and Conroy proposed that low-mass stars ({approx}<0.3 M{sub Sun }) are more prevalent in massive early-type galaxies, which may lead to a strong Na I 8190 line strength. It is necessary to test this prediction, however, against other prominent optical line indices such as Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270, which can be measured with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than Na I 8190. We identified a new sample of roughly 1000 Na D excess objects (NEOs; {approx}8% of galaxies in the sample) based on Na D line strength in the redshift range 0.00 {<=} z {<=} 0.08 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 through detailed analysis of galaxy spectra. We explore the properties of these new objects here. The novelty of this work is that the galaxies were carefully identified through direct visual inspection of SDSS images, and we systematically compared the properties of NEOs and those of a control sample of galaxies with normal Na D line strengths. We note that the majority of galaxies with high velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub e} > 250 km s{sup -1}) show Na D excesses. Most late-type NEOs have strong H{beta} line strengths and significant emission lines, which are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. This result implies that the presence of the interstellar medium and/or dust contributes to the increase in Na D line strengths observed for these galaxies, which is in good agreement with the earlier study of Chen et al. who used the Na D line index to study outflow activity in star-forming disk galaxies. In contrast, the majority of early-type NEOs are predominantly luminous and massive systems, which is in agreement with the findings of van Dokkum and Conroy. However, we find that models used to reproduce the Na I 8190 line strengths that adopt a bottom-heavy initial mass function are not able to reproduce the observed Na D line strengths. By comparing the observed Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270 line strengths with those of the models, we identify a plausible range of parameters that reproduce the observed values. In these models, the majority of early-type NEOs are ''{alpha}-enhanced'' ([{alpha}/Fe] {approx} 0.3), ''metal-rich'' ([Z/H] {approx} 0.3), and, especially, ''Na-enhanced'' ([Na/Fe] {approx} 0.3). An enhanced Na abundance is a particularly compelling hypothesis for the increase in the strength of the Na D line index in our early-type NEOs that appear devoid of dust, both in their SDSS images and spectra.

Jeong, Hyunjin; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sukyoung K.; Oh, Kyuseok [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sarzi, Marc, E-mail: hyunjin@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: yi@yonsei.ac.kr [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Al10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2013-09-15

345

Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-Y Chromosome of Drosophila Americana Americana  

PubMed Central

The extent of genetic degeneration of the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana has been investigated. Three loci, coding for the enzymes enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and alcohol dehydrogenase, have been localized to chromosome 4 of D. a. americana, which forms the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes. Crosses between D. a. americana and D. virilis or D. montana showed that the loci coding for these enzymes carry active alleles on the neo-Y chromosome in all wild-derived strains of americana that were tested. Intercrosses between a genetically marked stock of virilis and strains of americana were carried out, creating F(3) males that were homozygous for sections of the neo-Y chromosome. The sex ratios in the F(3) generation of the intercrosses showed that no lethal alleles have accumulated on any of the neo-Y chromosomes tested. There was evidence for more minor reductions in fitness, but this seems to be mainly caused by deleterious alleles that are specific to each strain. A similar picture was provided by examination of the segregation ratios of two marker genes among the F(3) progeny. Overall, the data suggest that the neo-Y chromosome has undergone very little degeneration, certainly not to the extent of having lost the functions of vital genes. This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work. PMID:9093852

Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Hnilicka, J.; Yu, A.; Guttman, D. S.

1997-01-01

346

Marco Polo: Near Earth Object sample return mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object. The Marco Polo proposal was submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context, and on October 2007 passed the first evaluation process. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class

E. Dotto; M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawaguchi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

2008-01-01

347

An ‘entry level’ mission to a near Earth object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a

Andy Phipps; Max Meerman; James Wilhelm; Dave Gibbon; James Northam; Alex da Silva Curiel; Jeff Ward; Martin Sweeting

2006-01-01

348

Sentry: An Automated Close Approach Monitoring System for Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to international concern about potential asteroid impacts on Earth, NASA's Near-Earth Object (NEO) Program Office has implemented a new system called ``Sentry'' to automatically update the orbits of all NEOs on a daily basis and compute Earth close approaches up to 100 years into the future. Results are published on our web site (http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/) and updated orbits and ephemerides made available via the JPL Horizons ephemeris service (http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.html). Sentry collects new and revised astrometric observations from the Minor Planet Center (MPC) via their electronic circulars (MPECs) in near real time as well as radar and optical astrometry sent directly from observers. NEO discoveries and identifications are detected in MPECs and processed appropriately. In addition to these daily updates, Sentry synchronizes with each monthly batch of MPC astrometry and automatically updates all NEO observation files. Daily and monthly processing of NEO astrometry is managed using a queuing system which allows for manual intervention of selected NEOs without interfering with the automatic system. At the heart of Sentry is a fully automatic orbit determination program which handles outlier rejection and ensures convergence in the new solution. Updated orbital elements and their covariances are published via Horizons and our NEO web site, typically within 24 hours. A new version of Horizons, in development, will allow computation of ephemeris uncertainties using covariance data. The positions of NEOs with updated orbits are numerically integrated up to 100 years into the future and each close approach to any perturbing body in our dynamic model (all planets, Moon, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta) is recorded. Significant approaches are flagged for extended analysis including Monte Carlo studies. Results, such as minimum encounter distances and future Earth impact probabilities, are published on our NEO web site.

Chamberlin, A. B.; Chesley, S. R.; Chodas, P. W.; Giorgini, J. D.; Keesey, M. S.; Wimberly, R. N.; Yeomans, D. K.

2001-11-01

349

Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

2007-01-01

350

Radar Reconnaissance of Near-Earth Objects at the Dawn of the Next Millenium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From Intro.: Radar, the most powerful groundbased technique for post-discovery investigation of NEOs, can contribute a great deal to their exploration as well as to identification and mitigation of hazardous objects. My intentions in this article are to review the current state of NEO radar reconnaissance, examine the imminent prospects for this work as upgraded instrumentation becomes available, and propose construction of a next-generation radar telescope that, unlike any existing radar instrument, would be optimized for, and dedicated to, NEO radar.

Ostro, S. J.

1996-01-01

351

Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.…

Poole, Wendy

2007-01-01

352

The joint NEO Spiral 1 program: Lessons learned operational concepts and technical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of the joint network enabled operations (NEO) program is to promote interagency communication and collaboration through the use of modern network enabled tools, technologies, and operational procedures for the next generation air transportation system (NextGen). The NEO environment features a modern service bus based enterprise architecture. To evaluate the utility of this architecture and the resulting network enabled

P. Comitz; A. Pinto; D. E. Sweet; J. Mazurkiewicz

2008-01-01

353

Neo-Confucian Body Techniques: Women's Bodies in Korea's Consumer Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines women's bodies in South Korea and the modes of Neo-Confucian governmentality at work within this consumer society. The concealed woman's body under Neo-Confucianism appears to have been supplanted by a liberated consumer body. This seems to represent a major shift in what the body means today. Nonetheless, the techniques of governmentality that controlled women's bodies under strict

