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1

Easily Retrievable Objects among the NEO Population  

E-print Network

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judi...

Yárnoz, D García; McInnes, C R

2013-01-01

2

Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of ? v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

2013-08-01

3

A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as optical or radar sensors and simulate observation campaigns. The tool outputs field-of-view crossings and actual detections of the selected NEO population objects. Using the Observation Analysis users are able to process and plot the results of the Observation Simulation. In order to enable end-users to handle the tool in a user-intuitive and comfortable way, a GUI has been created based on the modular Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) technology. Through the GUI users can easily enter input data for the tool, execute it and view its output data in a clear way. Additionally, the GUI runs gnuplot to create plot pictures and presents them to the user. Furthermore, users can create projects to organise executions of the tool.

Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

4

Understanding the Near-Earth Object Population: the 2004 Perspective  

E-print Network

to as "near-Earth objects" (NEOs). By convention, NEOs have perihelion dis- tances q 1.3AU and aphelion distances Q 0.983AU (e.g.Rabinowitz et al.1994).Sub- categories of the NEO population include the Apollos of the "formal" NEO population are the IEOs, or those objects located inside Earth's orbit (Q

Bottke, William F.

5

The LCOGT Near Earth Object (NEO) Follow-up Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects.LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically.I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), NEOWISE and PanSTARRS (PS1). Over 600 NEO candidates have been targeted so far this year with 250+ objects reported to the MPC, including 70 confirmed NEOs. An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

Lister, Tim; Gomez, Edward; Christensen, Eric; Larson, Steve

2014-11-01

6

NeoDys: Near Earth Objects: Dynamic Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NeoDys, a project developed at the University of Pisa in Italy, supplies data and services for all Near Earth Asteroids. Updated daily, researchers can find links to all NeoDys objects and observatories as well as data on Earth Impact Possibilities. Educators and students will find instructive explanations of Near-Earth Asteroids and three dimensional visualizations of the objects' orbits. Although at first glance some of the data may appear difficult to interpret, each page has a Help icon that thoroughly and clearly describes the information presented.

Milani, Andrea

7

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation considers the use of new launch vehicles in defense against near-Earth objects, building upon expertise in launch vehicle and spacecraft design, astronomy and planetary science and missile defense. This work also seeks to demonstrate the synergy needed between architectures for human/robotic exploration initiatives and planetary defense. Three different mitigation operations were baselined for this study--nuclear standoff explosion, kinetic interceptor, and solar collector--however, these are not the only viable options. The design and predicted performance of each of these methods is discussed and compared. It is determined that the nuclear interceptor option can deflect NEOs of smaller size (100-500 m) with 2 years or more time before impact, and larger NEOs with 5 or more years warning; kinetic interceptors may be effective for deflection of asteroids up to 300-400 m but require 8-10 years warning time; and, solar collectors may be able to deflect NEOs up to 1 km if issues pertaining to long operation can be overcome. Ares I and Ares V vehicles show sufficient performance to enable the development of a near-term categorization and mitigation architecture.

Adams, Robert B.

2008-01-01

8

ExploreNEOs. V. AVERAGE ALBEDO BY TAXONOMIC COMPLEX IN THE NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

Examining the albedo distribution of the near-Earth object (NEO) population allows for a better understanding of the relationship between absolute (H) magnitude and size, which impacts calculations of the size frequency distribution and impact hazards. Examining NEO albedos also sheds light on the differences between the NEO and Main Belt populations. We combine albedo results from the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer Exploration Science program with taxonomic classifications from the literature, publicly available data sets, and new observations from our concurrent spectral survey to derive the average albedos for C-, D-, Q-, S-, V-, and X-complex NEOs. Using a sample size of 118 NEOs, we calculate average albedos of 0.29{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}, 0.26{sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}, and 0.42{sup +0.13}{sub -0.11} for the Q-, S-, and V-complexes, respectively. The averages for the C- and D-complexes are 0.13{sup +0.06}{sub -0.05} and 0.02{sup +0.02}{sub -0.01}, but these averages are based on a small number of objects (five and two, respectively) and will improve with additional observations. We use albedos to assign X-complex asteroids to one of the E-, M-, or P-types. Our results demonstrate that the average albedos for the C-, S-, V-, and X-complexes are higher for NEOs than the corresponding averages observed in the Main Belt.

Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Morbidelli, A. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote dAzur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benner, L. A. M.; Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [Joint Sciences Department, Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps Colleges, 925 North Mills Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: cristina.thomas@nau.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-09-15

9

An Urban Neo-Poverty Population-Based Quality of Life and Related Social Characteristics Investigation from Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate quality of life (QOL) and related characteristics among an urban neo-poverty population in northeast China, and to compare this population with a traditional poverty cohort. Design The research was a cross-sectional survey executed from June 2005 to October 2007, with a sample of 2940 individuals ages 36 to 55 in three different industrial cities of northeast China. Data were collected on QOL status and sociodemographic characteristics. QOL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (Chinese version). Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze association between sociodemographic variables and QOL. Results The scores for QOL in the neo-poverty group were higher than those in the traditional poverty group, but lower than those in the general population. When the neo-poverty population was divided into two subgroups by age, 36–45 years and 46–55 years, the differences in QOL scores were not significant. However, there were significant differences in several dimensions between two subgroups according to unemployment time (<5 years and >5 years). Additionally, stepwise regression analysis indicated that disease burden, including disease and medical expenditures, was a common risk factor for declining QOL in the neo-poverty group. Conclusions Despite some limitations, this study provides initial evidence that the QOL of the urban neo-poverty population lies between that of the general population and traditional poverty. QOL of the neo-poverty group approached QOL of the traditional poverty group with increased unemployment years. In addition to decreased income, disease burden is the most important factor influencing QOL status in urban neo-poverty. PMID:22719968

Ou, Fengrong; Li, Kai; Gao, Qian; Liu, Dan; Li, Jinghai; Hu, Liwen; Wu, Xian; Edmiston, E. Kale; Liu, Yang

2012-01-01

10

Cooperative Russian Federation -United States Near-Earth Object (NEO) Observation Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 15, 2013, an asteroid exploded in the atmosphere near Chelyabinsk, Russia, causing significant damage and concern. Following the Chelyabinsk event, scientists and government leaders in the Russian Federation and United States have highlighted the need for collaborative efforts to quantify and characterize the potential threat from a Near Earth Objects (NEO). This paper will explore the possibility of a collaborative Russian Federation - United States program to perform a survey mission and create mechanisms and protocols for sharing of data relating to NEO threats to our planet. The joint collaboration would focus on identifying capability improvements for NEO observations using current or future space-based and/or ground-based assets of the two countries. Another part of the effort would include improvements in Bolide reporting, to include the “real-time” characterization of a NEO entry.

Schnelzer, Garry; Marshall, James; Bottke, William; Andrews, John

11

Near Earth Object (NEO) Mitigation Options Using Exploration Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work documents the advancements in MSFC threat modeling and mitigation technology research completed since our last major publication in this field. Most of the work enclosed here are refinements of our work documented in NASA TP-2004-213089. Very long development times from start of funding (10-20 years) can be expected for any mitigation system which suggests that delaying consideration of mitigation technologies could leave the Earth in an unprotected state for a significant period of time. Fortunately there is the potential for strong synergy between architecture requirements for some threat mitigators and crewed deep space exploration. Thus planetary defense has the potential to be integrated into the current U.S. space exploration effort. The number of possible options available for protection against the NEO threat was too numerous for them to all be addressed within the study; instead, a representative selection were modeled and evaluated. A summary of the major lessons learned during this study is presented, as are recommendations for future work.

Arnold William; Baysinger, Mike; Crane, Tracie; Capizzo, Pete; Sutherlin, Steven; Dankanich, John; Woodcock, Gordon; Edlin, George; Rushing, Johnny; Fabisinski, Leo; Jones, David; McKamey, Steve; Thomas, Scott; Maccone, Claudio; Matloff, Greg; Remo, John

2007-01-01

12

High Performance Ultra-light Nuclear Rockets for NEO (Near Earth Objects) Interaction Missions  

SciTech Connect

The performance capabilities and technology features of ultra compact nuclear thermal rockets based on very high power density ({approximately} 30 Megawatts per liter) fuel elements are described. Nuclear rockets appear particularly attractive for carrying out missions to investigate or intercept Near Earth Objects (NEOS) that potentially could impact on the Earth. Many of these NEO threats, whether asteroids or comets, have extremely high closing velocities, i.e., tens of kilometers per second relative to the Earth. Nuclear rockets using hydrogen propellant enable flight velocities 2 to 3 times those achievable with chemical rockets, allowing interaction with a potential NEO threat at a much shorter time, and at much greater range. Two versions of an ultra compact nuclear rocket based on very high heat transfer rates are described: the PBR (Particle Bed Reactor), which has undergone substantial hardware development effort, and MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) which is a design derivative of the PBR. Nominal performance capabilities for the PBR are: thermal power - 1000 MW thrust - 45,000 lbsf, and weight - 500 kg. For MITEE, nominal capabilities are: thermal power - 100 MW; thrust {approx} 4500 lbsf, and weight - 50 kg. Development of operational PBR/MITEE systems would enable spacecraft launched from LEO (Low Earth Orbit) to investigate intercept NEO`s at a range of {approximately} 100 million kilometers in times of {approximately} 30 days.

Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M. [Department of Advanced Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

13

Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program seeks to address the fundamental question: What are the relationships between asteroids, comets, and meteorites? To answer this question, we are studying the population of asteroids near the Earth which likely contain both asteroids and extinct comets and which is the immediate source for meteorites. An analysis of new and existing visible wavelength spectral data for more than 100 (Near-Earth Objects) NEOs, and Keck albedo data for more than 20 NEOs is underway. New asteroid-meteorite links are being found, the NEO population and hazard is being characterized, and the extinct comet component is being constrained. These results are contained within the following publication work during the current period: 1 book, 2 book chapters, 1 published paper, 2 papers submitted, 2 papers in preparation, 1 Ph. D. thesis in preparation, and 7 meeting abstracts/presentations.

Binzel, Richard P.

2003-01-01

14

ExploreNEOs. II. THE ACCURACY OF THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We report on results of observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as part of our ongoing (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ('ExploreNEOs'), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall accuracy of our survey results, which are based on a semi-empirical generalized model of asteroid thermal emission. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has been operated in the so-called Warm Spitzer mission phase since the cryogen was depleted in 2009 May, with the two shortest-wavelength channels, centered at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m, of the Infrared Array Camera continuing to provide valuable data. The set of some 170 NEOs in our current Warm Spitzer results catalog contains 28 for which published taxonomic classifications are available, and 14 for which relatively reliable published diameters and albedos are available. A comparison of the Warm Spitzer results with previously published results ('ground truth'), complemented by a Monte Carlo error analysis, indicates that the rms Warm Spitzer diameter and albedo errors are {+-}20% and {+-}50%, respectively. Cases in which agreement with results from the literature is worse than expected are highlighted and discussed; these include the potential spacecraft target 138911 2001 AE{sub 2}. We confirm that 1.4 appears to be an appropriate overall default value for the relative reflectance between the V band and the Warm Spitzer wavelengths, for use in correction of the Warm Spitzer fluxes for reflected solar radiation.

Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65 Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Obs. de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Ave. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: alan.harris@dlr.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-03-15

15

Neo: an object model for handling electrophysiology data in multiple formats.  

PubMed

Neuroscientists use many different software tools to acquire, analyze and visualize electrophysiological signals. However, incompatible data models and file formats make it difficult to exchange data between these tools. This reduces scientific productivity, renders potentially useful analysis methods inaccessible and impedes collaboration between labs. A common representation of the core data would improve interoperability and facilitate data-sharing. To that end, we propose here a language-independent object model, named "Neo," suitable for representing data acquired from electroencephalographic, intracellular, or extracellular recordings, or generated from simulations. As a concrete instantiation of this object model we have developed an open source implementation in the Python programming language. In addition to representing electrophysiology data in memory for the purposes of analysis and visualization, the Python implementation provides a set of input/output (IO) modules for reading/writing the data from/to a variety of commonly used file formats. Support is included for formats produced by most of the major manufacturers of electrophysiology recording equipment and also for more generic formats such as MATLAB. Data representation and data analysis are conceptually separate: it is easier to write robust analysis code if it is focused on analysis and relies on an underlying package to handle data representation. For that reason, and also to be as lightweight as possible, the Neo object model and the associated Python package are deliberately limited to representation of data, with no functions for data analysis or visualization. Software for neurophysiology data analysis and visualization built on top of Neo automatically gains the benefits of interoperability, easier data sharing and automatic format conversion; there is already a burgeoning ecosystem of such tools. We intend that Neo should become the standard basis for Python tools in neurophysiology. PMID:24600386

Garcia, Samuel; Guarino, Domenico; Jaillet, Florent; Jennings, Todd; Pröpper, Robert; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Rodgers, Chris C; Sobolev, Andrey; Wachtler, Thomas; Yger, Pierre; Davison, Andrew P

2014-01-01

16

Prevention sequence mechanisms (PSM) for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) based on a three parameter scheme based classification framework  

E-print Network

There is a significant amount of space debris from previous space endeavors left over by the Russians and the US, leave alone the possibility of collisions with Near Earth Objects (NEOs) like asteroids and comets. Currently, ...

Sahani, Rohan

2007-01-01

17

Debiased Orbital and Absolute Magnitude Distribution of the Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the near-Earth objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far, but also because the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which was fit to known NEOs

William F. Bottke Jr; Alessandro Morbidelli; Robert Jedicke; Jean-Marc Petit; Harold F. Levison; Patrick Michel; Travis S. Metcalfe

2002-01-01

18

Physical Characterization of the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many pieces of the puzzle must be brought together in order to have a clear picture of the near-Earth object (NEO) population. Four of the pieces that can be described include: i) the taxonomic distribution of the population as measured by observational sampling, ii) the determination of albedos that can be associated with the taxonomic distribution, iii) discovery statistics for the NE0 population, and iv) the debiasing of the discovery statistics using the taxonomic and albedo information. Support from this grant enables us to address three of these four pieces. Binzel et al. (2004, submitted) presents the first piece, detailing the observations and observed characteristics of the NE0 and Mars-crossing (MC) population. For the second piece, a complementary program of albedo measurements is pursued at the Keck Observatory (Binzel, P. I.) with first results published in Delbo et al. (2003). For the third piece, the most extensive NE0 discovery statistics are provided by the LINEAR survey. Binzel has supervised the MIT Ph. D. thesis work of Stuart (2003) to bring the fourth piece, submitted for publication by Stuart and Binzel (2004). Our results provide new constraints for the NE0 population and progress for the Spaceguard Survey, illuminate asteroid and comet source regions for the NEOs, and provide new evidence for space weathering processes linking asteroids and meteorites. Further, we are identifying top priority near-Earth spacecraft mission candidates based on their spectral properties and inferred compositions.

Binzel, Richard P.

2004-01-01

19

Exploring the Near Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a golden age for NEA research. We have discovered some 95% of the most threatening NEAs (those larger than 1 km, Mainzer et al. 2012), while ongoing surveys (e.g., Catalina Sky Survey) are finding many sub-km NEAs as well. NEA physical characterization studies by missions (e.g., NEARShoemaker), space-based telescopes (e.g., WISE), and ground-based observatories (e.g., Arecibo, IRTF), are also revolutionizing our ideas about what NEAs are actually like. The OSIRIS-REx mission will return a sample from Bennu, a carbonaceous chondrite-like NEO in 2020, while President Obama announced on April 15, 2010 that NASA would send astronauts to an NEA by 2025. The Feb. 15 explosion of an NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia, has further boosted interest in NEAs. In my talk, I will discuss several recent advances in our understanding of the NEO population (e.g, how they go from their source regions to their observed orbits; what we know about the size and nature of the population). I will give particular attention to candidates for robotic and human missions, namely those NEOs on near-Earth like orbits. Recent work has shown that a population of asteroids exists that have been temporarily captured in orbit around Earth ("minimoons"). They offer an innovative, but heretofore uninvestigated, population of targets for human exploration because of their proximity to the Earth and their low geocentric velocities. By better understanding them, we can test theories of the creation, internal structure, and transport of small asteroids. The largest minimoons in the steady state population are 1 to 2 meters in diameter, sizable enough to be both scientifically interesting and potentially suitable as destinations.

Bottke, W.

2013-09-01

20

The Population of Tiny Near-Earth Objects Observed by NEOWISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only a very small fraction of the asteroid population at size scales comparable to the object that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia has been discovered to date, and physical properties are poorly characterized. We present previously unreported detections of 105 close approaching near-Earth objects (NEOs) by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission's NEOWISE project. These infrared observations constrain physical properties such as diameter and albedo for these objects, many of which are found to be smaller than 100 m. Because these objects are intrinsically faint, they were detected by WISE during very close approaches to the Earth, often at large apparent on-sky velocities. We observe a trend of increasing albedo with decreasing size, but as this sample of NEOs was discovered by visible light surveys, it is likely that selection biases against finding small, dark NEOs influence this finding.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.; Nugent, C. R.; Stevenson, R.; Clyne, E.; Cukrov, G.; Masci, F.

2014-04-01

21

Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of NEOs: Characterization Of Targets Of The ExploreNEOs (Spitzer) Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to complement the ExploreNEOs program, we are characterizing surface compositions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (0.7 to 2.5 microns). The core ExploreNEOs program is an ambitious exploration of the history of near-Earth space using NASA's Spitzer space telescope. Currently in the middle of its two-year timeline, that ongoing project will ultimately observe 700 NEOs using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) in two photometric bands (3.6 and 4.5 microns). The proposed goals of the ExploreNEOs survey are to measure the size distribution of NEO population; to measure the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comet nuclei, with implications for the flux of organic material onto the Earth; to measure the albedo distribution of NEOs; and to study properties of individual NEOs, including their thermal properties and densities, and detailed properties of a subset of "ground-truth" objects. Whereas the Spitzer photometry will provide accurate estimates of size and albedo for most targets, albedo is only a general indicator of potential composition. NIR spectroscopy complements the Spitzer results by enabling direct determination of surface compositions. The NIR measurements thereby contribute to the overall goals of the ExploreNEOs program by allowing the team to assess the mix of mineralogies among NEOs and to infer the contributions from dead comets to the NEO population. NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is the main observatory used for the NIR spectral measurements. Of the ˜700 Spitzer targets, 127 are viewable and bright enough for spectroscopy with the IRTF. Thus far, we have obtained NIR spectra of 42 of the ExploreNEO targets. We will present these data along with compositional analysis.

Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Dave, R.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.

2010-10-01

22

Compositional Properties of Near-Earth Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-Earth object (NEO) population contains the immediate precursors to meteorites studied in our laboratories. All meteorites, by definition of their intersection with Earth, were NEOs prior to their arrival. Because NEOs have dynamical lifetimes that are short (due to collisions with the sun, planets, or ejection) compared with the age of the solar system, all currently observed asteroid-like NEOs

R. P. Binzel

2004-01-01

23

A New Model of the Near-Earth-Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a new near-Earth-object (NEO) model which describes the debiased orbit and absolute-magnitude distributions of these objects. The model is developed using the same basic approach as the so-called Bottke model [1]. We anticipate that the new model, planned to be finished by mid-2013, will be a substantial improvement over the decade-old Bottke model, because we use more realistic NEO source regions, more accurate orbital integrations, improved estimations of the observational bias, and about 40 times more known NEOs to calibrate the model.

Granvik, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bolin, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Beshore, E.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Michel, P.; Tsiganis, K.

2013-09-01

24

ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimals accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/?M > 60,000 up to m/z =400 u). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cm3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space, allowing to distinguish isomass compounds and to measure isotopomer abundances. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

Cottin, Hervé; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Thissen, R.

25

A New Population Model of the Orbits and Absolute Magnitudes of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a new near-Earth object (NEO) population model which incorporates debiased information of both orbits (semimajor axis a, eccentricity e, and inclination i) and absolute magnitudes H. The new model is an upgrade to the decade-old model by Bottke et al. (2002, Icarus 156). We use the same approach as Bottke et al.; we fit biased residence-time distributions in (a,e,i) space computed for various source populations and escape routes to the observed NEO population and solve for the relative weights of the different source populations as well as their absolute-magnitude distributions. The observational data for calibrating the model is provided by the Catalina and Mt Lemmon stations of the Catalina Sky Survey. The two stations have discovered or serendipitously detected some 2500 NEOs each from 2005 to 2012. We have computed the observational biases in (a,e,i,H) space for the two telescopes using their pointing history and their nightly detection efficiencies in apparent magnitude. Initial conditions for the orbital integrations used to build the residence-time probability distributions are produced by integrating the orbits of bright main-belt objects. We assume (i) that small km- and sub-km diameter asteroids have the same orbits and (ii) that they drift in semimajor axis via the Yarkovsky effect until they enter the NEO region or reach 100 Myr evolution time. The resulting residence-time distributions have a higher resolution and a more realistic inclination distribution than those used for the Bottke model. We have identified about 30 different source regions (or main-belt escape routes) and combine these into about 12 groups which we use for our model as compared to 5 in the Bottke model. The new model, valid for objects with 13 < H < 25, describes a wavy H distribution, which is consistent with predictions from recent observational work as well as the size distribution of young lunar craters. The debiased NEO orbital distribution (and source region predictions) are broadly consistent with Bottke et al., but some intriguing differences exist (e.g., a possible deficit of low perihelion NEOs).

Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, A.; Jedicke, R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bolin, B.; Beshore, E.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Michel, P.

2013-10-01

26

Methodology and Results of the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have been identified by the current administration as potential destinations for human explorers during the mid-2020s. While the close proximity of these objects' orbits to Earth's orbit creates a risk of highly damaging or catastrophic impacts, it also makes some of these objects particularly accessible to spacecraft departing Earth, and this presents unique opportunities for solar system science and humanity's first ventures beyond cislunar space. Planning such ambitious missions first requires the selection of potentially accessible targets from the growing population of nearly 7,800 NEAs. To accomplish this, NASA is conducting the Near-Earth Object (NEO) Human Space Flight (HSF) Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). Phase I of the NHATS was executed during September of 2010, and Phase II was completed by early March of 2011. The study is ongoing because previously undetected NEAs are being discovered constantly, which has motivated an effort to automate the analysis algorithms in order to provide continuous monitoring of NEA accessibility. The NHATS analysis process consists of a trajectory filter and a minimum maximum estimated size criterion. The trajectory filter employs the method of embedded trajectory grids to compute all possible ballistic round-trip mission trajectories to every NEA in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Small-Body Database (SBDB) and stores all solutions that satisfy the trajectory filter criteria. An NEA must offer at least one qualifying trajectory solution to pass the trajectory filter. The Phase II NHATS filter criteria were purposely chosen to be highly inclusive, requiring Earth departure date between January 1st, 2015 and December 31st, 2040, total round-trip flight time <= 450 days, stay time at the NEA >= 8 days, Earth departure C(sub 3) energy <= 60 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2), total mission delta-v <= 12 km/s (including an Earth departure maneuver from a 400 km altitude circular parking orbit), and a maximum atmospheric re-entry speed of 12 km/s. After determining which NEAs offer at least one trajectory solution meeting the criteria, the estimated size constraint is then imposed whereby those NEAs may only be considered NHATS- qualifying NEAs if their maximum estimated size is >= 30 m. This corresponds to an absolute magnitude H <= 26.5 with an assumed albedo p = 0:05. The following is a brief high-level summary of the Phase II study results. Of the 7,665 NEAs in the SBDB as of February 3rd, 2011, 765 NEAs passed the trajectory filter and yielded a total of 79,157,604 trajectory solutions. The trajectory solutions for each NEA are post-processed into Pork Chop Contour (PCC) plots which show total mission delta-v as a function of Earth departure date and total mission duration. Although the PCC plots necessarily compress a very multi-dimensional design space into a two-dimensional plot, they permit rapid assessment of the breadth and quality of an NEA's available Earth departure season and clearly indicate the regions of the trajectory design space which warrant further analysis and optimization. The PCC plot for the NEA with the greatest number of NHATS-qualifying trajectory solutions, 2000 SG-344, is shown. Of the 765 NEAs which passed the Phase II trajectory filter, a total of 590 NEAs also satisfied the further constraint of maximum estimated size >= 30 m. The distributions of osculating heliocentric orbital semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), and inclination (i), for those 590 NEAs are shown. Note that the semi-latus rectum used is equal to alpha (1-e(exp 2)). To further our understanding of round-trip trajectory accessibility dynamics, it is instructive to examine the distribution of the NHATS-Qualifying NEAs according to orbit classification. NEAs are grouped into four orbit families: Atiras (aphelion < 0.983 AU), Atens (aphelion > 0.983 AU, alpha < 1.0 AU), Apollos (perihelion < 1.017 AU, alpha > 1.0 AU), and Amors (1.017 < perihelion < 1.3 AU). Of the 765 NEAhich satisfied the NHATS trajectory criteria, none are

Barbee, Brent; Mink, Ronald; Adamo, Daniel

2011-01-01

27

Neo Rauch.  

E-print Network

??Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Neo Rauchs Malerei als eine postmoderne Form des Historienbildes vorzustellen, welches auf den inhomogenen Erfahrungsraum unserer heutigen Gesellschaft antwortet. Über… (more)

Damianitsch, Stephanie

2010-01-01

28

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 000--000 (0000) Printed 13 June 2001 (MN L A T E X style file v1.3) NEO velocity distributions and consequences for the  

E-print Network

.3) NEO velocity distributions and consequences for the Chicxulub impactor S.V. Jeffers 1;2 , S.P. Manley for various near­Earth object (NEO) populations. The resulting crater size distributions for the Earth and Moon are calculated by combining these distri­ butions with assumed NEO size distributions

29

The contribution of comets in Near-Earth Object and Main Belt populations and the role of collisions in the physical properties of members of these populations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The population of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) is composed of small bodies of various origins. Groundbased observational programs have been developed to perform their inventory and to determine their physical properties. However, these observations contain many biases and the total population of NEOs with diameters down to a few hundreds of meters has not been identified yet. In recent years, the main sources of NEOs have been characterized [1]. Most of these bodies come from the asteroid main belt and the Jupiter-family comets and their source regions are linked to transport mechanisms (mean motion and secular resonances, slow diffusion mechanisms) to the NEO-space. It has then been possible to construct a complete model of the steady-state orbital, size and albedo distribution of NEOs and to determine the level of contribution of each of their sources, including the contribution of Jupiter-family comets. However, nothing is known regarding the contribution of longperiod comets. Physical observations have been conducted in order to identify potential dormant or extinct comets among small bodies in the NEO population and to determine the fraction of "comet candidates within the total NEO population. Combining the results of these observations with our model of NEO population to evaluate source region probabilities [1], it was found that 8 +/- 5% of the total asteroid-like NEO population may have originated as comets from the outer Solar System [2]. In the population of Main Belt (MB) asteroids, three members are known to display transient comet-like physical characteristics, including prolonged periods of dust emission leading to the formation of radiation pressure-swept tails [3]. These physical properties are most naturally explained as the result of sub-limation of near-surface ice from what are, dynamically, mainbelt asteroids (hence the name "main-belt comets" (MBCs) or, equivalently "icy asteroids"). No pausible dynamical path to the asteroid belt from the cometary reservoirs in the Oort cloud or Kuiper belt has been established. Thus, we may have an unsuspected icy region closer to the Sun than expected. However, it has also been suggested that numerous comets may have been captured during a violent period of planetary orbital evolution in the early stages of our Solar System [4]. Most of these bodies experience collisions during their lifetime, which can either disrupt them or modify their physical properties. In particular, collisions are suspected to be the triggering mechanism for the activation of MBCs. Thus the collisional process needs a good understanding in order to determine its contribution in the evolution of these small bodies, as a function of their physical properties. We have recently made a major improvement in the simulations of a small body disruption by introducing a model of fragmentation of porous material which will allows us to study the impact process on cometary bodies [5]. Moreover, for bodies dominated by gravity, our simulations includes the explicit computation of the formation of aggregates during the gravitational reaccumulation of small fragments, allowing us to obtain information on their spin, the number of boulders composing them or lying on their surface, and their shape. We will present the first and preliminary results of this process taking as examples some asteroid families that we reproduced successfully with our previous simulations [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], and their possible implications on the properties of small bodies generated by a disruption. Such information can for instance be compared with data provided by the Japanese space mission Hayabusa of the asteroid Itokawa, a body now understood to be a fragment of a larger parent body. For the population of comets, improving our understanding of their collisional response can then allow us to better characterize their collisional evolution, lifetime and other properties [11] which can have some implications on their contribution in "asteroidal" populations. It is also clear that future s

Michel, P.

2008-09-01

30

Perpetuating neo-colonialism through population control: South Africa and the United States.  

PubMed

Third world women in the global economy are valuable as a cheap source of labor and as producers of additional cheap labor sources (children). This discussion focuses on the interrelationships between race, class, and gender bias in international population programs and the unequal power relationship between colonizers and the colonized. For example, USAID directs over 33% of its family planning (FP) service delivery funding and 50% of policy funds to Africa, and African women and women of color in general are blamed for their own poverty and underdevelopment. Madi Gray is cited as suggesting that African FP is the cure for "illegitimacy, misery in the ghettos, and rising crime." The paternalistic and racist population policies of the US are traced to a 1905 speech of President Theodore Roosevelt, who expressed concern about the Yankee stock being overwhelmed by immigrants, non-Whites, and the poor. In 1933, the US Birth Control Federation targeted Black women. Birth control and eugenic practices were integrated before the Second World War and shared the goal of reducing the immigrant and Black populations. The current South African equivalent to this situation is the White power rhetoric of "Black peril" which is said to threaten White power, safety, and profits. Structural changes in both the US and South Africa are creating large surplus labor pools comprised largely of Black Africans. When labor reserves are too large, poverty and underemployment are identified as the result of overpopulation. Unhealthy and unproved birth control technologies have been distributed to Africans while health care, economic resources, and social security have been neglected. Population control is used for selective population reduction. PMID:12286951

Kuumba, M B

1993-01-01

31

Orbitrap for ILMA: Ion Laser Mass Analyser. A Mass-Spectrometer for In-Situ Characterization of a Near Earth Object (NEO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like other small bodies of the Solar System, asteroids are the remnants of planet formation. Their compositions are inherited from the Solar Nebula at the time of planetesimal accretion into planets, 4.5 billion years ago. They are valuable objects to assess the physicochemical conditions prevailing at the time and place of their formation in the Solar Nebula. Among them, some are known to be rich in carbon and volatile species (including water), which suggests that they never underwent major heating and differentiation events. Their organic content is also of prime interest because the chemical evolution leading to life on Earth may have been initiated by the delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds into primitive oceans. For these reasons, several space missions are currently considered by ESA and JAXA for a sample return mission to a primitive carbonaceous Near-Earth Object (NEO): MARCO POLO, HAYABUZA 2, etc... Their goal is to characterize a NEO at multiple scales via in-situ measurements by a science payload onboard an orbiter and a lander, and to bring samples back to Earth. ILMA is a concept for a new generation high resolution mass spectrometer, proposed to be part of a lander payload for in situ science. This instrument will be a Fourier Transform ion trap mass spectrometer using Laser Desorption and Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) into a single platform. To this end, an Orbitrap mass analyser (developed by the Thermofisher Company) will be coupled to a laser source. The sample will be exposed to the laser beam producing desorbed ions which will be collected into the ion trap using the orbital trapping method. Ions will be stabilized in the trap by purely electrostatic quadro-logarithmic electrical fields and the detection undertaken by a non destructive measurement of the ion oscillation frequency inside the trap. Indeed, the trapped ions induce a periodic signal converted using Fourier Transform (FT) into an ultra-high mass resolution spectrum (M/DM > 60,000 up to m/z =400 amu). Moreover, ILMA is planned to become one of the lightest (metricconverterProductID2 kg2 kg), smallest (15x15x5 cmˆ3 without the electronic box) and low power consumption (around 9 Watts) mass spectrometer ever achieved for space. Therefore ILMA will constitute a significant progress compared to previous mass spectrometers in space. ILMA will be able to measure in situ chemical (mineral and organic) and isotopic compositions of the NEO, and should bring a new light of their astrobiological relevance for the study of the origin of life on Earth.

Thissen, Roland; Thissen, R.; Arezki, B.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Briois, C.; Carrasco, N.; Gilbert, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krüger, H.; Makarov, A.; Pennanech, C.; Puget, P.; Quirico, E.; Szopa, C.; Thirkell, L.; Zapf, P.; Cottin, H.

32

(Not yet) Dead Comets in the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are replenished from a number of source regions in the asteroid main belt, but also from the comets. Most of the objects of cometary origin in the NEOs have ceased their activity, making these 'dead comets' nearly indistinguishable from low-albedo asteroids. Knowledge of the fraction of cometary NEOs is important to constrain the amount of cometary, carbonaceous material that has been brought to the Earth. We propose to observe 9 NEOs that are likely to be dead comets, for which we will derive diameters and albedos using thermal modeling. The measurement of the albedo provides evidence for a possibly cometary nature. The results of this project will contribute to constraining the fraction of NEOs that are of cometary origin. Furthermore, it will help investigating a possible relationship between dynamical properties and the albedo. In addition, high dynamic range (HDR) observations of 3 of our sample targets will be used to search for cometary activity in these objects. This method has been successful in NEO (3552) Don Quixote, where it revealed activity driven by CO2 gas. Our observations will be supported by ground-based optical observations that will improve the accuracy of the albedo measurements and perform an independent search for activity.

Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph; McMillan, Robert; Reach, William; Emery, Josh; Harris, Alan; Smith, Howard

2013-10-01

33

Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of NEOs: Characterization Of Targets Of The ExploreNEOs (Spitzer) Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to complement the ExploreNEOs program, we are characterizing surface compositions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (0.7 to 2.5 microns). The core ExploreNEOs program is an ambitious exploration of the history of near-Earth space using NASA's Spitzer space telescope. Currently in the middle of its two-year timeline, that ongoing project will ultimately observe 700 NEOs using

Joshua P. Emery; C. A. Thomas; D. E. Trilling; R. Dave; M. Delbo; M. Mueller

2010-01-01

34

Earth’s Nearest Neighbors: Dynamical integrations of NEO-Earth approaches in support of MANOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded large survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). In support of this telescopic survey, we are performing a suite of orbital integrations to investigate the dynamical evolution of the near-Earth asteroid population.Using orbital information from the Lowell Observatory AstOrb database and the swift orbital integration package, we compute the orbital history of every known NEO from present day to five hundred thousand years in the past. This orbital history is used to identify the temporal evolution of each NEO's minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) value, quantifying the physical distance between the orbits of a given NEO and that of a terrestrial planet. Due to the non-deterministic behavior of many NEO orbits beyond a few hundred years, these integrated MOIDs do not uniquely determine whether an NEO and a planet will actually encounter one another, bur rather provide a probabilistic metric for the proximity in which two objects can encounter one another. Integrated MOIDs can be a useful tool for correlating measured physical properties with high probabilities of planetary encounters (e.g. Binzel et al. 2010, Nature 463, 331).We will present the status of these orbital integrations. These integrations show a variety of dynamical histories, from objects that are stable over the integration limits to those that show chaotic behavior after approximately fifty to one hundred thousand years. These orbital integrations are being used to track the potentially hazardous object (PHA) population over time, to evaluate dynamical history for both specific objects and NEO sub-populations, and to estimate the evolution of NEO surface temperatures due to changing perihelion distances.

Endicott, Thomas; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard; Polishook, David; Burt, Brian

2014-11-01

35

A sensitive search for NEOs with the Dark Energy Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on preliminary results from the DECam NEO Survey. DECam (Dark Energy Camera) is a 520 Megapixel optical imager with a 3 square degree field of view on the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The combination of large field of view and 4 meter aperture yield an étendue that far surpasses those of previous NEO searches. Our goals are to obtain a census of NEOs down to a detection limit of V=23, to measure the size distribution of small NEOs, and to characterize the population of earth-crossing objects (ECOs). In this contribution we describe our 30-night survey, scheduled to begin in the 2014A semester and to extend over three "A" (northern hemisphere Spring) semesters. We present preliminary results based on our pilot project conducted in January and April of this year and which resulted in our submitting approximately 100,000 astrometric measurements to the Minor Planet Center (observatory code W84), approximately 1% of which are NEOs. Details of extensive simulations and data processing performed with the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS) can be found in a separate contribution (Burt et al.) at this meeting.

Allen, Lori; Trilling, D.; Burt, B.; Valdes, F.; Fuentes, C.; James, D.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.; Earle, A.; Herrera, D.; Brown, M.; Axelrod, T.