TAEYON KIM

2003-01-01

354

High sensitivity of cancer exome-based CD8 T cell neo-antigen identification  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that T-cell reactivity against tumor-specific neo-antigens may be central to the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. The development of personalized vaccines designed to boost T-cell reactivity against patient specific neo-antigens has been proposed largely on the basis of these findings. Work from several groups has demonstrated that novel tumor-specific antigens can be discovered through the use of cancer exome sequencing data, thereby providing a potential pipeline for the development of patient-specific vaccines. Importantly though, it has not been established which fraction of cancer neo-antigens that can be recognized by CD8+ T cells is successfully uncovered with the current exome-based epitope prediction strategies. Here, we use a data set comprising human cancer neo-antigens that was previously identified through the use of unbiased, computational-independent strategies to describe the potential of cancer exome-based neo-antigen discovery. This analysis shows a high sensitivity of exome-guided neo-antigen prediction of approximately 70%. We propose that future research should focus on the analysis and optimization of the specificity of neo-antigen prediction, and should undoubtedly entail the clinical evaluation of patient-specific vaccines with the aim of inducing immunoreactivity against tumor-displayed neo-antigens in a physiologically relevant context. PMID:25083320

van Buuren, Marit M; Calis, Jorg JA; Schumacher, Ton NM

2014-01-01

355

Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as…

Hwang, Keumjoong

2013-01-01

356

Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

Wilkins, Andrew

2012-01-01

357

Gender economies: literacy and the gendered production of neo?liberal subjectivities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyse the links between subjectivities as they are constructed through the intersecting discourses of gender and literacy, and we situate this analysis in the context of the current neo?liberal social and economic order. We begin with a discussion of the background to the gender and literacy debates. We then describe what neo?liberalism is and its implications

Bronwyn Davies; Sue Saltmarsh

2007-01-01

358

The Political Economy of Greek Policing: Between NeoLiberalism and the Sovereign State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates historical developments, modern structures and future trends in Greek policing from the viewpoint of contemporary neo-liberal policing and social theory. We argue throughout this article that although neo-liberal thinking has indeed recently crept into the rhetoric and logics of Greek governance, the particular social, geographical and political history of the Hellenic Republic has muted these tendencies significantly

George S. Rigakos; Georgios Papanicolaou

2003-01-01

359

Mathematics in Mind, Brain, and Education: A Neo-Piagetian Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their focus on psychological structures and operations, neo-Piagetian approaches to learning lend themselves to neurological hypotheses. Recent advances in neural imaging and educational technology now make it possible to test some of these claims. Here, we take a neo-Piagetian approach to mathematical learning in order to frame two…

Norton, Anderson; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

2014-01-01

360

http://www.jstor.org Review: Radical-Right and Neo-Fascist Political Parties in Western Europe  

E-print Network

http://www.jstor.org Review: Radical-Right and Neo-Fascist Political Parties in Western Europe@jstor.org. #12;Review Article Radical-Rightand Neo-Fascist Political Parties in WesternEurope RogerKarapin Hans

Qiu, Weigang

361

University of Alberta Libraries, 2010 UA WorldCat/NEOS Libraries Catalogue/EBSCO Discovery Comparison Chart  

E-print Network

in NEOS libraries catalogue plus links from OCLC OAISTER Only those listed in NEOS catalogue. SearchCat are retrieved from the following databases: JSTOR, MEDLINE, ERIC, Science Direct and OCLC Article

MacMillan, Andrew

362

The Sardinian Radio Telescope as Radar for the study of near-Earth Objects and Space Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the definition of the scientific programs of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (under construction), our team have proposed to use this facility as radar system for the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) and space debris

L. Saba; Di Martino M; M. Delbò; A. Cellino; ZappalàV; S. Montebugnoli; S. Righini; L. Zoni; R. Orosei; F. Tosi; G. Valsecchi; A. Gardini; D. Grassi; Rossi; A. Milani; M. Lazzarin

2005-01-01

363

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

364

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km2. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth’s orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because “early” may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a longperiod comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures- always at the ready—are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, W. F.; Johnson, L. N.; Boice, D. C.; Bradley, P.; Chocron, S.; Ghosh, A.; Giguere, P. T.; Goldstein, R.; Guzik, J. A.; Keady, J. J.; Mukherjee, J.; Patrick, W.; Plesko, C.; Walker, J. D.; Wohletz, K.

2009-08-01

365

Why Neo was too confident that he had escaped the Matrix Adam Elga / MIT IAP / January 22, 2003  

E-print Network

Why Neo was too confident that he had escaped the Matrix Adam Elga / MIT IAP / January 22, 2003 such as the proposition that you have hands. Neo is given very good evidence that some skeptical hypothesis is true. He that might account for his experiences. These types include: 1. Neo's computer nerd life has been

Bou-Zeid, Elie

366

Japan's Ministry of Education "Becoming the Right": Neo-Liberal Restructuring and the Ministry's Struggles for Political Legitimacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first examines the controversial revision of the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) by situating it in the larger global context of neo-liberal and neo-conservative state-restructuring and education reform. It then focuses on the domestic politics behind what seems to be the global convergence of education policy along neo-liberal and…

Takayama, Keita

2008-01-01

367

ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN A thesis (or dissertation) submitted to the faculty of  

E-print Network

i ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA A thesis (or dissertation Realization of Human Brain's Neo-Cortex Column Using FPGA by Padmavalli Vadali, and that in my opinion Moffatt Professor of Biology #12;iii ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA

Mahmoodi, Hamid

368

Copyright 0 1997 by the Genetics Society of America Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-YChromosome  

E-print Network

Copyright 0 1997 by the Genetics Society of America Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo.Threeloci,codingfortheenzymesenolase,phosphoglyceratekinaseandalcohol dehydrogenase,have been localized to chromosome 4 of D.a. americunu, whichformstheneo-Yand neo-X chromosomes for sectionsof the neo-Y chromo- some. Thesex ratios in theF3 generation of the intercrosses showed

Guttman, David S.

369

A molecular dynamics simulation of the melting points and glass transition temperatures of myo-and neo-inositol  

E-print Network

- and neo-inositol Stephen W. Watt Department of Chemistry, The Pfizer Institute for Pharmaceutical transition temperature are calculated for myo- and neo-inositol, using the condensed-phase optimized temperatures for myo- and neo-inositol also compare very well to the experimentally obtained data. The glass

de Gispert, Adrià

370

Object Oriented Learning Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

Morris, Ed

2005-01-01

371

Near-Earth-Object identification over apparitions using n-body ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-based telescopes can observe Near-Earth objects (NEOs) continuously for a few weeks or months during each apparition. Due to the usually complicated dynamics of the Sun-Earth-NEO triplet, the time interval between consecutive apparitions typically ranges from months to several years. On these timescales single-apparition sets of observations (SASs) having reasonably small observational time-intervals lead to substantial orbital uncertainties. The linking

Mikael Granvik; Karri Muinonen

2007-01-01

372

System models used to support a space-based telescope design for discovery of near Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the effects of several key system parameters related to development of a space-based observatory for discovering near-earth objects (NEOs). The space-based mission is seen as complementary to ground-based observations for identifying objects with the potential to impact the Earth. A system model is developed from an articial data set of 1218 NEOs with initial orbital

Mike Lieber; Jeffrey Van Cleve; Robert Arentz; Harold Reitsema; Roger Linfield; Chuck Hardesty

2007-01-01

373

Neo-intuitive proposal for Kaluza-Klein unification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses a central question of contemporary theoretical physics: Can a unified account be provided for the known forces of nature. The issue is brought into focus by considering the recently revived Kaluza-Klein approach to unification, a program entailing dimensional transformation through cosmogony. First it is demonstrated that, in a certain sense, revitalized Kaluza-Klein theory appears to undermine the intuitive foundations of mathematical physics, but that this implicit consequence has been repressed at a substantial cost. A fundamental reformation of the Kaluza-Klein strategy is then undertaken, one that casts it within a new intuitive context. This is followed by a provisional application of the suggested approach to the specific problem of cosmological change. The paper concludes by exploring the far-reaching epistemological implications of the neo-intuitive proposal set forth.

Rosen, S.M.

1988-11-01

374

Stellar parallax in the Neo-Tychonian planetary system  

E-print Network

The recent paper published in European Journal of Physics [1] aimed to demonstrate the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of heliocentric and geocentric systems. The work is performed in the Neo-Tychonian system, with key assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. Motion of Sun and Mars have been analysed, and the conclusion was reached that the very fact of the accelerated motion of the Universe as a whole produces the so-called "pseudo-potential" that not only explains the origin of the pseudo-forces, but also the very motion of the celestial bodies as seen from the static Earth. After the paper was published, the question was raised if that same potential can explain the motion of the distant stars that are not affected by the Sun's gravity (unlike Mars), and if it can be used to reproduce the observation of the stellar parallax. The answer is found to be positive.

Popov, Luka

2013-01-01

375

Viscous dark matter growth in (neo-)Newtonian cosmology  

E-print Network

We assume cold dark matter to possess a small bulk-viscous pressure which typically attenuates the growth of inhomogeneities. Explicit calculations, based on Eckart's theory of dissipative processes, reveal that for viscous cold dark matter the usual Newtonian approximation for perturbation scales smaller than the Hubble scale is no longer valid. We advocate the use of a neo-Newtonian approach which consistently incorporates pressure effects into the fluid dynamics and correctly reproduces the general relativistic dynamics. This result is of interest for numerical simulations of nonlinear structure formation involving nonstandard dark-matter fluids. We obtain upper limits on the magnitude of the viscous pressure by requiring that relevant perturbation amplitudes should grow sufficiently to enter the nonlinear stage.

Velten, H; Fabris, J C; Zimdahl, W

2013-01-01

376

Aromatic character and relative stability of neo-confused porphyrin tautomers and related compounds.  

PubMed

The conformations of eight neo-confused porphyrin (neo-CP) structures and seven related benzo-neo-confused porphyrins (B-neo-CPs) were minimized using DFT-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). In addition, in order to provide contrasts to the B-neo-CP tautomers, a series of twelve benzoporphyrin (BP) tautomers and twelve benzocarbaporphyrins (BCPs) were also analyzed, and two N-confused porphyrin (NCP) tautomers were also considered. The relative stability of the tautomers for each series was computed, and the bond lengths and bond angles were calculated. Surprisingly, all of the neo-CP and B-neo-CP tautomers were near planar. The fully conjugated members of these series showed a significant degree of bond length alternation, unlike porphyrins or the aromatic forms of NCP, BP or BCP. The most stable tautomer of neo-CP was calculated to be 27.04 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than porphyrin and 9.95 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than the most favored NCP tautomer. The most stable tautomer of B-neo-CP was similarly shown to be 26.40 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than benzoporphyrin. The favored tautomers also place the internal NH opposite to the neo-confused ring to minimize steric and lone pair-lone pair interactions, and to provide improved hydrogen bonding interactions. Nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) demonstrated that the fully conjugated neo-CP and B-neo-CP tautomers exhibit a significant amount of diatropic character, but these values are somewhat lower than the results obtained for porphyrins, BPs or BCPs. BCPs have three internal hydrogens, but the favored tautomer places the two pyrrolic hydrogens on each side of the indene unit to maximize hydrogen bonding interactions. Tautomers with an internal CH2 unit are also feasible, but these are energetically less favorable, have reduced diatropicity, and show significant bond length alternation. The results indicate that 18? electron delocalization pathways that pass through a fused benzene ring are less favorable than alternative delocalization pathways that bypass this unit. PMID:24201817

AbuSalim, Deyaa I; Lash, Timothy D

2013-12-28

377

Proceedings of the ASCE Earth and Space 2006 Conference, League City, TX, April 2006 A Robotic Constructor-Excavator for NEO quarrying  

E-print Network

Constructor-Excavator for NEO quarrying Ravi Vanmali, Nilesh Shah, Narayanan Komerath School of Aerospace intended to mine regolith on planetary surfaces, or to drill into small NEOs. The same craft would-4 or equivalent NEO location. Upon maneuvering and attaching to the NEO, the craft will receive

378

Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined  

Microsoft Academic Search

With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance

Randy Showstack

2010-01-01

379

Finding Near Earth Objects Before They Find Us!  

E-print Network

Challenge Seminar Series Lindley Johnson Near Earth Object Programs Executive NASA HQ February 28, 2014 #12 warning procedures ­ Post-impact event, analogous to other disaster emergency and relief efforts Of NEO, etc ­ Post-impact event, convey offers of disaster relief a

Waliser, Duane E.

380

To measure the chemical composition of a Near Earth Object  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scenarios for a Near Earth Object (NEO) rendezvous mission were discussed recently in Europe. Such a mission would address scientific questions about the initial conditions and evolutionary history of the solar nebula, as well as mitigation considerations to prevent impact with the Earth. In our opinion the measurement of the elemental composition and the distribution of volatiles in the

Gasnault; A. Ball; J. Biele; C. D'Uston; O. Forni; G. Klingelhofer; S. Maurice; S. Ulamec

2006-01-01

381

The Near-Earth Objects Follow-up Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present lightcurves and physical parameters for nine near-Earth objects (NEOs) (433 Eros, 1917 Cuyo, 2368 Beltrovata, 3753 Cruithne, 4769 Castalia, 4953 1990 MU, 6491 1991 OA, 1995 EK1, and 1995 FJ) and three Mars crossers (5738 Billpickering, 7467 1989 WQ1, and 10578 1995 LH) observed during six campaigns in 1992 and 1995. The photometric lightcurve observations

A. Erikson; S. Mottola; J. S. V. Lagerros; M. Lindgren; J. Piironen; T. Oja; G. Hahn; C.-I. Lagerkvist; A. W. Harris; A. Nathues; G. Neukum

2000-01-01

382

Charting response options for threatening near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the threat caused by an impact of near-Earth objects (NEOs) has been increasingly recognized by the international community both at a scientific and political level, no study is addressing this issue in an interdisciplinary manner. A project has been carried out at the International Space University (ISU), located in Strasbourg, France, addressing the problem of the response to a

Nicolas Peter; Andrew Barton; Douglas Robinson; Jean Marc Salotti

2004-01-01

383

Propulsion options for missions to near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis identifying opportunities for extending space propulsion capabilities to ranges around 1 AU from the Earth is presented to suggest an effective and practical response to critical scientific, mitigation, and commercial missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs). The approach developed, which is based on previous studies of flight in field-free space, provides a convenient and simple means of comparing deep

John L. Remo

1996-01-01

384

Loading sources for seismological investigations of near-Earth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asteroids and comets that are near the orbit of the Earth are commonly called near-Earth objects (NEOs), and there is some concern that Earth might be struck by such a body. If a body were discovered on a collision course with Earth, the issue of mitigation arises. There are essentially two thoughts on mitigation: destroy it or move it out

James D. Walker; Walter F. Huebner

2004-01-01

385

On the Non-uniform Distribution of the Angular Elements of Near-Earth Objects  

E-print Network

We examine the angular distributions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which are often regarded as uniform. The apparent distribution of the longitude of ascending node, $\\Omega$, is strongly affected by well-known seasonal effects in the discovery rate of NEOs. The deviation from the expected $\\pi$-periodicity in the apparent distribution of $\\Omega$ indicates that its intrinsic distribution is slightly enhanced along a mean direction, $\\bar\\Omega=111^\\circ$; approximately 53% of NEOs have $\\Omega$ values within $\\pm90^\\circ$ of $\\bar\\Omega$. We also find that each sub-group of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects which cause different non-uniformities in the apparent distributions of their arguments of perihelion $\\omega$, and longitudes of perihelion $\\varpi$. For their intrinsic distributions, our analysis reveals that the Apollo asteroids have non-uniform $\\omega$ due to secular dynamics associated with inclination-eccentricity-$\\omega$ coupling, and the Amors' $\\varpi...