2013-10-01

36

Compositional Properties of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth object (NEO) population contains the immediate precursors to meteorites studied in our laboratories. All meteorites, by definition of their intersection with Earth, were NEOs prior to their arrival. Because NEOs have dynamical lifetimes that are short (due to collisions with the sun, planets, or ejection) compared with the age of the solar system, all currently observed asteroid-like NEOs must have been supplied from reservoirs of small bodies such as from the main-asteroid belt or from extinct short period comets. Thus NEOs are the nexus of our study of asteroid-comet-meteorite relationships. What's more, by virtue of their proximity NEOs are the smallest observable planetary bodies, thereby providing a challenge to our understanding of planetary processes in low gravity regimes. Their proximity allows detailed study by radar and also makes them among the most easily accessible solar system destinations for sample return missions, human exploration, and space resource utilization. The small, but non-zero chance of a hazardous impact over human lifetimes brings a further pragmatic reason for NEO studies as well. In this talk we will overview our current understanding of NEO compositions and their links to meteorites. A particular focus will be on new insights to likely processes of space weathering that appear to be highly dependent on the surface age or the ability of a surface to retain a regolith. The diversity of NEO compositions appears to match that of the main asteroid belt. Some signatures of specific main-belt asteroid source regions are recognizable within the NEO population. In addition, compositional and source region signatures of NEOs suggest that the cometary contribution to the NEO population may be somewhat larger than previously thought.

Binzel, R. P.

2004-05-01

37

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

of the classics, and a love poet of Ronsardian proportions. In a 1986 article (?The Poemata of Th?odore de B?ze,? in Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Sanctandreani: Proceedings of the Fifth Inter- NEO-LATIN NEWS 359 national Congress of Neo-Latin Studies, ed. Ian... of the classics, and a love poet of Ronsardian proportions. In a 1986 article (?The Poemata of Th?odore de B?ze,? in Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Sanctandreani: Proceedings of the Fifth Inter- NEO-LATIN NEWS 359 national Congress of Neo-Latin Studies, ed. Ian...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2003-01-01

38

High quality optical photometry of NEOs in support of a Warm Spitzer program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) may act as dynamical and compositional tracers of the history of near-Earth space. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population - such as the size distribution, mix of albedos and mineralogies, and contributions from so-called dead or dormant comets - remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have been awarded 500 hours of Warm Spitzer time to study ~700 NEOs. The Spitzer data will allow us to measure thermal fluxes and, in combination with optical data, derive albedos and diameters for a large fraction of all known NEOs. The primary uncertainty in our Spitzer results will derive from a lack of good optical photometry for our targets. We propose here a tightly focused program to obtain optical photometry of ~100 NEOs with a range of telescopes. These observations have been carefully planned to maximize efficiency and minimize demand on the largest telescopes, and are complemented by observations obtained elsewhere. The resulting photometry will enable our Warm Spitzer NEO science.

Trilling, David E.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Hora, Joseph L.; Penprase, Bryan; Emery, Joshua P.; Kistler, John L.; Spahr, Timothy B.

2010-02-01

39

Modelling and Formal Verification of the NEO Protocol  

E-print Network

Modelling and Formal Verification of the NEO Protocol Christine Choppy, Anna Dedova, Sami peer-to-peer transaction protocol, called NEO, was proposed. To ensure its effective operation that must be guaranteed by the system. Thus, our objective aims at verifying critical properties of the NEO

Evangelista, Sami

40

The NEOS server.  

SciTech Connect

The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an Internet based optimization service. The NEOS Server introduces a novel approach for solving optimization problems. Users of the NEOS Server submit a problem and their choice of optimization solver over the Internet. The NEOS Server computes all information (for example, derivatives and sparsity patterns) required by the solver, links the optimization problem with the solver, and returns a solution.

Czyzyk, J.; Mesnier, M. P.; More, J. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

1998-07-01

41

NEO search telescope in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese scientists have done many research works in this field of asteroid survey. In early 1960s, Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) began the observation of asteroid using a 40 cm double-tube reflecting telescope and found more than one thousand new asteroids during the following decades. The Schmidt CCD Asteroid Program (SCAP) of Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO) was put in practice in 1995. And 575 asteroids were found by SCAP, which was the 1st place in the world at that time. NEOs possess great threaten to near-Earth environment by close approaching to Earth or even impacting with the Earth. After the event of comet SL9 impacting on Jupiter, Chinese promised to build a NEO Search Telescope to take part in the international NEO joint survey. It is a 1.0/1.2 m Schmidt telescope with 4K×4K shift scanning CCD detector. Its scientific objective s, its parameters and the observation station will be described.

Ma, Yuehua; Zhao, Haibin; Yao, Dazhi

2007-05-01

42

Evolution of NEO rotation rates due to close encounters with Earth and Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the statistical effect of planetary flybys on the rotation rates and states of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Our approach combines numerical and analytical methods within a Monte Carlo model that simulates the evolution of the NEO spin rates. We take as input for the simulation a source distribution of spin states and evolve it to find their steady state distribution. In performing this evolution we track the changes in the spin rate and state distribution for the different components of the NEO population. We show that the cumulative effect of planetary encounters is to spin up the overall population of NEOs. This spin up effect holds on average only, and particular members of the population may experience an overall decrease in rotation rate. This effect is clearly seen across all components of the NEO population and is significant both statistically and physically. For initially slow rotators the spin up effect is strong, lowering the mean rotation period by 32%. For faster rotating populations the effect is less, lowering the spin period by 15% for the intermediate case, 6% for fast rotating rubble piles, and 8% for fast rotating monoliths. Physically, the spin up effect pushes 1% of the fast rotating rubble-pile NEOs over the disruption limit, while 6% of these bodies experience a sub-disruption event that could modify their physical structure. For monolithic NEOs, the spin up effect is self-limiting, reaching a minimum spin period of 1.1 hr, with a strong cut-off between 2-3 hr. This has two implications. First, it may not be necessary to invoke the rubble-pile hypothesis to recover a cut-off in spin period. Second, it shows that planetary flybys cannot account for the extremely rapid rotation rates of some small NEOs. We also tested a different balance between the effects of Earth and Venus by treating the Aten sub-class of asteroids separately. Due to increased interactions with the planets, the spin up effect is more pronounced (10%) and disruptions increase by a factor of three. The slow rotation tails of the spin distributions are increased to longer periods, in general, with rotation periods of over 100 hr occurring for a few tenths of a percent for some component populations. Thus, this mechanism may account for some of the noted excess in slow rotators among the NEOs. Planetary flybys also cause NEOs to enter a tumbling state, with approximately 0.5% of the population being placed into a long-axis rotation mode. Finally, based on the evolution of spin states of different components of the NEO population, we compared the evolved states with the measured distribution of NEOs to estimate the relative populations of these components that comprise the NEOs.

Scheeres, D. J.; Marzari, F.; Rossi, A.

2004-08-01

43

NEO Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the first generation near-Earth Object (NEO) search efforts closing in upon the goal of finding 90% of the NEOs larger than one km by the end of 2008, a number of studies have addressed the next generation search goal to find 90% of the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) larger than 140 meters by the end of 2020. Future large aperture, deep search surveys will need to focus their efforts upon the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) rather than the close Earth approaching comets or the more numerous, but far less dangerous, near-Earth asteroids. These surveys will also need to carry out their own follow-up observations and develop automatic data processing and storage systems capable of handling about 50 times the current data flow. Risk evaluation systems (SENTRY, NEODyS) will need to deal with several times the current rate of Earth close approach scenarios and the public will need to get used to a tenfold increase in warnings where a future Earth impact cannot be immediately ruled out. When added to optical astrometry of recently discovered PHAs, critical radar astrometry from Arecibo and/or Goldstone can immediately secure their orbits and allow accurate orbital extrapolations to be carried out for decades. With an approximate 1% chance of an actual catastrophic impact by an asteroid 140 meters or larger in the next 50 years, physical characterizations of a representative sample of different asteroid types will be necessary and guidelines and viable techniques will need to be investigated for mitigation - a task made difficult by the enormous diversity of asteroid structures, sizes, shapes, spin states, compositions and multiplicities.

Yeomans, Donald K.

2007-10-01

44

For how long is a NEO survey blind with respect to small impactors?  

E-print Network

In the framework of the European Space Situational Awareness program, we considered a network of telescopes capable of scanning all the observable sky each night, in order to determine the efficiency of discovering Near-Earth objects (NEOs) in the size range of the Tunguska-like asteroids, from 160 m down to 10 m. In the present paper we measure the performances of the proposed survey in terms of the time needed to discover with a reasonable advance at least 50% of the impactors in the considered population. Our results suggest that the studied survey would be a significant addition to the current NEO discovery efforts.

Farnocchia, D; Valsecchi, G B

2011-01-01

45

Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

2011-01-01

46

NEO-RIEMANNIAN Z12,  

E-print Network

: NEO-RIEMANNIAN : , , 20 µ 2013 #12; µ µ µµ µ µ µ. µ µ Z12, µ µ µ: neo-Riemannian µ, µ µ . µ , µ µ, - µ neo-Riemannian µ µ . µ µ µ neo-Riemannian µ µ µ µ . µ - µ, µ µ µµ. This thesis

Lambropoulou, Sofia

47

Earth and space-based NEO survey simulations: prospects for achieving the Spaceguard Goal  

E-print Network

Earth and space-based NEO survey simulations: prospects for achieving the Spaceguard Goal Robert and absolute magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) to simulate the performance of asteroid for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) greater than 1 km diameter by 2008 is impossible given contemporary surveying

Bottke, William F.

48

Neo: learning conceptual knowledge by sensorimotor interaction with an environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in philosophy, linguistics, developmentalpsychology and artificial intelligence make itpossible to envision a developmental path for an artificialagent, grounded in activity-based sensorimotorrepresentations. This paper describes how Neo, an artificialagent, learns concepts by interacting with itssimulated environment. Relatively little prior structureis required to learn fairly accurate representationsof objects, activities, locations and other aspects ofNeo's...

Paul R. Cohen; Marc S. Atkin; Tim Oates; Carole R. Beal

1997-01-01

49

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

in the chapter which serves neo-latin news 239 as an introduction to the poems; in the commentary section, the writer gets back to several questions with further details. Ecloga prima, printed in 1599 in Hamburg, was written on the death of Birgitta... in the chapter which serves neo-latin news 239 as an introduction to the poems; in the commentary section, the writer gets back to several questions with further details. Ecloga prima, printed in 1599 in Hamburg, was written on the death of Birgitta...

Kallendorf, Craig et al

2009-01-01

50

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

?ze as an influential contemporary of the Pl?iade, a humanist admirer of the classics, and a love poet of Ronsardian proportions. In a 1986 article (?The Poemata of Th?odore de B?ze,? in Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Sanctandreani: Proceedings of the Fifth International...?ze as an influential contemporary of the Pl?iade, a humanist admirer of the classics, and a love poet of Ronsardian proportions. In a 1986 article (?The Poemata of Th?odore de B?ze,? in Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Sanctandreani: Proceedings of the Fifth International...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2003-01-01

51

Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

Moore, C. T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.

2005-01-01

52

Capturing Near Earth Objects  

E-print Network

Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small increase in its velocity. From the point of view of the Sun-Earth-NEO restricted three-body system, it is possible for an NEO whose Jacobian constant is slightly lower than C1 and higher than C3 to be temporarily captured by Earth. When such an NEO approaches Earth, it is possible to change its orbit energy to close up the zero velocity surface of the three-body system at point L1 and make the NEO become a small satellite of the Earth. Some such NEOs were found; the best example only required a 410m/s increase in velocit...

Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng; 10.1088/1674-4527/10/6/008

2011-01-01

53

Neo-allopatry and rapid reproductive isolation.  

PubMed

Over the past 3 centuries, many species have been dispersed beyond their natural geographic limits by humans, but to our knowledge, reproductive isolation has not been demonstrated for such neo-allopatric species. We grew seeds from three species of Centaurea (Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa, and Centaurea sulphurea) that are native to Spain and have been introduced into California, and we tested to what extent seed production was affected by pollen source. Compared with within-population crosses, seed production decreased by 52% and 44%, respectively, when C. solstitialis and C. sulphurea from California were pollinated with conspecific pollen from native populations in Spain. This implies rapid evolution of reproductive isolation between populations in their native and nonnative ranges. Whether reproductive isolation has evolved following the introduction of other species is unknown, but additional cases are likely, considering the large number of neo-allopatric species. PMID:22976015

Montesinos, Daniel; Santiago, Gilberto; Callaway, Ragan M

2012-10-01

54

Exploration-driven NEO Detection Requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vision for Space Exploration calls for use of in situ resources to support human solar system exploration goals. Focus has been on potential lunar polar ice, Martian subsurface water and resource extraction from Phobos. Near-earth objects (NEOs) offer easily accessible targets that may represent a critical component to achieving sustainable human operations, in particular small, newly discovered asteroids within a specified dynamical range having requisite composition and frequency. A minimum size requirement is estimated assuming CONOPs has an NEO harvester on station at L1. When the NEO launch window opens, the vehicle departs, rendezvousing within 30 days. Mining and processing operations ( 60 days) produces dirty water for the return trip ( 30 days) to L1 for final refinement into propellants. A market for propellant at L1 is estimated to be 700 mT /year: 250 mT for Mars missions, 100 mT for GTO services (Blair et al. 2002), 50 mT for L1 to lunar surface services, and 300 mT for bringing NEO-derived propellants to L1. Assuming an appropriate NEO has 5% recoverable water, exploited with 50% efficiency, 23000 mT/year must be processed. At 1500 kg/m3, this corresponds to one object per year with a radius of 15 meters, or two 5 m radius objects per month, of which it is estimated there are 10000 having delta-v < 4.2 km/s and 200/year of these available for short roundtrip missions to meet resource requirements (Jones et al. 2002). The importance of these potential resource objects should drive a requirement that next generation NEO detection systems (e.g., Pan-STARRS/LSST) be capable by 2010 of detecting dark NEOs fainter than V=24, allowing for identification 3 months before closest approach. Blair et al. 2002. Final Report to NASA Exploration Team, December 20, 2002. Jones et al. 2002. ASP Conf. Series Vol. 202 (M. Sykes, Ed.), pp. 141-154.

Head, J. N.; Sykes, M. V.

2005-12-01

55

Semirealism or Neo-Aristotelianism? Stathis Psillos  

E-print Network

Semirealism or Neo-Aristotelianism? Stathis Psillos Received: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 15, science is consistent with both neo- Aristotelianism and neo-Humeanism. But, along with many others, he thinks that a neo-Aristotelian outlook best suits science. In other words, neo

Chakravartty, Anjan

56

Irish Astr. J., 23(2), 151156, (1996) N. W. HARRIS & M. E. BAILEY THE COMETARY COMPONENT OF THE NEAREARTH OBJECT  

E-print Network

OF THE NEAR­EARTH OBJECT POPULATION N. W. HARRIS & M. E. BAILEY Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG email: nwh@star.arm.ac.uk, meb@star.arm.ac.uk ABSTRACT. The problem of the origin of Near­Earth of the rate of injection of NEOs from the main asteroid belt. 1. NEAR­EARTH OBJECTS Near­Earth Objects (NEOs

57

EXPLORENEOs. I. DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER NEAR-EARTH OBJECT SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We have begun the ExploreNEOs project in which we observe some 700 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its Warm Spitzer mode. From these measurements and catalog optical photometry we derive albedos and diameters of the observed targets. The overall goal of our ExploreNEOs program is to study the history of near-Earth space by deriving the physical properties of a large number of NEOs. In this paper, we describe both the scientific and technical construction of our ExploreNEOs program. We present our observational, photometric, and thermal modeling techniques. We present results from the first 101 targets observed in this program. We find that the distribution of albedos in this first sample is quite broad, probably indicating a wide range of compositions within the NEO population. Many objects smaller than 1 km have high albedos ({approx}>0.35), but few objects larger than 1 km have high albedos. This result is consistent with the idea that these larger objects are collisionally older, and therefore possess surfaces that are more space weathered and therefore darker, or are not subject to other surface rejuvenating events as frequently as smaller NEOs.

Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Mueller, M.; Delbo, M. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Harris, A. W. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 North College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: david.trilling@nau.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-09-15

58

MCDOWELLIAN NEO-MOOREANISM Duncan Pritchard  

E-print Network

1 MCDOWELLIAN NEO-MOOREANISM Duncan Pritchard University of Stirling ABSTRACT. It is claimed construals of neo-Mooreanism. I here evaluate the prospects for a McDowellian neo-Mooreanism and, in doing so

Edinburgh, University of

59

Report warns of NEO impact threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stating that potential Near Earth Object (NEOs) impacts to the Earth “represent a significant risk to human and other forms of life,” a new study prepared for the United Kingdom's Ministry of Science urges national and international steps to improve knowledge about these objects and the confirmation of potential hazards, and to consider issues such as disaster management, mitigation including possible deflection of objects, and outreach to the general public.“Means now exist to mitigate the consequences of such impacts to the human species,“ notes the September 18 report of the Task Force on Potentially Hazardous Near Earth Objects.

Showstack, Randy

60

Properties and evolution of NEO families created by tidal disruption at Earth  

E-print Network

We have calculated the coherence and detectable lifetimes of synthetic near-Earth object (NEO) families created by catastrophic disruption of a progenitor as it suffers a very close Earth approach. The closest or slowest approaches yield the most violent `s-class' disruption events. We found that the average slope of the absolute magnitude (H) distribution, $N(H)\\propto10^{(0.55\\pm0.04)\\,H}$, for the fragments in the s-class families is steeper than the slope of the NEO population \\citep{mainzer2011} in the same size range. The families remain coherent as statistically significant clusters of orbits within the NEO population for an average of $\\bar\\tau_c = (14.7\\pm0.6)\\times10^3$ years after disruption. The s-class families are detectable with the techniques developed by \\citet{fu2005} and \\citet{Schunova2012} for an average duration ($\\bar\\tau_{det}$) ranging from about 2,000 to about 12,000 years for progenitors in the absolute magnitude ($H_p$) range from 20 to 13 corresponding to diameters in the range fr...

Schunová, Eva; Walsh, Kevin J; Granvik, Mikael; Wainscoat, Richard J; Haghighipour, Nader

2014-01-01

61

EUCLIDEAN SHIFT-TWIST SYMMETRY IN POPULATION MODELS OF SELF-ALIGNING OBJECTS  

E-print Network

EUCLIDEAN SHIFT-TWIST SYMMETRY IN POPULATION MODELS OF SELF-ALIGNING OBJECTS PAUL C. BRESSLOFF SIAM­1690 Abstract. We consider the symmetry properties of a general class of nonlocal population models describing words. cell alignment, actin cytoskeleton, animal aggregation, Euclidean symmetry, self- organization

Bressloff, Paul C

62

The Undiscovered Country: How Many Low-Delta-V Near-Earth Objects Remain to be Found?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low delta-v near-Earth objects (NEOs) are of great interest as targets for science and human missions, for possible retrieval to cis-lunar space and as potential resource targets for both exploration and commercial uses. This interest stems from the exponential nature of the rocket equation that imposes a harsh mass penalty on any mission to a higher delta-v. We have compared the known NEO population from the IAU Minor Planet Center (MPC) with the NEOSSat-1 model residence times for the NEO population (Greenstreet & Gladman, 2012) to assess how many undiscovered NEOs there are as a function of H magnitude and delta-v. We find that the median of known NEOs is at lower delta-v (7.3 km/s) than the model population (9.8 km/s), suggesting a bias toward detecting lower delta-v NEOs. To the precision of our data, which is as low as 40% for the 300-500 m diameter (D) objects, the bulk of the larger D>300 m NEOs have been found from delta-v<10.3 km/s. However in the 50 < D < 300 m range there are tens of thousands of delta-v < 10.3 km/s to be found. We examine the total number of undiscovered NEOs as a function of delta-v and find that to find at least 100 now unknown NEOs requires a threshold delta-v of 5.7 km/s, while to find at least 1000 of them requires a threshold delta-v of 6.2 km/s. These numbers can be used to determine mission delta-v requirements for a given number of suitable targets, that will likely be restricted by other criteria (size, composition, spin state) to a few percent of the total population.

Elvis, Martin; Ranjan, Sukrit; Galache, Jose Luis

2014-11-01

63

Earth and space-based NEO survey simulations: prospects for achieving the spaceguard goal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used an improved model of the orbit and absolute magnitude distribution of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) to simulate the performance of asteroid surveys. Our results support general conclusions of previous studies using preliminary Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) orbit and magnitude distributions and suggest that meeting the Spaceguard Goal of 90% completion for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) greater than

Robert Jedicke; Alessandro Morbidelli; Timothy Spahr; Jean-Marc Petit; William F. Bottke Jr

2003-01-01

64

Spacewatch Observations of Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have enhanced Spacewatch's (McMillan et al. 2007 IAU Symp. 236) astrometry and photometry of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). We specialize in follow-up of the Congressionally-mandated "large" NEOs (absolute mag H?22) as they recede from Earth after discovery and become fainter, as well as NEOs on impact risk pages, Potentially Hazardous Asteroids, and NEOs observed by WISE (Mainzer et al. 2012 ApJ 752, id 110). Spacewatch was the pre-eminent follower-up of NEOs discovered by WISE within 2 weeks of their discovery. We have observed at elongations as small as 46°. Follow-up on longer orbital arcs improves understanding of the statistics of the orbits and absolute magnitudes of the population as well as the recoverability of individual objects. The new CCD which we began operating on our 1.8-m telescope on 2011 Oct 16 makes 23rd mag asteroids more frequently accessible. Faster readout and smaller pixels yield 67% more observations of NEOs per year and astrometric residuals of ±0.3 arcsec, vs. ±0.6 arcsec on NEOs with the old CCD. To reach more distant objects with H?22, we now also use the Bok 2.3-meter telescope of Steward Observatory and the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4-m Mayall telescope. About 2800 tracklets of NEOs were accepted by the MPC from Spacewatch in the interval 2011 Jul 1 - 2012 Jun 30. The archive of images collected with our mosaic of CCDs on the 0.9-m telescope of Steward Observatory now approaches 15 TB in size and spans almost 10 years of uniformly conducted surveying. It contributes incidental followup astrometry and precoveries of NEOs. This work is funded by NASA/NEOO grants NNX11AB52G and NNX12AG11G, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. Spacewatch uses facilities of KPNO and services of the IAU’s Minor Planet Center.

McMillan, Robert S.; Bressi, T. H.; Scotti, J. V.; Larsen, J. A.; Perry, M. L.

2012-10-01

65

ObStruct: A Method to Objectively Analyse Factors Driving Population Structure Using Bayesian Ancestry Profiles  

PubMed Central

Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin) correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses. PMID:24416362

Gayevskiy, Velimir; Klaere, Steffen; Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

66

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

67

Multi-population Binary ant Colony Algorithm with Concrete Behaviors for multi-objective optimization problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at solving the drawbacks of the original binary ant colony algorithm on multi-objective optimization problems: easy to fall into the local optimization and difficult to get the Pareto optimal solutions, we proposed Multi-population Binary ant Colony Algorithm with Concrete Behaviors (MPBACB). The algorithm introduced multi-population method to ensure the globe optimization ability, and use environmental evaluation\\/reward model to improve

Ye Qing; Xiong Wei-Qing; Jiang Bao-chuan

2010-01-01

68

Neonectria castaneicola and Neo. rugulosa in Japan.  

PubMed

Differences between Neonectria castaneicola, which causes stem and perennial canker of trees, and Neo. rugulosa have not been clearly shown in previous studies. In this study these two species were compared in detail using 17 Japanese isolates consisting of 10 strains of Neo. castaneicola and seven of Neo. rugulosa. Four-spored asci were constantly found in Neo. castaneicola and this species produced larger ascospores and macroconidia than Neo. rugulosa which produced eight-spored asci. The mating system of Neo. castaneicola was homothallic while Neo. rugulosa was heterothallic. Characters in each species, such as the number of ascospores in an ascus and mating system, were constantly transferred to the 3rd generation. Molecular analysis revealed that the 10 isolates of Neo. castaneicola and seven of Neo. rugulosa were differentiated using rDNA sequence data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region. Moreover, Neo. castaneicola and Neo. rugulosa were separated into different clades. From these results, it was concluded that Neo. castaneicola should be maintained as an independent species, separate from Neo. rugulosa. The isolates of Neo. rugulosa used in this study were the first reported in Japan and found on Castanea crenata, Castanopsis sp., Myrica rubra and Quercus acutissima. PMID:16596957

Hirooka, Yuuri; Kobayashi, Takao; Natsuaki, Keiko T

2005-01-01

69

Depletion of the Near-Earth-Asteroid Population at Small Perihelion Distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of near-Earth objects (NEOs) eventually collide with the Sun. Recently it has also become evident that the intense thermal radiation close to the Sun is able to slowly erode asteroid surfaces. We show that this thermal fatigue has observable implications on a larger scale: population models describing NEO orbit and absolute magnitude distributions predict that there should be more objects on low-perihelion orbits than what is observed. This suggests that a significant fraction of all NEOs disrupt at small perihelion distances and can thus no longer be detected. The assumption that, on average, near-Earth asteroids disrupt at perihelion distances less than about 20 solar radii leads to a virtually perfect agreement between observations and theory that increasingly complicated NEO population models otherwise fail to achieve.

Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bottke, Bill; Bolin, Bryce; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Michel, Patrick

2014-11-01

70

Between the Moon and Mars: Piloted and surface operations at a NEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2006, NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) sponsored a study to examine the feasibility of sending a piloted Orion spacecraft to a near-Earth object (NEO - in the broadest definition these are small, primitive bodies that cross Earth's orbit; the most likely and suitable targets for the Orion are those NEOs in heliocentric orbits similar to Earth's). One of the

Rob R. Landis; David J. Korsmeyer; Paul A. Abell; Thomas D. Jones; Daniel R. Adamo

2009-01-01

71

Free to Manage? A Neo-Liberal Defence of Academic Freedom in British Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the rhetoric opposing managerialism in higher education can be ascribed to philosophical and political objections to the neo-liberal ideology which is alleged to underlie the phenomenon. This paper approaches managerialism from a different direction, addressing it within a neo-liberal framework. The paper argues that there is no intrinsic…

Miller, Brian

2014-01-01

72

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases,

J. R. Kasprzyk; P. M. Reed; B. R. Kirsch; G. W. Characklis

2009-01-01

73

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and

J. R. Kasprzyk; P. M. Reed; B. R. Kirsch; G. W. Characklis

2009-01-01

74

Neo-Fregeanism Reconsidered  

E-print Network

1. Platonism. Mathematical Platonism is the view that mathematical objects exist. Traditional Platonists believe that a world with no mathematical objects is consistent; subtle Platonists believe that such a world would ...

Rayo, Agustin

75

NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

2013-01-01

76

Neo-liberalisms in British politics.  

E-print Network

??This thesis reconsiders conceptualisations of neo-liberalism by challenging established economistic and ideologistic narratives of the unfolding of the neo-liberal project in Britain. Drawing on and… (more)

Byrne, Christopher

2014-01-01

77

neo finance UTS Internet Expenses User Guide  

E-print Network

neo finance UTS Internet Expenses User Guide Updated August 2010 #12;Page 2 of 27 INTRODUCTION This workbook is designed to provide you with an introduction to Neo (Oracle) Internet Expenses (UTS Internet@uts.edu.au If there is a system issue or you cannot log into Neo, you will need to contact Service Desk (ext2222). #12;Page 3

University of Technology, Sydney

78

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are essential to understanding the origin of the Solar System. Their relatively small sizes and complex dynamical histories make them excellent laboratories for studying ongoing Solar System processes. The proximity of NEOs to Earth makes them favorable targets for space missions. In addition, knowledge of their physical properties is crucial for impact hazard assessment. However, in spite of their importance to science, exploration, and planetary defense, a representative sample of physical characteristics for sub-km NEOs does not exist. Here we present the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS), a multi-year survey of sub-km NEOs that will provide a large, uniform catalog of physical properties (light curves + colors + spectra + astrometry), representing a 100-fold increase over the current level of NEO knowledge within this size range. This survey will ultimately characterize more than 300 mission-accessible NEOs across the visible and near-infrared ranges using telescopes in both the northern and southern hemispheres. MANOS has been awarded 24 nights per semester for the next three years on NOAO facilities including Gemini North and South, the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m, and the SOAR 4m. Additional telescopic assets available to our team include facilities at Lowell Observatory, the University of Hawaii 2.2m, NASA’s IRTF, and the Magellan 6.5m telescopes. Our focus on sub-km sizes and mission accessibility (dv < 7 km/s) is a novel approach to physical characterization studies and is possible through a regular cadence of observations designed to access newly discovered NEOs within days or weeks of first detection before they fade beyond observational limits. The resulting comprehensive catalog will inform global properties of the NEO population, advance scientific understanding of NEOs, produce essential data for robotic and spacecraft exploration, and develop a critical knowledge base to address the risk of NEO impacts. We intend to conduct this survey with complete transparency, publicly sharing our target lists and survey progress. We invite collaborative uses for these data as a way to broaden the scientific impact of this survey.

Abell, Paul; Moskovitz, N.; Trilling, D.; Thomas, C.; Willman, M.; Grundy, W.; Roe, H.; Christensen, E.; Person, M.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Endicott, T.; Busch, M.

2013-10-01

79

Evidence for Two Populations of Classical Transneptunian Objects: The Strong Inclination Dependence of Classical Binaries  

E-print Network

We have searched 101 Classical transneptunian objects for companions with the Hubble Space Telescope. Of these, at least 21 are binary. The heliocentric inclinations of the objects we observed range from 0.6-34 degrees. We find a very strong anticorrelation of binaries with inclination. Of the 58 targets that have inclinations of less than 5.5 degrees, 17 are binary, a binary fraction of 29 +7/-6%. All 17 are similar-brightness systems. On the contrary, only 4 of the 42 objects with inclinations greater than 5.5 degrees have satellites and only 1 of these is a similar-brightness binary. This striking dichotomy appears to agree with other indications that the low eccentricity, non-resonant Classical transneptunian objects include two overlapping populations with significantly different physical properties and dynamical histories.

Keith S. Noll; William M. Grundy; Denise C. Stephens; Harold F. Levison; Susan D. Kern

2007-11-09

80

Physics-Based Simulator for NEO Exploration Analysis & Modeling  

E-print Network

Laboratory (JPL) to explore potential surface and near-surface mission op- erations at Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The simulator is under development at JPL and can be used to provide detailed analysis the DSENDS spacecraft modeling tool available at JPL that has been previously used on such missions

81

University of Technology, Project neo  

E-print Network

University of Technology, Sydney Project neo How to set up Vacation Rules Creation Date: 22-Jan that is required is to update the existing rule and change the dates. NOTE: Users that are submitting should for the rule. - Enter both a valid Start and End Date for the new rule. (as below) 1 - Ensure the "Reassign

University of Technology, Sydney

82

Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s  

SciTech Connect

ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

1996-02-01

83

Multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering of microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-objective optimization (MOO) involves optimization problems with multiple objectives. Generally, theose objectives is used to estimate very different aspects of the solutions, and these aspects are often in conflict with each other. MOO first gets a Pareto set, and then looks for both commonality and systematic variations across the set. For the large-scale data sets, heuristic search algorithms such as EA combined with MOO techniques are ideal. Newly DNA microarray technology may study the transcriptional response of a complete genome to different experimental conditions and yield a lot of large-scale datasets. Biclustering technique can simultaneously cluster rows and columns of a dataset, and hlep to extract more accurate information from those datasets. Biclustering need optimize several conflicting objectives, and can be solved with MOO methods. As a heuristics-based optimization approach, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) simulate the movements of a bird flock finding food. The shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (SFL) is a population-based cooperative search metaphor combining the benefits of the local search of PSO and the global shuffled of information of the complex evolution technique. SFL is used to solve the optimization problems of the large-scale datasets. Results This paper integrates dynamic population strategy and shuffled frog-leaping algorithm into biclustering of microarray data, and proposes a novel multi-objective dynamic population shuffled frog-leaping biclustering (MODPSFLB) algorithm to mine maximum bicluesters from microarray data. Experimental results show that the proposed MODPSFLB algorithm can effectively find significant biological structures in terms of related biological processes, components and molecular functions. Conclusions The proposed MODPSFLB algorithm has good diversity and fast convergence of Pareto solutions and will become a powerful systematic functional analysis in genome research. PMID:22759615

2012-01-01

84

Reduced sequence variability on the Neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana.  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes are generally morphologically and functionally distinct, but the evolutionary forces that cause this differentiation are poorly understood. Drosophila americana americana was used in this study to examine one aspect of sex chromosome evolution, the degeneration of nonrecombining Y chromosomes. The primary X chromosome of D. a. americana is fused with a chromosomal element that was ancestrally an autosome, causing this homologous chromosomal pair to segregate with the sex chromosomes. Sequence variation at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Adh) gene was used to determine the pattern of nucleotide variation on the neo-sex chromosomes in natural populations. Sequences of Adh were obtained for neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana, and for Adh of D. a. texana, in which it is autosomal. No significant sequence differentiation is present between the neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes of D. a. americana or the autosomes of D. a. texana. There is a significantly lower level of sequence diversity on the neo-Y chromosome relative to the neo-X in D. a. americana. This reduction in variability on the neo-Y does not appear to have resulted from a selective sweep. Coalescent simulations of the evolutionary transition of an autosome into a Y chromosome indicate there may be a low level of recombination between the neo-X and neo-Y alleles of Adh and that the effective population size of this chromosome may have been reduced below the expected value of 25% of the autosomal effective size, possibly because of the effects of background selection or sexual selection. PMID:10471708

McAllister, B F; Charlesworth, B

1999-01-01

85

Sequence differentiation associated with an inversion on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes originate from pairs of autosomes that acquire controlling genes in the sex-determining cascade. Universal mechanisms apparently influence the evolution of sex chromosomes, because this chromosomal pair is characteristically heteromorphic in a broad range of organisms. To examine the pattern of initial differentiation between sex chromosomes, sequence analyses were performed on a pair of newly formed sex chromosomes in Drosophila americana. This species has neo-sex chromosomes as a result of a centromeric fusion between the X chromosome and an autosome. Sequences were analyzed from the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), big brain (bib), and timeless (tim) gene regions, which represent separate positions along this pair of neo-sex chromosomes. In the northwestern range of the species, the bib and Adh regions exhibit significant sequence differentiation for neo-X chromosomes relative to neo-Y chromosomes from the same geographic region and other chromosomal populations of D. americana. Furthermore, a nucleotide site defining a common haplotype in bib is shown to be associated with a paracentric inversion [In(4)ab] on the neo-X chromosome, and this inversion suppresses recombination between neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes. These observations are consistent with the inversion acting as a recombination modifier that suppresses exchange between these neo-sex chromosomes, as predicted by models of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:14668385

McAllister, Bryant F

2003-11-01

86

SMASS Near-Earth Object Survey: An Album of Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS) undertaken at MIT has produced and published visible spectra for more than 1300 main-belt asteroids. The infrared extension of this program (SMASSIR) has produced near-infrared spectra for about 200 main-belt asteroids. In this poster we present visible and near-infrared spectral results for more than 300 near-Earth objects (NEOs) measured during the SMASS and SMASSIR programs and through ongoing observations at Kitt Peak, Palomar, IRTF, and Magellan observatories. The scientific goals for this sample are to deduce the compositional distribution of the near-Earth object population. Knowledge of this distribution will allow the origin and relative hazard of the NEO population to be better understood and will provide the basis for gaining further insights to asteroid-meteorite and asteroid-comet relationships. While a portion of our NEO sample has been published, spectral measurements are newly presented here for more than 250 NEOs. All published SMASS spectra are available at our website http://smass.mit.edu/. These new near-Earth object spectra will also be made available at the SMASS website at the time they are submitted for publication.

Binzel, R. P.; Harris, A. W.; Bus, S. J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Burbine, T. H.

2003-01-01

87

The population of natural Earth satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have for the first time calculated the population characteristics of the Earth's irregular natural satellites (NESs) that are temporarily captured from the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. The steady-state NES size-frequency and residence-time distributions were determined under the dynamical influence of all the massive bodies in the Solar System (but mainly the Sun, Earth, and Moon) for NEOs of negligible mass. To this end, we compute the NES capture probability from the NEO population as a function of the latter's heliocentric orbital elements and combine those results with the current best estimates for the NEO size-frequency and orbital distribution. At any given time there should be at least one NES of 1-m diameter orbiting the Earth. The average temporarily-captured orbiter (TCO; an object that makes at least one revolution around the Earth in a co-rotating coordinate system) completes (2.88 ± 0.82) rev around the Earth during a capture event that lasts (286 ± 18) d. We find a small preference for capture events starting in either January or July. Our results are consistent with the single known natural TCO, 2006 RH120, a few-meter diameter object that was captured for about a year starting in June 2006. We estimate that about 0.1% of all meteors impacting the Earth were TCOs.

Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Jedicke, Robert

2012-03-01

88

The relationship between self-rated health and objective health status: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the public health field. However, whether SRH can reflect the objective health status is still debatable. We aim to reveal the relationship between SRH and objective health status in the general population. Methods We assessed the relationship between SRH and objective health status by examining the prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and some health-related factors in different SRH groups. Data were collected from 18,000 residents randomly sampled from the general population in five cities of China (3,600 in each city). SRH was assessed by a single-item health measure with five options: “very good,” “good,” “fair,” “bad,” and “very bad.” The differences in prevalence of diseases, laboratory parameters, and health-related factors between the “healthy” (very good plus good), “relatively healthy” (fair), and “unhealthy” (bad plus very bad) groups were examined. The odds ratios (ORs) referenced by the healthy group were calculated using logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of all diseases was associated with poorer SRH. The tendency was more prominent in cardio-cerebral vascular diseases, visual impairment, and mental illnesses with larger ORs. Residents with abnormalities in laboratory parameters tended to have poorer SRH, with ORs ranging from 1.62 (for triglyceride) to 3.48 (for hemoglobin among men) in a comparison of the unhealthy and healthy groups. Most of the health-related factors regarded as risks were associated with poorer SRH. Among them, life and work pressure, poor spiritual status, and poor quality of interpersonal relationships were the most significant factors. Conclusions SRH is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. PMID:23570559

2013-01-01

89

From Copenhagen to neo-Copenhagen interpretation  

E-print Network

Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism is demonstrated to yield a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

Willem M. de Muynck

2007-09-17

90

ExploreNEOs. III. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 65 POTENTIAL SPACECRAFT TARGET ASTEROIDS  

SciTech Connect

Space missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are being planned at all major space agencies, and recently a manned mission to an NEO was announced as a NASA goal. Efforts to find and select suitable targets (plus backup targets) are severely hampered by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of dynamically favorable NEOs. In particular, current mission scenarios tend to favor primitive low-albedo objects. For the vast majority of NEOs, the albedo is unknown. Here we report new constraints on the size and albedo of 65 NEOs with rendezvous {Delta}v <7 km s{sup -1}. Our results are based on thermal-IR flux data obtained in the framework of our ongoing (2009-2011) ExploreNEOs survey using NASA's 'Warm-Spitzer' space telescope. As of 2010 July 14, we have results for 293 objects in hand (including the 65 low-{Delta}v NEOs presented here); before the end of 2011, we expect to have measured the size and albedo of {approx}700 NEOs (including probably {approx}160 low-{Delta}v NEOs). While there are reasons to believe that primitive volatile-rich materials are universally low in albedo, the converse need not be true: the orbital evolution of some dark objects likely has caused them to lose their volatiles by coming too close to the Sun. For all our targets, we give the closest perihelion distance they are likely to have reached (using orbital integrations from Marchi et al. 2009) and corresponding upper limits on the past surface temperature. Low-{Delta}v objects for which both albedo and thermal history may suggest a primitive composition include (162998) 2001 SK162, (68372) 2001 PM9, and (100085) 1992 UY4.

Mueller, Michael; Delbo', M. [UNS-CNRS-Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 04 (France); Hora, J. L.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Bhattacharya, B. [NASA Herschel Science Center, Caltech, M/S 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bottke, W. F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chesley, S.; Mainzer, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, J. P. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1412 Circle Dr., Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, A. W.; Mommert, M. [DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Penprase, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, 610 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Stansberry, J. A., E-mail: michael.mueller@oca.eu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-04-15

91

Discovery of M class objects among the near-earth asteroid population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth-approaching asteroids 1986 DA and 1986 EB are found to belong to the M class of asteroids. These are the first of this class to be identified among the Aten, Apollo, and Amor populations. The inferred composition of the M class asteroids is primary metallic iron. If this is indeed the case, then current models for meteorite production based on strength-related collisional processes on asteroidal surfaces predict that these two objects alone should produce about 1% of all meteorite falls. The relative abundances of classes C, S, M, and "other" among the near-Earth asteroid population are remarkably similar to those found in the inner asteroid belt between the 3:1 and 5:2 resonances, i.e., between 2.50 and 2.82 AU. This dominating presence of the three major asteroid taxonomic classes among the Earth-approaching population argues strongly in favor of an asteroidal source for most such objects. This conclusion leads to the suggestion that "extinct" comet nuclei, if of a composition other than that found in the asteroid belt, are rare, if they exist at all.

Tedesco, E. F.; Gradie, J.

1987-03-01

92

NEO-related scientific and outreach activities at KLENOT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent times, there has been a noticeable increase in the interest for NEOs due to both discoveries of ground based telescopes/teams and satellite missions. In the light of these achievements the need for continuous follow-up astrometry in order to secure an orbit determination of the discovered bodies has risen. The Klet Observatory Near Earth and other Unusual Objects Observation Team and Telescope - project KLENOT - started in 2002. It is dedicated to confirmation, follow-up and recovery of NEOs. For this task 1.06-m KLENOT telescope equipped with high efficiency CCD is used. Since it was set in service in March 2002, a significant number of results have been obtained. For instance 10,000 positions were determined, more than 400 confirmations were made together with 17 recoveries and 104 measured Virtual Impactors. An important part of NEO discoveries is the discovery of comets. Therefore inseparable component of NEO follow-up consists in the detection of possible cometary features of newly discovered bodies and confirmation of Near Earth Comets (NEC). The next decade surveys will be determined by several aspects. At the first place, Pan-STARRS opens the question whether "classical" confirmation and early follow-up of newly discovered NEO candidates will be necessary by others. It is further discussed the need for possible changes in existing system of follow-up process. Consequently, the most important challenge for follow-up will become the NEOs which are in urgent need of astrometric positions determination over longer arc including Virtual Impactors, radar and mission targets. Finally, the observing strategies and obtained results of the KLENOT Project will be presented as well as future plans will be discussed.

Tichá, Jana; Tichý, Miloš; Ko?er, Michal

2007-05-01

93

The Population of Natural Earth Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first debiased size-frequency and orbit distributions for a steady-state population of temporary-captured, natural Earth satellites (NES) excluding the Moon. We use orbital integrations to estimate the capture probability as a function of orbital elements and utilize the steady-state near-Earth-object (NEO) model by Bottke et al. (2002) to estimate the steady-state population of NESs. For much of the

Mikael Granvik; J. Vaubaillon; R. Jedicke

2010-01-01

94

Orbit Options for an Orion-Class Spacecraft Mission to a Near-Earth Object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the recommendations of the Augustine Commission, President Obama has proposed a vision for U.S. human spaceflight in the post-Shuttle era which includes a manned mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). A 2006-2007 study commissioned by the Constellation Program Advanced Projects Office investigated the feasibility of sending a crewed Orion spacecraft to a NEO using different combinations of elements from the latest launch system architecture at that time. The study found a number of suitable mission targets in the database of known NEOs, and predicted that the number of candidate NEOs will continue to increase as more advanced observatories come online and execute more detailed surveys of the NEO population. The objective of this thesis is to pick up where the previous Constellation study left off by considering what orbit options are available for an Orion-class spacecraft upon arrival at a NEO. A model including multiple perturbations (solar radiation pressure, solar gravity, non-spherical mass distribution of the central body) to two-body dynamics is constructed to numerically integrate the motion of a satellite in close proximity to a small body in an elliptical orbit about the Sun. Analytical limits derived elsewhere in the literature for the thresholds on the size of the satellite orbit required to maintain stability in the presence of these perturbing forces are verified by the numerical model. Simulations about NEOs possessing various physical parameters (size, shape, rotation period) are then used to empirically develop general guidelines for establishing orbits of an Orion-class spacecraft about a NEO. It is found that an Orion-class spacecraft can orbit NEOs at any distance greater than the NEO surface height and less than the maximum semi-major axis allowed by the solar radiation pressure perturbation, provided that the ellipticity perturbation is sufficiently weak (this condition is met if the NEO is relatively round and/or has a long rotation period) for orbits falling below the minimum threshold for guarding against its effects. NEOs as small as approximately 20 m in diameter can be orbited by an Orion-class spacecraft, provided the rotation period is not too long (<30 hours) if the ellipticity perturbation is strong. There are cases of small, very slowly rotating NEOs that cannot be orbited by an Orion-class spacecraft at any distance, but generally these NEOs are required to have severely elongated shapes in order to maintain the strength of the ellipticity perturbation in spite of their longer rotation periods. Finally, terminator frozen orbits are found to be the best orbit option for a manned mission to a NEO, since their stability in the face of multiple perturbations provides an ideal platform for conducting scientific observations of the NEO and launching astronaut excursions to the NEO surface.

Shupe, Nathan C.

95

INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Stockton, Alan, E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.edu, E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-08-01

96

The utilization of neural nets in populating an object-oriented database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing NASA supported scientific data bases are usually developed, managed and populated in a tedious, error prone and self-limiting way in terms of what can be described in a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). The next generation Earth remote sensing platforms (i.e., Earth Observation System, (EOS), will be capable of generating data at a rate of over 300 Mbs per second from a suite of instruments designed for different applications. What is needed is an innovative approach that creates object-oriented databases that segment, characterize, catalog and are manageable in a domain-specific context and whose contents are available interactively and in near-real-time to the user community. Described here is work in progress that utilizes an artificial neural net approach to characterize satellite imagery of undefined objects into high-level data objects. The characterized data is then dynamically allocated to an object-oriented data base where it can be reviewed and assessed by a user. The definition, development, and evolution of the overall data system model are steps in the creation of an application-driven knowledge-based scientific information system.

Campbell, William J.; Hill, Scott E.; Cromp, Robert F.

1989-01-01

97

The NEO-FFI in Multiple Sclerosis: Internal Consistency, Factorial Validity and Correspondence Between Self and Informant Reports  

PubMed Central

Personality assessment is a potentially important component of clinical and empirical work with neurological patients because (1) individual differences in personality may be associated with different neurological outcomes and (2) central nervous system changes may give rise to alteration in personality. In order for personality assessment to be useful to clinicians and researchers, the tests must be reliable and valid, as self-report measures require certain baseline levels of comprehension and insight, both of which can be compromised by cerebral disease. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the widely used NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a group of 419 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to determine if the NEO-FFI is reliable and valid in this population. Results showed adequate estimates of internal consistency, factorial validity and self-informant correlation that support its use with MS patients. Implications, limitations of the current study and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20484711

Schwartz, Eben S.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H. B.

2010-01-01

98

Constraining population synthesis models via empirical binary compact object merger and supernovae rates  

E-print Network

The observed samples of supernovae (SN) and double compact objects (DCOs) provide several critical constraints on population-synthesis models: the parameters of these models must be carefully chosen to reproduce, among other factors, (i) the formation rates of double neutron star (NS-NS) binaries and of white dwarf-neutron star (WD-NS) binaries, estimated from binary samples, and (ii) the type II and Ib/c supernova rates. Even allowing for extremely conservative accounting of the uncertainties in observational and theoretical predictions, we find only a few plausible population synthesis models (roughly 9%) are consistent with DCO and SN rates empirically determined from observations. As a proof of concept, we describe the information that can be extracted about population synthesis models given such stringent observational tests, including surprisingly good agreement with the neutron star kick distributions inferred from pulsar proper-motion measurements. In the present study, we find that the current observational constraints favor: kicks described by a single Maxwellian with a typical velocity of about 300km/s; mass-loss fractions during non-conservative, but stable, mass transfer episodes of about 90%; and common envelope parameters of about 0.2-0.5. Finally, we use the subset of astrophysically consistent models to predict the rates at which black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) and NS-NS binaries merge in the Milky Way and the nearby Universe, assuming Milky-Way-like galaxies dominate. (Abridged)

R. O'Shaughnessy; C. Kim; V. Kalogera; K. Belczynski

2006-10-03

99

Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) - objectives and protocol.  

PubMed

Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

Odili, Augustine N; Ogedengbe, John O; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

2014-09-01

100

Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) – objectives and protocol  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing an epidemiological transition from a disease burden largely attributable to communicable diseases to that resulting from a combination of both communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases. Data on chronic disease incidence, lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors are sparse in this region. This report aimed at providing relevant information in respect to risk factors that increase blood pressure and lead to development of intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes. We presented the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the Nigerian Population Research on Environment, Gene and Health (NIPREGH) study. The challenges encountered in carrying out population study in this part of the world and the approaches at surmounting them were also presented. The preliminary data as at 20 November 2013 showed that out of the 205 individuals invited starting from early April 2013, 160 (72 women) consented and were enrolled; giving a response rate of 78%. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 80 years, with a mean (SD) of 39.8 (12.4) years and they were of 34 different ethnic groups spread over 24 states out of the 36 states that constitute Nigeria. The mean (SD) of office and home blood pressures were 113.0 (15.2) mm Hg systolic, 73.5 (12.5) mm Hg diastolic and 117.3 (15.0) mm Hg systolic, and 76.0 (9.6) mm Hg diastolic, respectively. Forty-three (26.8%) participants were hypertensive and 8 (5.0%) were diabetic. In addition to having the unique potential of recruiting a cohort that is a true representative of the entire Nigerian population, NIPREGH is feasible and the objectives realisable. PMID:25332707

Odili, Augustine N.; Ogedengbe, John O.; Nwegbu, Maxwell; Anumah, Felicia O.; Asala, Samuel; Staessen, Jan A

2014-01-01

101

NEOS server 4.0 administrative guide.  

SciTech Connect

The NEOS Server 4.0 provides a general Internet-based client/server as a link between users and software applications. The administrative guide covers the fundamental principals behind the operation of the NEOS Server, installation and trouble-shooting of the Server software, and implementation details of potential interest to a NEOS Server administrator. The guide also discusses making new software applications available through the Server, including areas of concern to remote solver administrators such as maintaining security, providing usage instructions, and enforcing reasonable restrictions on jobs. The administrative guide is intended both as an introduction to the NEOS Server and as a reference for use when running the Server.

Dolan, E. D.

2001-07-13

102

Managing population and drought risks using many-objective water portfolio planning under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study contributes a many-objective analysis of the tradeoffs associated with using the portfolio planning approach for managing the urban water supply risks posed by growing population demands and droughts. The analysis focuses on four supply portfolio strategies: (1) portfolios with permanent rights to reservoir inflows, (2) adaptive options contracts added to the permanent rights, (3) rights, options, and leases, and (4) rights, options, and leases subject to a critical reliability constraint used to represent a maximally risk averse case. The portfolio planning strategies were evaluated using a 10 year Monte Carlo simulation of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) within Texas. Our solution sets provide the tradeoff surfaces between portfolios' expected values for cost, cost variability, reliability, surplus water, frequency of using leases, and dropped (or unused) transfers of water. Using an additional severe drought scenario, this work shows that leases and options can reduce the potential for critical supply failures when urban supply systems must contend with unexpected and severe extremes in both demand and water scarcity. In summary, this paper contributes a framework that couples interactive visualization and many-objective optimization to innovate urban water portfolio planning under uncertainty. The many-objective analysis of the LRGV case study shows that effective water portfolio planning can simultaneously improve the costs, efficiency, and reliability of urban water supply while ensuring adaptability and resiliency to future changes.

Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

2009-12-01

103

The Size Distribution of Very Small Near Earth Objects As Measured by Warm Spitzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a pilot search for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with 84 hours of Warm Spitzer time in April, 2013. Results are obtained through a multi-step process: implanting synthetic objects in the Spitzer data stream; processing the Spitzer data; linking non-sidereal sources to form plausible orbits; validating candidates; determining orbits; and determining diameters through thermal modeling. Each of these steps is well-tested on both synthetic populations and real data. Through these steps, we expect to be able to constrain the NEO size distribution down to ~10 meters (at present, through ExploreNEOs and NEOWISE, the size distribution is well-known only to 100 meters). We will present results from this preliminary data and prospects for a large or very large survey that could be carried out in future cycles.

Trilling, David E.; Hora, J.; Burt, B.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J.; Fazio, G.; Fuentes, C.; Harris, A.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Smith, H.

2013-10-01

104

TAM: Explaining off-object fixations and central fixation tendencies as effects of population averaging during search  

PubMed Central

Understanding how patterns are selected for both recognition and action, in the form of an eye movement, is essential to understanding the mechanisms of visual search. It is argued that selecting a pattern for fixation is time consuming—requiring the pruning of a population of possible saccade vectors to isolate the specific movement to the potential target. To support this position, two experiments are reported showing evidence for off-object fixations, where fixations land between objects rather than directly on objects, and central fixations, where initial saccades land near the center of scenes. Both behaviors were modeled successfully using TAM (Target Acquisition Model; Zelinsky, 2008). TAM interprets these behaviors as expressions of population averaging occurring at different times during saccade target selection. A large population early during search results in the averaging of the entire scene and a central fixation; a smaller population later during search results in averaging between groups of objects and off-object fixations. PMID:22711998

Zelinsky, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

105

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

106

A Solar-Powered Near Earth Object Resource Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an offshoot of a project to study means of forming massive radiation- shielded structures using Near Earth Object (NEO) materials. The topic is the conceptual design of a solar-powered robotic craft to land on, attach to, and extract materials from, a typical NEO. A solar-powered trajectory to a candidate NEO is used to estimate requirements. A reconfigurable

Thilini Rangedera; Ravi Vanmali; Nilesh Shah; Waqar Zaidi; Narayanan Komerath

2005-01-01

107

Historicism and neo-Kantianism.  

PubMed

This article treats the conflict between historicism and neo-Kantianism in the late nineteenth century by a careful examination of the writings of Wilhelm Windelband, the leader of the Southwestern neo-Kantians. Historicism was a profound challenge to the fundamental principles of Kant's philosophy because it seemed to imply that there are no universal and necessary principles of science, ethics or aesthetics. Since all such principles are determined by their social and historical context, they differ with each culture and epoch. Windelband attempted to respond to the challenge of this relativism by either broadening Kantian principles, so that they could accommodate the results of historicism, or by reformulating Kantian principles, so that they were impregnable to historical change. The article examines both aspects of Windelband's strategy in some detail, noting the many changes and different formulations in his views. A final section considers some of the difficulties of Windelband's strategy and concludes that, despite its heroic efforts, it was a failure. PMID:19391374

Beiser, Fred

2008-12-01

108

Neo-Liberalism in Crisis? Educational Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until the global financial crisis, neo-liberalism had appeared invincible. This article examines the global rise of neo-liberalism and its impact on education, particularly its treatment of the social democratic ideal of equality. Drawing on examples from education and other socio-political factors, it considers whether the financial crisis is…

Small, David

2011-01-01

109

Morbidelli et al.: Origin and Evolution of Near-Earth Objects 409 Origin and Evolution of Near-Earth Objects  

E-print Network

and aphelion distance Q > 0.983 AU are usually called near-Earth objects (NEOs). It has long been debated whether the NEOs are mostly of asteroidal or cometary origin. With improved knowledge of resonant dynamics, it is now clear that the asteroid belt is capable of supplying most of the observed NEOs. Particular zones

Bottke, William F.

110

Optimization environments and the NEOS server  

SciTech Connect

The authors are interested in the development of problem-solving environments that simplify the formulation of optimization problems, and the access to computational resources. Once the problem has been formulated, the first step in solving an optimization problem in a typical computational environment is to identify and obtain the appropriate piece of optimization software. Once the software has been installed and tested in the local environment, the user must read the documentation and write code to define the optimization problem in the manner required by the software. Typically, Fortran or C code must be written to define the problem, compute function values and derivatives, and specify sparsity patterns. Finally, the user must debug, compile, link, and execute the code. The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an Internet-based service for optimization providing information, software, and problem-solving services for optimization. The main components of NEOS are the NEOS Guide and the NEOS Server. The current version of the NEOS Server is described in Section 2. The authors emphasize nonlinear optimization problems, but NEOS does handle linear and nonlinearly constrained optimization problems, and solvers for optimization problems subject to integer variables are being added. In Section 4 the authors begin to explore possible extensions to the NEOS Server by discussing the addition of solvers for global optimization problems. Section 5 discusses how a remote procedure call (RPC) interface to NEOS addresses some of the limitations of NEOS in the areas of security and usability. The detailed implementation of such an interface raises a number of questions, such as exactly how the RPC is implemented, what security or authentication approaches are used, and what techniques are used to improve the efficiency of the communication. They outline some of the issues in network computing that arise from the emerging style of computing used by NEOS.

Gropp, W.; More, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

1997-03-01

111

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant number NNX14AN82G (PI N. Moskovitz).

Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

2014-11-01

112

SUBSTELLAR OBJECTS IN NEARBY YOUNG CLUSTERS (SONYC). II. THE BROWN DWARF POPULATION OF {rho} OPHIUCHI  

SciTech Connect

SONYC-Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters-is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of brown dwarfs (BDs) down to masses below the deuterium-burning limit in nearby star-forming regions. In this second paper, we present results on the {approx}1 Myr old cluster {rho} Ophiuchi, combining our own deep optical- and near-infrared imaging using Subaru with photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the candidates selected from iJK{sub s} photometry, we have confirmed three-including a new BD with a mass close to the deuterium limit-as likely cluster members through low-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also identify 27 substellar candidates with mid-infrared excess consistent with disk emission, of which 16 are new and 11 are previously spectroscopically confirmed BDs. The high and variable extinction makes it difficult to obtain the complete substellar population in this region. However, current data suggest that its ratio of low-mass stars to BDs is similar to those reported for several other clusters, though higher than what was found for NGC 1333 in Scholz et al.

Geers, Vincent; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lee, Eve; Lafreniere, David [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Scholz, Alexander [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: vcgeers@astro.utoronto.ca [National Astronomical Observatory, Osawa 2-21-2, Mitaka, Tokyo 181 (Japan)

2011-01-01

113

Nasa s near earth object program office  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, NASA formed the Near-Earth Object Program Office at JPL to provide a focal point for NASA's efforts to discover and monitor the motions of asteroids and comets that can approach the Earth. This office was charged with 1.) facilitating communication between the near-Earth object (NEO) community and the public, 2.) helping coordinate the search efforts for NEOs, 3.)

D. Yeomans; A. Chamberlin; S. Chesley; P. Chodas; J. Giorgini; M. Keesey

2002-01-01

114

Law and Order on the Border in the Neo-colonial Antipodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of enclosure within borders and the segregation of populations who belong from those who do not are the foundations of the sovereignty of the modern state. Border control measures deployed in the neo-colonial antipodes that arise from such conceptions of territorial sovereignty and statism consequently bear many similarities to the disciplinary technologies of population control used around the

Kerry Carrington

115

LSST: Comprehensive NEO Detection, Characterization, and Orbits  

E-print Network

(Abridged) The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. Solar System mapping is one of the four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. In a continuous observing campaign of pairs of 15 second exposures of its 3,200 megapixel camera, LSST will cover the entire available sky every three nights in two photometric bands to a depth of V=25 per visit (two exposures), with exquisitely accurate astrometry and photometry. Over the proposed survey lifetime of 10 years, each sky location would be visited about 1000 times. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Equally important, due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. Detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from LSST site at Cerro Pachon, shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, by optimizing sky coverage, the ongoing simulations suggest that the LSST system, with its first light in 2013, can reach the Congressional mandate of cataloging 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by 2020.

Z. Ivezic; J. A. Tyson; M. Juric; J. Kubica; A. Connolly; F. Pierfederici; A. W. Harris; E. Bowell; the LSST Collaboration

2007-01-17

116

LSST: Comprehensive NEO detection, characterization, and orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) has Solar System mapping as one of its four key scientific design drivers, with emphasis on efficient Near-Earth Object (NEO) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) detection, orbit determination, and characterization. The baseline design satisfies strong constraints on the cadence of observations mandated by PHAs such as closely spaced pairs of observations to link different detections and short exposures to avoid trailing losses. Due to frequent repeat visits LSST will effectively provide its own follow-up to derive orbits for detected moving objects. We will describe detailed modeling of LSST operations, incorporating real historical weather and seeing data from Cerro Pachon in Chile, the LSST site, which shows that LSST using its baseline design cadence could find 90% of the PHAs with diameters larger than 250 m, and 75% of those greater than 140 m within ten years. However, simulations also show that LSST can reach the completeness of 90% of PHAs larger than 140m by optimizing observing cadence andextending the survey lifetime to 12 years. In addition to detecting and determining orbits for these PHAs, LSST will also provide valuable data on their physical characteristics through accurate color and variability measurements, which can be used to determine approximate taxonomical types, better size estimates by constraining albedos, rotation periods, and shape characteristics; thus constraining PHA properties relevant for risk mitigation strategies.

Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne

2014-11-01

117

Thermal Studies of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this proposal, we seek to apply the optical/thermal method to the measurement of the diameters and albedos of a large sample of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Whereas main-belt asteroids have been studied in large numbers, principally using thermal detections from the IRAS satellite, relatively few thermal observations of NEOs have been secured. This program capitalizes on our access to large telescopes and imaging thermal IR detectors in pursuit of the definitive set of albedo data on the NEOs.

Jewitt, David

2003-01-01

118

Neo-Griceanism -modified Gricean accounts (usually in  

E-print Network

Neo-Griceanism - modified Gricean accounts (usually in number and form of maxims or principles­632. Oxford: Blackwell. Received view - Neo-Gricean accounts are associated with the Default model, Relevance approach per se that forces the Neo-Gricean to Defaultism - some Neo-Gricean accounts are clearly

DeAngelis, Gregory

119

Creating Difference: NeoLiberalism, Neo-Conservatism and the Politics of Educational Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article raises questions about current educational reform efforts now underway in a number of nations. Research from a number of countries is used to document some of the hidden differential effects of two connected strategies—neo-liberal inspired market proposals and neo-liberal, neo-conservative, and middle class managerial inspired regulatory proposals, including national curricula and national testing. This article describes how different

Michael W. Apple

2004-01-01

120

Ultra-low delta-v objects and the human exploration of asteroids  

E-print Network

Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new ‘Flexible Path’ approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ...

Elvis, Martin

121

Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

Morrison, David

2007-10-01

122

NERO: General concept of a NEO radiometric observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NERO (Near-Earth Objects Radiometric Observatory) is one of the six studies for possible missions dedicated to near-Earth objects, that were funded by the ESA in 2002-2003. NERO is a further development of previous studies already submitted to ESA (Sysiphos,Spaceguard-1). The general concept is that a small satellite equipped with both a CCD for visible wavelengths and an array for thermal IR measurements around 10 microns would be an ideal platform for simultaneously obtaining two of the major objectives of current NEO science, namely the physical characterization of the objects and the discovery of NEOs which are difficult to detect because they have orbits entirely or partly interior to the Earth's orbit. The NERO study included a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of different orbital options for the satellite (including L2 of Earth and L2 of Venus) and a preliminary simulation of the effectiveness in deriving reliable orbits of the newly detected objects. The main results of this study, including also a preliminary design of the payload (optics, detectors, cooling system, etc.) are briefly summarized.

Cellino, A.; Somma, R.; Tommasi, L.; Paolinetti, R.; Muinonen, K.; Virtanen, J.; Tedesco, E. F.

123

Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

Academic Medicine, 1999

1999-01-01

124

Marco Polo, a JAXA-ESA sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO). It is proposed to be performed in collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA). Both JAXA and ESA are currently performing Phase-A studies for this mission; within ESA, the mission is studied as part of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. The main objective of the mission is to return unmodified material from a primitive NEO to the Earth to allow its accurate analysis in ground-based laboratories. These primitive NEOs are part of the small body population that represents the leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago and carry records both of the Solar System's birth and early phases. In addition, the mission will allow studying the geological evolution and physical properties of small bodies. Marco Polo will provide the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials that formed the terrestrial planets and advance our understanding of some of the fundamental issues in the origin and early evolution of the Solar System, the Earth and possibly life itself. Determining the physical properties of a NEO will also help assessing mitigation strategies for the impact risk of such an object on the Earth. This presentation will focus on the ESA side of the assessment study. The technical development status in Europe will be presented.

Vernazza, P.

2009-04-01

125

Efficiency tests for estimating the gas and stellar population parameters in Type 2 objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the efficiency of estimating characteristics of stellar populations (SP) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission using ULySS code. To analyze simultaneously AGN and SP components in the integrated spectrum of Type 2 active galaxies, we modeled the featureless continuum (FC) and emission lines, and we used PEGASE.HR stellar population models provided by ULySS. In order to validate the method, we simulated over 7000 integrated spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Spectra were generated using different characteristics of the featureless AGN continuum, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spectral ranges, properties of emission lines and single stellar population (SSP) model whose initial mass function (IMF) and abundance pattern is similar to the solar neighborhood. Simulated spectra were fitted with ULySS to evaluate the ability of the method to extract SP and AGN properties. We found that the analysis with ULySS can efficiently restore the characteristics of SP in spectra of Seyfert 2 AGNs, where signal-to-noise ratio is higher than 20, and where SP contributes with more than 10% to the total flux. Degeneracies between AGN and SP parameters increase with increasing the AGN continuum fraction, which points out the importance of simultaneous fitting of the FC and SP contributions.

Bon, N.; Popovi?, L. ?.; Bon, E.

2014-10-01

126

Efficiency tests for estimating the gas and stellar population parameters in Type 2 objects  

E-print Network

Abstract We investigated the efficiency of estimating characteristics of stellar populations (SP) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission using ULySS code. To analyse simultaneously AGN and SP components in the integrated spectrum of Type 2 active galaxies, we modelled the featureless continuum (FC) and emission lines, and we used PEGASE.HR stellar population models provided by ULySS. In order to validate the method, we simulated over 7000 integrated spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies. Spectra were generated using different characteristics of the featureless AGN continuum, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), spectral ranges, properties of emission lines and single stellar population (SSP) model whose initial mass function (IMF) and abundance pattern is similar to the solar neighbourhood. Simulated spectra were fitted with ULySS to evaluate the ability of the method to extract SP and AGN properties. We found that the analysis with ULySS can efficiently restore the characteristics of SP in spectra of Seyfert 2 AGNs, wher...

Bon, N; Bon, E

2014-01-01

127

Imaging Spectrometer for NEO Mission: Seta Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA, ESA and JAXA have proposed NEO Sample Return Missions to a Near Earth Object. With these missions we will have the opportunity to return for study in Earth-based laboratories a direct sample of the earliest record of how our solar system formed. The landing site and sample selection will be the most important scientific decision to make during the course of the mission. For this reason, powerful on-board remote sensing science instruments are needed to support the selection. Among these instruments, the imaging spectrometer is a key instrument, being capable to: • Characterize the mineralogical composition of the entire object; • Analyze the of the landing site and the returned sample in its own native environment; • Establish the broadest possible scientific context for the target objects within our current understanding of the solar system. Scientific Objectives: Aim of SETA experiment is to perform imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400-3300 nm for a complete mapping of the target with a spectral sampling of at least 20 nm and a spatial resolution of the order of meters. SETA shall be able to return a detailed determination of the mineralogical composition for the different geologic units as well as the overall surface mineralogy with a spatial resolution of the order of few meters. These compositional characterizations involve the analysis of spectral parameters that are diagnostic of the presence and composition of various mineral species and materials that may be present on the target body. Most of the interesting minerals have electronic and vibrational absorption features in their VIS-NIR reflectance spectra. Identification of these related mineral phases requires a moderate spectral resolution. The presence of organic materials may be more difficult to identify. The SETA design is based on a pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the 400-3300 nm range, using a 2D array HgCdTe detector. This kind of instrument allows a simultaneous measurement of a full spectrum taken across the field of view defined by the slit's axis (samples). The second direction (lines) of the hyperspectral image shall be obtained by using the relative motion of the orbiter with respect to the target or by using a scan mirror. The SETA optical concept is mostly inherited from the SIMBIO-SYS/VIHI (Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager) imaging spectrometer aboard Bepi Colombo mission but also from other space flying imaging spectrometers, such as VIRTIS (on Rosetta and Venus Express) and VIR (on DAWN).

de Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maria Teresa; Coradini, Angioletta; Migliorini, Alessandra

128

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the Solar System, which are leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and the potential contribution of primitive material to the formation of Life. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. In parallel to JAXA considering how to perform the mission, ESA has performed a Marco Polo study in their Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two parallel industrial studies will start in September 2008 to be conducted in Europe for one year. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Yoshikawa, M.; Koschny, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, M.; Dotto, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J. L.; Kawagushi, J.; Michel, P.; Muinonen, K.; Oberst, J.; Yano, H.; Binzel, R. P.; Marco Polo Science Team

2008-09-01

129

Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

2014-11-01

130

Deflection of large near-earth objects  

SciTech Connect

The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

Canavan, G.H.

1999-01-11

131

A Neo-Aristotelian Theory of Interactive Drama Michael Mateas  

E-print Network

A Neo-Aristotelian Theory of Interactive Drama Michael Mateas Carnegie Mellon University Computer to build the system (answering the question "How should I build it?"). This Neo-Aristotelian theory borrows

California at Santa Cruz, University of

132

The Network-Enabled Optimization System (neos) Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Network-Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) is an environment for solvingoptimization problems over the Internet. Users submit optimization problems to theNEOS Server via e-mail, the World Wide Web, or the NEOS Submission Tool. TheNEOS Server locates the appropriate optimization solver, computes all additional information(for example, derivatives and sparsity patterns) required by the solver, linksthe optimization problem with the solver, and returns

Jorge J. Mor'e; Joseph Czyzyk; Michael P. Mesnier

1996-01-01

133

The double helix of cultural assimilationism and neo-liberalism: citizenship in contemporary governmentality.  

PubMed

In this article the recent transformations of citizenship in the Netherlands are analysed in relation to a developing form of governmentality. We regard citizenship as a state regulated technique of in- and exclusion and a crucial instrument in the management of populations. Taking the Dutch contexts of immigration and integration as our case, we argue that cultural assimilationism and neo-liberalism appear in a double helix: they combine to form a new governmental strategy we call neo-liberal communitarianism. Neo-liberal communitarianism is the underlying rationale of a population management that operates both in an individualizing (citizenship as individual participation and responsibility) and a de-individualizing way ('community' at various aggregate and localized levels as frame of 'integration'). It thus combines a communitarian care of a Dutch culturally grounded national community - conceived as traditionally'enlightened' and 'liberal'- with a neo-liberal emphasis on the individual's responsibility to achieve membership of that community. 'Community' is thereby selectively seen as mobilized and present (when immigrant integration is concerned) or as latently present and still in need of mobilization (when indigenous Dutch are concerned). Concomitantly, a repressive responsibilization and a facilitative responsibilization are aimed at these two governmentally differentiated populations. PMID:21138428

Schinkel, Willem; Van Houdt, Friso

2010-12-01

134

A concept of cost-saving space system designed for the detection of NEO's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept of space system designed for the detection of Near-Earth Objects (NEO) down to size of 100 m not later than 15-25 days before the possible collision with the Earth is described. The space system consists of one or two spacecrafts at low orbit. The main instrument is a wide-field survey telescope (0.75 m) with 7 deg field of view and mosaic detector. The survey speed of the system is one complete sky per day. In addition to the detection of NEOs the system will be capable to detect space debris and to carry out scientific research programs.

Shugarov, Andrey; Shustov, Boris M.; Savanov, Igor

135

Two Dogmas of Neo-Empiricism Edouard Machery*  

E-print Network

Two Dogmas of Neo-Empiricism Edouard Machery* University of Pittsburgh Abstract This article critically examines the contemporary resurgence of empiricism (or "neo-empiricism") in philosophy, psychology in the context of cognitive science and neuroscience. Moreover, neo-empiricists have made several findings

Machery, Edouard

136

NEW EDUCATORS' ORIENTATION (NEO) Recommended Make-up Guidelines  

E-print Network

NEW EDUCATORS' ORIENTATION (NEO) Recommended Make-up Guidelines So you missed the New Educators Department's TA Administrator. #12;NEO Workshops � Recommended Make-up Guidelines Media Site Link: http://mediasite.engr.wisc.edu/Mediasite/Viewer/?peid=88c299f99279412990d561264042bc711d Signature: _____ 3. NEO Welcome with COE Resources Available

Van Veen, Barry D.