JeongAhn, Youngmin

2013-01-01

386

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences\\u000a in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center\\u000a on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant\\u000a regional destruction of

W. F. Huebner; L. N. Johnson; D. C. Boice; P. Bradley; S. Chocron; A. Ghosh; P. T. Giguere; R. Goldstein; J. A. Guzik; J. J. Keady; J. Mukherjee; W. Patrick; C. Plesko; J. D. Walker; K. Wohletz

2009-01-01

387

Skills as tribute: Phoenician sailors and shipwrights in the service of Neo-Assyria  

E-print Network

portion of the Syro-Palestinian coast. The social and economic relationship that ensued between these two groups has been previously analyzed by scholars. However, through this analysis of the available Neo-Assyrian textual and iconographical sources...

Trakadas, Athena Lynn

1999-01-01

388

Neo-nationalist ideology : a discourse theoretical approach to the SNP and the CSU   

E-print Network

The concept of ideology's theory-building potential has been under-exploited in studies of contemporary nationalism. This study offers a novel approach to 'neo-nationalism' by defining it as an ideology, embedding it in a ...

Sutherland, Claire Nicole

2002-07-11

389

Neo-glycopeptides: the importance of sugar core conformation in oxime-linked glycoprobes  

E-print Network

Neo-glycopeptides: the importance of sugar core conformation in oxime-linked glycoprobes # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Carbohydrate binding proteins, such as lectins . Secondary amine Introduction The increasing recognition of the importance of post- translational

Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

390

Prognostic factors and long term results of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery in stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Prognosis of stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor despite the changes in therapeutic strategies. OBJECTIVES: To assess long term results of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery for patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC and to analyze factors influencing survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methods adopted include: Retrospective review of medical records of 91 patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC, who received neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery; collection of information on demographic information, staging procedure, preoperative therapy, clinical response, type of resection, pathologic response of tumor, status of lymph nodes and adjuvant chemotherapy; survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier and calculation of prognostic factors using log-rank and Cox regression model. RESULTS: All patients received a platinum-based chemotherapy and 23 (29.1%) had an associated radiotherapy. Eighty four patients underwent thoracotomy. Median survival was 26 months (95%CI, 22.6-30.8 months) with three and five year survival rates of 31.6 and 20.9%, respectively. Prognostic factors for survival on univariate analysis was clinical response (P= 0.032), complete resection (P= 0.002), pathologic tumor response (P< 0.001), and lymph nodal down staging (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses identified complete resection, pathologic tumor response and lymph nodal down staging as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Survival of patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC who received neo adjuvant therapy is significantly influenced by clinical response, complete resection, pathologic tumor response, and lymph nodal down staging. These results can be helpful in guiding standard clinical practice and evaluating the outcome of neo adjuvant therapy followed by surgery in patients with stage IIIA N2 NSCLC. PMID:19881166

Li, Jing; Dai, Chun-Hua; Shi, Shun-Bing; Chen, Ping; Yu, Li-Chao; Wu, Jian-Rong

2009-01-01

391

Domains and Facets: Hierarchical Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits com- bining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at bo1.h levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of

Paul T. Costa; Robert R. McCrae

1995-01-01

392

Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum were studied. Treatment with the water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum caused a marked decrease in the CCl4-induced toxicity in rat liver, made evident by their effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the

Jer-Min Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Ming-Feng Chen; Takashi Ujiie; Atsushi Takada

1995-01-01

393

Stand and be counted: the neo-Darwinian synthesis and the ascension of bipedalism as an essential hominid synapomorphy.  

PubMed

Since its inception in the early- to middle-nineteenth century, human origins studies have been informed by a variety of disciplines beyond physical anthropology and archaeology, most notably geology and biology. This study examines dramatic changes within human origins research that occurred in the mid-twentieth century largely as a consequence of the dissemination of the neo-Darwinian synthesis from biology (sensu lato) into the new" physical anthropology. This paradigm shift resulted in foregrounding evolution as a process affecting variable populations over exercises in typological classification. It led to the acknowledgement of bipedalism as the earliest hominidi adaptation, preceding other important changes in morphology (e.g., increased encephalization quotient) and behavior (e.g., stone tool manufacture and use). An important corollary of the recognition of a bipedal ape phase in our ancestry was the decoupling of the grade category "human" from the phylogenetic term "hominid". PMID:23272599

Gundling, Tom

2012-01-01

394

High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure shows an example of this capability where the Brazil Nut problem is simulated: as the container full of granular material is vibrated, the large ball slowly moves upwards. This capability was expanded to account for anchors of different shapes and penetration velocities, interacting with granular soils.

Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

2012-01-01

395

The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

2014-07-01

396

The population problem as economic disarticulation.  

PubMed

The author rejects neo-Malthusian concepts of population problems in developing countries and develops the hypothesis that overpopulation exists where people lack the basic means of subsistence or suffer massive unemployment, both symptoms of dependent capitalism according to the author. Population problems are analyzed in the context of divisions among social classes and resource utilization based on these divisions. The need for developing societies to gain independence from imported technology is stressed. PMID:12178552

Yapa, L S

1985-01-01

397

The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care  

PubMed Central

Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact. PMID:24758585

2014-01-01

398

Hayabusa's follow-on mission for surface and sub-surface sample return from a C-type NEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

n JAXA's Long-term Vision 2005-2025, acquiring the capability of deep space round trip be-yond the Earth-Moon system is one of key elements for the future space exploration and that has been Hayabusa's primary engineering goal. According to the solar system exploration sci-ence roadmap set by ISAS and JSPEC in 2007, a programmatic approach to small body sample returns from S-type, C-type and then P/D-type asteroids as well as dormant comets, i.e., 'the further, the smaller, the more primitive strategy', is recommended for strengthening Japan's unique position in the field of space exploration. In a more recent international context, NEOs and Martian satellites have been identified as critical targets for the future human space explo-ration en route to Mars; thus their robotic precursor missions with the round trip capability have become more important than ever. Thus, Hayabusa's immediate follow-on mission, nicknamed so far as 'Hayabusa-2', is to aim establishing round trip exploration capability with both technical and operational heritage and lessons leaerned from the original Haybusa mission. It will also conduct in-situ observation and surface and sub-surface sample returns of a C-type NEO after Hayabusa's investigation and sampling attempt at Itokawa, a sub-km, S-type NEO. Important to be reminded is that C-type asteroid exploration is not just matching with carbona-ceous chondrites and interplanetary dust but also enhancing chances to discover new extrater-restrial materials unknown to us today that may become clues to decode interactions among organic, inorganic compounds and "water" kept in various forms inside the object. These three groups of asteroidal materials are basic constituents of the planet Earth, its ocean and its life. Also physical probing inside solid planetary bodies has been recognized as an effective tool to open new scientific insights. By excavating sub-surface materials with artificial physical in-teractions such as an impactor operation, this mission may yield for the first time that space weathering effects on carbonaceous asteroids by comparing between superficially exposed sam-ples and freshly excavated sub-surface samples, as well as possible surface material motilities, levitation, re-accumulation, and other local geological activities induced by inputs of external kinetic energy. This paper summarizes both engineering and scientific objectives as well as instruments and enabling technology currently being developed of this mission.

Yano, Hajime; Yoshikawa, M.; Yano, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Nakazawa, S.; Mimamino, H.; Terui, F.; Saiki, T.; Nishiyama, K.; Kubota, T.; Okada, T.; Morimoto, M. Y.; Ogawa, N.; Okamoto, C.; Takagi, Y.; Tachibana, S.; Nakamura, R.; Hirata, N.; Demura, H.

399

Human and Robotic Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. More recently U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025. Given this direction from the White House, NASA has been involved in studying various strategies for NEO exploration in order to follow U.S. space exploration policy. Prior to sending a human mission, a series of robotic spacecraft would be launched to reduce the risk to crew, and enhance the planning for the proximity and surface operations at the NEO. The human mission would ideally follow five or more years later. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, Paul A.

2010-01-01

400

Diameters and albedos of three sub-kilometer Near Earth Objects derived from Spitzer observations  

E-print Network

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are fragments of remnant primitive bodies that date from the era of Solar System formation. At present, the physical properties and origins of NEOs are poorly understood. We have measured thermal emission from three NEOs -- (6037) 1988 EG, 1993 GD, and 2005 GL -- with Spitzer's IRAC instrument at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns (the last object was detected only at 5.8 and 8.0 microns). The diameters of these three objects are 400 m, 180 m, and 160 m, respectively, with uncertainties of around 20% (including both observational and systematic errors). For all three the geometric albedos are around 0.30, in agreement with previous results that most NEOs are S-class asteroids. For the two objects detected at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, diameters and albedos based only on those data agree with the values based on modeling the data in all four bands. This agreement, and the high sensitivity of IRAC, show the promise of the Spitzer Warm Mission for determining the physical parameters for a large number of NEOs.

D. E. Trilling; M. Mueller; J. L. Hora; G. Fazio; T. Spahr; J. A. Stansberry; H. A. Smith; S. R. Chesley; A. K. Mainzer

2008-07-10

401

Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the astronomical H-band (1.65 ?m) are supported by its IR2 camera down to 1.5 ?W/m2sr in single 2 minute exposures. In the same setting, point sources of 13 mag can be detected. Obviously, a number of large asteroids exceed this threshold. The EARTHGUARD-I study, completed in 2003 by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research and Kayser-Threde under ESA contract, proposed a dedicated steerable 020...35 cm telescope and CCD camera payload on a probe to the inner solar system, to detect Near-Earth and Inner-Earth Objects (NEOs, IEOs) in favourable opposition geometry. A ride- share on a Mercury orbiter and a dedicated low-thrust propulsion spacecraft to a heliocentric 0.5 AU orbit were studied. A similar-sized telescope is presently being developed for the ASTEROIDFINDER satellite of DLR. Therefore, the technical feasibility of a number of asteroid observation scenarios involving spacecraft and targets interior to Earth's orbit is assessed based on the latest available spacecraft information and asteroid population models. A rough estimate of the required effort in terms of ground-based spacecraft operations and on-board resources is given for selected representative scenarios.

Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

2011-11-01

402

Correlates of formal operational reasoning: A neo-piagetian analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most Piagetian formal operational reasoning tasks show horizontal decalage; that is, subjects pass certain tasks and fail others that have the same logical structure. The study reported here analyzes the importance of individual difference variables, as postulated by the neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone, in explaining subject performance in formal reasoning. A sample of 72 freshman students were administered a test of formal reasoning having 20 items of different types of reasoning, and the tests of the individual difference variables. Results obtained from multiple regression analyses show that Pascual-Leone's structural M-capacity (Ms) is the most consistent predictor of success in the different formal reasoning tasks, followed by Witkin's cognitive style, and to a much lesser degree Raven's progressive matrices, and Pascual-Leone's functional M-capacity (Mf). It was found that in the total score on the 20 items of formal reasoning, Ms accounted for 23.3% of the variance (R = 0.483, F = 6.39, p = 0.014) and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test, increased the multiple R significantly (F = 7.77, p = 0.007) and accounted for 7.6% of the variance. Mf and the Raven test did not make a significant contribution to the regression equation. Correlation coefficients among most of the items having the same reasoning pattern but different content are generally low but statistically significant (p < 0.01). Intercorrelations among items having the same formal reasoning pattern and content are fairly high (p < 0.001). These results emphasize the importance of individual difference variables: information-processing capacity (Pascual-Leone) and oversensitivity to potentially misleading information (Witkin). It is suggested that in order to understand student performance in formal reasoning tasks, we should expect horizontal decalages as a rule and not the exception, as Piaget had postulated. Educational implications are drawn.

Niaz, Mansoor

403

Reconstruction of the Paleo and Neo stages of Poas and Turrialba volcanoes, Costa Rica: Competing processes of growth and destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is about two problems a) growth and b) erosion of the Poás and Turrialba volcanoes during the last ˜ 600 ka. For the growth problem, we studied both volcanoes, meanwhile for the erosion problem we focused only in the erosion generated by the recurrent phenomenon of coseismic landslides on Poás. The detailed study done here for Poás, showed how its actual edifice has grown in the last ˜600 Ky and how it is comprised by at least 14 volcanic units (4 from the Paleo-temporal phase and 10 from the Neo-phase). The geochemistry data showed the variation of these volcanic units between two main magmatic components (Sabana Redonda and the Von Frantzius Geochemical Components). We presented a landslide inventory for the 2009 (M w 6.2) Cinchona earthquake based on LiDAR images. Mass wasting calculations then were extrapolated and used to calculate erosion rates based on this phenomenon for Poás (˜ 300 ± 150 km3/km/Myr, a rate comparable to estimates of magma flux at arc volcanic systems). Furthermore, the catalog was used to create a landslide susceptibily model, that maps landslide risk for any shallow earthquake on the volcano and determine which areas could be affected by landslides. For Turrialba, this study includes mostly the geochronology and stratigraphy of eight lava flow units that yield ages that range from 251 to 3 ka (one unit from the Paleo-temporal phase and 7 from the Neo). Three of these units, gave remarkably young 40Ar/39Ar ages (25 ka or less), among the youngest lavas dated in Central America (CA) by this method. The Neo-Turrialba flows consist of a low silica and a high silica group. The data and methodology followed here for the reconstruction of the Poás and Turrialba volcanoes can be used to obtain a new net extrusive volcanic flux, which may be used as a parameter for the rest of volcanoes of CA. The effective use of the information generated for the coseismic landslide susceptibility model for Poás by planners could reduce the impact of future landslides on the population and on the important civil infrastructure located in the study area.

Ruiz Cubillo, Paulo

404

High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4+ T cells in human melanoma.  