137

Neo: Learning Conceptual Knowledge by Sensorimotor Interaction with an Environment  

E-print Network

Neo: Learning Conceptual Knowledge by Sensorimotor Interaction with an Environment Paul R. Cohen agent, grounded in activity-based sensorimotor representations. This paper describes how Neo, an ar- ti and other aspects of Neo's experience. We show how classes (categories) can be abstracted from

Southern California, University of

138

BIOCOSMOLOGY NEO-ARISTOTELISM Vol. 2, Nos. 1 & 2,  

E-print Network

6 BIOCOSMOLOGY ­ NEO-ARISTOTELISM Vol. 2, Nos. 1 & 2, Winter/Spring 2012 MOSAIC STRUCTURES Khroutski and his colleagues have been developing a neo-Aristotelian Biocosmological philosophical stance described by Khroutski. In the field of #12;7 BIOCOSMOLOGY ­ NEO-ARISTOTELISM Vol. 2, Nos. 1 & 2, Winter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism  

E-print Network

Neo-Mooreanism, Contextualism, and the Evidential Basis of Scepticism Duncan Pritchard University of Stirling, Stirling, UK Two of the main forms of anti-scepticism in the contemporary literature--namely, neo beliefs. Whilst it is ar- gued that neo-Mooreanism has a slight edge over attributer contextualism when

Edinburgh, University of

140

Neo-Conservatives as Social Darwinists: Implications for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the Social Darwinism of the 1890s with neo-conservatism of the 1980s. Discusses the ideologies of fair play versus fair shares, the theory of supply-side economics, and the implications of neo-conservatism for higher education. Argues that neo-conservatism is altering radically our conceptions of democracy, equality, and freedom. (KH)

Sola, Peter; And Others

1986-01-01

141

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from

K. Ward

2008-01-01

142

Meteorite Source Regions as Revealed by the Near-Earth Object Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1], [2], [3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We determine their taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5] [6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral analysis (e.g. [7],[8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the inner main-belt. V-types are relatively equally balanced between nu6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. B- and C-types show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. A Jupiter family comet source predominates for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying these "asteroidal" bodies may be extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless "X-type" category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference. Finally the Xe-class near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites seen in the Hungaria region[11], show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and nu6 resonance pathways. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Lazzarin, M. et al. (2004), Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 5, 21. [2] Thomas, C. A. et al. (2014), Icarus 228, 217. [3] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [4] Hasselmann, P. H., Carvano, J. M., Lazzaro, D. (2011) NASA PDS, EAR-A-I0035-5-SDSSTAX-V1.0. [5] Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. (2002). Icarus 158, 146. [6] DeMeo, F.E. et al. (2009), Icarus 202, 160. [7] Dunn et al. (2010) Icarus 208, 789. [8] Dunn et al. (2013) Icarus 222, 273. [9] Bottke, W.F. et al. (2002), Icarus 156, 399. [10] DeMeo, F., Binzel, R. P. (2007) Icarus 194, 436. [11] Gaffey, M. J. et al. (1992) Icarus 100, 95.

Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Burt, Brian J.; Polishook, David; Burbine, Thomas H.; Bus, Schelte J.; Tokunaga, Alan; Birlan, Mirel

2014-11-01

143

The MIT-Hawaii-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a new joint observing program for routine measurement of near-Earth object (NEO) spectra being conducted by MIT, the University of Hawaii, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. All spectroscopic observations obtained in this campaign are being made publicly available in near-real time.

Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A. S.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Tokunaga, A.; Bus, S. J.

2005-01-01

144

Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC) VIII: Substellar population in Lupus 3  

E-print Network

SONYC -- Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters -- is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO-4m telescope, covering ~1.4 sqdeg on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 MSun, for Av \\leq 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and Teff \\leq 3000K, i.e. are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong Halp...

Muzic, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent C; Jayawardhana, Ray; Marti, Belen Lopez

2014-01-01

145

NEOS Server 4.0 Administrative Guide  

E-print Network

May 30, 2002 ... The NEOS Server 4.0 provides a general Internet-based ... solver administrators such as maintaining security, providing usage instructions, and enforcing rea- .... can freely browse the collection of solvers without having to learn how to ..... resources and automatically create the solver's WWW interfaces ...

2002-06-03

146

Vehicle Shield Optimization and Risk Assessment of Future NEO Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human space missions target far destinations such as Near Earth Objects (NEO) or Mars that require extended stay in hostile radiation environments in deep space. The continuous assessment of exploration vehicles is needed to iteratively optimize the designs for shielding protection and calculating the risks associated with such long missions. We use a predictive software capability that calculates the risks to humans inside a spacecraft. The software uses the CAD software Pro/Engineer and Fishbowl tool kit to quantify the radiation shielding properties of the spacecraft geometry by calculating the areal density seen at a certain point, dose point, inside the spacecraft. The shielding results are used by NASA-developed software, BRYNTRN, to quantify the organ doses received in a human body located in the vehicle in a possible solar particle events (SPE) during such prolonged space missions. The organ doses are used to quantify the risks posed on the astronauts' health and life using NASA Space Cancer Model software. An illustration of the shielding optimization and risk calculation on an exploration vehicle design suitable for a NEO mission is provided in this study. The vehicle capsule is made of aluminum shell, airlock with hydrogen-rich carbon composite material end caps. The capsule contains sets of racks that surround a working and living area. A water shelter is provided in the middle of the vehicle to enhance the shielding in case of SPE. The mass distribution is optimized to minimize radiation hotspots and an assessment of the risks associated with a NEO mission is calculated.

Nounu, Hatem, N.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2011-01-01

147

Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar Population in Lupus 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (~1 Myr), nearby (~200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ~1.4 deg2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ?, for AV <= 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff <= 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H? or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) - (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under programs 087.C-0386 and 089.C-0432, and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory's programs 2010A-0054 and 2011A-0144.

Muži?, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; López Martí, Belén

2014-04-01

148

Assessing the Universal Structure of Personality in Early Adolescence: The NEO-PI-R and NEO-PI-3 in 24 Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years from 24 cultures. Replacement…

De Fruyt, Filip; De Bolle, Marleen; McCrae, Robert R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2009-01-01

149

Alpha Ontology and Pathology of Social Dominance: Unearthing Western Civilization and Neo-Colonial, Neo-Liberal, neo-Conservative Hegemony  

E-print Network

Alpha Ontology and a Pathology of Social Dominance: Unearthing Western Civilization and Neo-Colonial, Neo-Liberal, Neo-Conservative Hegemony Richard Arnold Prologue This paper was written for the student decolonization essay contest of the 15... resources.4 Also, in terms of modernity and the allegory of the ancients, political/social systems have often been shaped through the capacity of the Alpha Type One Male to exercise his faculty of ascendancy to instrumentally dominate; wielding the status...

Arnold, Richard Keith

2008-03-01

150

Materials co-orbiting with known NEO asteroids: Properties inferred from collision-produced dust clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials co-orbiting with Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) can be potentially hazardous when their diameters are of tens of meters. Such co-orbiting material is produced when small meteoroids about several meters in diameter collide with parent bodies of much larger diameters. These materials will be dispersed in orbits around the associated NEOs, and therefore could enter the terrestrial atmosphere even when their ‘parent’ NEOs miss the Earth. However, due to the small dimensions of these materials, they are hard to discover by traditional surveys. The co-orbiting materials collide regularly with smaller interplanetary objects, since the smaller objects are quite numerous. The dust cloud released in the collisions, containing fine-sized particles, becomes charged and can perturb the ambient solar wind. The resultant interplanetary magnetic field structure is called interplanetary field enhancement (IFE) and can be detected by magnetometers carried by interplanetary spacecraft as the dust cloud is swept outward by the solar wind. We use the records of IFE occurrence to trace interplanetary collisions and thus identify co-orbiting materials of well-known NEOs with ecliptic plane crossing near to or inside the Earth’s orbit. We suggest that co-orbiting materials of asteroid 138175, whose descending node is inside Earth’s orbit at heliocentric ecliptic longitude of 206 ?, should be responsible for at least some IFEs detected in the longitude range between 195 ? and 225 ?. The mass and spatial distributions of the potentially associated IFEs indicate that these co-orbiting materials had diameters of tens of meters before the collisions and had significant dispersion about the asteroid’s orbit. We can apply this technique to inventory the co-orbiting materials of other known NEOs and obtain the number density, orbits and sizes distributions of the materials. Thus we can estimate their impact probability and issue alerts when the Earth approaches the orbits of the hazardous objects.

Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin; Lai, Hairong; Delzanno, Gian Luca

151

On the non-uniform distribution of the angular elements of near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the angular distributions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) which are often regarded as uniform. The apparent distribution of the longitude of ascending node, ?, is strongly affected by well-known seasonal effects in the discovery rate of NEOs. The deviation from the expected ?-periodicity in the apparent distribution of ? indicates that its intrinsic distribution is slightly enhanced along a mean direction, ??=111°; approximately 53% of NEOs have ? values within ±90° of ??. We also find that each subgroup of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects which cause different non-uniformities in the apparent distributions of their arguments of perihelion ?, and longitudes of perihelion ?. For their intrinsic distributions, our analysis reveals that the Apollo asteroids have non-uniform ? due to secular dynamics associated with inclination-eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors’ ? distribution is peaked towards the secularly forced eccentricity vector. The Apollos’ ? distribution is axial, favoring values near 0° and 180°; the two quadrants centered at 0° and 180° account for 55% of the Apollos’ ? values. The Amors’ ? distribution peaks near ??=4°; 61% of Amors have ? within ±90° of this peak. We show that these modest but statistically significant deviations from uniform random distributions of angular elements are owed to planetary perturbations, primarily Jupiter’s. It is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu

2014-02-01

152

Follow-up and Characterization of NEOs with the LCOGT Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network is a planned homogeneous network of over 35 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. This network is versatile and designed to respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also to do long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena. The global coverage of the network and the apertures of telescope available make LCOGT ideal for follow-up and characterization of Solar System objects (e.g. asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, comets, Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)) and ultimately for the discovery of new objects. LCOGT has completed the first phase of the deployment with the installation and commissioning of nine 1-meter telescopes at McDonald Observatory (Texas), Cerro Tololo (Chile), SAAO (South Africa) and Siding Spring Observatory (Australia). The telescope network is now operating and observations are being executed remotely and robotically. I am using the LCOGT network to confirm newly detected NEO candidates produced by the major sky surveys such as Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) and PanSTARRS (PS1). An increasing amount of time is being spent to obtain follow-up astrometry and photometry for radar-targeted objects in order to improve the orbits and determine the rotation periods. This will be extended to obtain more light curves of other NEOs which could be Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) or Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) targets. Recent results have included the first period determination for the Apollo 2002 NV16 and our first NEO spectrum from the FLOYDS spectrographs on the LCOGT 2m telescopes obtained for 2012 DA14 during the February 2013 closepass.

Lister, Tim

2013-10-01

153

Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

Werner, Martin R.

2005-01-01

154

NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1999, NASA established its Near-Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with the stated objectives to: - Facilitate communications within the observing community and between the community and the public with respect to any potentially hazardous objects. - Establish and maintain a catalog of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and provide information on their future close Earth approaches

D. K. Yeomans; R. C. Baalke; A. B. Chamberlin; S. R. Chesley; P. W. Chodas; J. D. Giorgini; M. S. Keesey

2001-01-01

155

Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects  

E-print Network

Population Genomics Objective: To give a presentation of about 40-90 minutes duration at the end of the week covering the key aspects of the population genomics of humans. This 1000 genomes project is devoted to the exciting project, where the genomes of a 1000 individuals are to be sequenced in the next

Goldschmidt, Christina

156

Optimization case studies inthe NEOS guide.  

SciTech Connect

We describe several of the case studies in the NEOS Guide, a site on the World Wide Web that contains informational and educational material about optimization. These studies show how optimization relates to practical applications. They guide the user through relevant details of the application, formulation, solution, and interpretation of the results. The studies use interactivity to build intuition, allowing users to define their own problems and examine the corresponding solutions. The studies can be used for assignments in optimization and operations research courses and as small self-guided units equivalent to one or two lecture classes.

Czyzyk, J.; Wieniewski, T.; Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Wroclawska Szkola Jezykowa

1999-03-01

157

The Kestrel interface to the NEOS server.  

SciTech Connect

The NEOS Server provides access to optimization solvers through the Internet with a suite of interfaces. In particular, the Kestrel interface enables the remote solution of optimization problems within the AMPL and GAMS modeling languages. Problem generation, including the run-time detection of syntax errors, occurs on the local machine using any available modeling language facilities. Solution takes place on a remote machine, with the result returned in the native modeling language format for further processing. No significant differences exist between local and remote solutions. A byproduct of the Kestrel interface is the ability to solve in parallel multiple problems generated by a modeling language.

Dolan, E. D.; Munson, T. S.

2001-07-24

158

NEOview: Near Earth Object Data Discovery and Query  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) figure prominently in NASA's Flexible Path approach to human space exploration. NEOs offer insight into both the origins of the Solar System and of life, as well as a source of materials for future missions. With NEOview scientists can locate NEO datasets, explore metadata provided by the archives, and query or combine disparate NEO datasets in the search for NEO candidates for exploration. NEOview is a software system that illustrates how standards-based interfaces facilitate NEO data discovery and research. NEOview software follows a client-server architecture. The server is a configurable implementation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Table Access Protocol (TAP), a general interface for tabular data access, that can be deployed as a front end to existing NEO datasets. The TAP client, seleste, is a graphical interface that provides intuitive means of discovering NEO providers, exploring dataset metadata to identify fields of interest, and constructing queries to retrieve or combine data. It features a powerful, graphical query builder capable of easing the user's introduction to table searches. Through science use cases, NEOview demonstrates how potential targets for NEO rendezvous could be identified by combining data from complementary sources. Through deployment and operations, it has been shown that the software components are data independent and configurable to many different data servers. As such, NEOview's TAP server and seleste TAP client can be used to create a seamless environment for data discovery and exploration for tabular data in any astronomical archive.

Tibbetts, M.; Elvis, M.; Galache, J. L.; Harbo, P.; McDowell, J. C.; Rudenko, M.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

2013-10-01

159

Neo4EMF, a Scalable Persistence Layer for EMF Amine Benelallam1  

E-print Network

, is built on top of the popular graph database Neo4j. Neo4EMF is open-source, publicly available at [3) the possibility to exploit the enterprise features of Neo4j, like online backups, horizontal scalability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

2005-01-01

161

Neo-Liberalism, Irish Society and Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an overview of recent international scholarship on neo-liberalism in particular the work of the geographer and historian David Harvey and the recent books of the educationalist Henry Giroux. It begins with a brief historical account of neo-liberalism and outlines the main characteristics of the free market era. Irish society…

Finnegan, Fergal

2008-01-01

162

Discriminant Validity of NEO-PIR Facet Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two analyses were conducted to examine the discriminant validity of 30 facet scales from the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR). To examine cross-observer validity of specific variance in the facet scales, partial correlations between self-reports and peer (N = 250) and spouse (N = 68) ratings on the facets were calculated, controlling for the five common factors. All 60 convergent

Robert R. McCrae; Paul T. Costa

1992-01-01

163

NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

2000-01-01

164

Indigenous Knowledge in the Science Curriculum: Avoiding Neo-Colonialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science education in Papua New Guinea has been influenced by neo-colonial practices that have significantly contributed to the silencing of the Papua New Guinea voice. This silencing has led to the production of science curriculum documents that are irrelevant to the students for whom they are written. To avoid being caught up in neo-colonial…

Ryan, Ann

2008-01-01

165

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP  

E-print Network

Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats (EA 3788) AXE NEO-RESSAP Bilan 2011-2012 et Projets 2012-2013 Conseil de labo du 26 juin 2012 Les membres de l'axe NEO-RESSAP ont été très actifs cette année et de

Naud Frédéric

166

Muller's Ratchet and the Degeneration of the Drosophila miranda Neo-Y Chromosome  

PubMed Central

Since its formation about 1.75 million years ago, the Drosophila miranda neo-Y chromosome has undergone a rapid process of degeneration, having lost approximately half of the genes that it originally contained. Using estimates of mutation rates and selection coefficients for loss-of-function mutations, we show that the high rate of accumulation of these mutations can largely be explained by Muller's ratchet, the process of stochastic loss of the least-loaded mutational class from a finite, nonrecombining population. We show that selection at nonsynonymous coding sites can accelerate the process of gene loss and that this effect varies with the number of genes still present on the degenerating neo-Y chromosome. PMID:20215466

Kaiser, Vera B.; Charlesworth, Brian

2010-01-01

167

The Population of Natural Earth Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first debiased size-frequency and orbit distributions for a steady-state population of temporary-captured, natural Earth satellites (NES) excluding the Moon. We use orbital integrations to estimate the capture probability as a function of orbital elements and utilize the steady-state near-Earth-object (NEO) model by Bottke et al. (2002) to estimate the steady-state population of NESs. For much of the 20th century NESs other than the Moon were not discussed in their own right but mentioned in the published literature only as a population producing meteors that travel far in the Earth's atmosphere or as a population explaining shallow meteorite impacts. Only during the last two decades has a couple of these objects been detected in space; 1991 VG and 2006 RH120. The origin and evolution of 1991 VG, e.g., whether it is a man-made or a natural object, can be debated, but 2006 RH120 is certainly natural with an absolute magnitude H of about 29.9. To gain understanding of this little studied and barely detected population's origin and evolution, we try to answer questions such as: At any instant, how many objects are in temporary capture as a function of their size? What are the characteristics of their pre- capture geocentric trajectories and heliocentric orbits? What is the typical duration of the temporary capture? How many orbits do NESs typically complete around the Earth? What are the characteristics of their geocentric orbits? We anticipate that the interest in this small and nearby population will increase in the future as NESs are easily accessible targets for proposed NEO sample-return missions. Their typically small sizes could allow us to bring back an entire asteroid with the benefit that, e.g., microscopic surface or near-surface effects such as space weathering and lightscattering could be studied on a pristine body in ground-based laboratories.

Granvik, Mikael; Vaubaillon, J.; Jedicke, R.

2010-10-01

168

Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces population as a group of the same kind of organisms in a given space at a given time. The activities in this section will provide students with the opportunity to define population, estimate populations in a community, and count and compare populations within a community. Students will gain the knowledge in describing plant and animal populations living in a community. They will also experiment with plant populations to control growth and development, not to mention discuss the effects of abiotic conditions on a community.

Galle, Janet R.; Warren, Patricia A.

2005-01-01

169

Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are part of the small body population in the solar system, which are leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process. They offer important clues to the chemical mixture from which planets formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The scientific objectives of Marco Polo will therefore contribute to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, the Earth, and possibly Life itself. Marco Polo is based on a launch with a Soyuz Fregat and consists of a Mother Spacecraft (MSC), possibly carrying a lander. The MSC would approach the target asteroid and spend a few months for global characterization of the target to select a sampling site. Then, the MSC would then descend to retrieve, using a "touch and go" manoeuvre, several samples which will be transferred to a Sample Return Capsule (SRC). The MSC would return to Earth and release the SRC into the atmosphere for ground recovery. The sample of the NEO will then be available for detailed investigation in ground-based laboratories. The scientific objectives addressed by the mission and the current status of the mission study (ESA-JAXA) will be presented and discussed.

Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. Robert; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Michel, Patrick; Kawagushi, Jun; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Yano, Hajime; Binzel, Richard P.

170

Adherence to physical activity guidelines in older adults, using objectively measured physical activity in a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity (PA) levels in older adults decline with age. The prevalence and correlates of adherence to current UK PA guidelines in older adults has not been studied using objectively measured PA, which can examine precisely whether PA is carried out in bouts of specified length and intensity. Methods Free living men and women aged 70–93 years from 25 towns in the United Kingdom, participating in parallel on-going population based cohort studies were invited (by post) to wear a GT3x accelerometer over the hip for one week in 2010–12. Adherence to UK PA guidelines was defined as ?150 minutes/week of moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA) in bouts of ?10 minutes; the effect of different intensities and durations were examined. Results 1593 men and 857 women participated (responses 51% and 29% respectively). 15% men and 10% women achieved ?150 minutes/week of MVPA (defined as >1040 cpm) in bouts lasting ?10 minutes. With MVPA defined as >1952 cpm, prevalences were 7% and 3% respectively. Those adhering to guidelines were younger, had fewer chronic health conditions, less depression, less severe mobility limitations, but higher exercise self-efficacy and exercise outcomes expectations. They rated their local environment more highly for social activities and leisure facilities, having somewhere nice to go for a walk and feeling safe after dark, They left the house on more days per week, were more likely to use active transport (cycle or walk) and to walk a dog regularly. Conclusions Few older adults attain current PA guidelines. Health promotion to extend the duration of moderate-intensity activity episodes to 10 minutes or more could yield important health gains among older adults. However future studies will need to clarify whether attaining guideline amounts of PA in spells lasting 10 minutes or more is critical for reducing chronic disease risks as well as improving cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24745369

2014-01-01

171

CHARACTERIZING SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN THE NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS WITH NEOWISE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary results of an analysis of the sub-populations within the near-Earth asteroids, including the Atens, Apollos, Amors, and those that are considered potentially hazardous using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In order to extrapolate the sample of objects detected by WISE to the greater population, we determined the survey biases for asteroids detected by the project's automated moving object processing system (known as NEOWISE) as a function of diameter, visible albedo, and orbital elements. Using this technique, we are able to place constraints on the number of potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 100 m and find that there are {approx}4700 {+-} 1450 such objects. As expected, the Atens, Apollos, and Amors are revealed by WISE to have somewhat different albedo distributions, with the Atens being brighter than the Amors. The cumulative size distributions of the various near-Earth object (NEO) subgroups vary slightly between 100 m and 1 km. A comparison of the observed orbital elements of the various sub-populations of the NEOs with the current best model is shown.

Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Giorgini, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, 200 Eighth Street, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Nugent, C. R., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

2012-06-20

172

Endothelial ?1-adrenoceptors regulate neo-angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Intact endothelium plays a pivotal role in post-ischaemic angiogenesis. It is a phenomenon finely tuned by activation and inhibition of several endothelial receptors. The presence of ?1-adrenoceptors on the endothelium suggests that these receptors may participate in regenerative phenomena by regulating the responses of endothelial cells involved in neo-angiogenesis. Experimental approach: We evaluated the expression of the subtypes of the ?1-adrenoceptor in isolated endothelial cells harvested from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We explored the possibility these ?1-adrenoceptors may influence the pro-angiogenic phenotype of endothelial cells in vitro. In vivo, we used a model of hindlimb ischaemia in WKY rats, to assess the effects of ?1 adrenoceptor agonist or antagonist on angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb by laser Doppler blood flow measurements, digital angiographies, hindlimb perfusion with dyed beads and histological evaluation. Key results: In vitro, pharmacological antagonism of ?1-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells from WKY rats by doxazosin enhanced, while stimulation of these adrenoceptors with phenylephrine, inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and DNA synthesis, ERK and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation, cell migration and tubule formation. In vivo, we found increased ?1-adrenoceptor density in the ischaemic hindlimb, compared to non-ischaemic hindlimb, suggesting an enhanced ?1-adrenoceptor tone in the ischaemic tissue. Treatment with doxazosin (0.06?mg?kg?1?day?1 for 14 days) did not alter systemic blood pressure but enhanced neo-angiogenesis in the ischaemic hindlimb, as measured by all our assays. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that the ?1-adrenoceptors in endothelial cells provide a negative regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:18084315

Ciccarelli, M; Santulli, G; Campanile, A; Galasso, G; Cervero, P; Altobelli, G G; Cimini, V; Pastore, L; Piscione, F; Trimarco, B; Iaccarino, G

2007-01-01

173

Revised NEO Personality Inventory normative data for police officer selection.  

PubMed

The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) has demonstrated utility in the personnel selection context. Its use in police officer selection has been relatively limited, in part, because there are no published normative data for the NEO PI-R for police officer applicants. The authors present normative data on NEO PI-R domain and facet scores for a large sample (N = 288) of police officer applicants in a large, urban, Midwestern police department who completed the NEO PI-R as part of a preemployment psychological evaluation. Applicants reported low levels of Neuroticism and high levels of Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scores were strongly and consistently correlated with the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) research validity scale of the NEO PI-R. Extraversion and Agreeableness scores were moderately and less consistently correlated with PPM. These data may serve as a normative comparison group for professionals and researchers who use or may want to use the NEO PI-R in the police officer selection context. PMID:23398091

Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T

2013-11-01

174

Population perspectives and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neo-Malthusianism advocates 'population control' as the solution to all major global problems. While overpopulation is a serious problem, blaming the population growth in the South as the prime cause for the destruction of the environment is hypocritical. Rather than the 'bottom billion', it is the 'top billion' population from the 'affluent' West - and their 'effluence' - that is inflicting

Jonnalagadda Rajeswar

2000-01-01

175

Science of Marco Polo : Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION for an assessment study. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive NEO, such as C or D type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation. NEOs are

M. A. Barucci; Makoto Yoshikawa; Detlef Koschny; Hermann Boehnhardt; J. Robert Brucato; Marcello Coradini; Elisabetta Dotto; Ian A. Franchi; Simon F. Green; Jean-Luc Josset; Patrick Michel; Jun Kawagushi; Karri Muinonen; Juergen Oberst; Hajime Yano; Richard P. Binzel

2008-01-01

176

PUTNAM'S TRADTIONAL NEO-ESSENTIALISM NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo)  

E-print Network

PUTNAM'S TRADTIONAL NEO-ESSENTIALISM NEIL E. WILLIAMS (University at Buffalo) forthcoming might be called `neo-essentialism' about natural kinds. These views are otherwise essentialist, and consequently that neo-essentialism is not so neo after all. 1. ESSENTIALISM OLD AND NEW "Essentialism," we

Williams, Neil E.

177

Philosophy 269 January 10, 2002 1 Humean and Neo-Humean (Deterministic) Causation  

E-print Network

Philosophy 269 January 10, 2002 1 Humean and Neo-Humean (Deterministic) Causation · Hume's Account (Review) · Challenges & Problems to Humean Causation · Mackie's Neo-Humean INUS Account & Hausman's Refinement · Summary and Simplification of Neo-Humean Response · Problems for Neo-Humean Accounts (and others

Fitelson, Branden

178

The SSA NEO Segment and Gaia: present opportunities and future developments E. Perozzi 1,3  

E-print Network

The SSA NEO Segment and Gaia: present opportunities and future developments E. Perozzi 1,3 , D is devoted to NEO hazard monitoring through the set-up and the operation of a dedicated data centre [1) and the coordination of NEO observations for discovery and follow-up. Thus the aim of the SSA NEO Segment is to become

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

NEOS: Optimization on the Internet Joseph Czyzyk y Jonathan H. Owen z Stephen J. Wright y  

E-print Network

NEOS: Optimization on the Internet Joseph Czyzyk y Jonathan H. Owen z Stephen J. Wright y June 30 and Northwestern University launched the NEOS project in late 1994 (NEOS=``Network­Enabled Optimization System to expand our vision for NEOS as the project pro­ gressed. We saw that interactive case studies to demon

Wright, Steve

180

Post Neo-Liberalism and the Humanities: What the Repressive State Apparatus Means for Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore how neo-liberal and post neo-liberal policies threaten the humanities in post-secondary education as a potential site of democratic dialogue and social transformation. We distinguish between neo-liberalism and post neo-liberalism on the basis of the latter's increased police suppression of democratic dissent. We are…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Leonard, Hugh A.

2012-01-01

181

Marco Polo: Near-Earth Object Sample Return Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO), selected by ESA in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 for an assessment study scheduled to last until October 2009. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), such as C or D-type, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back

Maria Antonieta Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; E. Dotto; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawagushi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

2008-01-01

182

Neo-vernacular trends towards the recent past in Greece  

E-print Network

In economically advanced countries, fragments of the past are preserved, or new environments are created to match this past image. The reappropriation of old forms includes what can be called the neo-vernacular as a way ...

Zographaki, Stephania G

1986-01-01

183

A New Standardized Stimulus Set for Studying Need-of-Help Recognition (NeoHelp)  

PubMed Central

This article presents the NeoHelp visual stimulus set created to facilitate investigation of need-of-help recognition with clinical and normative populations of different ages, including children. Need-of-help recognition is one aspect of socioemotional development and a necessary precondition for active helping. The NeoHelp consists of picture pairs showing everyday situations: The first item in a pair depicts a child needing help to achieve a goal; the second one shows the child achieving the goal. Pictures of birds in analogue situations are also included. These control stimuli enable implementation of a human-animal categorization task which serves to separate behavioral correlates specific to need-of-help recognition from general differentiation processes. It is a concern in experimental research to ensure that results do not relate to systematic perceptual differences when comparing responses to categories of different content. Therefore, we not only derived the NeoHelp-pictures within a pair from one another by altering as little as possible, but also assessed their perceptual similarity empirically. We show that NeoHelp-picture pairs are very similar regarding low-level perceptual properties across content categories. We obtained data from 60 children in a broad age range (4 to 13 years) for three different paradigms, in order to assess whether the intended categorization and differentiation could be observed reliably in a normative population. Our results demonstrate that children can differentiate the pictures' content regarding both need-of-help category as well as species as intended in spite of the high perceptual similarities. We provide standard response characteristics (hit rates and response times) that are useful for future selection of stimuli and comparison of results across studies. We show that task requirements coherently determine which aspects of the pictures influence response characteristics. Thus, we present NeoHelp, the first open-access standardized visual stimuli set for investigation of need-of-help recognition and invite researchers to use and extend it. PMID:24409294

Brielmann, Aenne A.; Stolarova, Margarita

2014-01-01

184

Car tracking and vibration test rig using Neo-Freerunner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present our idea of using a cell-phone (the Neo Freerunner) for tracking a Car's location using GPS and measuring the road's quality using the accelerometer in the cell-phone. Neo-Freerunner is an open source Linux phone by Open Moko Inc. The phone can run many flavors of linux like Android, Qt, SHR etc. Here the implementation was done in

Sriranjan Rasakatla; Kashyap Kompella; Krishna Koundinya

2010-01-01

185

The Semantic Structure of Neo-Classical Compounds  

PubMed Central

The automated analysis of neo-classical compounds in the medical domain has been proposed and carried out by a number of researchers in recent years. This paper discusses the semantics of these compounds. The results of our work indicate that neo-classical compounds are semantically underdetermined by their constituent parts. Thus, automated analysis of these compounds will need to be supplemented by human review.

McCray, Alexa T.; Browne, Allen C.; Moore, Dorothy L.

1988-01-01

186

Lack of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 in patients treated with mite sublingual immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies reported the possible induction of food allergy, caused by neo-sensitization to cross-reacting allergens, during immunotherapy with aeroallergens, while other studies ruled out such possibility. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 (tropomyosin) as well as the appearance of reactions after ingestion of foods containing tropomyosin as a consequence of sublingual mite immunization. Materials and methods Specific IgE to Tropomyosin (rPen a 1) before and after mite sublingual immunotherapy in 134 subjects were measured. IgE-specific antibodies for mite extract and recombinant allergen Pen a 1 were evaluated using the immunoenzymatic CAP system (Phadia Diagnostics, Milan, Italy). Results All patients had rPen a 1 IgE negative results before and after mite SLIT and did not show positive shrimp extract skin reactivity and serological rPen a 1 IgE conversion after treatment. More important, no patient showed systemic reactions to crustacean ingestion. Conclusions Patients did not show neo-sensitization to tropomyosin, a component of the extract (namely mite group 10) administered. An assessment of a patient's possible pre-existing sensitisation to tropomyosin by skin test and/or specific IgE prior to start mite extract immunotherapy is recommended. Trial Registration This trial is registered in EudraCT, with the ID number of 2010-02035531. PMID:20230633

2010-01-01

187

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Imagery for Education and Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observations (NEO) has dramatically simplified public access to georeferenced imagery of NASA remote sensing data. NEO targets the non-traditional data users who are currently underserved by functionality and formats available from the existing data ordering systems. These users include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists. NEO currently serves imagery from 45 different datasets with daily, weekly, and/or monthly temporal resolutions, with more datasets currently under development. The imagery from these datasets is produced in coordination with several data partners who are affiliated either with the instrument science teams or with the respective data processing center. NEO is a system of three components -- website, WMS (Web Mapping Service), and ftp archive -- which together are able to meet the wide-ranging needs of our users. Some of these needs include the ability to: view and manipulate imagery using the NEO website -- e.g., applying color palettes, resizing, exporting to a variety of formats including PNG, JPEG, KMZ (Google Earth), GeoTIFF; access the NEO collection via a standards-based API (WMS); and create customized exports for select users (ftp archive) such as Science on a Sphere, NASA's Earth Observatory, and others.

Ward, K.

2008-12-01

188

NASA's Near-Earth Object Office  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are scientifically interesting remnants of the early solar system formation process, accessible resources for the raw materials necessary for colonizing the inner solar system in the next century, and objects that can threaten life on Earth.

Yeomans, D.; Chodas, P.; Chamberlin, A.

1999-01-01

189

Dynamical 3-Space: neo-Lorentz Relativity  

E-print Network

The major extant relativity theories - Galileo's Relativity (GaR), Lorentz's Relativity (LR) and Einstein's Special Relativity (SR), with the latter much celebrated, while the LR is essentially ignored. Indeed it is often incorrectly claimed that SR and LR are experimentally indistinguishable. Here we show that (i) SR and LR are experimentally distinguishable, (ii) that comparison of gas-mode Michelson interferometer experiments with spacecraft earth-flyby Doppler shift data demonstrate that it is LR that is consistent with the data, while SR is in conflict with the data, (iii) SR is exactly derivable from GaR by means of a mere linear change of space and time coordinates that mixes the Galilean space and time coordinates. So it is GaR and SR that are equivalent. Hence the well-known SR relativistic effects are purely coordinate effects, and cannot correspond to the observed relativistic effects. The connections between these three relativity theories has become apparent following the discovery that space is an observable dynamical textured system, and that space and time are distinct phenomena, leading to a neo-Lorentz Relativity (nLR). The observed relativistic effects are dynamical consequences of nLR and 3-space. In particular a proper derivation of the Dirac equation from nLR is given, which entails the derivation of the rest mass energy mc^2

Reginald T Cahill

2012-07-05

190

Investigating the viability of photo-identification as an objective tool to study endangered sea turtle populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of using natural facial markings to identify individuals in an endangered breeding population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). We divided individual turtles into ten groups based on facial (post-ocular) scale patterns to facilitate rapid comparison of new images in a large photographic catalogue of known turtles (exceeding 400 unique individuals). The matching process was validated

Gail Schofield; Kostas A. Katselidis; Panayotis Dimopoulos; John D. Pantis

2008-01-01

191

Ultra-Low Delta-v Objects and the Human Exploration of Asteroids  

E-print Network

Missions to near-Earth objects (NEOs) are key destinations in NASA's new "Flexible Path" approach. NEOs are also of interest for science, for the hazards they pose, and for their resources. We emphasize the importance of ultra-low delta-v from LEO to NEO rendezvous as a target selection criterion, as this choice can greatly increase the payload to the NEO. Few such ultra-low delta-v NEOs are currently known; only 65 of the 6699 known NEOs (March2010) have delta-v NEO delta-v. Even these are small and hard to recover. Other criteria - short transit times, long launch windows, a robust abort capability, and a safe environment for proximity operations - will further limit the list of accessible objects. Potentially there are at least an order of magnitude more ultra-low delta v NEOs but, to find them all on a short enough timescale (before 2025) requires a dedicated survey in the optical or mid-IR, optimally from a Venus-like orbit because of the short synodic period for NEOs in ...

Elvis, Martin; Hoffman, Jeffrey A; Binzel, Richard P

2011-01-01

192

The Pan-STARRS search for Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, are 1.8-meter diameter telescopes equipped with 1.4 Gigapixel cameras that deliver 7 square degree fields of view. The first of these telescopes, Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), is now conducting a dedicated survey for Near-Earth Objects. The second telescope, Pan-STARRS2 (PS2) is being commissioned. It will initially supplement the PS1 search by targeting Near Earth Objects (NEO) candidates from PS1. As its efficiency grows, PS2 also will search for NEOs, and will increase the sky coverage and cadence.PS1 is cooperating with the G96 telescope of the Catalina Sky Survey in terms of field selection. Between declinations of -30 and +40 degrees, the telescopes alternate 1 hour-wide RA stripes each night. This strategy has led to increased productivity, and eliminated accidental repeats of fields. The PS1 survey area has been extended south to -47.5 degrees declination. The image quality in the deep south sky from Haleakala is good, and the new southern extension to the survey area has been very productive.PS1 has discovered more than half of the larger NEOs and PHAs in 2014 to date, and has become the leading NEO discovery telescope. PS1 delivers excellent astrometry and photometry. PS1 continues to discover a significant number of large (> 1km) NEOs.The present discovery rate of NEO candidates by PS1 is now overwhelming the external NEO followup resources. particularly for fainter NEOs. It has required that PS1 repeat fields to recover NEO candidates. As PS2 matures, and when G96 has its new camera, the combination of these three telescopes will facilitate a higher NEO discovery rate, and a better census of the NEOs in the sky. This will in turn lead to a better understanding of the size and orbit distribution of NEOs. The Pan-STARRS NEO survey is also likely to discover asteroids suitable for the NASA asteroid retrieval mission.