PubMed

Tumor-specific neo-antigens that arise as a consequence of mutations are thought to be important for the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that neo-antigens may be commonly recognized by intratumoral CD8+ T cells, but it is unclear whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T cells also frequently reside within human tumors. In view of the accepted role of tumor-specific CD4+ T-cell responses in tumor control, we addressed whether neo-antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell reactivity is a common property in human melanoma. PMID:25531942

Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M; Bies, Laura; Verdegaal, Els M E; Schotte, Remko; Calis, Jorg J A; Behjati, Sam; Velds, Arno; Hilkmann, Henk; Atmioui, Dris El; Visser, Marten; Stratton, Michael R; Haanen, John B A G; Spits, Hergen; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Schumacher, Ton N M

2015-01-01

405

Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Targets include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs), other close approachers, and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence the need to reach fainter magnitudes on short notice. About half of our targets are therefore unknown at the time of this proposal. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by WISE that need astrometry. Our past use of the Mayall telescope has been determined by Co-Investigator Tim Spahr of the Minor Planet Center to provide ``dramatic improvement'' to orbits.

McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeff; Scotti, Jim; Bressi, Terry; Spahr, Tim; Maleszewski, Chet

2014-08-01

406

Observations of Near Earth Object 2002 AM31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEO) are objects whose orbits, at perihelion, bring them at least within 1.3AU from Earth. On July 22, 2012 the NEO 2002 AM31 was at perihelion, 0.035AU from Earth, with an apparent visual magnitude of 13.7. 2002 AM31 was observed during perihelion using the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) 0.4-m f/8 telescope and Apogee U42 2048 x 2048 CCD camera. The scale is 64.5 arcseconds/mm with the CCD image size approximately 0.5 degrees. A series of 300 second exposures were taken with the clear filter. Positions of NEO 2002 AM31from the images were measured using Aladin software. The measured positions were compared to the ephemeris given on the NASA JPL HORIZONS website for NEO 2002 AM31. The observed RA is between 20-24 arcminutes greater than the ephemeris values, and the Declination values were all approximately two arcminutes greater than the expected values between the first and last observations of the set. Considering the near consistency of the deviations, either the ephemeris RA and Declination values were off by the previously stated amounts, or that the calibration process was only accurate to that extent.

Taylor, Emma; Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.

2013-01-01

407

MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European–Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a\\u000a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue,\\u000a scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation.\\u000a Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of

M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; P. Michel; J. Kawagushi; H. Yano; J. R. Brucato; I. A. Franchi; E. Dotto; M. Fulchignoni; S. Ulamec

2009-01-01

408

The Campo Imperatore Near Earth Object Survey (CINEOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Campo Imperatore Near Earth Object Survey (CINEOS) is an Italian survey dedicated to the search and follow-up of Near\\u000a Earth Objects (NEOs). It is operated with the 90 cm f\\/3 Schmidt telescope at the Campo Imperatore of the Rome Astronomical\\u000a Observatory (INAF-OAR) as a joint project with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale and Fisica Cosmica (INAF-IASF) in Rome.\\u000a Since the

Andrea Boattini; Germano D’Abramo; Giovanni B. Valsecchi; Andrea Carusi; Andrea Di Paola; Fabrizio Bernardi; Robert Jedicke; Alan W. Harris; Elisabetta Dotto; Fiore De Luise; Davide Perna; Riccardo Leoni

2007-01-01

409

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

E-print Network

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid - which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context - creeps and stress relaxes when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Satish Karra; K. R. Rajagopal

2010-07-21

410

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

E-print Network

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al. 2010). Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (~0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectru...

Thomas, Cristina A; Trilling, David E; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L; Mueller, Michael

2013-01-01

411

Space Weathering on Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many planetary environments of the solar system, direct plasma precipitation on a surface can result in neutral particle release. Solar wind ion-sputtering (IS) is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth object (NEO), acting together with other release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption (PSD), thermal desorption (TD) and micrometeoroid impact vaporization (MIV). Since all other release processes produce particles of lower energies, the presence of neutral atoms in the energy range above 10 eV and below a few keVs (sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA)) identifies the IS. Investigation of the active release processes, as a function of the external conditions and the NEO surface properties, is crucial for obtaining a clear view of the body’s present loss rate as well as for getting clues on its evolution. In this work, we study the space weathering processes on a NEO-surface, via the recently proposed SPAWN model and we discuss our results.

Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Mura, A.; de Angelis, E.; di Lellis, A. M.; Livi, S.

2010-07-01

412

European near-Earth object radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar astronomy paradox (RAP): practically everybody agree with essential contributions of active radar observations to Solar System and especially to near-Earth object (NEO) explorations, but despite everything prefer to develop new and new passive telescopes and disposable space missions, only, and nobody want to build at least one dedicated multipurpose radar telescope (neither Arecibo nor Goldstone and Evpatoria radars were created as dedicated radar astronomy instruments). Also, as of June 2002, among of 188 radar detected asteroids and comets there are only 3 NEOs, which were investigated in Europe, with single European radar facility, sited in Evpatoria. The main reason of such deep gap is a low sensitivity of Evpatoria radar, which is in 10 and 300 times less powerful than Goldstone and Arecibo. Therefore, I guess the first dedicated European NEO Radar (ENEOR) is earnestly needful now. From time to time we discuss this problem, but it is not solve for the present moment, perhaps because of above formulated RAP. Origin and concept of the ENEOR, as well as the ENEOR project, based on the being under construction 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope, will be presented below.

Zaitsev, Alexander L.

2002-11-01

413

A feasibility study on the implementation of satellite-to-satellite tracking around a small near-Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-earth objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets that have a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 astronomical units (AU). There are currently more than 10,000 known NEOs. The majority of these objects are less than 1 km in diameter. Despite the number of NEOs, little is known about most of them. Characterizing these objects is a crucial component in developing a thorough understanding of solar system evolution, human exploration, exploitation of asteroid resources, and threat mitigation. Of particular interest is characterizing the internal structure of NEOs. While ground-based methods exist for characterizing the internal structure of NEOs, the information that can be gleaned from such studies is limited and often accompanied by large uncertainty. An alternative is to use in situ studies to examine an NEO's shape and gravity field, which can be used to assess its internal structure. This thesis investigates the use of satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) to map the gravity field of a small NEO on the order of 500 m or less. An analysis of the mission requirements of two previously flown SST missions, GRACE and GRAIL, is conducted. Additionally, a simulation is developed to investigate the dynamics of SST in the vicinity of a small NEO. This simulation is then used to simulate range and range-rate data in the strongly perturbed environment of the small NEO. These data are used in conjunction with the analysis of the GRACE and GRAIL missions to establish a range of orbital parameters that can be used to execute a SST mission around a small NEO. Preliminary mission requirements for data collection and orbital correction maneuvers are also established. Additionally, the data are used to determine whether or not proven technology can be used to resolve the expected range and range-rate measurements. It is determined that the orbit semi-major axis for each spacecraft should be approximately 100% to 200% of the NEO's mean diameter and the two spacecraft should be in circular, near polar orbits. This configuration will produce trajectories, which exhibit reasonable stability over a period of roughly 24 hours. Corrective maneuvers will therefore be required with a frequency of approximately once per day. Due to the potentially rapid changes caused by the highly perturbed environment, it is likely that these maneuvers will need to be made autonomously. During the period between corrective maneuvers SST data collection will be possible. The expected range and range-rate measurements will be on the order of +/-10-5 m and +/-10 -5 m/s respectively and can be resolved using proven technology.

Church, Christopher J.

414

Physical modeling and high-performance GPU computing for characterization, interception, and disruption of hazardous near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past few decades, both the scientific community and the general public have been becoming more aware that the Earth lives in a shooting gallery of small objects. We classify all of these asteroids and comets, known or unknown, that cross Earth's orbit as near-Earth objects (NEOs). A look at our geologic history tells us that NEOs have collided with Earth in the past, and we expect that they will continue to do so. With thousands of known NEOs crossing the orbit of Earth, there has been significant scientific interest in developing the capability to deflect an NEO from an impacting trajectory. This thesis applies the ideas of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) theory to the NEO disruption problem. A simulation package was designed that allows efficacy simulation to be integrated into the mission planning and design process. This is done by applying ideas in high-performance computing (HPC) on the computer graphics processing unit (GPU). Rather than prove a concept through large standalone simulations on a supercomputer, a highly parallel structure allows for flexible, target dependent questions to be resolved. Built around nonclassified data and analysis, this computer package will allow academic institutions to better tackle the issue of NEO mitigation effectiveness.

Kaplinger, Brian Douglas

415

Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough

David Coburn

2000-01-01

416

Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

2010-01-01

417

Detecting NEO Impacts using the International Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty an International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies has been globally deployed beginning in the late 1990s. The infrasound network sub-component of the IMS consists of 47 active stations as of mid-2014. These microbarograph arrays detect coherent infrasonic signals from a range of sources including volcanoes, man-made explosions and bolides. Bolide detections from IMS stations have been reported since ~2000, but with the maturation of the network over the last several years the rate of detections has increased substantially. Presently the IMS performs semi-automated near real-time global event identification on timescales of 6-12 hours as well as analyst verified event identification having time lags of several weeks. Here we report on infrasound events identified by the IMS between 2010-2014 which are likely bolide impacts. Identification in this context refers to an event being included in one of the event bulletins issued by the IMS. In this untargeted study we find that the IMS globally identifies approximately 16 events per year which are likely bolide impacts. Using data released since the beginning of 2014 of US Government sensor detections (as given at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/ ) of fireballs we find in a complementary targeted survey that the current IMS system is able to identify ~25% of fireballs with E > 0.1 kT energy. Using all 16 US Government sensor fireballs listed as of July 31, 2014 we are able to detect infrasound from 75% of these events on at least one IMS station. The high ratio of detection/identification is a product of the stricter criteria adopted by the IMS for inclusion in an event bulletin as compared to simple station detection.We discuss energy comparisons between infrasound-estimated energies based on amplitudes and periods and estimates provided by US Government sensors. Specific impact events of interest will be discussed as well as the utility of the global IMS infrasound system for location and timing of future NEAs detected prior to impact.

Brown, Peter G.; Dube, Kimberlee; Silber, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

418

Optimization of culture conditions of Fusarium solani for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of Fusarium solani KCCM90040 on cereal grain for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide, a novel low-molecular-weight cyclic pentadepsipeptide exhibiting cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal effects. From the analysis of variance results using response surface methodology, temperature, initial moisture content, and growth time were shown to be important parameters for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on cereal grain. A model was established in the present study to describe the relationship between environmental conditions and the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on rice, the selected cereal grain. The optimal culture conditions were determined at 25.79?°C with the initial moisture content of 40.79%, and 16.19?days of growth time. This report will give important information concerning the optimization of environmental conditions using statistic methodology for the production of a new cyclic pentadepsipeptide from fungi. PMID:25130748

Lee, Hee-Seok; Phat, Chanvorleak; Nam, Woo-Seon; Lee, Chan

2014-01-01

419

Recent Achievements of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment in the CEI Region  

SciTech Connect

A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales--regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown.

Panza, G. F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Kouteva, M. [ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vaccari, F.; Peresan, A.; Romanelli, F. [DST--University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cioflan, C. O.; Radulian, M.; Marmureanu, G. [NIEP-Magurele-Bucharest, 12 Calugareni str., Ilfov (Romania); Paskaleva, I. [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gribovszki, K.; Varga, P. [Geodetic and Geophysical Research, Institute of HAS, Sopron (Hungary); Herak, M. [Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Zaichenco, A. [IGG, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zivcic, M. [ARSO-Seismology and Geology Office, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2008-07-08

420

Neo-tectonic fracturing after emplacement of quaternary granitic pluton in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The fracture which occurs in the Kakkonda geothermal system was formed by neo-tectonic stress after the emplacement of the neo-granite (Quaternary Kakkonda Granite) at middle Pleistocene to recent. The characteristic contrast in permeability at ca.1.5 km is strongly controlled by the contact metamorphic zone, especially cordierite and higher grade metamorphic zones, in which the high temperature (320{degrees}C<) and low permeable deep reservoir was created. The five geothermal wells 2.5-3.0 km deep have clarified that a microearthquake zone below -1.0 km shows high permeability especially at the margin of the Kakkonda Granite, and low permeability outside of a microearthquake zone. The Kakkonda Granite is a composite pluton which has very few fractures inside of it. Thus, neo-tectonic fracturing has developed in the non-metamorphosed Tertiary formations and the margin of the Kakkonda Granite.

Doi, N.; Kato, O. [JMC Goethermal Eng. Co., Ltd., Iwate-ken (Japan); Kanisawa, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1995-12-31

421

Shape Similarity, Better than Semantic Membership, Accounts for the Structure of Visual Object Representations in a Population of Monkey Inferotemporal Neurons  

E-print Network

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual ...

Baldassi, Carlo

422

The Cheng Communal Family: Social Organization and Neo-Confucianism in Yuan and Early Ming China.  

E-print Network

, for it was gener- ally seen as an ideal form of human organization, a medium through which part of the Neo-Confucian vision of "antiquity" (ku) could be made manifest in the present-day world. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the history and organi...KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu The Cheng Communal Family: Social Organization and Neo-Confucianism in Yuan and Early Ming China. 1974 by John W. Dardess This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries...

Dardess, John W.

1974-01-01

423

Approaching cognitive-behavioral and existential therapy through Neo-Confucianism  

E-print Network

, appropriate behavior and self-actualization remains constant. However, the methods of their attainment change with time. The history of the Confucian/Neo-Confucian tra- dition is filled with such conceptual modifications. Neo-Confucianism is a syncretic... The Link Between Axioms Two and Three . 118 Appropriate Discernment of Thought: A Personality Model Axiom Three: Conscience and Appro- priateness Axiom Four: Rectifying Affairs ~L' - h'h "R s 1 ' g 1 t ty Cion" 120 123 128 132 ~L'aa ? hih gth' 1...

Meyer, Joffre Denis

1984-01-01

424

The Validity and Utility of the Positive Presentation Management and Negative Presentation Management Scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer developed "validity" scales for the "Revised NEO Personality Inventory" (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae) to detect underreporting--the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) Scale and overreporting--the Negative Presentation Management (NPM) Scale. In this investigation, the clinical utility of these scales was examined using…

Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

2008-01-01

425

A hierarchical investigation of personality and behavior: Examining Neo-Socioanalytic models of health-related outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on proposed hierarchical relations derived from the Neo-Socioanalytic Theory of personality [Roberts, B. W., & Wood, D. (2006). Personality development in the context of the Neo-Socioanalytic Model of personality. In D. K. Mroczek & T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of personality development (pp. 11–39). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers], the present study examined the relationships between trait and

Tim Bogg; Michelle W. Voss; Dustin Wood; Brent W. Roberts

2008-01-01

426

Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

Wiborg, Susanne

2013-01-01

427

Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,…

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

2014-01-01

428

"Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people…

Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

2009-01-01

429

Validation of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R: correlations between self-reports and college peer ratings.  