Wainscoat, Richard J.; Bolin, Bryce; Chambers, Kenneth; Chastel, Serge; Denneau, Larry; Micheli, Marco; Schunova, Eva; Veres, Peter

2014-11-01

193

The OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS)--population screening for undiagnosed valvular heart disease in the elderly: study design and objectives  

PubMed Central

Introduction Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an increasingly important cardiac condition, driven by an ageing population and lack of progress in the development of medical therapies. There is a dearth of accurate information to guide decision-makers in the development of strategies to combat VHD, and no population-based study has been performed specifically to investigate its contemporary epidemiology. This document describes the design and methodology of the OxVALVE population cohort study (OxVALVE-PCS), which was conceived to address this need. Methods and analysis Participants aged 65?years and older attending a participating general practice in Oxfordshire, UK, are invited to attend a screening examination. Exclusion criteria include previously diagnosed VHD, inability to provide consent, terminal illness or excessive frailty. Demographics, a focused cardiovascular history and vital signs are recorded at the initial screening examination, accompanied by an echocardiogram. Any finding of significant VHD triggers a separate, more formal echocardiographic assessment (including acquisition of a three-dimensional dataset) and collection of blood samples for future genetic and biomarker analysis. Participants provide consent for longitudinal follow-up and enrolment in future cohort substudies. We also assess the acceptability of community-based echocardiographic examination and compare self-assessed quality of life between those with and without VHD. Conclusions OxVALVE-PCS will provide contemporary epidemiological data concerning the community prevalence of undiagnosed VHD, facilitate accurate deployment of scarce resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand for VHD-associated healthcare and create a series of subcohorts with carefully defined genotypes and echocardiographic phenotypes for long overdue clinical studies. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local research ethics committee (Southampton, UK; REC Ref: 09/H0502/58). Results Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed scientific journals. PMID:25332795

Coffey, Sean; d'Arcy, Joanna L; Loudon, Margaret A; Mant, David; Farmer, Andrew J; Prendergast, Bernard D

2014-01-01

194

Close encounters of Near Earth Objects with large asteroids  

E-print Network

Close encounters of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) with large asteroids are a possible source of systematic errors in trajectory propagations and asteroid mitigation. It is, thus, necessary to identify those large asteroids that have to be considered as perturbers in NEO orbit modeling. Using the Standard Dynamical Model we searched for encounters between the 1649 numbered Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and 2191 large asteroids having sizes greater than 20 km. In- vestigating the 21st century A.D. we have found 791 close encounters with 195 different large asteroids that lead to a substantial scattering of NEOs.

Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William; Gurfil, Pini

2014-01-01

195

Gaia and ESA's Space Situational Awareness' Near-Earth Object programme  

E-print Network

and artificial objects in space. This will allow us to better protect our satellites and our planet. The SSA debris (SST) (b) Space Weather (SWE) (c) Near-Earth objects (NEO). While each of these segments

196

The Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels on Driving Variables in a High-Risk Population: Objective and Subjective Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed high-risk individuals' subjective awareness of legal intoxication and ability to drive, and objectively quantified their blood alcohol levels and driving performance. While subjects were able to recognize legal intoxication, one-third of the subjects were still willing to drive after becoming intoxicated beyond the legal limit to drive.…

Cox, Daniel J.; And Others

1995-01-01

197

Individual based modeling of animal populations using object oriented simulation techniques: investigating the effects of bonding, predation and birth cover on white-tailed deer  

E-print Network

INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELING OP ANIMAL POPULATIONS USING OBJECT ORIENTED SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OP BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER A Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Submitted to the Office... SIMULATION TECHNIQUES : INVESTIGATING THE EF'FECTS O( BONDING, PREDATION AND BIRTH COVER ON WHITE-TAILED DEER P, Thesis by CARL DUANE GERMAN Approved as t. o style and content Ly L. sep Folse (Cha r of Committee) /L, w c we+ &/ William E. Grant...

German, Carl Duane

2012-06-07

198

On future opportunities to observe gravitational scattering of main belt asteroids into NEO source regions  

E-print Network

Orbital resonances are believed to be responsible for the delivery of main belt asteroids to the inner Solar System. Several possibilities have been suggested to transport asteroids and their fragments into mean motion and secular resonances including non-gravitational forces and gravitational scattering. We investigate future resonance crossings of known asteroids that occur in the main belt over the next century. Our goal is to identify potentially observable injections of asteroids into source regions for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) as well as to determine the role of close encounters among main belt asteroids in this process.

Ivantsov, Anatoliy; Hestroffer, Daniel; Thuillot, William

2013-01-01

199

Object extraction Object extraction  

E-print Network

Object extraction #12;Object extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · the main goal of aerial photogrammetry · object extraction consists of two steps · image interpretation extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · identify all objects of a certain class · measure

Giger, Christine

200

Neo-Newtonian cosmology: An intermediate step towards General Relativity  

E-print Network

Cosmology is a field of physics in which the use of General Relativity theory is indispensable. However, a cosmology based on Newtonian gravity theory for gravity is possible in certain circumstances. The applicability of Newtonian theory can be substantially extended if it is modified in such way that pressure has a more active role as source of the gravitational field. This was done in the neo-Newtonian cosmology. The limitation on the construction of a Newtonian cosmology, and the need for a relativistic theory in cosmology are reviewed. The neo-Newtonian proposal is presented, and its consequences for cosmology are discussed.

Fabris, J C

2012-01-01

201

Neo-Newtonian cosmology: An intermediate step towards General Relativity  

E-print Network

Cosmology is a field of physics in which the use of General Relativity theory is indispensable. However, a cosmology based on Newtonian gravity theory for gravity is possible in certain circumstances. The applicability of Newtonian theory can be substantially extended if it is modified in such way that pressure has a more active role as source of the gravitational field. This was done in the neo-Newtonian cosmology. The limitation on the construction of a Newtonian cosmology, and the need for a relativistic theory in cosmology are reviewed. The neo-Newtonian proposal is presented, and its consequences for cosmology are discussed.

J. C. Fabris; Hermano Velten

2012-06-30

202

Studies of NEOs as a task for small telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decades of successful research at the high-altitude observatory Terskol in the Northern Caucasus have yielded new data and findings in the field of monitoring and studies of NEOs. Facilities of the Terskol Observatory, which include optical telescopes with diameters up to 2 m, their instrumentation (high- and low-resolution spectrometers, high-speed photometers, CCDs, etc.), have been heavily used for follow-up astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. In this paper, advances in studies of NEOs achieved in the last years at Terskol are presented.

Tarady, V.; Sergeev, O.; Andreev, M.; Godunova, V.; Reshetnyk, V.

2014-03-01

203

Neo-Latin News, Volume 60, Numbers 3 & 4  

E-print Network

;#3;#3;#5;#6;#7;-#8;#3;#5;#6; #11; #5;#3;#12;#2; As the essays in this volume show, much has been done in the area of Portuguese humanism, but much more still remains to be done. (Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University) ? Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Upsaliensis...;#3;#3;#5;#6;#7;-#8;#3;#5;#6; #11; #5;#3;#12;#2; As the essays in this volume show, much has been done in the area of Portuguese humanism, but much more still remains to be done. (Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University) ? Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Upsaliensis...

Kallendorf, Craig

2012-01-01

204

Neo-glycopeptides: the importance of sugar core conformation in oxime-linked glycoprobes  

E-print Network

Neo-glycopeptides: the importance of sugar core conformation in oxime-linked glycoprobes-bound monosaccharide in the resulting neo- glycopeptide probe is forced into the ring-form. Resulting structures were

Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

205

Approaching cognitive-behavioral and existential therapy through Neo-Confucianism  

E-print Network

; Authenticity and Sociality Authenticity Sociality Part Three: Neo-Confucian Structure Insight and the Theory of Opposition A Metaphysics of Will 18 18 23 41 59 59 68 84 84 88 Motivation Theory: A Passion for Form . 95 Existential Therapy...- ferent stance to the questions raised by European existentialists (Nivi son, 1973) . The final part will discuss various aspects of Neo- Confucian structure. Neo-Confucianism and existential therapy share the self-actualization goal. The Neo...

Meyer, Joffre Denis

2012-06-07

206

Cognitive Development Neo-Piagetian Accounts  

E-print Network

on A not-B task reflects immature motor control ­ Conceptual development there, but motor development · Piaget's results on object permanence ­ infants' poor representational abilities? ­ Infants' poor motor...but with highly constrained mechanisms that guide the development of infant reasoning about objects." Renee

Coulson, Seana

207

The inner solar system cratering record and the evolution of impactor populations  

E-print Network

We review previously published and newly obtained crater size-frequency distributions in the inner solar system. These data indicate that the Moon and the terrestrial planets have been bombarded by two populations of objects. Population 1, dominating at early times, had nearly the same size distribution as the present-day asteroid belt, and produced the heavily cratered surfaces with a complex, multi-sloped crater size-frequency distribution. Population 2, dominating since about 3.8-3.7 Ga, has the same size distribution as near-Earth objects (NEOs), had a much lower impact flux, and produced a crater size distribution characterized by a differential -3 single-slope power law in the crater diameter range 0.02 km to 100 km. Taken together with the results from a large body of work on age-dating of lunar and meteorite samples and theoretical work in solar system dynamics, a plausible interpretation of these data is as follows. The NEO population is the source of Population 2 and it has been in near-steady state...

Strom, Robert G; Xiao, Zhiyong; Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Fumi; Ostrach, Lillian R

2014-01-01

208

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

209

SOLAR MONITORING, FORECASTING, AND VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT AT SMUD NEO Virtus Engineering Inc.  

E-print Network

1 SOLAR MONITORING, FORECASTING, AND VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT AT SMUD James Bing NEO Virtus understand the state of forecasting, variability, and future impacts to our system, SMUD and NEO Virtus (HECO), BEW Engineering, Sunpower Corporation, and NEO Virtus Engineering. The full scope includes

Perez, Richard R.

210

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials  

E-print Network

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials Oscar-existing defects. In this article, the theory is used to determine onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo simulations for the growth of a small spherical cavity in a Neo-Hookean block under multi-axial loading. Good

Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

211

A REALIZABLE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR FIBER-REINFORCED NEO-HOOKEAN SOLIDS  

E-print Network

A REALIZABLE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR FIBER-REINFORCED NEO-HOOKEAN SOLIDS Mart�in I. Idiarta for the effective stored-energy function of Neo-Hookean solids reinforced by a random distribution of anisotropic-reinforced Neo-Hookean solids is analyzed in the light of the new predictions. Mec�nica Computacional Vol XXVIII

Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

212

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials  

E-print Network

Cavitation in elastomeric solids: II--Onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean materials Oscar, the theory is used to determine onset-of-cavitation surfaces for Neo-Hookean solids where the defects cavity in a Neo-Hookean block under multi-axial loading. Good agreement is found for a wide range

Nakamura, Toshio

213

Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Neo-angiogenesis and the premalignant micro-circulatory augmentation of early colon carcinogenesis Neo-angiogenesis a b s t r a c t Spectroscopic techniques have demonstrated dysregulation of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neo

Ottino, Julio M.

214

Incipient Adult Personality: The NEO-PI-3 in Middle-School-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study administered the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3), a more readable version of an adult measure of the Five-Factor Model, to 449 boys and girls aged 12 and 13, who described themselves or a peer. Analyses of readability, reliability, factor structure, and convergent and discriminant validity suggested that the NEO-PI-3 can be…

Costa, Paul T., Jr.; McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

215

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system  

E-print Network

NEO-CORTEX: a performant user-oriented multi-document summarization system Florian Boudin and Juan the document set as a whole, as well as indi- vidual documents. We present NEO-CORTEX, a multi-document sum base formed by the NIST DUC-2005 and DUC-2006 data. Our experiments have shown that NEO- CORTEX

Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

216

Puzzle-solving in Psychology: the Neo-Galtonian vs. Nomothetic Research Focuses  

E-print Network

Puzzle-solving in Psychology: the Neo-Galtonian vs. Nomothetic Research Focuses St´ephane Vautiera the neo-Galtonian and nomothetic approaches of psychological research. While the former focuses will call them paradigms. The first one has been called neo-Galtonian by Danziger (1987, 1990) and is most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Inferring compositional style in the neo-plastic paintings of Piet Mondrian by machine learning  

E-print Network

Inferring compositional style in the neo-plastic paintings of Piet Mondrian by machine learning of the neo-plastic works of Piet Mondrian to infer his compositional principles, to generate "faux" works of genuine works by this artist. Keywords: Piet Mondrian, stylometry, neo-plastic painting, abstract art

Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

218

Attractors and neo-attractors for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equations  

E-print Network

Attractors and neo-attractors for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equations Nigel J. Cutland and H properties. We strengthen this result by showing that the attractor has stronger properties making it a neo, neo-attractor, stochastic Navier­Stokes equations, Loeb space 1 Introduction The chief topic

Keisler, H. Jerome

219

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL  

E-print Network

THE HEXATONIC SYSTEMS UNDER NEO-RIEMANNIAN THEORY: AN EXPLORATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF MUSIC KENNETH OSHITA Abstract. Neo-Riemannian theory developed as the mathematical analysis of musical harmonies, but of sound- ing atonal. Neo-Riemannian theory not only allowed for the mathematical

May, J. Peter

220

Classification of Wordnet Personality Adjectives in the NEO PI-R Taxonomy bouchet@limsi.fr  

E-print Network

Classification of Wordnet Personality Adjectives in the NEO PI-R Taxonomy F. Bouchet bouchet of the NEO PI-R taxonomy related to the Five Factor Model. The classification process is not only based. Keywords: Personality traits adjectives, FFM and NEO PI-R taxonomies, Wordnet. 1 Introduction 1.1 Context

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

221

The Ned Davis Research Evolutionary Optimizer (NEO) is a tool that performs  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The Ned Davis Research Evolutionary Optimizer (NEO) is a tool that performs that form nearly optimal pro- grams for investment timing or asset allo- cation. The primary inputs to NEO- ing signals or asset allocation recommen- dations. 1. Introduction NEO is an efficient generator

Fernandez, Thomas

222

Neo-Classical Minimax Problems, Thresholding, and Adaptation David L. Donoho1 Iain M. Johnstone2  

E-print Network

Neo-Classical Minimax Problems, Thresholding, and Adaptation David L. Donoho1 Iain M. Johnstone2 other and to two other neo-classical problems: the problems of the bounded normal mean and of the risk. Recently, we have entered a neo-classical period, where modi#12;cations of the classical minimax problem

Donoho, David

223

How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo-Gricean account of indexical reference  

E-print Network

1 How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo- Gricean account of indexical and the interlocutive relationships developed throughout the discourse. The article also assesses the neo perspective at points of transition between units. My more major goal is to assess the extent to which one neo

Boyer, Edmond

224

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA  

E-print Network

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 1 NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation  

E-print Network

ARTICLES A role for a neo-sex chromosome in stickleback speciation Jun Kitano1 {, Joseph A. Ross1 in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We first identified a neo-sex chromosome system found of male-specific traits important for reproductive isolation between the Japanese species pair. The neo

Chan, Yingguang

226

A neo-institutionalist model of the diffusion of IFRS accounting standards  

E-print Network

A neo-institutionalist model of the diffusion of IFRS accounting standards Dominique Dufour standards known as the IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards). This model fits within the neo the adoption of these new standards is the neo- institutional framework and that the principal methodologies

Boyer, Edmond

227

Attractors and neo-attractors for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equations  

E-print Network

Attractors and neo-attractors for 3D stochastic Navier-Stokes equations it a neo-attractor - a notion introduced here that arises naturally from the Keisler-Fajardo theory-suited to this enterprise. KEYWORDS attractor, neo-attractor, stochastic Navier-Stokes equations, Loeb space 1

Keisler, H. Jerome

228

The NEO Protocol for Large-Scale Distributed Database Systems: Modelling and Initial Verification  

E-print Network

The NEO Protocol for Large-Scale Distributed Database Systems: Modelling and Initial Verification and first analysis results carried out within the NEOPPOD project. A protocol, NEO, has been designed NEO. This protocol must also ensure both safety and reliability, which is not easy to achieve

Evangelista, Sami

229

NEO-P1 Profiles in PTSD as a Function of Trauma Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and Combat Exposure Scale to 100 Vietnam veterans with combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and sorted subjects into three groups based on trauma exposure level. Found no significant differences among personality profiles of three trauma-exposed groups. Revealed normative NEO-PI…

Talbert, F. Suzanne; And Others

1993-01-01

230

NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scores: Psychometric Properties in a Community Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric analysis of scores from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) confirmed their internal and test-retest reliability in an Australian adult sample. The data also provided support for the internal and temporal reliability of scores derived from 13 lower order item clusters identified in the NEO-FFI. (Contains 25 references and 4…

Murray, Greg; Rawlings, David; Allen, Nicholas B.; Trinder, John

2003-01-01

231

NASA Space Missions to Asteroids: Protecting the Earth from NEO Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a general recognition of the hazard of impacts on Earth by comets and asteroids, but there is yet no consensus concerning international actions that should be taken to protect the planet from such impacts. An essential step in the analysis of the situation involves estimating the relative hazard posed by comets and asteroids of different sizes and orbits. All recent studies agree that the larger impacts pose the greater danger, and that our primary concern from the perspective of total risk should be on impacts that are large enough to cause global ecological catastrophe. These global catastrophes are also of special interest, since they (alone among natural disasters) have the potential to destroy civilization. Studies of the sensitivity of the Earth's environment suggest that the energy threshold energy for causing a global catastrophe is at about 1 million megatons, corresponding to impactor diameters of 1.5 to 2 km. This information leads naturally to a strategy of concentrating on the larger NEOs, say those 1 km or more in diameter. This is the rationale for the Spaceguard Survey, which must be the highest priority in mitigation efforts. The second question concerns the value of developing standing defensive systems that could deflect or destroy an incoming NEO. In the case of the asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter, no such system is needed, since there will be ample time (at least several decades) between the discovery of the threatening object by Spaceguard and the requirement to take action against it. In the case of objects smaller than 1 km diameter, development of defensive systems is not cost-effective; there are many greater dangers to persons and property that are much more urgent. Only in the case of large long-period comets is there a rationale for standing defense systems. The question is also raised whether the risks inherent in developing and maintaining a defense system might be greater than the impact risks it is intended to guard against. These and related issues are the focus of much current international debate on defense of the planet against NEO impacts. Meanwhile, the most critical issue remains the expansion of the telescopic search for NEOs.

Morrison, David; Berry, William E. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

232

Exceptional Intellectual Performance: A Neo-Piagetian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual level, working memory capacity and domain-specific skills of two girls (aged 7 and 11 years old) and two boys (aged 9 and 10 years old) who displayed exceptional intellectual performance were investigated from Case's neo-Piagetian theoretical perspective. Five measures of conceptual level and two measures of working memory capacity…

Loewen, Susan

2006-01-01

233

Yeulu Academy: Landscape and gardens of neo-Confucian pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of correspondence between the title and content of this poem raises a question: Why did Zhu Xi write about water, a pond and a spring in a poem meant to be about book-reading? This poem follows the neo-Confucian belief that writing should be the expression of profound philosophic thoughts and cosmologic views. Views on learning are conveyed through

Xin Wu

2005-01-01

234

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a "pilot personality" does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Don; Schutte, Paul C. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

235

Pilot Personality Profile Using the NEO-PI-R  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper recounts the qualitative research conducted to determine if a general personality measure would provide a personality profile for commercial aviation pilots. The researchers investigated a widely used general personality inventory, the NEO-PI-R, with 93 pilots. The results indicate that a 'pilot personality' does exist. Future research and implications are discussed.

Fitzgibbons, Amy; Davis, Donald; Schutte, Paul C.

2004-01-01

236

Compromising positions: Theorizing American neo-noir film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines a loose-knit genre of mystery thrillers produced every year between 1966 and 1996, defined as neo-noir movies. Whereas much work has been published on classic film noirs, produced between 1940 and 1958, little criticism has been written about the newer films. The first chapter provides a theoretical analysis and critique of the general history of film genre

William Bennett Covey

1996-01-01

237

Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

Evans, Mary

2014-01-01

238

Public Accountability in the Age of Neo-Liberal Governance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the impact of neo-liberal corporate accountability on educational governance since the demise of professional accountability in the mid-1970s. Argues that corporate accountability is inappropriate for educational governance. Proposes an alternative model: democratic accountability. (Contains 1 figure and 125 references.)(PKP)

Ranson, Stewart

2003-01-01

239

Nationalizing Shakespeare in Québec: Theorizing Post\\/Neo\\/Colonial Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Québec's political situation and multiple identities as a colonial, postcolonial, and neo-colonial nation make its adaptations of Shakespeare unique. By appropriating the canonical authority of Shakespeare's texts, Québécois adapters legitimize their local struggle for national liberation; however, this appropriation requires that they negotiate a fine line between the enrichment of Québécois culture and its possible contamination, assimilation, or effacement by

JENNIFER DROUIN

240

Measuring Moral Thinking from a Neo-Kohlbergian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The neo-Kohlbergian model revises and extends Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning development to better reflect advances in research and theory. In moving from Kohlberg's global stage model to a multi-process description of moral functioning, these modifications are most evident in the ways in which moral thinking is described,…

Thoma, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

241

THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

Bianco, F. B. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lehner, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Mondal, S. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 129 (India); Giammarco, J. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Eastern University, 1300 Eagle Road, Saint Davids, PA 19087 (United States); Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coehlo, N. K. [Department of Statistics, University of California-Berkeley, 367 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32054, Taiwan (China); Cook, K. H. [Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Dave, R. [Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pater, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California-Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lissauer, J. J. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)], E-mail: fbianco@lcogt.net (and others)

2010-04-15

242

The TAOS Project: Upper Bounds on the Population of Small Kuiper Belt Objects and Tests of Models of Formation and Evolution of the Outer Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 × 105 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan & Sari, Kenyon & Bromley, Benavidez & Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; King, S.-K.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Coehlo, N. K.; Wang, J.-H.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Kim, D.-W.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

2010-04-01

243

Neo-Fregeanism Reconsidered Agustin Rayo  

E-print Network

God created light; by the sixth day, she had created a large and complex world, including black holes the existence of mathematical objects: something that wasn't already in place when she created black holes in a suitably deflationary way. (For the fact that snow is white to obtain just is for snow to be white; to have

Rayo, Agustín

244

Ideology and population theory.  

PubMed

The ideological and ethical foundations of population theory are examined in the light of the supposed eithical neutrality of scientific enquiry. The works of Malthus, Ricardo, and Marx are contrasted and it is shown that their theories of population resulted in each case from the adoption of a particular kind of method--empiricism in Malthus, normative analytic "model building" in Ricardo, and dialectical materialism in Marx. It is shown that a Malthusian or neo-Malthusian view of the population problem is inevitable if enquiry is founded in empiricism or in normative analytics. The well-known disagreement between Malthusian and Marxian viewpoints therefore has its foundation in method. Most modern enquiry into the population-resources problem is dominated by empirical and analytic (including systems theory) approaches and consequently arrives at neo-Malthusian conclusions. The final section analyses the consequences of adopting a neo-Malthusian view, and it is shown that in a world dominated by an elite, this can frequently bring about the political, social, and economic repression of a non-elite. It is concluded that the choice of scientific method does not produce unbiased results and that the dominance of a certain conception of scientific method leads to the scientific support of a viewpoint used to justify repression of the underprivileged in society. PMID:4448574

Harvey, D

1974-01-01

245

The Role of Groundbased Radar in Near-Earth-Object Hazard Identification and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groundbased radar is a key technique for the post-discovery reconnaissance of NEOs and is likely to play a central role in identification of possibly threatening objects during the foreseeable future.

Ostro, S. J.

1993-01-01

246

Effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-earth objects  

E-print Network

The effects of Earth encounters on the physical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been shown to be significant factors in their evolution. Previous studies have examined the effects of these encounters on ...

Siu, Ho Chit

2014-01-01

247

A clinical trial of Neo Sampoon vaginal tablets and Emko foam in Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

Results are reported for a comparative 12-month study of Neo Sampoon foaming vaginal tablets containing 60 mg of the spermicide, menfegol, and Emko vaginal foam containing an 8.0% concentration of the spermicide, nonoxynol-9. Conducted in cooperation with the Family Planning Association in Alexandria, Egypt, the trial included 349 women who were randomly allocated to use one of the two contraceptive products. The twelve-month cumulative life-table rate for accidental pregnancy (per 100 women) was 2.8 for Neo Sampoon tablet users and 2.1 for Emko foam users. The 12-month continuation rates were 77.6 and 77.2 per 100 women for the tablet and foam groups, respectively. In both groups, the majority of discontinuations from the study were for personal reasons, including lack of confidence in the method, messiness, partner's objection and a burning sensation. Few women reported a product-related complaint while using their assigned contraceptive method. The most commonly reported complaint for both methods was that use of the product led to an uncomfortable burning sensation for the woman and/or her partner. This complaint, however, was cited by less than 5% of the women in each group. Thus, a combination of low pregnancy rates, few complications and complaints and high continuation rates confirm the relative acceptability, effectiveness and short-term safety of these methods of contraception among this sample of Egyptian women. PMID:3297482

Youssef, H; Crofton, V A; Smith, S C; Siemens, A J

1987-02-01

248

Are 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and CM chondrites related?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet 2P/Encke is a short-period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. It has an orbital period of 3.3 years and its orbit is dynamically decoupled from Jupiter's control due to gravitational interaction with terrestrial planets [6]. It is the only comet known on such an orbit, making it unique. Capture from the outer solar system onto its current orbit is very unlikely and even a continuous smooth dynamical evolution has a low probability as this requires a continuous period when it is dormant in order to avoid the volatiles from the nucleus becoming exhausted and making the current observed activity impossible. An origin in the asteroid belt is a possibility especially in view of the recently discovered main belt comets. The nucleus of 2P/Encke is dark (geometric albedo of 0.047 ± 0.023 [3]), has an effective radius of 2.4 ± 0.3 km [3] and it has polarimetric properties that are unique compared to other measured types of solar system objects, such as asteroids, TNOs, cometary dust, Centaurs [2]. The colors of 2P/Encke's nucleus are typical for comets, but no spectra of the nucleus in the visible wavelength range exist so far. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke, but the activity of the comet is not strong enough to explain the number of observed meteors. It has been suggested that the meteoroid stream was caused by the break up of a larger parent body, which left comet 2P/Encke and other various small bodies along with a stream of dust. Various small near-Earth objects (NEOs) have been discovered with orbits that can be linked with 2P/Encke and the Taurid meteoroid stream [1]. Though many of the associations are spurious due to the low inclination of 2P/Encke's orbit, many NEO's have evolved in a similar way to 2P/Encke overa period of 5000 years [8] suggesting some relationship. In addition to dynamical properties, common taxonomic properties can also provide an indication of a common origin for small bodies in the solar system. Taxonomic properties are poorly known for cometary nuclei and only few comets have measurements in the visible wavelength range. The existing spectra of bare nuclei are generally featureless and display different reddening slopes. Given the poor S/N ratio that is usually obtained in observations, more subtle features, such as ones from hydrated minerals, are beyond the detection limit in most cases. If the Taurid complex NEOs are fragments of the same body as 2P/Encke, we expect them to have the same spectral properties as the comet nucleus. Furthermore, it would be reasonable to expect that these NEOs could show cometary activity. Maribo is a type CM carbonaceous chondrite that fell in Denmark on 17 January 2009 [5]. The preatmospheric orbit of the object places it in the middle of the Taurid meteor stream [4], which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites, meaning that these meteorites are potentially samples of cometary material we can study in the laboratory. CM chondrites show signs of extensive aqueous alteration, which suggest that the parent body was an icy body that was at least partially molten at some point. It is therefore possible that the parent body of the CM chondrites is a comet [7]. In order to investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex associated NEOs and CM chondrites exists, spectroscopic studies of these objects were performed. Here we present ground-based observations, in the visible wavelength range, of 2P/Encke and 12 candidate Taurid NEOs obtained on 2 August 2011 at the ESO-VLT in Chile, using the FORS2 instrument. We obtained the first optical spectrum of the inactive nucleus of comet 2P/Encke and optical spectra of the selected candidate Taurid NEOs. In addition we obtained deep images in the R filter of each NEO to search for activity and of 2P/Encke to confirm that the comet was not active at the time of the observation. Preliminary analysis shows that 2P/Encke has a starlike pro

Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, R.; Haack, H.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Williams, I.; Boehnhardt, H.

2013-09-01

249

NASA's Program to Monitor Orbital Debris in the GEO Belt and the General Problem of Measuring Near-Earth Object Orbits: Similarities and Differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the goals for NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office has been to accurately characterize the population of debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) environment. Most objects larger than about 1 meter in size are regularly tracked and catalogued by the US Space Surveillance System in the GEO regime. The consequence has been that most large intact GEO objects are tracked, but the vast majority of GEO debris fragments are not. Only in recent years have observations been dedicated to characterize the GEO debris population. NASA s efforts have concentrated on using wide field-of-view telescopes to make complete surveys of the GEO regime to better our statistical understanding of the GEO debris population. These telescopes operate in a staring mode, and only make limited short-arc measurements of the orbits. This information, while limited, allows the possibility of debiasing the observations and constructing statistical distributions of orbits in inclination and ascending node. Recent work suggests that we may be able to use statistical methods to estimate better orbit parameters despite the limited data. Both of these types of studies estimating statistical orbit distributions, and estimating accurate orbits using limited short-arc data have direct analogues in ongoing studies of near-Earth objects (NEO) such as asteroids and comets. This talk will describe the GEO study methods in use and being developed at NASA, and will discuss how such methods may or may not be applicable for NEO studies as well.

Matney, Mark

2006-01-01

250

On the Nature of Sodium Excess Objects. I. Data and Observed Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have reported the presence of sodium excess objects having neutral atomic absorption lines at 5895 Å (Na D) and 8190 Å that are deeper than expected based on stellar population models that match the stellar continuum. The origin of these lines is therefore hotly debated. van Dokkum & Conroy proposed that low-mass stars (lsim0.3 M ?) are more prevalent in massive early-type galaxies, which may lead to a strong Na I 8190 line strength. It is necessary to test this prediction, however, against other prominent optical line indices such as Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270, which can be measured with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than Na I 8190. We identified a new sample of roughly 1000 Na D excess objects (NEOs; ~8% of galaxies in the sample) based on Na D line strength in the redshift range 0.00 <= z <= 0.08 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 through detailed analysis of galaxy spectra. We explore the properties of these new objects here. The novelty of this work is that the galaxies were carefully identified through direct visual inspection of SDSS images, and we systematically compared the properties of NEOs and those of a control sample of galaxies with normal Na D line strengths. We note that the majority of galaxies with high velocity dispersions (? e > 250 km s-1) show Na D excesses. Most late-type NEOs have strong H? line strengths and significant emission lines, which are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. This result implies that the presence of the interstellar medium and/or dust contributes to the increase in Na D line strengths observed for these galaxies, which is in good agreement with the earlier study of Chen et al. who used the Na D line index to study outflow activity in star-forming disk galaxies. In contrast, the majority of early-type NEOs are predominantly luminous and massive systems, which is in agreement with the findings of van Dokkum & Conroy. However, we find that models used to reproduce the Na I 8190 line strengths that adopt a bottom-heavy initial mass function are not able to reproduce the observed Na D line strengths. By comparing the observed Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270 line strengths with those of the models, we identify a plausible range of parameters that reproduce the observed values. In these models, the majority of early-type NEOs are "?-enhanced" ([?/Fe] ~ 0.3), "metal-rich" ([Z/H] ~ 0.3), and, especially, "Na-enhanced" ([Na/Fe] ~ 0.3). An enhanced Na abundance is a particularly compelling hypothesis for the increase in the strength of the Na D line index in our early-type NEOs that appear devoid of dust, both in their SDSS images and spectra.

Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sarzi, Marc; Sung, Eon-Chang; Oh, Kyuseok

2013-09-01

251

ON THE NATURE OF SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS. I. DATA AND OBSERVED TRENDS  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have reported the presence of sodium excess objects having neutral atomic absorption lines at 5895 A (Na D) and 8190 A that are deeper than expected based on stellar population models that match the stellar continuum. The origin of these lines is therefore hotly debated. van Dokkum and Conroy proposed that low-mass stars ({approx}<0.3 M{sub Sun }) are more prevalent in massive early-type galaxies, which may lead to a strong Na I 8190 line strength. It is necessary to test this prediction, however, against other prominent optical line indices such as Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270, which can be measured with a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than Na I 8190. We identified a new sample of roughly 1000 Na D excess objects (NEOs; {approx}8% of galaxies in the sample) based on Na D line strength in the redshift range 0.00 {<=} z {<=} 0.08 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 through detailed analysis of galaxy spectra. We explore the properties of these new objects here. The novelty of this work is that the galaxies were carefully identified through direct visual inspection of SDSS images, and we systematically compared the properties of NEOs and those of a control sample of galaxies with normal Na D line strengths. We note that the majority of galaxies with high velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub e} > 250 km s{sup -1}) show Na D excesses. Most late-type NEOs have strong H{beta} line strengths and significant emission lines, which are indicative of the presence of young stellar populations. This result implies that the presence of the interstellar medium and/or dust contributes to the increase in Na D line strengths observed for these galaxies, which is in good agreement with the earlier study of Chen et al. who used the Na D line index to study outflow activity in star-forming disk galaxies. In contrast, the majority of early-type NEOs are predominantly luminous and massive systems, which is in agreement with the findings of van Dokkum and Conroy. However, we find that models used to reproduce the Na I 8190 line strengths that adopt a bottom-heavy initial mass function are not able to reproduce the observed Na D line strengths. By comparing the observed Na D, Mg b, and Fe 5270 line strengths with those of the models, we identify a plausible range of parameters that reproduce the observed values. In these models, the majority of early-type NEOs are ''{alpha}-enhanced'' ([{alpha}/Fe] {approx} 0.3), ''metal-rich'' ([Z/H] {approx} 0.3), and, especially, ''Na-enhanced'' ([Na/Fe] {approx} 0.3). An enhanced Na abundance is a particularly compelling hypothesis for the increase in the strength of the Na D line index in our early-type NEOs that appear devoid of dust, both in their SDSS images and spectra.

Jeong, Hyunjin; Kyeong, Jaemann; Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sukyoung K.; Oh, Kyuseok [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sarzi, Marc, E-mail: hyunjin@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: yi@yonsei.ac.kr [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield Al10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2013-09-15

252

Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency attenuates neo-intima formation in the femoral cuff model of hyperlipidemic mice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have anti-inflammatory effects and are required for normal endothelial function. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes EETs to their less active diols. We hypothesized that knockout and inhibition of sEH prevents neo-intima formation in hyperlipidemic ApoE?/? mice. Methods and Results Inhibition of sEH by 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or knockout of the enzyme significantly increased plasma EET levels. sEH activity was detectable in femoral and carotid arteries. sEH knockout or inhibition resulted in a significant reduction of neo-intima formation in the femoral artery cuff model but not following carotid artery ligation. Although macrophage infiltration occurred abundantly at the site of cuff placement in both sEH+/+ and sEH?/?, the expression of pro-inflammatory genes was significantly reduced in femoral arteries from sEH?/?-mice. Moreover, an in vivo-BrdU-assay revealed that SMC-proliferation at the site of cuff placement was attenuated in sEH knockout and sEH inhibitor treated animals. Conclusions These observations suggest that inhibition of sEH prevents vascular remodelling in an inflammatory model but not in a blood-flow dependent model of neo-intima formation. PMID:20224052

Revermann, Marc; Schloss, Manuel; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Mieth, Anja; Liebner, Stefan; Morisseau, Christophe; Geisslinger, Gerd; Schermuly, Ralph T.; Fleming, Ingrid; Hammock, Bruce D.; Brandes, Ralf P.

2010-01-01

253

neo traditional Salafis Qur'an-Sunna hermeneutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to outline the delineating features of a Qur’an-Sunnah hermeneuticof one of the contemporary Muslim schools of thought, here named Neo-traditional Sala?sm(NTS).The ?rst section of the article provides a brief discussion of the main representatives of NTS. In the second part NTS is positioned in relation to the broader Islamic tradition. This isdone so with

A. Duderija

2011-01-01

254

The technical developments in Neo-Disney's feature computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the significant meaning of the master techniques that have been used in the Neo-Disney phase by Disney and its partners. The paper first introduces some of the main highlights of this technical development and its implementation as a key feature of mainstream filmmaking in the 21st century. Hyper-reality, stylize digital imagery and animation is a breakthrough CGI

Simiao Wu

2012-01-01

255

Optogalvanic study of A Ne/O 2 glow discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a partial mechanism for excitation and energy transfer in a Ne/O 2 dc discharge. Atomic and molecular concentrations are monitored via the optogalvanic effect. A resonant Penning ionization process is proposed for the production of O 2+(a 4? u t, ? = 3). An optogalvanic signal, due to atomic oxygen, can be used to monitor oxygen at levels as low as 100 ppm.

Nogar, N. S.; Keaton, G. L.