PubMed

The NEO-PI-R has been one of the standard tools for measuring the Five Factor Model. Validity tests of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R have previously been limited to factor analyses and to testing the inventory's congruent validity using Hogan's Personality Inventory and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the validity of the NEO-PI-R. 53 pairs of volunteer college students who were peers (77 women, 29 men; M age = 27.3 yr., SD = 7) from the Department of Psychology at Stockholm University rated themselves both on the NEO-PI-R and on single statements taken from the NEO-PI-R Summary feedback sheet as well as rating their respective peers on a short version of the NEO-PI-R and on single statements taken from the NEO-PI-R Summary feedback sheet. The pattern of correlations indicated some support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the Swedish version of the NEO-PI-R. PMID:20099543

Westerlund, Joakim; Hansen, Niklas

2009-12-01

430

Low Openness on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory as a Risk Factor for Treatment-Resistant Depression  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI) may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. Methods We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n?=?35), remitted depressed patients (n?=?27), and healthy controls (n?=?66). We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. Results Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. Conclusions Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression. PMID:24019864

Takahashi, Michio; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji

2013-01-01

431

Shape Similarity, Better than Semantic Membership, Accounts for the Structure of Visual Object Representations in a Population of Monkey Inferotemporal Neurons  

PubMed Central

The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT) is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects). In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics), we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex. PMID:23950700

DiCarlo, James J.; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zoccolan, Davide

2013-01-01

432

The taxonomic abundances, albedos, sizes, impact hazards and cratering record of the near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present a model for the bias-corrected population of near-Earth objects (NEOs). Discovery observations and physical measurements are naturally biased toward objects having the highest albedos - as generally these objects have brighter apparent magnitudes. Thus, they are more likely to be discovered and observed. The population model presented here is based on a bias correction method applied to albedo (Delbo, M. et al. 2003 submitted Icarus) and spectral (Binzel, R.P. 2003 in preparation) measurements of the NEOs. I find that the bias-corrected, fractional abundances of the taxonomic complexes are as follows: A-0.2%; C-10%, D-17%, O-0.5%, Q-14%, R-0.1%, S-22%, U-0.4%, V-1%, X-34%. Overall, the bias-corrected mean albedo for the whole NEA population is 0.14-0.02 . Using this mean albedo, an absolute magnitude of 17.8 +/- 0.1 translates to an estimated diameter of 1 km. I find that there are 1090 +/- 180 NEAs with diameters larger than 1 km. Next, I determine the impact frequency, and collision energy distribution for impacts of NEAs into the Earth and Moon. Globally destructive collisions ( 1021 J) of asteroids 1 km or larger strike the Earth once every 0.60 +/- 0.1 Myr on average. Regionally destructive collisions with impact energy greater than 4x1018 J ( 200 m diameter) strike the Earth every 47,000 +/- 6,000 years. Collisions in the range of the Tunguska event (4-8x1016 J) occur every 2000-3000 years. The rate of formation of craters expected from the NEAs is found to be in close agreement with the observed number of craters on the Earth and on the Moon. These results are a summary of Stuart, J.S, Observational Constraints on the Number, Albedos, Sizes, and Impact Hazards of the Near-Earth Asteroids. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. 2003. This work was sponsored by NASA and by the Department of the Air Force under Air Force Contract F19628-00-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

Stuart, J. S.

2003-05-01

433

Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

2007-01-01

434

A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

2011-01-01

435

Russ Shafer-Landau run05.tex V1 -December 9, 2008 9:56am Page 133 Ethical Neo-Expressivism  

E-print Network

Russ Shafer-Landau run05.tex V1 - December 9, 2008 9:56am Page 133 5 Ethical Neo-Expressivism Dorit/product distinction to defend a ``neo-expressivist'' view of the way in which ethical claims express For helpful of expressivism, ethical neo-expressivism, we argue, also gives foundation to a new (and in our opinion highly

Edinburgh, University of

436

Aspect as the Source of Diathesis in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic and Beyond with Remarks on Transitivity, Accusativity, Ergativity and Case  

E-print Network

Aspect as the Source of Diathesis in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic and Beyond with Remarks is called Syriac. The modern descendant of Aramaic is Neo-Aramaic, whose many dialects also divide into two-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA), its dialects originate mainly in Kurdistan (currently shared between Turkey, Iraq

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 355, 321329 (2004) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08342.x Simulations of the population of Centaurs II. Individual objects  

E-print Network

AR20, 2060 Chiron, 1995 SN55, 2000 FZ53 and 2002 FY36 ­ for durations of 3 Myr are presented. One (2000 FZ53) and Neptune (2002 FY36), respectively. A variety of interesting pathways are illustrated. At the other extreme, 2000 FZ53 has 2 per cent of its clones becoming short-period objects. In our simulations

438

EFFECTS OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON DENSITY, SURVIVAL, AND POPULATION GROWTH OF WOOD THRUSHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neo- tropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National \\\\Vildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile su~val rates,

LARKIN A. POWELL; D. B. Warnell; JASON D. LANG; MICHAELJ. CONROY; DAVID G. KREMENTZ

439

Spectral Properties of Near-Earth Objects: Palomar and IRTF Results for 48 Objects Including Spacecraft Targets (9969) Braille and (10302) 1989 ML  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of visible wavelength spectroscopic measurements for 48 near-Earth objects (NEOs) obtained with the 5-m telescope at Palomar Mountain Observatory during 1998, 1999, and early 2000. The compositional interpretations for 15 of these objects have been enhanced by the addition of near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. One-third of our sampled objects fall in the

Richard P. Binzel; Alan W. Harris; Schelte J. Bus; Thomas H. Burbine

2001-01-01

440

A Low Risk Strategy for the Exploration of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impetus for asteroid exploration is scientific, political, and pragmatic. The notion of sending human explorers to asteroids is not new. Piloted missions to these primitive bodies were first discussed in the 1960s, pairing Saturn V rockets with enhanced Apollo spacecraft to explore what were then called "Earth-approaching asteroids." Two decades ago, NASA's Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) also briefly examined the possibility of visiting these small celestial bodies. Most recently, the U.S. Human Space Flight Review Committee (the second Augustine Commission) suggested that near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a target-rich environment for exploration via the "Flexible Path" option. However, prior to seriously considering human missions to NEOs, it has become clear that we currently lack a robust catalog of human accessible targets. The majority of the NEOs identified by a study team across several NASA centers as "human-accessible" are probably too small and have orbits that are too uncertain to consider mounting piloted expeditions to these small worlds. The first step in developing such a catalog is, therefore, to complete a space-based NEO survey. The resulting catalog of candidate NEOs would then be transformed into a matrix of opportunities for robotic and human missions for the next several decades. This initial step of a space-based NEO survey first is the linchpin to laying the foundation of a low-risk architecture to venture out and explore these primitive bodies. We suggest such a minimalist framework architecture from 1) extensive ground-based and precursor spacecraft investigations (while applying operational knowledge from science-driven robotic missions), 2) astronaut servicing of spacecraft operating at geosynchronous Earth orbit to retain essential skills and experience, and 3) applying the sum of these skills, knowledge and experience to piloted missions to NEOs.

Landis, Rob R.

2011-01-01

441

Teachers' Professional Identity, Educational Change and Neo-Liberal Pressures on Education in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education reforms underpinned by neo-liberal values have been criticised for bringing an adverse impact on teachers' professional identity. This article presents a qualitative study of teachers' professional identity in three historical periods in Hong Kong: Phase 1: 1965-84; Phase 2: 1984-97; and Phase 3: the post-1997 period. By juxtaposing the…

Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

2011-01-01

442