1985-10-01

256

Marco Polo: Near Earth Object sample return mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission of sample return from a Near Earth Object. The Marco Polo proposal was submitted to ESA on July 2007 in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context, and on October 2007 passed the first evaluation process. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, belonging to a class

E. Dotto; M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawaguchi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

2008-01-01

257

The Marco Polo space mission: sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object under assessment study in the Cosmic Vision Program of the European Space Agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marco Polo is a joint European-Japanese mission study to perform a sample return from a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO). On October 2007, this mission project passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme 2015-2025. The aim of Marco Polo is to reach a primitive NEO, to perform a multiple scale characterization of its physical properties, and to bring samples back to the Earth for detailed analysis in laboratory. The NEO population is composed by asteroids and comets that are thought to be the primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process. Due to their small sizes, their chemical composition is believed to have kept some memory of the original chemical composition of the solar nebula, contrary to larger planetary bodies who experienced major thermal processes in their interior. They may also carry some important information related to life formation as current exobiological scenarios invoke an exogeneous delivery of organic matter to the early Earth for the origin of terrestrial life. Finally, the hazard caused by these small bodies needs mitigation strategies which efficiency relies on our understanding of their physical properties. Marco Polo will give us the first opportunity for detailed laboratory study of the most primitive materials. This sample return space mission has therefore the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials, essential to undestand the conditions for planet formation and emergency of life. Current mission studies and expected results will be presented and discussed.

Michel, P.

2008-09-01

258

Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

2007-01-01

259

Traits de personnalit computationnels Enrichissement de la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R avec  

E-print Network

Traits de personnalité computationnels Enrichissement de la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R avec des gloses taxonomie NEO PI-R, en relation avec le Modèle des Cinq Facteurs (FFM ­ Five Factor Model). Le processus de dans les positions de l'arborescence définies par la taxonomie FFM/NEO PI-R, une phase de réarrangement

Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

260

NEO PI-R Personality Characteristics of High-Performing Entry-Level Police Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEO Personality Inventory—Revised (NEO PI-R; P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McRae, 1992) measures the 5-factor model of personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and 30 specific personality facets within these domains. Researchers in personnel selection are beginning to use the NEO PI-R to describe the personality characteristics of high-functioning employees, including police officers. Here, 100 field training

Paul Detrick; John T. Chibnall

2006-01-01

261

A New Learning Environment: The NeoMuseum\\/Children's Media Museum Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NeoMuseum in Yoshino, Japan is a prototype for a chidrens media museum, an experiment in collaborative research with the goal of creating a multimedia-based learning environment for children. The name NeoMuseurn reflects the goal of exploring new roles for childrens museums made possible by new educatlon- al technologies. The purpose of the NeoMuseum is to design and develop socially

Nobuyuki Ueda; Mark D. Gross

1991-01-01

262

Evaluating Replicability of Factors in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Confirmatory Factor Analysis Versus Procrustes Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the empirical robustness of the 5-factor model of personality, recent confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) data suggest they do not fit the hypothesized model. In a replication study of 229 adults, a series of CFAs showed that Revised NEO-PI scales are not simple-structured but do approximate the normative 5-factor structure. CFA goodness-of-fit indices, however, were

Robert R. McCrae; Alan B. Zonderman; Paul T. Costa; Michael H. Bond; Sampo V. Paunonen

1996-01-01

263

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Virtual Impactors (VIs) and Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs up to 90 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observable in the range 21objects where the longest arcs can be created, but we will observe other, more recently discovered NEOs as well. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of the most dangerous NEOs that accumulate large errors, enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

2014-02-01

264

Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-Y Chromosome of Drosophila Americana Americana  

PubMed Central

The extent of genetic degeneration of the neo-Y chromosome of Drosophila americana americana has been investigated. Three loci, coding for the enzymes enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase and alcohol dehydrogenase, have been localized to chromosome 4 of D. a. americana, which forms the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes. Crosses between D. a. americana and D. virilis or D. montana showed that the loci coding for these enzymes carry active alleles on the neo-Y chromosome in all wild-derived strains of americana that were tested. Intercrosses between a genetically marked stock of virilis and strains of americana were carried out, creating F(3) males that were homozygous for sections of the neo-Y chromosome. The sex ratios in the F(3) generation of the intercrosses showed that no lethal alleles have accumulated on any of the neo-Y chromosomes tested. There was evidence for more minor reductions in fitness, but this seems to be mainly caused by deleterious alleles that are specific to each strain. A similar picture was provided by examination of the segregation ratios of two marker genes among the F(3) progeny. Overall, the data suggest that the neo-Y chromosome has undergone very little degeneration, certainly not to the extent of having lost the functions of vital genes. This is consistent with the recent origin of the neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes, and the slow rates at which the forces that cause Y chromosome degeneration are likely to work. PMID:9093852

Charlesworth, B.; Charlesworth, D.; Hnilicka, J.; Yu, A.; Guttman, D. S.

1997-01-01

265

The Dark Circle| Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian Fiction.  

E-print Network

?? This dissertation offers critical and theoretical approaches for understanding depictions of Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian fiction. Spiritualism has fascinated and repelled writers since… (more)

Good, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

266

The Dark Circle: Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian Fiction.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation offers critical and theoretical approaches for understanding depictions of Spiritualism in Victorian and Neo-Victorian fiction. Spiritualism has fascinated and repelled writers since the… (more)

Good, Joseph

2012-01-01

267

A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)  

SciTech Connect

At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

2008-01-01

268

Embolized meningiomas: risk of overgrading and neo-angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Pre-operative embolization (POE) of meningiomas may induce histological changes which simulate malignancy, possibly resulting in overgrading. Aims of the present study were to identify clues to distinguish malignancy-related features from POE-related changes and to test for overgrading the grading scheme currently in use, in embolized meningiomas. In addition, we aimed to analyze whether the POE procedure may stimulate neo-angiogenesis in meningiomas. The histological features of a series of embolized meningiomas were evaluated and considered for grading assessment. In the same cases neo-angiogenesis was quantified by the evaluation of microvessel density (MVD) and correlated with the interval between POE and surgery. Necrosis and macronucleoli represented common findings in embolized meningiomas. Nonetheless, in most of the cases, necrosis showed an abrupt line of demarcation from the viable tumour tissue, and macronucleoli were restricted to peri-necrotic areas. Suggesting that these were POE-associated changes, exclusion of necrotic areas with an abrupt line of transition and focal macronucleoli from grading assessment resulted in increased specificity and positive predictive value in the identification of recurring meningiomas. In our cohort, MVD significantly increased with the time between POE and surgery, suggesting that POE procedure may induce neo-angiogenesis in meningiomas. In conclusion, a risk of overgrading there exists in embolized meningiomas, as a consequence of the frequent evidence of necrosis and prominent nucleoli in these tumours. In order to avoid overgrading, we suggest that necrosis showing an abrupt line of demarcation and focal peri-necrotic macronucleoli are not included in grading assessment. Also, caution should be used in the interpretation of MVD as a prognostic factor in embolized meningioma, as it may also result from POE procedure. PMID:23504284

Barresi, Valeria; Branca, Giovanni; Granata, Francesca; Alafaci, Concetta; Caffo, Maria; Tuccari, Giovanni

2013-06-01

269

Evidence of a neo-sex chromosome in birds  

PubMed Central

Neo-sex chromosomes often originate from sex chromosome–autosome fusions and constitute an important basis for the study of gene degeneration and expression in a sex chromosomal context. Neo-sex chromosomes are known from many animal and plant lineages, but have not been reported in birds, a group in which genome organization seems particularly stable. Following indications of sex linkage and unexpected sex-biased gene expression in warblers (Sylvioidea; Passeriformes), we have conducted an extensive marker analysis targeting 31 orthologues of loci on zebra finch chromosome 4a in five species, representative of independent branches of Passerida. We identified a region of sex linkage covering approximately the first half (10?Mb) of chromosome 4a, and associated to both Z and W chromosomes, in three Sylvioidea passerine species. Linkage analysis in an extended pedigree of one species additionally confirmed the association between this part of chromosome 4a and the Z chromosome. Markers located between 10 and 21?Mb of chromosome 4a showed no signs of sex linkage, suggesting that only half of the chromosome was involved in this transition. No sex linkage was observed in non-Sylvioidea passerines, indicating that the neo-sex chromosome arose at the base of the Sylvioidea branch of the avian phylogeny, at 47.4–37.6 millions years ago (MYA), substantially later than the ancestral sex chromosomes (150 MYA). We hypothesize that the gene content of chromosome 4a might be relevant in its transition to a sex chromosome, based on the presence of genes (for example, the androgen receptor) that could offer a selective advantage when associated to Z-linked sex determination loci. PMID:21897438

Pala, I; Naurin, S; Stervander, M; Hasselquist, D; Bensch, S; Hansson, B

2012-01-01

270

Towards a Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

The Copenhagen interpretation is critically considered. A number of ambiguities, inconsistencies and confusions are discussed. It is argued that it is possible to purge the interpretation so as to obtain a consistent and reasonable way to interpret the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, which is in agreement with the way this theory is dealt with in experimental practice. In particular, the essential role attributed by the Copenhagen interpretation to measurement is acknowledged. For this reason it is proposed to refer to it as a neo-Copenhagen interpretation.

W. M. de Muynck

2003-07-31

271

Educational Modes of Thinking in Neo-Confucianism: A Traditional Lens for Rethinking Modern Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the distinctive educational modes of thinking in Neo-Confucianism, with an interest of extracting Confucian reflective views for modern education of traditionally Confucian East Asia. Neo-Confucian typical modes of thinking on education are characterized as "heart-mind centered" and "learning as…

Hwang, Keumjoong

2013-01-01

272

The Political Economy of Greek Policing: Between NeoLiberalism and the Sovereign State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates historical developments, modern structures and future trends in Greek policing from the viewpoint of contemporary neo-liberal policing and social theory. We argue throughout this article that although neo-liberal thinking has indeed recently crept into the rhetoric and logics of Greek governance, the particular social, geographical and political history of the Hellenic Republic has muted these tendencies significantly

George S. Rigakos; Georgios Papanicolaou

2003-01-01

273

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense Conference  

E-print Network

NEO Mitigation and Coordination with the Disaster Management Community 1st IAA Planetary Defense-the-ground disaster management procedures. An integrated international framework for responding to the NEO threat has and engineers and the international disaster management community. INTRODUCTION If a potentially damaging impact

Chapman, Clark R.

274

Neo-Liberalism in British Columbia Education and Teachers' Union Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the election of the Campbell government in 2001, teachers have experienced heightened conflict with the provincial government. An analysis of the discourse and power relations between the BC Teachers' Federation (BCTF) and government reveals a neo-liberal agenda on the part of government and anti-neo-liberalism on the part of the BCTF.…

Poole, Wendy

2007-01-01

275

Is ASEAN powerful? Neo-realist versus constructivist approaches to power in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper asks: ‘is ASEAN powerful?’ The argument is made that there is a divide over this question between two broad groups of scholars who are referred to as ‘neo-realists’ (including realists) and ‘constructivists’. Focusing attention on this question is useful because it helps to bring into view three, not always explicit, points of argument between constructivists and neo-realists in

Sarah Eaton; Richard Stubbs

2006-01-01

276

High sensitivity of cancer exome-based CD8 T cell neo-antigen identification  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that T-cell reactivity against tumor-specific neo-antigens may be central to the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. The development of personalized vaccines designed to boost T-cell reactivity against patient specific neo-antigens has been proposed largely on the basis of these findings. Work from several groups has demonstrated that novel tumor-specific antigens can be discovered through the use of cancer exome sequencing data, thereby providing a potential pipeline for the development of patient-specific vaccines. Importantly though, it has not been established which fraction of cancer neo-antigens that can be recognized by CD8+ T cells is successfully uncovered with the current exome-based epitope prediction strategies. Here, we use a data set comprising human cancer neo-antigens that was previously identified through the use of unbiased, computational-independent strategies to describe the potential of cancer exome-based neo-antigen discovery. This analysis shows a high sensitivity of exome-guided neo-antigen prediction of approximately 70%. We propose that future research should focus on the analysis and optimization of the specificity of neo-antigen prediction, and should undoubtedly entail the clinical evaluation of patient-specific vaccines with the aim of inducing immunoreactivity against tumor-displayed neo-antigens in a physiologically relevant context. PMID:25083320

van Buuren, Marit M; Calis, Jorg JA; Schumacher, Ton NM

2014-01-01

277

Mathematics in Mind, Brain, and Education: A Neo-Piagetian Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of their focus on psychological structures and operations, neo-Piagetian approaches to learning lend themselves to neurological hypotheses. Recent advances in neural imaging and educational technology now make it possible to test some of these claims. Here, we take a neo-Piagetian approach to mathematical learning in order to frame two…

Norton, Anderson; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

2014-01-01

278

Goals for Near-Earth-Object Exploration Examined  

Microsoft Academic Search

With Japan's Hayabusa space probe having returned a sample of the Itokawa asteroid this past June, and with NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft impactor having successfully struck comet Tempel 1 in 2006, among other recent missions, the study of near-Earth objects (NEOs) recently has taken some major steps forward. The recent discovery of two asteroids that passed within the Moon's distance

Randy Showstack

2010-01-01

279

ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN A thesis (or dissertation) submitted to the faculty of  

E-print Network

i ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA A thesis (or dissertation Realization of Human Brain's Neo-Cortex Column Using FPGA by Padmavalli Vadali, and that in my opinion Moffatt Professor of Biology #12;iii ELECTRONIC REALIZATION OF HUMAN BRAIN'S NEO-CORTEX COLUMN USING FPGA

Mahmoodi, Hamid

280

Japan's Ministry of Education "Becoming the Right": Neo-Liberal Restructuring and the Ministry's Struggles for Political Legitimacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first examines the controversial revision of the Fundamental Law of Education (FLE) by situating it in the larger global context of neo-liberal and neo-conservative state-restructuring and education reform. It then focuses on the domestic politics behind what seems to be the global convergence of education policy along neo-liberal and…

Takayama, Keita

2008-01-01

281

Copyright 0 1997 by the Genetics Society of America Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo-YChromosome  

E-print Network

Copyright 0 1997 by the Genetics Society of America Lack of Degeneration of Loci on the Neo.Threeloci,codingfortheenzymesenolase,phosphoglyceratekinaseandalcohol dehydrogenase,have been localized to chromosome 4 of D.a. americunu, whichformstheneo-Yand neo-X chromosomes for sectionsof the neo-Y chromo- some. Thesex ratios in theF3 generation of the intercrosses showed

Guttman, David S.

282

Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

2013-06-01

283

Neo-intuitive proposal for Kaluza-Klein unification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses a central question of contemporary theoretical physics: Can a unified account be provided for the known forces of nature. The issue is brought into focus by considering the recently revived Kaluza-Klein approach to unification, a program entailing dimensional transformation through cosmogony. First it is demonstrated that, in a certain sense, revitalized Kaluza-Klein theory appears to undermine the intuitive foundations of mathematical physics, but that this implicit consequence has been repressed at a substantial cost. A fundamental reformation of the Kaluza-Klein strategy is then undertaken, one that casts it within a new intuitive context. This is followed by a provisional application of the suggested approach to the specific problem of cosmological change. The paper concludes by exploring the far-reaching epistemological implications of the neo-intuitive proposal set forth.

Rosen, S.M.

1988-11-01

284

Viscous dark matter growth in (neo-)Newtonian cosmology  

E-print Network

We assume cold dark matter to possess a small bulk-viscous pressure which typically attenuates the growth of inhomogeneities. Explicit calculations, based on Eckart's theory of dissipative processes, reveal that for viscous cold dark matter the usual Newtonian approximation for perturbation scales smaller than the Hubble scale is no longer valid. We advocate the use of a neo-Newtonian approach which consistently incorporates pressure effects into the fluid dynamics and correctly reproduces the general relativistic dynamics. This result is of interest for numerical simulations of nonlinear structure formation involving nonstandard dark-matter fluids. We obtain upper limits on the magnitude of the viscous pressure by requiring that relevant perturbation amplitudes should grow sufficiently to enter the nonlinear stage.

Velten, H; Fabris, J C; Zimdahl, W

2013-01-01

285

Viscous dark matter growth in (neo-)Newtonian cosmology  

E-print Network

We assume cold dark matter to possess a small bulk-viscous pressure which typically attenuates the growth of inhomogeneities. Explicit calculations, based on Eckart's theory of dissipative processes, reveal that for viscous cold dark matter the usual Newtonian approximation for perturbation scales smaller than the Hubble scale is no longer valid. We advocate the use of a neo-Newtonian approach which consistently incorporates pressure effects into the fluid dynamics and correctly reproduces the general relativistic dynamics. This result is of interest for numerical simulations of nonlinear structure formation involving nonstandard dark-matter fluids. We obtain upper limits on the magnitude of the viscous pressure by requiring that relevant perturbation amplitudes should grow sufficiently to enter the nonlinear stage.

H. Velten; D. J. Schwarz; J. C. Fabris; W. Zimdahl

2013-07-24

286

Stellar parallax in the Neo-Tychonian planetary system  

E-print Network

The recent paper published in European Journal of Physics [1] aimed to demonstrate the kinematical and dynamical equivalence of heliocentric and geocentric systems. The work is performed in the Neo-Tychonian system, with key assumption that orbits of distant masses around the Earth are synchronized with the Sun's orbit. Motion of Sun and Mars have been analysed, and the conclusion was reached that the very fact of the accelerated motion of the Universe as a whole produces the so-called "pseudo-potential" that not only explains the origin of the pseudo-forces, but also the very motion of the celestial bodies as seen from the static Earth. After the paper was published, the question was raised if that same potential can explain the motion of the distant stars that are not affected by the Sun's gravity (unlike Mars), and if it can be used to reproduce the observation of the stellar parallax. The answer is found to be positive.

Popov, Luka

2013-01-01

287

Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to use MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Many asteroids and comets are being lost owing to insufficient followup astrometry, but only the most important ones can continue to be observed with the limited resources available. Objects flagged as high scientific priority and urgently in need of further observations include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs) and NEOs discovered by the soon-to-be reactivated WISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence our need to reach fainter magnitudes. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters previously determined by WISE in need of astrometry.

McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Scotti, James V.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Maleszewski, Chester K.

2014-02-01

288

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

2010-01-01

289

The epigenome of evolving Drosophila neo-sex chromosomes: dosage compensation and heterochromatin formation.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes originated from autosomes but have evolved a highly specialized chromatin structure. Drosophila Y chromosomes are composed entirely of silent heterochromatin, while male X chromosomes have highly accessible chromatin and are hypertranscribed as a result of dosage compensation. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanisms and functional pressures driving heterochromatin formation and dosage compensation of the recently formed neo-sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda. We show that the onset of heterochromatin formation on the neo-Y is triggered by an accumulation of repetitive DNA. The neo-X has evolved partial dosage compensation and we find that diverse mutational paths have been utilized to establish several dozen novel binding consensus motifs for the dosage compensation complex on the neo-X, including simple point mutations at pre-binding sites, insertion and deletion mutations, microsatellite expansions, or tandem amplification of weak binding sites. Spreading of these silencing or activating chromatin modifications to adjacent regions results in massive mis-expression of neo-sex linked genes, and little correspondence between functionality of genes and their silencing on the neo-Y or dosage compensation on the neo-X. Intriguingly, the genomic regions being targeted by the dosage compensation complex on the neo-X and those becoming heterochromatic on the neo-Y show little overlap, possibly reflecting different propensities along the ancestral chromosome that formed the sex chromosome to adopt active or repressive chromatin configurations. Our findings have broad implications for current models of sex chromosome evolution, and demonstrate how mechanistic constraints can limit evolutionary adaptations. Our study also highlights how evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories, by repeatedly acquiring the same 21-bp consensus motif for recruitment of the dosage compensation complex, yet utilizing a diverse array of random mutational changes to attain the same phenotypic outcome. PMID:24265597

Zhou, Qi; Ellison, Christopher E; Kaiser, Vera B; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Gorchakov, Andrey A; Bachtrog, Doris

2013-11-01

290

A Model of Melodic Expectation for Some Neo-Romantic Music of Penderecki  

E-print Network

document contains the author’s accepted manuscript. For the publisher’s version, see the link in the header of this document.] A Model of Melodic Expectation for Some Neo-Romantic Music of Penderecki By Scott Murphy Department of Music... University of Kansas Paper citation: Murphy, Scott. “A Model of Melodic Expectation in Some Neo-Romantic Music of Penderecki,” Perspectives of New Music 25/1 (Winter 2007): 6-42. Murphy, Scott. “A Model of Melodic Expectation in Some Neo-Romantic Music...

Murphy, Scott

2007-01-01

291

Meteorite Associations and Source Regions for Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from Vernazza et al. (2008; Nature, August 14 issue) showing that 2/3 of all large near-Earth objects (NEOs), including the potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) subset, have spectral characteristics consistent with laboratory measurements of LL-chondrite meteorites. Our NEO data (38 S- and Q-types) were obtained through a joint observational program (MIT, Hawaii, IRTF). Comparison meteorite data were obtained from the Brown University RELAB database. Our asteroid-meteorite comparative analysis was performed using quantitative measurements of spectral band centers and band area ratios and using a radiative transfer model for olivine (olv) and orthopyroxene (opx) (Shkuratov 1999; Icarus 137, 235). Most large NEOs (and the PHA subset) show relatively high olv/(olv+opx) ratios in the 70-85% range typical for LL-chondrites. Interestingly, relatively high olivine abundances are found among S-type asteroids in the inner main-belt Flora region (Gaffey 1984; Icarus 60, 38: Chapman 1996; MPS 31, 699) adjacent to the nu6 secular resonance. An LL chondrite association for most large (km-sized) NEOs and PHAs is surprising since LL chondrites are somewhat rare ( 8% of all meteorite falls). One possible explanation is Yarkovsky drift. Large objects (such as km-sized NEOs in our sample) experience relatively little Yarkovsky drift. In contrast, meter-sized objects (which dominate meteorite fall statistics) experience substantial Yarkovsky drift. Limited Yarkovsky drift therefore restricts the delivery of the largest NEOs to the most favorable source region(s), such as the nu6 resonance bordering the Flora region. Substantial Yarkovsky drift of meter-sized objects throughout the main belt allows meteorite fall statistics to sample from numerous main-belt resonances. Thus, meteorite falls sample throughout_the_asteroid_belt (not just the inner belt). Such a size-dependent efficiency therefore enhances the inner main belt as the source for large NEOs and PHAs relative to a broader main belt sample for meteorite falls.

Binzel, Richard P.; Vernazza, P.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Bus, S. J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Tokunaga, A. T.

2008-09-01

292

Proceedings of the ASCE Earth and Space 2006 Conference, League City, TX, April 2006 A Robotic Constructor-Excavator for NEO quarrying  

E-print Network

Constructor-Excavator for NEO quarrying Ravi Vanmali, Nilesh Shah, Narayanan Komerath School of Aerospace intended to mine regolith on planetary surfaces, or to drill into small NEOs. The same craft would-4 or equivalent NEO location. Upon maneuvering and attaching to the NEO, the craft will receive

293

European near-Earth object radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar astronomy paradox (RAP): practically everybody agree with essential contributions of active radar observations to Solar System and especially to near-Earth object (NEO) explorations, but despite everything prefer to develop new and new passive telescopes and disposable space missions, only, and nobody want to build at least one dedicated multipurpose radar telescope (neither Arecibo nor Goldstone and Evpatoria radars were created as dedicated radar astronomy instruments). Also, as of June 2002, among of 188 radar detected asteroids and comets there are only 3 NEOs, which were investigated in Europe, with single European radar facility, sited in Evpatoria. The main reason of such deep gap is a low sensitivity of Evpatoria radar, which is in 10 and 300 times less powerful than Goldstone and Arecibo. Therefore, I guess the first dedicated European NEO Radar (ENEOR) is earnestly needful now. From time to time we discuss this problem, but it is not solve for the present moment, perhaps because of above formulated RAP. Origin and concept of the ENEOR, as well as the ENEOR project, based on the being under construction 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope, will be presented below.

Zaitsev, Alexander L.

2002-11-01

294

Diameters and albedos of three sub-kilometer Near Earth Objects derived from Spitzer observations  

E-print Network

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are fragments of remnant primitive bodies that date from the era of Solar System formation. At present, the physical properties and origins of NEOs are poorly understood. We have measured thermal emission from three NEOs -- (6037) 1988 EG, 1993 GD, and 2005 GL -- with Spitzer's IRAC instrument at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns (the last object was detected only at 5.8 and 8.0 microns). The diameters of these three objects are 400 m, 180 m, and 160 m, respectively, with uncertainties of around 20% (including both observational and systematic errors). For all three the geometric albedos are around 0.30, in agreement with previous results that most NEOs are S-class asteroids. For the two objects detected at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, diameters and albedos based only on those data agree with the values based on modeling the data in all four bands. This agreement, and the high sensitivity of IRAC, show the promise of the Spitzer Warm Mission for determining the physical parameters for a large number of NEOs.

D. E. Trilling; M. Mueller; J. L. Hora; G. Fazio; T. Spahr; J. A. Stansberry; H. A. Smith; S. R. Chesley; A. K. Mainzer

2008-07-10

295

Astrometry and Photometry of Faint, High Priority Solar System Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request MOSAIC 1.1 on the Mayall 4-meter telescope to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small solar system bodies that cannot be reached with our Spacewatch telescopes. Targets include freshly discovered virtual impactors (VIs), other close approachers, and NEOs discovered by the NEOWISE spacecraft. It is better to follow objects longer during their discovery apparitions than to search tens of degrees of arc for them when they return years later, hence the need to reach fainter magnitudes on short notice. About half of our targets are therefore unknown at the time of this proposal. Other targets for recovery include future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by WISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, and returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by WISE that need astrometry. Our past use of the Mayall telescope has been determined by Co-Investigator Tim Spahr of the Minor Planet Center to provide ``dramatic improvement'' to orbits.

McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeff; Scotti, Jim; Bressi, Terry; Spahr, Tim; Maleszewski, Chet

2014-08-01

296

Skills as tribute: Phoenician sailors and shipwrights in the service of Neo-Assyria  

E-print Network

, such as the Assyrians, that depict or mention the renowned seafarers and their vessels. Conversely, Assyriologists have remained unaware of the importance to nautical history the Neo-Assyrian palatial sculptures that portray Phoenician vessels and texts that record...

Trakadas, Athena Lynn

2012-06-07

297

MARCO POLO: near earth object sample return mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARCO POLO is a joint European–Japanese sample return mission to a Near-Earth Object. This Euro-Asian mission will go to a\\u000a primitive Near-Earth Object (NEO), which we anticipate will contain primitive materials without any known meteorite analogue,\\u000a scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and bring samples back to Earth for detailed scientific investigation.\\u000a Small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of

M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; P. Michel; J. Kawagushi; H. Yano; J. R. Brucato; I. A. Franchi; E. Dotto; M. Fulchignoni; S. Ulamec

2009-01-01

298

Domains and Facets: Hierarchical Personality Assessment Using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits com- bining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at bo1.h levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of

Paul T. Costa; Robert R. McCrae

1995-01-01

299

Promotional communication and reflexivity: Case studies in the media politics and problematization of neo-liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation offers a critical analysis of the media politics underlying the shift to neo-liberalism. Special attention is paid to the relationships between news media, government and corporate public relations, and social movement activism in the context of changing policy priorities that advance market-based solutions for economic and political challenges. Neo-liberalism is accounted for in terms of both its policy

Joshua L Greenberg

2003-01-01

300

Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum were studied. Treatment with the water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma formosanum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum caused a marked decrease in the CCl4-induced toxicity in rat liver, made evident by their effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the

Jer-Min Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Ming-Feng Chen; Takashi Ujiie; Atsushi Takada

1995-01-01

301

Today's Objectives Migration  

E-print Network

Population Geography Class 3.1 #12;Human Migration Population Change = Fertility + Mortality + Migration #12Today's Objectives · Migration ­Definitions ­Models ­Demographics ­Summaries ­Case Studies;MIGRATION · More complex than birth and death · No limits (unlike fertility and mortality) · Migration has

Lopez-Carr, David

302

Optimal detection of short-warning near-earth object threats  

SciTech Connect

Detection of near-Earth Objects (NEOs) has concentrated on long-warning threats. LPCs (long period comets) and smaller objects do not offer such warning. Their detection on final approach is a more demanding search problem. Improvements in ground- and space-based search sensors and strategies could provide adequate search capability.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-05-01

303

The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care  

PubMed Central

Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact. PMID:24758585

2014-01-01

304

A feasibility study on the implementation of satellite-to-satellite tracking around a small near-Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-earth objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets that have a perihelion distance of less than 1.3 astronomical units (AU). There are currently more than 10,000 known NEOs. The majority of these objects are less than 1 km in diameter. Despite the number of NEOs, little is known about most of them. Characterizing these objects is a crucial component in developing a thorough understanding of solar system evolution, human exploration, exploitation of asteroid resources, and threat mitigation. Of particular interest is characterizing the internal structure of NEOs. While ground-based methods exist for characterizing the internal structure of NEOs, the information that can be gleaned from such studies is limited and often accompanied by large uncertainty. An alternative is to use in situ studies to examine an NEO's shape and gravity field, which can be used to assess its internal structure. This thesis investigates the use of satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) to map the gravity field of a small NEO on the order of 500 m or less. An analysis of the mission requirements of two previously flown SST missions, GRACE and GRAIL, is conducted. Additionally, a simulation is developed to investigate the dynamics of SST in the vicinity of a small NEO. This simulation is then used to simulate range and range-rate data in the strongly perturbed environment of the small NEO. These data are used in conjunction with the analysis of the GRACE and GRAIL missions to establish a range of orbital parameters that can be used to execute a SST mission around a small NEO. Preliminary mission requirements for data collection and orbital correction maneuvers are also established. Additionally, the data are used to determine whether or not proven technology can be used to resolve the expected range and range-rate measurements. It is determined that the orbit semi-major axis for each spacecraft should be approximately 100% to 200% of the NEO's mean diameter and the two spacecraft should be in circular, near polar orbits. This configuration will produce trajectories, which exhibit reasonable stability over a period of roughly 24 hours. Corrective maneuvers will therefore be required with a frequency of approximately once per day. Due to the potentially rapid changes caused by the highly perturbed environment, it is likely that these maneuvers will need to be made autonomously. During the period between corrective maneuvers SST data collection will be possible. The expected range and range-rate measurements will be on the order of +/-10-5 m and +/-10 -5 m/s respectively and can be resolved using proven technology.

Church, Christopher J.

305

Physical properties of Near-Earth Objects that inform mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods have been proposed to avoid the collision of a Near-Earth Object (NEO) with the Earth. Each of these methods relies on a mitigation concept (deflection or fragmentation), an energy source (e.g. kinetic, gravitational, solar, thermal, etc.) and a mode of approach (e.g. remote station and interaction). The efficiency of each method depends on the physical properties of the considered NEO that influence the way the body will respond to the considered energy source. While the knowledge of properties such as the mass, spin rate and obliquity as well as the shape is generally required for all mitigation methods, there are other properties that are important to know for some methods and that have no great influence for other ones. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of main physical properties of NEOs and their importance for the most usual mitigation strategies that have been proposed, i.e. the kinetic impactor, the gravity tractor, strategies based on anchoring or depositing material on the surface, and strategies aimed at modifying the thermal properties of the NEO in order to either modify or cancel the Yarkovsky effect, or cause surface vaporization.

Michel, P.

2013-09-01

306

PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities  

SciTech Connect

NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

Lane, C.

1995-11-01

307

Writing Objectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop writing objectives. Four objectives related to writing skills are stated: "write to communicate adequately in a social situation"; "write to communicate adequately in a business or…

Norris, Eleanor L.

308

Dynamics of Concealment in French/Muslim Neo-Colonial Encounters: An Exploration of Colonial Discourses in Contemporary France.  

E-print Network

??This paper investigates the neo-colonial situation occurring within contemporary France, surrounding the tensions that have emerged concomitantly with increasing numbers of Muslim immigrants in the… (more)

Koons, Casey Joseph

2008-01-01

309

Reconstruction of the Paleo and Neo stages of Poas and Turrialba volcanoes, Costa Rica: Competing processes of growth and destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is about two problems a) growth and b) erosion of the Poás and Turrialba volcanoes during the last ˜ 600 ka. For the growth problem, we studied both volcanoes, meanwhile for the erosion problem we focused only in the erosion generated by the recurrent phenomenon of coseismic landslides on Poás. The detailed study done here for Poás, showed how its actual edifice has grown in the last ˜600 Ky and how it is comprised by at least 14 volcanic units (4 from the Paleo-temporal phase and 10 from the Neo-phase). The geochemistry data showed the variation of these volcanic units between two main magmatic components (Sabana Redonda and the Von Frantzius Geochemical Components). We presented a landslide inventory for the 2009 (M w 6.2) Cinchona earthquake based on LiDAR images. Mass wasting calculations then were extrapolated and used to calculate erosion rates based on this phenomenon for Poás (˜ 300 ± 150 km3/km/Myr, a rate comparable to estimates of magma flux at arc volcanic systems). Furthermore, the catalog was used to create a landslide susceptibily model, that maps landslide risk for any shallow earthquake on the volcano and determine which areas could be affected by landslides. For Turrialba, this study includes mostly the geochronology and stratigraphy of eight lava flow units that yield ages that range from 251 to 3 ka (one unit from the Paleo-temporal phase and 7 from the Neo). Three of these units, gave remarkably young 40Ar/39Ar ages (25 ka or less), among the youngest lavas dated in Central America (CA) by this method. The Neo-Turrialba flows consist of a low silica and a high silica group. The data and methodology followed here for the reconstruction of the Poás and Turrialba volcanoes can be used to obtain a new net extrusive volcanic flux, which may be used as a parameter for the rest of volcanoes of CA. The effective use of the information generated for the coseismic landslide susceptibility model for Poás by planners could reduce the impact of future landslides on the population and on the important civil infrastructure located in the study area.

Ruiz Cubillo, Paulo

310

Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

2007-01-01

311

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to degradation or healing associated with diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation/healing mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid—which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context—creeps and stress relaxes due to degradation/healing when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a degrading/healing generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Karra, Satish; Rajagopal, K. R.

2012-02-01

312

Degradation and healing in a generalized neo-Hookean solid due to infusion of a fluid  

E-print Network

The mechanical response and load bearing capacity of high performance polymer composites changes due to diffusion of a fluid, temperature, oxidation or the extent of the deformation. Hence, there is a need to study the response of bodies under such degradation mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of degradation and healing due to the diffusion of a fluid on the response of a solid which prior to the diffusion can be described by the generalized neo-Hookean model. We show that a generalized neo-Hookean solid - which behaves like an elastic body (i.e., it does not produce entropy) within a purely mechanical context - creeps and stress relaxes when infused with a fluid and behaves like a body whose material properties are time dependent. We specifically investigate the torsion of a generalized neo-Hookean circular cylindrical annulus infused with a fluid. The equations of equilibrium for a generalized neo-Hookean solid are solved together with the convection-diffusion equation for the fluid concentration. Different boundary conditions for the fluid concentration are also considered. We also solve the problem for the case when the diffusivity of the fluid depends on the deformation of the generalized neo-Hookean solid.

Satish Karra; K. R. Rajagopal

2010-07-07

313

Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough

David Coburn

2000-01-01

314

Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

2010-01-01

315

The non-uniform distribution of the perihelia of near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that each sub-group of NEOs (Amors, Apollos and Atens) has different observational selection effects that cause distinctive features in the apparent distribution of their angular elements. We also reveal that the NEOs' perihelia (argument of perihelion ? and longitude of perihelion ?) have intrinsically non-uniform distributions caused by secular planetary perturbations: ? is non-uniform for the Apollo asteroids because of secular dynamics associated with eccentricity-? coupling, and the Amors' ? distribution is peaked along the secularly forced eccentricity vector. These secular effects are dominated by Jupiter's perturbations, and it is remarkable that this strongly chaotic population of minor planets reveals the presence of Jupiter in its angular distributions.

JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, R.

2013-10-01

316

Innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap for neo-phallic reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals.  

PubMed

Many techniques have been described to create an aesthetic and functional neo-phallus after penile amputation or in female-to-male transsexuals. Microsurgical free-flap phalloplasty seems to be the preferred method of penile reconstruction. For many years the radial forearm free flap has been considered the best procedure, but other flaps have been attempted to minimize donor site morbidity and optimize outcome. Pedicled flaps are considered to be reliable and to decrease the risk of total failure. Recently, a one-stage non-microsurgical technique was described for phallic reconstruction in a young male patient. We report successful total phallic reconstruction in a female-to-male transsexual patient using an island pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. Urethral reconstruction was left as a possible further procedure due to patient's preference. A malleable soft silicone penile prosthesis was inserted within the flap and the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve stump was sutured to the dorsal clitoris branch from the pudendal nerve for flap sensation. After 6 months, the patient demonstrated successful aesthetic and functional reconstruction referring to satisfactory sexual activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an innervated island pedicled ALT flap used for female-to-male penile reconstruction in a transsexual patient. The pedicled ALT flap may be a reliable option to avoid visible scarring at the donor site on exposed parts of the body, and reduce the risk of total flap failure from microsurgical procedures for reconstruction of a neo-phallus in this increasing population of patients. PMID:18455975

Rubino, C; Figus, A; Dessy, L A; Alei, G; Mazzocchi, M; Trignano, E; Scuderi, N

2009-03-01

317

KLENOT - Near Earth and other unusual objects observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KLENOT project is a project of the Klet Observatory, Czech Republic, devoted to astrometric observations of Near-Earth objects, distant objects and comets. The improved effort of the large NEO surveys resulting in an increasing number of newly discovered NEOs calls for continuous follow-up astrometry to secure an accurate orbit determination of discovered bodies first in discovery opposition and then during next apparitions. Considering this urgent need of astrometric follow-up, the fact that many of these targets are fainter then magnitude 20.0 V and our results and experience in minor planet and comet CCD astrometry done at Klet since 1993, we decided to bring into operation a new 1-m class facility working on a permanent basis - the KLENOT telescope. The regular observing of the telescope started in March 2002 (the MPC code 246). Beside methods and techniques we use for follow-up astrometry we present most important results of the project.

Kocer, Michal; Tichá, Jana; Tichý, Miloš

2005-02-01

318

Interactive Simulation of Fire melekzek@neo.tamu.edu  

E-print Network

from nearby matter through chemical decomposition. This process is called pyrolysis. Thus, when an object (such as a piece of wood) burns, the flames are formed from com- bustible portions of the object

Keyser, John

319

Detecting NEO Impacts using the International Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty an International Monitoring System (IMS) consisting of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies has been globally deployed beginning in the late 1990s. The infrasound network sub-component of the IMS consists of 47 active stations as of mid-2014. These microbarograph arrays detect coherent infrasonic signals from a range of sources including volcanoes, man-made explosions and bolides. Bolide detections from IMS stations have been reported since ~2000, but with the maturation of the network over the last several years the rate of detections has increased substantially. Presently the IMS performs semi-automated near real-time global event identification on timescales of 6-12 hours as well as analyst verified event identification having time lags of several weeks. Here we report on infrasound events identified by the IMS between 2010-2014 which are likely bolide impacts. Identification in this context refers to an event being included in one of the event bulletins issued by the IMS. In this untargeted study we find that the IMS globally identifies approximately 16 events per year which are likely bolide impacts. Using data released since the beginning of 2014 of US Government sensor detections (as given at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/ ) of fireballs we find in a complementary targeted survey that the current IMS system is able to identify ~25% of fireballs with E > 0.1 kT energy. Using all 16 US Government sensor fireballs listed as of July 31, 2014 we are able to detect infrasound from 75% of these events on at least one IMS station. The high ratio of detection/identification is a product of the stricter criteria adopted by the IMS for inclusion in an event bulletin as compared to simple station detection.We discuss energy comparisons between infrasound-estimated energies based on amplitudes and periods and estimates provided by US Government sensors. Specific impact events of interest will be discussed as well as the utility of the global IMS infrasound system for location and timing of future NEAs detected prior to impact.

Brown, Peter G.; Dube, Kimberlee; Silber, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

320

Neo-tectonic fracturing after emplacement of quaternary granitic pluton in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The fracture which occurs in the Kakkonda geothermal system was formed by neo-tectonic stress after the emplacement of the neo-granite (Quaternary Kakkonda Granite) at middle Pleistocene to recent. The characteristic contrast in permeability at ca.1.5 km is strongly controlled by the contact metamorphic zone, especially cordierite and higher grade metamorphic zones, in which the high temperature (320{degrees}C<) and low permeable deep reservoir was created. The five geothermal wells 2.5-3.0 km deep have clarified that a microearthquake zone below -1.0 km shows high permeability especially at the margin of the Kakkonda Granite, and low permeability outside of a microearthquake zone. The Kakkonda Granite is a composite pluton which has very few fractures inside of it. Thus, neo-tectonic fracturing has developed in the non-metamorphosed Tertiary formations and the margin of the Kakkonda Granite.

Doi, N.; Kato, O. [JMC Goethermal Eng. Co., Ltd., Iwate-ken (Japan); Kanisawa, S.; Ishikawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1995-12-31

321

[Effect of a new hormonal contraceptive (Neo-Eunomin) in females with androgenization symptoms].  

PubMed

The activity of Neo-Eunomin on androgenisation of the skin, seborrhoea, acne, alopecia and hirsutism was investigated in a long-term trial covering 165 patients over 3379 cycles. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 47 years. The first three symptoms showed clear improvement after 6 months of treatment, and in many cases a cure was achieved after 12 months of therapy. No equally good results could at least be obtained in the treatment of hirsutism. In a further study Neo-Eunomin was compared with a contraceptive containing a nor-testosteron derivative (Conceplan 21). Neo-Eunomin showed convincingly better efficacy in the treatment of androgenisation of the skin than the preparation under comparison. PMID:6083897

Kaiser, E

1984-10-01

322

Objective lens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

323

Population: Time-Bomb or Smoke-Screen?  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Overpopulation' is often implicated as a major causative factor of poverty and environmental degradation in the developing world. This review of the population-resource debate focusses on Red, Green and neo-Malthusian ideologies to demonstrate how they have ramified into current economic and development theory. A central hypothesis is that key elements of Marxist analysis, tempered by the best of Green thought,

Mario Petrucci

2000-01-01

324

An ‘entry level’ mission to a near Earth object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets or asteroids that intersect or pass near to our planet posing a real and underestimated danger to mankind. While the probability of impact is low, the consequences of such an impact could be apocalyptic. Various programs are underway to discover these kilometer-sized objects from Earth. However, once targets of interest have been identified a fly-by or orbiting spacecraft is required to understand the objects’ mass, morphology and composition. Fly-past NEO missions represent the simplest interplanetary missions and need not be high cost. An ‘entry level’ mission has been conceptually designed able to deliver a 10 kg science ‘reference’ payload to NEO fly-by for a total mission cost (including launch and operations) of €20million (FY2003). This paper outlines the platform architecture, cost and cost drivers, and describes the key technology trades to be performed and the developments required to extend current Low Earth Orbit (LEO) technology to a deep space mission. It concludes by identifying the top-level trade-offs to be made in order to enhance the science return of the mission.

Phipps, Andy; Meerman, Max; Wilhelm, James; Gibbon, Dave; Northam, James; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Ward, Jeff; Sweeting, Martin

2006-10-01

325

An investigation into techniques for reducing doses from neo-natal radiographic examinations.  

PubMed

A survey of radiation doses received by infants having radiography in a neo-natal unit was undertaken at Aberdeen Maternity Hospital. Options for dose reduction recommended by the CEC Lake Starnberg Group were investigated. Techniques were implemented for clinical evaluation after assessments of image quality with test objects and phantoms. Clinical image quality of radiographs was evaluated by paediatric radiologists using CEC criteria. Results revealed a clear relationship between entrance dose and patient weight, indicating that reference doses for infants could be linked to weight. At the start of the study the mean entrance dose for chest anteroposterior (AP) radiographs was 65 microGy and the dose-area product 12.3 mGy cm2 for a system with 2.5 mm aluminum filtration using 50 kVp X-rays with a 200 speed class film/screen system. A 400 speed class film/screen combination was investigated but not evaluated clinically, because the image quality was not considered acceptable. Addition of 0.1 mm copper to the filtration of the X-ray tube reduced entrance doses by 50%, but the technique was not adopted, because of a poorer image quality with only 72% of features in clinical images being reproduced to an acceptable standard, compared with 87% with the original system. Use of faster processing chemicals, an increase in filtration to 3.5 mm aluminium and a tube potential of 60 kVp resulted in a 40% reduction in mean entrance dose to 37 microGy with satisfactory clinical image quality. PMID:7496707

Wraith, C M; Martin, C J; Stockdale, E J; McDonald, S; Farquhar, B

1995-10-01

326

A hierarchical investigation of personality and behavior: Examining Neo-Socioanalytic models of health-related outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on proposed hierarchical relations derived from the Neo-Socioanalytic Theory of personality [Roberts, B. W., & Wood, D. (2006). Personality development in the context of the Neo-Socioanalytic Model of personality. In D. K. Mroczek & T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of personality development (pp. 11–39). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers], the present study examined the relationships between trait and

Tim Bogg; Michelle W. Voss; Dustin Wood; Brent W. Roberts

2008-01-01

327

Comparative Education Research Framed by Neo-Institutional Theory: A Review of Diverse Approaches and Conflicting Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise in globalisation studies in comparative education places neo-institutional theory at the centre of many debates among comparative education researchers. However, uncertainty about how to interpret neo-institutional theory still persists among educational comparativists. With this uncertainty comes misinterpretation of its principles,…

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Baker, David P.

2014-01-01

328

"Economic Rewards Are the Driving Factor": Neo-Liberalism, Globalisation and Work Attitudes of Young Graduates in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successive Australian governments have adopted neo-liberal ideological imperatives of engaging with globalisation. This has been particularly noticeable in the policy areas of employment and higher education. Frame analysis and sensemaking are deployed to examine the ways in which neo-liberalism has influenced the perspectives young people…

Pick, David; Taylor, Jeannette

2009-01-01

329

Personality, Social Activities, Job-Search Behavior and Interview Success: Distinguishing Between PANAS Trait Positive Affect and NEO Extraversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has found that trait positive affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and extraversion as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) are highly correlated. We examined the relation between these two measures within the context of three social behaviors. Approximately 4 months before graduation, college seniors entering the job market completed the PANAS

Jerry M. Burger; David F. Caldwell

2000-01-01

330

Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

Wiborg, Susanne

2013-01-01

331

Psychometric characteristics and clinical correlates of NEO-PI-R fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.  

E-print Network

??This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R;… (more)

Witt, Edward A.

2010-01-01

332

Near Earth Object Observations Presentation to  

E-print Network

) Catalina Sky NEO Program Office @ JPL · Program coordination · Automated SENTRY www.neo.jpl.nasa.gov Minor.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/mpc.html Pan-STARRS NEO-WISE JPL Sun-synch LEO LINEAR MIT/LL Soccoro, NM Catalina Sky Survey UofAZ Arizona

Waliser, Duane E.

333

Swallowed Object  

MedlinePLUS

... coins, safety pins, buttons, bones, wood, glass, magnets, batteries or other foreign objects. Problems may arise when ... are sharp, or contain corrosive materials (such as batteries). 187008 InteliHealth 2011-12-12 t InteliHealth Medical ...

334

Vague objects  

E-print Network

Peter Unger's puzzle, the problem of the many, is an argument for the conclusion that we are grossly mistaken about what kinds of objects are in our immediate surroundings. But it is not clear what we should make of Unger's ...

Ólafur Páll Jónsson

2001-01-01

335

Trusted Objects  

SciTech Connect

In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

1999-10-27

336

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

2014-01-01

337

The Italian version of the NEO PI-R: Conceptual and empirical support for the use of targeted rotation  

PubMed Central

Earlier cross-cultural research on replicability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) suggested that personality trait structure is universal, but a recent study using an Italian translation has challenged this position. The present article reexamines the psychometric properties of the Italian NEO-PI-R and discusses the importance of orthogonal Procrustes rotation when the replicability of complex factor structures is tested. The arguments are supported by data from a slightly modified translation of the NEO-PI-R, which was administered to 575 Italian subjects. These data show a close replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Further, the validity of the Italian NEO-PI-R is supported by external correlates, such as demographic variables (age, sex, education), depression, and affect scales. PMID:19002272

Terracciano, Antonio

2008-01-01

338

Icarus 156, 399433 (2002) doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6788, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

Theorbitalandabsolutemagnitudedistributionofthenear-Earth objects (NEOs) is difficult to compute, partly because only a modest fraction of the entire NEO population has been discovered so far, but also because the known NEOs are biased by complicated obser- vational selection effects. To circumvent these problems, we created a model NEO population which

Bottke, William F.

339

NEOWISE: Proposed Discovery of Near-Earth Objects in the Infrared by the WISE Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer will make hundreds of thousands of incidental detections of asteroids. Main belt asteroids as small as 3 km in diameter and hundreds of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) as small as a few hundred meters in diameter will be above WISE's detection thresholds at 12 and 23 microns wavelength. Standard data products will include accurate positions and

Robert S. McMillan; A. K. Mainzer; R. G. Walker; E. L. Wright; P. R. Eisenhardt; R. M. Cutri; T. Grav

2009-01-01

340

MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission in the ESA program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marco Polo is a sample return mission to a Near Earth Object. In October 2007 this mission passed the first evaluation process in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 context. The primary objectives of this mission is to visit a primitive NEO, to characterize it at multiple scales, and to bring samples back to Earth. Marco Polo will

Elisabetta Dotto; M. A. Barucci; M. Yoshikawa; D. Koschny; H. Boehnhardt; J. R. Brucato; M. Coradini; I. A. Franchi; S. F. Green; J. L. Josset; J. Kawaguchi; P. Michel; K. Muinonen; J. Oberst; H. Yano; R. P. Binzel

2009-01-01

341

Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

2014-09-01

342

Neo-Rentier Theory: The Case of Saudi Arabia (1950-2000) Global dependence on oil has not only radically transformed our economies, but also  

E-print Network

Neo-Rentier Theory: The Case of Saudi Arabia (1950-2000) Global dependence on oil has not only offers a new theoretical framework, called neo-rentier theory, for understanding the relationship between oil dependence and security strategies of oil producing countries known as rentier states. Neo

Hille, Sander

343

Aspect as the Source of Diathesis in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic and Beyond with Remarks on Transitivity, Accusativity, Ergativity and Case  

E-print Network

Aspect as the Source of Diathesis in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic and Beyond with Remarks is called Syriac. The modern descendant of Aramaic is Neo-Aramaic, whose many dialects also divide into two-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA), its dialects originate mainly in Kurdistan (currently shared between Turkey, Iraq

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

2011-01-01

345

Precision Astrometry of Near Earth Objects at McDonald Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The McDonald astrometry group has been observing Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) since 1998 with a 0.76m telescope. The main goal is to confirm newly discovered objects and follow-up known, but under-observed objects. NASA's mission to discover and catalogue 90 percent of NEOs larger than 1 km as soon as possible has been extended down to 140 m. The number of objects in the 140 m size range is much larger than the number of 1 km sized asteroids and thus, a collision is more likely to involve a smaller one. These objects are faint with absolute magnitudes 21.5 or larger. We are resuming the program concentrating on faint/small NEOs on the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope with the Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (Park, 2012). The telescope-camera combination allows us to follow-up virtually any object discovered by the various NEO search teams as it provides detectable images of a 19th magnitude source with a 10 second exposure in the red. The field of view is 4.7’ by 4.7’, with 0.276 ‘’/pixel resolution, and we can fully sample the PSF for precision astrometry. Our first task is to characterize the plate solution, the transformation between the standard and pixel coordinates with the least number of coefficients, but removing all systematic errors from the residuals. We obtained images of M71 at three different airmasses during two nights in September. We also took exposures of asteroids with well-known orbits to test our astrometry. The results and the evaluation will be presented at the meeting. This research is funded by NASA NEO Program grant NNX12AG09G. Park, W.K., et al.,(2012), PASP, Vol. 124.

Riddle, Andrew; Ries, J. G.

2013-01-01

346

Kuiper Belt Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed

David Jewitt

1999-01-01

347

Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA’s Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

2009-01-01

348

Toward a Neo-Deweyan Theory of Curriculum Analysis and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We adapted an existing comprehensive theory of curriculum analysis for application across complex, multicultural educational environments in P-12 schools. Our theoretical framework is neo-Deweyan in that it draws heavily from John Dewey's curriculum philosophy and because it goes beyond him to draw extensively from other curriculum theorists. The…

Simpson, Douglas J.; Almager, Irma L.; Beerwinkle, Andrea L.; Celebi, Dilber; Ferkel, Ricky C.; Holubik, Thomas E.; Reed, Christy A.; Tomlinson, Tracee A.

2011-01-01

349

Chronic limitations of neo-liberal capitalism and oligopolistic markets : An urgent case for socialized capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the serious limitations of neo-liberal capitalism and urge for a shift to socialized capital before further economic deterioration leads to a succession of global conflicts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This conceptual paper adopts a macro perspective in presenting argument on how global, financial markets integration and capital flow liberalization have led to

Philip Reeves Knyght; Nada K. Kakabadse; Alexander Kouzmin; Andrew Kakabadse

2011-01-01

350

Finite stretching of a circular plate of neo-Hookean material.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytical solution presented is based on the assumption that the deformed thickness of the plate is approximately constant. The nonlinear equations governing finite axisymmetric deformations of a circular plate made of neo-Hookean material are used in the analysis. The variation of circumferential extension ratio and the variation of deformed thickness are shown in graphs.

Biricikoglu, V.

1971-01-01

351

An Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Dana F. Sutton, Professor of Classics at the University of California, this straightforward metasite currently links to 549 free Neo-Latin electronic texts written during the Renaissance and later. The list is browsed alphabetically. Each entry includes author, title, URL, source site, and notes (usually download formats).

Sutton, Dana F.

352

Making art invisible: visual education and the cultural stagnation of neo-liberal rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of visual literacy may have resulted, in part, from some school authorities rushing the process of determining school curriculum. This article argues that the haste is reflective of pressure placed on educational discourse to conform to neo-liberal reforms of the sector, and is not the result of a careful and complex debate within the education community. In Australia,

Chris Peers

2011-01-01

353

Observation of NEOs Having High Apparent Rates with Mobitel Telescope Shulga, O.1  

E-print Network

Observation of NEOs Having High Apparent Rates with Mobitel Telescope Shulga, O.1 , Kozyryev, Y.1 for the small telescopes, but after going away it may become unobservable for the most of telescopes rate causes limitation of exposure time in case if telescope observe in star tracking mode. So

Boyer, Edmond

354

NeoGeography and Web 2.0: concepts, tools and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore the concepts and applications of Web 2.0 through the new media of NeoGeography and its impact on how we collect, interact and search for spatial information. We argue that location and space are becoming increasingly important in the information technology revolution. To this end, we present a series of software tools which we have designed

Andrew Hudson-Smith; Andrew Crooks; Maurizio Gibin; Richard Milton; Michael Batty

2009-01-01

355

The Neo-Liberal Education Policies of "Epimeleia Heautou": Caring for the Self in School Markets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues that neo-liberal education policy has capitalized on a historical concern to care for the self, or the Greek "epimeleia heautou". We discuss "epimeleia heautou" in relation to education policies that emphasize greater choice in curriculum offerings, and in relation to school choice policies more generally.…

Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo; Pitton, Viviana

2014-01-01

356

Precambrian Research 149 (2006) 2142 The Quetico Intrusions of Western Superior Province: Neo-Archean  

E-print Network

Precambrian Research 149 (2006) 21­42 The Quetico Intrusions of Western Superior Province: Neo-Archean mineralization. The striking similarities between the two indicate that the late Archean Quetico Intrusions: Archean cratonization; Accretion; Subduction; Zoned igneous complex; High Mg magma; Arc magmas; Archean

357

White Racial Identity Statuses and NEO Personality Constructs: An Exploratory Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between White racial identity development and the personality constructs Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. White college students (N=105) were administered the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and the New Racism Scale. Results indicate that…

Silvestri, Timothy J.; Richardson, Tina Q.

2001-01-01

358

Making Art Invisible: Visual Education and the Cultural Stagnation of Neo-Liberal Rationality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of visual literacy may have resulted, in part, from some school authorities rushing the process of determining school curriculum. This article argues that the haste is reflective of pressure placed on educational discourse to conform to neo-liberal reforms of the sector, and is not the result of a careful and complex debate within…

Peers, Chris

2011-01-01

359

Tropical Forest Transitions and Globalization:NeoLiberalism, Migration, Tourism, and International Conservation Agendas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation is giving way to forest regeneration in some tropical regions. We investigate such “forest transitions” in two biodiversity-rich countries. A case study near the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica shows how synergies between international conservation ideologies, neo-liberal reforms, tourism (and associated real estate investment), and migration (as one strategy for livelihood diversification) lead to increased forest cover. We find

Christian A. Kull; Camellia K. Ibrahim; Thomas C. Meredith

2007-01-01

360

Worlds of Knowledge, Cosmologies of Skills: Ethnography Outdoors in a Neo-Liberal University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the signs that modernizing agendas in contemporary UK universities have not only reduced autonomy and marketized practices but have also stimulated the crystallization of a ramifying academic worldview, structurally consonant with neo-liberal horizons and new organizational vistas. Ethnographically, the account focuses…

Abramson, Allen

2006-01-01

361

Neo-Timm staining in the thalamus of chronically epileptic rats.  

PubMed

The thalamus is an important modulator of seizures and is severely affected in cholinergic models of epilepsy. In the present study, chronically epileptic rats had their brains processed for neo-Timm and acetylcholinesterase two months after the induction of status epilepticus with pilocarpine. Both controls and pilocarpine-treated animals presented neo-Timm staining in the anterodorsal nucleus, laterodorsal nucleus, reticular nucleus, most intralaminar nuclei, nucleus reuniens, and rhomboid nucleus of the thalamus, as well as in the zona incerta. The intensity of neo-Timm staining was similar in control and pilocarpine-treated rats, except for the nucleus reuniens and the rhomboid nucleus, which had a lower intensity of staining in the epileptic group. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy, zinc seems to modulate glutamate release and to decrease seizure activity. In this context, a reduction of neo-Timm-stained terminals in the midline thalamus could ultimately result in an increased excitatory activity, not only within its related nuclei, but also in anatomical structures that receive their efferent connections. This might contribute to the pathological substrate observed in chronic pilocarpine-treated epileptic animals. PMID:16258638

Hamani, C; Paulo, I de; Mello, L E A M

2005-11-01

362

Is Global Neo-Liberalism Shaping the Future of Physical Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With claims that neo-liberalism is the "specific defining political/economic paradigm of the age in which we live?…?" [Apple, Michael. 2006. "Educating the 'Right' Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality." New York: Taylor & Francis, 14.], an invited symposium at the 2012 International Convention on Science,…

Macdonald, Doune

2014-01-01

363

How Can Linguistics Help The Structuring Of A Multidisciplinary Neo-Domain Such As Exobiology ?iii  

E-print Network

How Can Linguistics Help The Structuring Of A Multidisciplinary Neo-Domain Such As Exobiology ?iii the possibility for linguistics to propose results from a corpus of texts analyse in order to contribute to stabilise definitions within exobiology. By using clues provided by tools, linguists build interpretation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

A Political Theory of Government Debt and Deficits in a Neo-Ricardian Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of different abilities, and therefore different bequests, some individuals are bequest constrained even in a neo-Ricardian world. Such individuals vote for taxes on future generations, through the issuance of bonds, thereby increasing their current consumption. This produces some crowding out of capital, reduces wage rates, and increases the interest rate. As a consequence, even unconstrained individuals are

Alex Cukierman; Allan H Meltzer

1989-01-01

365

Enlightenment and the "Heart of Darkness": (Neo)Imperialism in the Congo, and Elsewhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article approaches the current state of qualitative inquiry by constructing an allegory of neo-imperialism. It is based substantively on a history and contemporary anthro-politics of the Congo and in particular the city of Kisangani; metaphorically on Conrad's unsettling deployment of that same place as "the heart of darkness"; and ironically…

Stronach, Ian

2006-01-01

366

Manipulating Images of Popular Culture upon Neo-Classical Theatre: "Tartuffe" at Susquehanna University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moliere's "Tartuffe" is an attack, not on religion, but on people who hide behind religion and exploit it. As a college professor in charge of student production searched for a director's concept for "Tartuffe," she realized that it would be unwise to attempt a museum staging of neo-classical theater with limited funding. She therefore chose a…

Sodd, Mary Jo

367

Appendix I: Algorithm of NeoKinema by Peter Bird, UCLA, 2005  

E-print Network

on a scale of 107 years due to the birth and death of spreading ridges, subducting slabs, and other plate. This is the "long-term average" velocity field that we seek to estimate with program NeoKinema. To first order of tectonophysics, because suites of model experiments can elucidate the effects of rheologic and boundary

Bird, Peter

368

Neo Monachism: A Coming Role for Church-Related Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The coming role of the church-related undergraduate college of the liberal arts and sciences will be essentially monastic, or rather, it will be compelled toward a form of neo-monachism if it is to pursue seriously its historically proclaimed goals of liberal education. The contemporary university is the heart of "the self-sufficient finitude,"…

Hotchkiss, Wesley A.

369

Neo-Liberal Reforms in Israel's Education System: The Dialectics of the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a reading of the Dovrat Report with the aim of assessing the convoluted and dialectical manifestations of the state--"the weak and the strong state"--in the era of global neo-liberalism. The Dovrat Report (Ministry Of Education 2005) includes a set of recommendations aiming to bring about structural and comprehensive changes in…

Yonah, Yossi; Dahan, Yossi; Markovich, Dalya

2008-01-01

370

Neo-Liberalism and the Evolvement of China's Education Policies on Migrant Children's Schooling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the neo-liberal policies and practice embraced in the process of the economic and social changes in China over the last three decades and their impacts on the country's education system, particularly on the compulsory education of migrant children who relocate from rural to urban China with their parents. On the basis of…

Dong, Jie

2010-01-01

371

Near Earth Objects - a threat and an opportunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade the hazard posed to the Earth by Near Earth Objects (NEOs) has generated considerable scientific and public interest. A number of major films, television programmes and media reports have brought the issue to public attention. From an educational perspective an investigation into NEOs and the effects of impacts on the Earth forms a topical and dynamic basis for study in a huge range of subjects, not just scientific. There are clear routes to chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, but history, psychology, geography, palaeontology and geology are just a selection of other subjects involved. A number of projects have been established, mainly in the USA, to determine the extent of the hazard, and to develop ways of countering it, but the present situation is far from satisfactory. Current detection and follow-up programmes are underfunded and lack international coordination.

Tate, Jonathan R.

2003-05-01

372

Mission Accessible Near-Earth Objects Survey (MANOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the past decade has seen exponential growth in the number of known near-Earth objects (NEOs), a representative sample of physical properties for sub-km NEOs does not exist. This information is essential to understanding formational and evolutionary processes in the Solar System, accurate impact hazard assessment, and assuring preparedness for future planetary exploration missions. We propose a three year survey with a regular cadence of spectroscopic and photometric observations to obtain compositional and rotational information for newly discovered, mission accessible NEOs smaller than 100 meters. This will produce a database of roughly 300 objects, representing an unexplored size regime over an order of magnitude smaller than previous studies. This unprecedented data set will (1) provide new insight into fundamental Solar System processes such as space weathering, planetary encounters, and radiation pressure forces; (2) forge new links between asteroids and meteorites; and (3) provide key selection criteria for future planetary missions. This survey is a major component in a complementary NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute proposal (PI D. Trilling).

Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; DeMeo, Francesca; Binzel, Richard; Abell, Paul; Person, Michael; Busch, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

2013-08-01

373

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will use the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to recover Near Earth Objects (NEOs) by adding astrometric observations at one or more orbits since discovery. Recovery observations place the strongest constraints on the orbital solution and can be expected to improve the impact risk assessment for Virtual Impactors (VIs). Many NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non- zero risk of Earth impact, all but 21 are classified as "Lost" until rediscovered by the surveys. Through this on-going work, we seek to minimize the number of new discoveries that are "lost", improve the characterization of VI/PHA orbits and to further the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2013-02-01

374

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 50-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21 < V < 23 on any night during 2012A. We will place the highest priority on Virtual Impactors (VIs) and on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) where long arcs can be created. We will also attempt to recover VI and PHA candidates on a 2- night run. Among the 109 NEOs (excluding small objects) for which the NEODyS system estimates a non-zero risk of Earth impact, all but 26 are unobservable using conventional (non-survey) telescopes. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Crawford, Robert; Lebofsky, Larry

2012-02-01

375

Long Term Follow-up of Near Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently-discovered Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will be observed using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to add astrometric observations at arcs as long as 20-80 days from discovery. These extended arcs place strong constraints on the orbital solution and can greatly reduce the ephemeris uncertainty at the next recovery opportunity. Many recently-discovered NEOs will be observable in the range 21NEOs (excluding small objects) on the NEODyS risk list, 92 are classified as ``Lost'' by NEODyS until rediscovered by the surveys. By creating extended arcs, we will reduce the number of VIs and PHAs that accumulate large errors, thereby enabling future recovery efforts and advancing the assessment of impact risk.

Trueblood, Mark; Bell, David; Lebofsky, Larry

2013-08-01

376

Intimate objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a preliminary and ongoing study into intimate objects: technological devices for maintaining intimacy at a distance. We use the notion of critical technical practice to provide a theoretical framework on which to base our designs, building devices that differ from mass communication devices in three ways: they are for couples in a relationship to communicate with each other,

Joseph'Jofish' Kaye; Liz Goulding

2004-01-01

377

Deciphering neo-sex and B chromosome evolution by the draft genome of Drosophila albomicans  

PubMed Central

Background Drosophila albomicans is a unique model organism for studying both sex chromosome and B chromosome evolution. A pair of its autosomes comprising roughly 40% of the whole genome has fused to the ancient X and Y chromosomes only about 0.12 million years ago, thereby creating the youngest and most gene-rich neo-sex system reported to date. This species also possesses recently derived B chromosomes that show non-Mendelian inheritance and significantly influence fertility. Methods We sequenced male flies with B chromosomes at 124.5-fold genome coverage using next-generation sequencing. To characterize neo-Y specific changes and B chromosome sequences, we also sequenced inbred female flies derived from the same strain but without B's at 28.5-fold. Results We assembled a female genome and placed 53% of the sequence and 85% of the annotated proteins into specific chromosomes, by comparison with the 12 Drosophila genomes. Despite its very recent origin, the non-recombining neo-Y chromosome shows various signs of degeneration, including a significant enrichment of non-functional genes compared to the neo-X, and an excess of tandem duplications relative to other chromosomes. We also characterized a B-chromosome linked scaffold that contains an actively transcribed unit and shows sequence similarity to the subcentromeric regions of both the ancient X and the neo-X chromosome. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the very early stages of sex chromosome evolution and B chromosome origination, and suggest an unprecedented connection between the births of these two systems in D. albomicans. PMID:22439699

2012-01-01

378

Flipping minor bodies: what comet 96P/Machholz 1 can tell us about the orbital evolution of extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the production of near-Earth objects on retrograde orbits  

E-print Network

Nearly all known extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs) have argument of perihelion close to 0 degrees. An existing observational bias strongly favours the detection of ETNOs with arguments of perihelion close to 0 degrees and 180 degrees yet no objects have been found at 180 degrees. No plausible explanation has been offered so far to account for this unusual pattern. Here, we study the dynamical evolution of comet 96P/Machholz 1, a bizarre near-Earth object (NEO) that may provide the key to explain the puzzling clustering of orbits around argument of perihelion close to 0 degrees recently found for the population of ETNOs. Comet 96P/Machholz 1 is currently locked in a Kozai resonance with Jupiter such that the value of its argument of perihelion is always close to 0 degrees at its shortest possible perihelion (highest eccentricity and lowest inclination) and about 180 degrees near its shortest aphelion (longest perihelion distance, lowest eccentricity and highest inclination). If this object is a dynamical...

Marcos, C de la Fuente; Aarseth, S J

2014-01-01

379

Object Oriented Classes, Objects, Inheritance,  

E-print Network

simplifyPoly() {} public polynomial subPoly(polynomial px) {} } #12;Properties of an Object · The big 3, but does not guarantee, information hiding. ­ i.e. In Java you can have encapsulated data (Ruby, C++, Java) · Private variables are only visible from within the same class as they are created

Carette, Jacques

380

Building Neo-Riemannian Groups of Musical Transformations as Extensions  

E-print Network

Chords in musical harmony can be viewed as objects having shapes (major/minor/etc.) grafted on base spaces (pc-sets). The base space and the shape space are usually given the structure of a group, more particularly a cyclic group. In a more general setting, any object could be defined by its position on a base space and by its internal shape or state. The goal of this paper is to determine the structure of simply transitive groups of transformations acting on such sets of objects with internal symmetries. In the main proposition, we state that, under simple assumptions, these groups can be built as group extensions of the group associated to the base space by the group associated to the shape space, or the other way. By doing so, complex groups of transformations are obtained, including the traditional ones such as the dihedral groups. The knowledge of the group structure and product allows to explicitly build group actions on the objects. In particular we differentiate between left and right group actions an...

Popoff, Alexandre

2011-01-01

381

Mosaic array cameras for NEO and space debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent interest in detecting asteroids and Reentrant Space Debris has developed a need for large field of view, high-resolution focal pane array cameras to provide for mapping and tracking of these object. Ideally, a number of these cameras would be used around the world to provide a complete sky map. The Japan Space Forum is currently constructing one such

Archie M. Barter; Joseph J. Imamura; Morley M. Blouke; George Tylinski; Chuck Gilman; Syuzo Isobe

2000-01-01

382

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program - the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The "Copernicus" crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth object (NEO) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. The paper also discusses NASA s current activities and future plans for NTP development that include system-level Technology Demonstrations - specifically ground testing a small, scalable NTR by 2020, with a flight test shortly thereafter.

Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

383

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913): the forgotten co-founder of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution.  

PubMed

The British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), who had to leave school aged 14 and never attended university, did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin (1848-1852) and then in Southeast Asia (1854-1862). Based on this experience, and after reading the corresponding scientific literature, Wallace postulated that species were not created, but are modified descendants of pre-existing varieties (Sarawak Law paper, 1855). Evolution is brought about by a struggle for existence via natural selection, which results in the adaptation of those individuals in variable populations who survive and reproduce (Ternate essay, 1858). In his monograph Darwinism (1889), and in subsequent publications, Wallace extended the contents of Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) into the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution, with reference to the work of August Weismann (1834-1914). Wallace also became the (co)-founder of biogeography, biodiversity research, astrobiology and evolutionary anthropology. Moreover, he envisioned what was later called the anthropocene (i.e., the age of human environmental destructiveness). However, since Wallace believed in atheistic spiritualism and mixed up scientific facts and supernatural speculations in some of his writings, he remains a controversial figure in the history of biology. PMID:23982797

Kutschera, Ulrich; Hossfeld, Uwe

2013-12-01

384

The Catalina Sky Survey for Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) specializes in the detection of the closest transients in our transient universe: near-Earth objects (NEOs). CSS is the leading NEO survey program since 2005, with a discovery rate of 500-600 NEOs per year. This rate is set to substantially increase starting in 2014 with the deployment of wider FOV cameras at both survey telescopes, while a proposed 3-telescope system in Chile would provide a new and significant capability in the Southern Hemisphere beginning as early as 2015. Elements contributing to the success of CSS may be applied to other surveys, and include 1) Real-time processing, identification, and reporting of interesting transients; 2) Human-assisted validation to ensure a clean transient stream that is efficient to the limits of the system (˜ 1?); 3) an integrated follow-up capability to ensure threshold or high-priority transients are properly confirmed and followed up. Additionally, the open-source nature of the CSS data enables considerable secondary science (i.e. CRTS), and CSS continues to pursue collaborations to maximize the utility of the data.

Christensen, E.

385

Feasibility study for near-earth-object tracking by a piggybacked micro-satellite with penetrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of August 2007, over 5000 near-earth-objects (NEO) have been discovered. Some already represent a potential danger to the Earth while others might become hazards in the future. The Planetary Society organised in 2007 the "Apophis Mission Design Competition" in response to this potential threat with the objective to identify promising concepts to track NEOs; the asteroid 99942 Apophis was taken as the study case. This paper describes the "Houyi" proposal which was evaluated by the competition jury as an innovative approach to this problem. Instead of launching a large satellite for NEO tracking, this novel concept proposes a miniaturized satellite that is piggybacked onto a larger (scientific) mission. Such mission design would drastically reduce the costs for NEO surveillance. The presented scenario uses the ESA's SOLO mission as a design baseline for the piggyback option. This paper summarizes the architecture of this CubeSat towards Apophis and extends the previous study by focusing on the feasibility of a piggybacked mission in terms of propulsion requirements.

Weiss, P.; Leung, W.; Yung, K. L.

2010-05-01

386

A decision analysis approach for risk management of near-earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk management of near-Earth objects (NEOs; e.g., asteroids and comets) that can potentially impact Earth is an important issue that took on added urgency with the Chelyabinsk event of February 2013. Thousands of NEOs large enough to cause substantial damage are known to exist, although only a small fraction of these have the potential to impact Earth in the next few centuries. The probability and location of a NEO impact are subject to complex physics and great uncertainty, and consequences can range from minimal to devastating, depending upon the size of the NEO and location of impact. Deflecting a potential NEO impactor would be complex and expensive, and inter-agency and international cooperation would be necessary. Such deflection campaigns may be risky in themselves, and mission failure may result in unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and costs of different potential NEO risk management strategies have not been compared in a systematic fashion. We present a decision analysis framework addressing this hazard. Decision analysis is the science of informing difficult decisions. It is inherently multi-disciplinary, especially with regard to managing catastrophic risks. Note that risk analysis clarifies the nature and magnitude of risks, whereas decision analysis guides rational risk management. Decision analysis can be used to inform strategic, policy, or resource allocation decisions. First, a problem is defined, including the decision situation and context. Second, objectives are defined, based upon what the different decision-makers and stakeholders (i.e., participants in the decision) value as important. Third, quantitative measures or scales for the objectives are determined. Fourth, alternative choices or strategies are defined. Fifth, the problem is then quantitatively modeled, including probabilistic risk analysis, and the alternatives are ranked in terms of how well they satisfy the objectives. Sixth, sensitivity analyses are performed in order to examine the impact of uncertainties. Finally, the need for further analysis, data collection, or refinement is determined. The first steps of defining the problem and the objectives are critical to constructing an informative decision analysis. Such steps must be undertaken with participation from experts, decision-makers, and stakeholders (defined here as "decision participants"). The basic problem here can be framed as: “What is the best strategy to manage risk associated with NEOs?” Some high-level objectives might be to minimize: mortality and injuries, damage to critical infrastructure (e.g., power, communications and food distribution), ecosystem damage, property damage, ungrounded media and public speculation, resources expended, and overall cost. Another valuable objective would be to maximize inter-agency/government coordination. Some of these objectives (e.g., “minimize mortality”) are readily quantified (e.g., deaths and injuries averted). Others are less so (e.g., “maximize inter-agency/government coordination”), but these can be scaled. Objectives may be inversely related: e.g., a strategy that minimizes mortality may cost more. They are also unlikely to be weighted equally. Defining objectives and assessing their relative weight and interactions requires early engagement with decision participants. High-level decisions include whether to deflect a NEO, when to deflect, what is the best alternative for deflection/destruction, and disaster management strategies if an impact occurs. Important influences include, for example: NEO characteristics (orbital characteristics, diameter, mass, spin and composition), impact probability and location, interval between discovery and projected impact date, interval between discovery and deflection target date, costs of information collection, costs and technological feasibility of deflection alternatives, risks of deflection campaigns, requirements for inter-agency and international cooperation, and timing of informing the public. The analytical aspects of decision analysis center on es

Lee, Robert C.; Jones, Thomas D.; Chapman, Clark R.

2014-10-01

387

Surgical, Neo-Adjuvant and Adjuvant Management Strategies in Biliary Tract Cancer  

PubMed Central

The majority of patients with biliary tract carcinoma (cholangiocarcinoma and cancer of the gall bladder) present with advanced, irresectable tumours associated with poor prognosis. Death commonly occurs secondary to recurrent biliary obstruction and intra-biliary sepsis, rather than metastatic disease. The only current potentially curative treatment is surgical resection, but this remains possible in less than a third of patients. The incidence and mortality rates associated with biliary tract carcinoma continue to rise, mandating the development of novel strategies for early detection, improved resection techniques and treatment of residual lesions. However, there remains limited data on the use of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant techniques and much of the literature to date concerns palliation of inoperable disease. Here, we review the current evidence base for surgical, neo-adjuvant and adjuvant management techniques in biliary tract carcinoma. PMID:21933219

Skipworth, JRA; Olde Damink, SWM; Imber, C; Bridgewater, J; Pereira, SP; Malago', M

2011-01-01

388

Neo-Hookean fiber composites undergoing finite out-of-plane shear deformations  

E-print Network

The response of a neo-Hookean fiber composite undergoing finite out-of-plane shear deformation is examined. To this end an explicit close form solution for the out-of-plane shear response of a cylindrical composite element is introduced. We find that the overall response of the cylindrical composite element can be characterized by a fictitious homogeneous neo-Hookean material. Accordingly, this macroscopic response is identical to the response of a composite cylinder assemblage. The expression for the effective shear modulus of the composite cylinder assemblage is identical to the corresponding expression in the limit of small deformation elasticity, and hence also to the expression for the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the out-of-plane shear modulus.

G. deBotton; I. Hariton

2005-08-04

389

Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia.  

PubMed

Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process. PMID:25034856

Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T

2014-01-01

390

Energy Solutions, Neo-Liberalism, and Social Diversity in Toronto, Canada  

PubMed Central

In response to the dominance of green capitalist discourses in Canada’s environmental movement, in this paper, we argue that strategies to improve energy policy must also provide mechanisms to address social conflicts and social disparities. Environmental justice is proposed as an alternative to mainstream environmentalism, one that seeks to address systemic social and spatial exclusion encountered by many racialized immigrants in Toronto as a result of neo-liberal and green capitalist municipal policy and that seeks to position marginalized communities as valued contributors to energy solutions. We examine Toronto-based municipal state initiatives aimed at reducing energy use while concurrently stimulating growth (specifically, green economy/green jobs and ‘smart growth’). By treating these as instruments of green capitalism, we illustrate the utility of environmental justice applied to energy-related problems and as a means to analyze stakeholders’ positions in the context of neo-liberalism and green capitalism, and as opening possibilities for resistance. PMID:21318023

Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Poland, Blake

2011-01-01

391

Successful treatment of gallbladder mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) carcinomas rarely occur in the gallbladder. Here we reported a case of giant gallbladder unresectable mass with local liver invasion and omentum metastasis, which proved to be neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) by biopsy, received successful radical operation after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plus somatostatin treatment. The patient showed good response as the neoplasm diminished dramatically and showed clear margin after 6 courses of treatment. A radical operation including cholecystectomy, hepatic wedge resection of the gallbladder fossa segment and lymph node of group 8a and 8p resection was performed successfully. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed neuroendocrine carcinoma mixed with adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder wall. Followed up showed no evidence of recurrence after 7?months of the operation. We suggest that neo-adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial to gallbladder mixed neuroendocrine carcinomas in an advanced stage which could also be advantageous to NEC of other organs. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2731892837743787 PMID:23186166

2012-01-01

392

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2007-01-01

393

Breaking the mould: an institutionalist political economy alternative to the neo-liberal theory of the market and the state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper criticises the currently dominant neo-liberal discourse on the role of the state and proposes an alternative approach that will allow us to overcome its shortcomings, especially its inadequate analyses of the role of institutions and politics. It argues that the central problem with the neo-liberal framework lies not in its excessively anti-interventionist policy conclusions, as some of its

Ha-Joon Chang

2002-01-01

394

Is management accounting theory breaking free from the shackles of neo-classical economics? A South African perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the extent that management accounting is based on neo-classical economics, all decision-making is assumed to be rational, aimed at utility or profit maximisation and all circumstances influencing decisions are accepted as stationary. The approach excludes all social, cultural or historical considerations and is based on perfect information that is freely available. Neo-classical economics further assumes that minimum government intervention,

M Shotter

395

Japan's Policy Stance on East Asian Neo-Regionalism: From Being a “Reluctant”, to Becoming a “Proactive” State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a theoretically grounded empirical contribution aimed at shedding light on Japan's policy stance on East Asian neo-regionalism. It aims to examine the recent region-building process in East Asia. The dynamics in East Asia suggest that regional institutionalization, brought about by norm diffusion based on the idea of neo-regionalism, is likely to follow a progressive and evolutionary trajectory

Chang-Gun Park

2006-01-01

396

Large deformations near a tip of an interface-crack between two Neo-Hookean sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains an asymptotic investigation - within the nonlinear theory of elastostatic plane stress - of the deformations and stresses near the tips of a traction-free interface-crack between two dissimilar semi-infinite Neo-Hookean sheets. The results obtained are free of oscillatory singularities of the kind predicted by the linearized theory, which would require the two deformed faces of an interface-crack

J. K. Knowles; Eli Sternberg

1983-01-01

397

A note on acoustic black holes in neo-Newtonian theory  

E-print Network

Newtonian fluid dynamics allows the construction of acoustic metrics from which black hole configurations can be studied. However, relativistic pressure effects are neglected within Newtonian theory. We study acoustic black holes in the framework of neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics, which is designed to take into account relativistic inertial effects of the pressure $p$. Within this new hydrodynamical context we show how $p$ can influence the formation of the acoustic horizons.

Fabris, J C; Salako, I G; Tossa, J; Velten, H E S

2013-01-01

398

A note on acoustic black holes in neo-Newtonian theory  

E-print Network

Newtonian fluid dynamics allows the construction of acoustic metrics from which black hole configurations can be studied. However, relativistic pressure effects are neglected within Newtonian theory. We study acoustic black holes in the framework of neo-Newtonian hydrodynamics, which is designed to take into account relativistic inertial effects of the pressure $p$. Within this new hydrodynamical context we show how $p$ can influence the formation of the acoustic horizons.

J. C. Fabris; O. F. Piattella; I. G. Salako; J. Tossa; H. E. S. Velten

2013-08-08

399

NEW STRATEGIES OF POLICING THE POOR: BERLIN'S NEO-LIBERAL SECURITY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inner-city public space has gained a central role in the process of neo-liberal urban restructuring. The profit-orientated revalorization of selected urban spaces is flanked by campaigns for cleanliness and order. Police forces focus their activities on marginalized groups, organizing themselves into “operations” or “special task forces” against homeless people, punks, (foreign) youths and drug addicts. Some of them are working

VOLKER EICK

2003-01-01

400

Estimation of tectonic stress rates from NeoKinema models in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied 2-D kinematic F-E program NeoKinema to estimate long-term-average velocity, fault slip rates, and strain rate field in southern California. We use weighted least-squares to fit the input data (geological fault slip rates, geodetic benchmark velocities, and horizontal principal stress directions) and invert the velocity field. The grid is composed of mostly 7-km spherical-triangle finite element and 4-km fault

Z. Liu; P. Bird; Y. Kagan; D. Jackson

2004-01-01

401

Role of TYR70 in the N-glycosidase activity of neo-trichosanthin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichosanthin (TCS) is a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) which possesses rRNA N-glycosidase activity. TCS has long been used as an abortifacient in China. In recent years, its immunomodulatory, anti-tumor and anti-HIV properties have attracted more and more attention. An isoform of trichosanthin, neo-trichosanthin (n-TCS), has been cloned and expressed as recombinant protein. The biochemical studies revealed that n-TCS has

Li Yan; Shen Wu; Hui-Guang Li; Jian-Hui Li; R. N.-S Wong; Qing-Li Shi; Yi-Cheng Dong

1999-01-01

402

Is Anti-Oppression Teaching in Canadian Social Work Classrooms a Form of NeoLiberalism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how the anti-oppression framework in the curriculum of schools of social work in Canada is co-opted into the neo-liberal and post-colonial structures of the wider society. First, the authors critically examine why an element of oppression either becomes essentialized as an autonomous site, that is, de-historicized, or understood in binary or dichotomous ways (i.e. black\\/white, gay\\/not gay)

June Ying Yee; Anne E. Wagner

2012-01-01

403

The position of the Japanese Spaceguard Association with regard to NEO problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese Spaceguard Association, set up in October 1996, has been proposing a scenario to solve NEO problems. In addition to activities such as public lectures and publication of a newsletter, we are trying to get support from the government and private organizations to build ground-based, space-based and lunar-based telescopes. The construction of two ground-based telescopes began in January 1999,

Syuzo Isobe

2000-01-01

404

Spacecraft observations of NEOs: a Mars Express demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To demonstrate the astrometric capability of the Mars Express Super Resolution Channel for observing Near Earth Asteroids, asteroid 4 Vesta was imaged against a star field in two five-picture sequences. While at a solar phase angle of 40.5 degrees and visual magnitude of 7.2, Vesta was imaged along with a 7.4 and 8.2 visual magnitude reference star in all ten pictures. Mars Express centered astrometric observations of Vesta were then produced using flight camera geometric calibrations, optical photogrammetric techniques, and the Tycho 2 star catalog. The astrometric measurements, validated to an accuracy of 0.4 arc-sec, were delivered to the IAU's Minor Planet Center. Such observations provide geometrically powerful samples of the target body's state vector when combined with Earth-based astrometric observations, substantially improving orbit reconstruction and prediction compared to data obtained while viewing from the Earth direction only. Based on this success, Mars Express will routinely image Near Earth Objects, asteroids and comets passing within 20,000,000 km of Mars that are brighter than 9th magnitude to support the Near Earth Object Observation program

Duxbury, Thomas; Roatsch, Thomas; Jaumann, Ralf; Hoffmann, Harald; Giorgini, J. D.

405

Neo-adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma before liver transplantation: where do we stand?  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria is a widely accepted optimal therapy. Neo-adjuvant therapy before transplantation has been used as a bridging therapy to prevent dropout during the waiting period and as a down-staging method for the patient with intermediate HCC to qualify for liver transplantation. Transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation are the most commonly used method for locoregional therapy. The data associated with newer modalities including drug-eluting beads, radioembolization with Y90, stereotactic radiation therapy and sorafenib will be discussed as a tool for converting advanced HCC to LT candidates. The concept "ablate and wait" has gained the popularity where mandated observation period after neo-adjuvant therapy allows for tumor biology to become apparent, thus has been recommended after down-staging. The role of neo-adjuvant therapy with conjunction of "ablate and wait" in living donor liver transplantation for intermediate stage HCC is also discussed in the paper. PMID:24833861

Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico; Choi, Minsig; Kim, Richard

2014-05-14

406

NASA Earth Observations (NEO): Data Access for Informal Education and Outreach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NEO (NASA Earth Observations) web space is currently under development with the goal of significantly increasing the demand for NASA remote sensing data while dramatically simplifying public access to georeferenced images. NEO will target the unsophisticated, nontraditional data users who are currently underserved by the existing data ordering systems. These users will include formal and informal educators, museum and science center personnel, professional communicators, and citizen scientists and amateur Earth observers. Users will be able to view and manipulate georeferenced browse imagery and, if they desire, download directly or order the source HDF data from the data provider (e.g., NASA DAAC or science team) via a single, integrated interface. NE0 will accomplish this goal by anticipating users expectations and knowledge level, thus providing an interface that presents material to users in a more simplified manner, without relying upon the jargon/technical terminology that make even the identification of the appropriate data set a significant hurdle. NEO will also act as a gateway that manages users expectations by providing specific details about images and data formats, developing tutorials regarding the manipulation of georeferenced imagery and raw data, links to software tools and ensuring that users are able to get the image they want in the format they want as easily as possible.

Ward, Kevin; Herring, David

2005-01-01

407

Positive selection near an inversion breakpoint on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.  

PubMed

Unique features of heteromorphic sex chromosomes are produced as a consequence of sex-linked transmission. Alternative models concerning the evolution of sex chromosomes can be classified in terms of genetic drift or positive selection being the primary mechanism of divergence between this chromosomal pair. This study examines early changes on a newly acquired chromosomal arm of the X in Drosophila americana, which was derived from a centromeric fusion between the ancestral X and previously autosomal chromosome 4 (element B). Breakpoints of a chromosomal inversion In(4)a, which is restricted to the neo-X, are identified and used to guide a sequence analysis along chromosome 4. Loci flanking the distal breakpoint exhibit patterns of sequence diversity consistent with neutral evolution, yet loci near the proximal breakpoint reveal distinct imprints of positive selection within the neo-X chromosomal class containing In(4)a. Data from six separate positions examined throughout the proximal region reveal a pattern of recent turnover driven by two independent sweeps among chromosomes with the inverted gene arrangement. Selection-mediated establishment of an extended haplotype associated with recombination-suppressing inversions on the neo-X indicates a pattern of active coadaptation apparently initiated by X-linked transmission and potentially sustained by intralocus sexual conflict. PMID:17660565

Evans, Amy L; Mena, Paulina A; McAllister, Bryant F

2007-11-01

408

NEOCAM: Near Earth Object Chemical Analysis Mission: Bridging the Gulf between Telescopic Observations and the Chemical and Mineralogical Compositions of Asteroids or Diogenes A: Diagnostic Observation of the Geology of Near Earth Spectrally-Classified Asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of meteorites have yielded a wealth of scientific information based on highly detailed chemical and isotopic studies possible only in sophisticated terrestrial laboratories. Telescopic studies have revealed an enormous (greater than 10(exp 5)) number of physical objects ranging in size from a few tens of meters to several hundred kilometers, orbiting not only in the traditional asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter but also throughout the inner solar system. Many of the largest asteroids are classed into taxonomic groups based on their observed spectral properties and are designated as C, D. X, S or V types (as well as a wide range in sub-types). These objects are certainly the sources far the meteorites in our laboratories, but which asteroids are the sources for which meteorites? Spectral classes are nominally correlated to the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the asteroid itself based on studies of the spectral changes induced in meteorites due to exposure to a simulated space environment. While laboratory studies have produced some notable successes (e.g. the identification of the asteroid Vesta as the source of the H, E and D meteorite classes), it is unlikely that we have samples of each asteroidal spectral type in our meteorite collection. The correlation of spectral type and composition for many objects will therefore remain uncertain until we can return samples of specific asteroid types to Earth for analyses. The best candidates for sample return are asteroids that already come close to the Earth. Asteroids in orbit near 1 A.U. have been classified into three groups (Aten, Apollo & Amor) based on their orbital characteristics. These Near Earth Objects (NEOs) contain representatives of virtually all spectral types and sub-types of the asteroid population identified to date. Because of their close proximity to Earth, NEOs are prime targets for asteroid missions such as the NEAR-Shoemaker NASA Discovery Mission to Eros and the Japanese Hyabusa Mission to Itokawa. Also due to their close proximity to Earth, NEOs constitute the most likely set of celestial objects that will impact us in the relatively near future.

Nuth, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

409

Dependency denied: health inequalities in the neo-liberal era.  

PubMed

The ways in which inequality generates particular population health outcomes remains a major source of dispute within social epidemiology and medical sociology. Wilkinson and Pickett's The Spirit Level (2009), undoubtedly galvanised thinking across the disciplines, with its emphasis on how income inequality shapes the distribution of health and social problems. In this paper, we argue that their focus on income inequality, whilst important, understates the role of neoliberal discourses and practises in making sense of contemporary inequality and its health-related consequences. Many quantitative studies have demonstrated that more neoliberal countries have poorer health compared to less neoliberal countries, but there are few qualitative studies which explore how neoliberal discourses shape accounts and experiences and what protections and resources might be available to people. This article uses findings from a qualitative psycho-social study employing biographical-narrative interviews with women in Salford (England) to understand experiences of inequality as posited in The Spirit Level. We found evidence for the sorts of damages resulting from inequality as proposed in The Spirit Level. However, in addition to these, the most striking finding was the repeated articulation of a discourse which we have termed "no legitimate dependency". This was something both painful and damaging, where dependency of almost any sort was disavowed and responsibility was assumed by the self or "othered" in various ways. No legitimate dependency, we propose, is a partial (and problematic) internalisation of neoliberal discourses which becomes naturalised and unquestioned at the individual level. We speculate that these sorts of discourses in conjunction with a destruction of protective resources (both material and discursive), lead to an increase in strain and account in part for well-known damages consequent on life in an unequal society. We conclude that integrating understandings of neoliberalism into theorising about inequality enriches sociological perspectives in this area. PMID:25137636

Peacock, Marian; Bissell, Paul; Owen, Jenny

2014-10-01

410

Piloted Missions to Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent study has examined the feasibility of sending the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration and Exploration Systems Architecture Study in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade ( 2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program's Orion CEV capsule and Ares launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the Earth-Moon system and would help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting crewed exploration missions outside of low-Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years. Such a mission would not only provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration, but would also provide the capability to conduct an in-depth scientific investigation of a NEO. Essential physical and geochemical properties of these objects can best be determined from dedicated spacecraft. In addition, a crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques, and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) much more capably than a robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance any scientific return from this type of mission. Missions to NEOs would also have practical applications for resource utilization and planetary defense, two issues that will be relevant in the not-too-distant future as humanity begins to explore, understand, and utilize the solar system. These scientific and practical aspects, along with the programmatic and operational benefits of a human venture into deep space, make a mission to a NEO using Constellation systems a compelling prospect. This work is sponsored by NASA's Constellation Advanced Programs Office.

Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D.; Landis, R.; Jones, T.; Morrison, D.; Adamo, D.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.; Lu, E.

2007-10-01

411

Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

2011-01-01

412

KLENOT - Kle? Observatory near Earth and other unusual objects observations team and telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KLENOT project is a project of the Klet Observatory, Czech Republic, devoted to astrometric observations of Near Earth objects (NEOs), distant objects and comets. The improved effort of the large NEO surveys has resulted in an increasing number of newly discovered NEOs calls for continuous follow-up astrometry to secure an accurate orbit determination of discovered bodies, first in discovery opposition and then during next apparitions. Moreover, recently added automatic impact monitoring systems require additional accurate astrometry of potential future Earth impactors (Virtual Impactors) to remove, or to confirm, possible impact solutions. Many of these targets are objects fainter than magnitude mV = 20.0m. Considering both these urgent need of astrometric follow-up and our results and experience in minor planet and comet CCD astrometry, done at Klet since 1993, we decided to bring into operation a new 1-m class facility working on a permanent basis - the KLENOT telescope. The KLENOT telescope is constructed using a 1.06-m primary mirror and a primary focus four lenses corrector to obtain a plane field of view 33×33 arcminutes. This telescope is equipped with a CCD camera Photometrics Series 300. Regular observing started in March 2002 (the MPC code 246). We discuss here the first results including confirmatory observations of newly dicovered fainter NEOs in magniutde range from mV = 19.5m - 22.0m and follow-up astrometry of several Virtual Impactors. The consequential scientific objectives of the KLENOT project are the analysis of possible cometary activity of newly discovered bodies and follow-up astrometry of distant objects, i.e. Centaurs and brighter transneptunian objects.

Tichá, Jana; Tichý, Miloš; Ko?er, Michal

2002-11-01

413

Stable isotope chemistry, population histories and Late Prehistoric subsistence change in the Aleutian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aleut population history has been a topic of debate since the earliest archaeological investigations in the region. In this paper, we use stable isotope chemistry to evaluate the hypothesis that two distinct groups of people, Paleo- and Neo-Aleut, occupied the eastern Aleutians after 1000BP. This study focuses on 80 sets of directly dated eastern Aleutian burial assemblages from Chaluka midden,

David A. Byers; David R. Yesner; Jack M. Broughton; Joan Brenner Coltrain

2011-01-01

414

Population of neutron unbound states via two-proton knockout reactions  

E-print Network

The two-proton knockout reaction 9Be(26Ne,O2p) was used to explore excited unbound states of 23O and 24O. In 23O a state at an excitation energy of 2.79(13) MeV was observed. There was no conclusive evidence for the population of excited states in 24O.

N. Frank; T. Baumann; D. Bazin; A. Gade; J. -L. Lecouey; W. A. Peters; H. Scheit; A. Schiller; M. Thoennessen; J. Brown; P. A. DeYoung; J. E. Finck; J. Hinnefeld; R. Howes; B. Luther

2007-08-20

415

Racism against the Mayan Population in Yucatan, Mexico: How Current Education Contradicts the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discriminatory situation suffered by the Maya population in the Mexican state of Yucatan is discussed using the concept of neo-racism. Statistical evidence about the school system is presented, along with testimonies of Mayan speakers which uncover a phenomena frequently denied or obliterated by politically correct speeches that actually serve…

Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos

2009-01-01

416

Development of a handbook and an on-line tool on defending Earth against Potentially Hazardous Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A credible Potentially Hazardous Object (PHO) threat may be identified sometime in the future, requiring actions to be taken to prevent an impact disaster. To negate that threat, mitigation techniques are being proposed where the potential for collision is unacceptably high. The Aerospace Corporation is developing a handbook for Near Earth Object (NEO) deflection and a complementary web-based NEO deflection interactive tool. The purpose of the tool is to aid in the design and understanding of the deflection impulses necessary for defending Earth against threatening objects and in the analysis and comparison of various techniques that might be used to provide those impulses. The handbook and the associated web-based resource center will provide first-order requirements for effective NEO deflection missions using a variety of deflection concepts. The resources will include educational materials on NEO threats and deflection concepts, as well as examples demonstrating the use of the handbook and web-based tool. A project overview and status are presented.

Melamed, Nahum

2013-09-01

417

Kuiper Belt Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed matter. It is probably the source of the short-period comets and Centaurs, and may also supply collisionally generated interplanetary dust. I discuss the properties of the Kuiper Belt and provide an overview of the outstanding scientific issues.

Jewitt, David

418

1.5-year AOD observations at the Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), in Messinia-S. Greece (Eastern Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based observations of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at the newly operated Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), in Messinia-S. Greece (Eastern Mediterranean), are analysed in this work. NEO is a cooperation between Stockholm University, the Academy of Athens and TEMES S.A., dedicated to research and education on the climate and environment of the Mediterranean region. Measurements were acquired with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer at five wavelengths. The temporal variability characteristics of the AOD and the Angstroem exponent will be investigated in order to retrieve the major sources of aerosols over the area in conjunction with back-trajectory analyses. The relation between columnar properties of aerosols and in-situ measurements, will be additionally studied during the intensive campaign ARGON (Aerosol and TRace Gases Observational Campaign at NEO). The ARGON campaign took place in the period 7 June - 12 July 2012 at NEO premises in Costa Navarino, Messinia. In addition to the routine aerosol, trace gases and radiometric measurements at NEO, extra instrumentation was operated for the monitoring of NOx (NO and NO2), CO and PM10, for the first time in the area. A PM10 sampler was used for the collection of 24h atmospheric samples on quartz filters for further in vitro chemical analyses. Finally, a LIDAR system on board of the new van type mobile lab of the Academy of Athens was deployed for the scanning of the vertical profile of aerosol in the atmosphere during the period of measurements.

Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Gratsea, Myrto; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos; Andreae, Meinrat

2013-04-01

419

RNA polymerase I can mediate expression of CAT and neo protein-coding genes in Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed Central

We show that the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) promoter can efficiently direct expression of protein-coding genes in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. The rRNA promoter was characterized by: (i) point mutations at the rRNA transcription initiation site which completely abolished its promoter function in transient CAT transformation assays; (ii) the alpha-amanitin resistance of transcription of rRNA promoter-neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) genes in stably transformed trypanosomes; and (iii) the nucleolar location of neo RNA, synthesized under the control of the rRNA promoter. The rRNA promoter-derived CAT mRNA required a 3' splice acceptor site and the neo mRNA was trans-spliced and polyadenylated. In situ hybridization revealed neo RNA at the nucleolus in stably transformed trypanosomes in which rRNA promoter-neo constructs were integrated either at a rRNA locus or at a locus for the procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) coding genes. We postulate that trans-splicing, by uncoupling the requirement for transcription of protein-coding genes by RNA polymerase II, allows RNA polymerase I mediated protein-coding gene transcription, presumably because a 5' cap can be transferred to the pre-mRNA by trans-splicing. Images PMID:1915299

Rudenko, G; Chung, H M; Pham, V P; Van der Ploeg, L H

1991-01-01

420

Metropolitan fragmentation and neo-localism in the periphery: revisiting the case of Curitiba.  

PubMed

In this paper, the Curitiba-centred narrative on the success of its urban planning experience will be qualified in light of the complexities of its metropolitan development trajectory. It will be claimed that the institutional vacuum that surrounds Brazilian metropolitan areas in general, and Greater Curitiba in particular, has been intensified by the emergence of a competitive and decentralised state spatial regime, which has consolidated a fragmented and neo-localist system of governance. Preliminary empirical evidence will be provided on the challenges that are being faced within the new regime in articulating socio-spatial, economic and environmental strategies in the direction of a more sustainable metropolitan future. PMID:22500346

Klink, Jeroen; Denaldi, Rosana

2012-01-01

421

St.Augustine's 'notitia sui' related to Aristotle, the early neo-Platonists and Hegel  

E-print Network

: the content of chapters 1-5 296 307 310 311 Bo Hegel and historically related ~igures: 344 the content of the Excursus and Conclusion .1 I N T ROD U C T ION z 1 Il'lTRODUCTIOW This thesis is essentially a study of the f 'ortunes of one of the most... (Ennead VI 6 and VI 9)0 In. 00. 26, 'Magnum Opus et Arduum, Viri 1&iing the t Ci ty o~ God' t .of 9Augustine of Hippo', London 19670 ide p.30C1. .!,go P03060 22 ido po 3070 12 Footnotes to Introduction - continued 23 For the neo-Platonism amd...

Booth, Edward Geoffrey Thornton

1975-10-28

422

Neo-classical theory of competition or Adam Smith's hand as mathematized ideology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthodox economic theory (utility maximization, rational agents, efficient markets in equilibrium) is based on arbitrarily postulated, nonempiric notions. The disagreement between economic reality and a key feature of neo-classical economic theory was criticized empirically by Osborne. I show that the orthodox theory is internally self-inconsistent for the very reason suggested by Osborne: lack of invertibility of demand and supply as functions of price to obtain price as functions of supply and demand. The reason for the noninvertibililty arises from nonintegrable excess demand dynamics, a feature of their theory completely ignored by economists.

McCauley, Joseph L.

2001-10-01

423

Population Connection: Population Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Population Connection "is the national grassroots population organization that educates young people and advocates progressive action to stabilize world population at a level that can be sustained by Earth's resources." The Population Connection's Education Program develops "age-appropriate curricula to complement students' science and social science instruction about human population trends and their impacts on natural resources, environmental quality and human well-being." The Population Education website offers a variety of educational resources including downloadable classroom activities and readings, and newsletters for teachers and students. The site also provides information about professional development opportunities for educators and free population education workshops held at universities for pre-service teachers and graduate students.

424

CYP2A6 gene polymorphism and personality traits for NEO-FFI on the smoking behavior of youths.  

PubMed

We performed a survey on the relationship between nicotine dependence and psychological (the personality traits using neuroticism extroversion openess-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI)/nicotine metabolism (the CYP2A6 gene polymorphism) factors among Japanese young students to elucidate the mechanism of the development of nicotine dependence. As a result, the frequency of the CYP2A6*4C gene (enzyme activity deficit) was significantly (p<0.05) higher among nonsmokers than smokers, and the Openness score by NEO-FFI was higher among smokers than nonsmokers. However, there were no significant differences in the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness scores by NEO-FFI between smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that the CYP2A6*4C gene and the Openness personality trait may affect the development of the smoking behavior of youth. PMID:17934923

Waga, Chikako; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko

2007-01-01

425

Determination of neo- and d-chiro-Inositol Hexakisphosphate in Soils by Solution 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The inositol phosphates are an abundant but poorly understood group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the environment. Four stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) occur, although for three of these (scyllo, neo, and d-chiro) the origins, dynamics, and biological function remain unknown, due in large part to analytical limitations in their measurement in environmental samples. We synthesized authentic neo- and d-chiro-IP6 and used them to identify signals from these compounds in three soils from the Falkland Islands. Both compounds resisted hypobromite oxidation and gave quantifiable 31P NMR signals at ? = 6.67 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 4-equatorial/2-axial conformer of neo-IP6) and ? = 6.48 ppm (equatorial phosphate groups of the 2-equatorial/4-axial conformer of d-chiro-IP6) in soil extracts. Inositol hexakisphosphate accounted for 46–54% of the soil organic phosphorus, of which the four stereoisomers constituted, on average, 55.9% (myo), 32.8% (scyllo), 6.1% (neo), and 5.2% (d-chiro). Reappraisal of the literature based on the new signal assignments revealed that neo- and d-chiro-IP6 occur widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These results confirm that the inositol phosphates can constitute a considerable fraction of the organic phosphorus in soils and reveal the prevalence of neo- and d-chiro-IP6 in the environment. The hypobromite oxidation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of all four IP6 stereoisomers in environmental samples and provides a platform for research into the origins and ecological significance of these enigmatic compounds. PMID:22489788

2012-01-01

426

COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION  

PubMed Central

Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

2012-01-01

427

THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

2012-01-01

428

Apatite fission track data from central Anatolian granitoids (Turkey): Constraints on Neo-Tethyan closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite fission track age versus elevation profiles and temperature-time-path modeling indicate an early to middle Paleocene (57-62 Ma) rapid exhumation of the Middle to Late Cretaceous granitoids in central Anatolia and an Oligocene (28-30 Ma) rapid exhumation of the Eocene Köseda? batholith in the NE Sivas region, part of eastern central Pontides. The early to middle Paleocene rapid exhumation is thought to result from a regional compressional regime following the collision of the Eurasian Plate and the Tauride-Anatolide Platform at the closure of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan branch of the northern Neo-Tethys. The Oligocene accelerated exhumation of the Köseda? batholith is contemporaneous with the Oligo-Miocene closure of the southern Neo-Tethys which juxtaposed the amalgamated Eurasian and Tauride-Anatolide Platform and the African-Arabian Plate along the Bitlis-Zagros suture in southeast Anatolia. The compressional regime due to this collision affected a large area between the Greater Caucasus in the north and northern African-Arabian Plate in the south.

Boztu?, Durmu?; Jonckheere, Raymond C.

2007-06-01

429

Expression level of a pancreatic neo-antigen in beta cells determines degree of diabetes pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

It is not fully understood how the expression level of autoantigens in beta cells impacts autoimmune diabetes (T1D) development. Earlier studies using ovalbumin and also insulin had shown that secreted antigens could enhance diabetes development through facilitated presentation by antigen presenting cells. Here we sought to determine how the expression level of a membrane bound, non-secreted or cross-presented neo-antigen, the glycoprotein (GP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), would influence T1D. We found that a RIP-LCMV transgenic mouse line exhibiting higher levels of beta cell GP expression developed more severe diabetes after LCMV infection or transfer of high numbers of activated autoreactive T cells. Importantly, all beta cells were lost and a significant increase in morbidity and mortality from T1D was noted. Insulitis and accumulation of autoaggressive CD8 cells was more profound in the RIP-LCMV-GP high-expressor line. Interestingly, the additional introduction of neo-antigen-specific CD4+ helper or regulatory T cells was able to influence diabetogenesis positively or negatively. We conclude that a higher degree of autoantigen expression results in increased diabetes susceptibility. Therefore, autoantigens such as insulin that are expressed at higher levels in beta cells might have a more profound impact on diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:20932718

Martinic, Marianne M.; Huber, Christoph; Coppieters, Ken; Oldham, Janine E.; Gavin, Amanda L.; von Herrath, Matthias G.

2010-01-01

430

The DECam NEO Survey: A sensitive, wide-field search for near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report preliminary results from a survey for near-Earth asteroids with the Dark Energy Camera. DECam is a facility-class 520 Megapixel wide-field imager on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-american Observatory. It has a 3.2 square degree field of view, and a focal plane consisting of 62 2Kx4K red-optimized CCDs. In spite of its large number of pixels, DECam reads out in less than 30 seconds, making it possible to cover a large area of sky efficiently. Compared to the largest aperture of the currently most productive NEO searches, the Blanco has an aperture that is several times larger and a comparable field of view. Our goal is to measure the size distribution of NEOs well below 140m, and we have been allocated 30 nights through the NOAO Survey program to achieve it. Here we report on results from the first 10 nights of our survey.

Allen, Lori; Trilling, David; Valdes, Frank; Fuentes, Cesar; James, David; Herrera, David; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Burt, Brian; Axelrod, Tim

2014-11-01

431

The McDonaldization of childhood: children's mental health in neo-liberal market cultures.  

PubMed

As the failings of neo-liberalism have recently been revealed through the collapse of much of the banking and financial services sector, it seems an opportune time to think about the impact this economic, political, and social value system has had on the well-being of children. After analyzing how our beliefs and practices around children and families are shaped by a variety of economic, political, and cultural pressures, I discuss how policies that promote a particular form of aggressive capitalism lead to a narcissistic value system that permeates social institutions, including those that deal with children. Not only does this impact children's emotional well-being, but it also shapes the way we conceptualize children and their problems. These dynamics facilitate the rapid growth of child psychiatric diagnoses and the tendency to deal with aberrant behavior or emotions in children through technical--particularly pharmaceutical--interventions, a phenomenon I refer to as the 'McDonaldization' of children's mental health. The present article seeks to challenge many of the unhelpful cultural assumptions regarding childhood embedded within the narrow biomedical frame that neo-liberalism has encouraged. PMID:21088100

Timimi, Sami

2010-11-01

432

Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

2010-01-01

433

The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-P