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Sample records for obligate intracellular bacterial

  1. Proteomic Profiling of the Outer Membrane Fraction of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Ehrlichia ruminantium

    PubMed Central

    Moumène, Amal; Marcelino, Isabel; Ventosa, Miguel; Gros, Olivier; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria play a crucial role in virulence and pathogenesis. Identification of these proteins represents an important goal for bacterial proteomics, because it aids in vaccine development. Here, we have developed such an approach for Ehrlichia ruminantium, the obligate intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater. A preliminary whole proteome analysis of elementary bodies, the extracellular infectious form of the bacterium, had been performed previously, but information is limited about OMPs in this organism and about their role in the protective immune response. Identification of OMPs is also essential for understanding Ehrlichia’s OM architecture, and how the bacterium interacts with the host cell environment. First, we developed an OMP extraction method using the ionic detergent sarkosyl, which enriched the OM fraction. Second, proteins were separated via one-dimensional electrophoresis, and digested peptides were analyzed via nano-liquid chromatographic separation coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF). Of 46 unique proteins identified in the OM fraction, 18 (39%) were OMPs, including 8 proteins involved in cell structure and biogenesis, 4 in transport/virulence, 1 porin, and 5 proteins of unknown function. These experimental data were compared to the predicted subcellular localization of the entire E. ruminantium proteome, using three different algorithms. This work represents the most complete proteome characterization of the OM fraction in Ehrlichia spp. The study indicates that suitable subcellular fractionation experiments combined with straightforward computational analysis approaches are powerful for determining the predominant subcellular localization of the experimentally observed proteins. We identified proteins potentially involved in E. ruminantium pathogenesis, which are good novel targets for candidate vaccines. Thus, combining bioinformatics and proteomics, we discovered new OMPs for E. ruminantium that are valuable data for those investigating new vaccines against this organism. In summary, we provide both pioneering data and novel insights into the pathogenesis of this obligate intracellular bacterium. PMID:25710494

  2. Mobile DNA in obligate intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bordenstein, Seth R; Reznikoff, William S

    2005-09-01

    The small genomes of obligate intracellular bacteria are often presumed to be impervious to mobile DNA and the fluid genetic processes that drive diversification in free-living bacteria. Categorized by reductive evolution and streamlining, the genomes of some obligate intracellular bacteria manifest striking degrees of stability and gene synteny. However, recent findings from complete genome sequences of obligate intracellular species and their mobile genetic associates favour the abandonment of these wholesale terms for a more complex and tantalizing picture. PMID:16138097

  3. Secretome of Obligate Intracellular Rickettsia

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, though others (e.g., josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared towards understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial “life on the inside”. PMID:25168200

  4. Genetic Systems for Studying Obligate Intracellular Pathogens: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Wood, David O.; Wood, Raphael R.; Tucker, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advancements in the genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens have been made over the past two years. In this paper we attempt to summarize the work published since 2011 that documents these exciting accomplishments. While each genus comprising this diverse group of pathogens poses unique problems, requiring modifications of established techniques and the introduction of new tools, all appear amenable to genetic analysis. Significantly, the field is moving forward from a focus on the identification and development of genetic techniques to their application in addressing critical questions related to mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity and the requirements of obligate intracellular growth. PMID:24581687

  5. The cell wall of the obligate intracellular bacterial parasite of small free-living amoebae. I. Morphology and chemical composition of the rigid layer and peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Drozański, W; Drozańska, D; Wicińska, M

    1984-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial parasite "OIBP" of small free-living amoebae, discovered by Drozański (1956) was propagated in axenic culture of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The peptidoglycan prepared by chemical extraction of intact cells of the bacterium was examined in a transmission electron microscope and analysed chemically. Electron micrographs of heavy metal shadowed preparations revealed a bag-shaped membraneous structure resembling that of the peptidoglycan sacculi of Escherichia coli and the other gram-negative bacteria so far studied. The peptidoglycan may be present in a lipoprotein-peptidoglycan complex, as proteolytic enzyme treatment resulted in changes of the ultrastructure and in chemical composition. Results of chemical analysis of acid hydrolysed peptidoglycan indicate the presence of two aminosugars; glucosamine and muramic acid and also significant amounts of glycine together with three major amino acids; alanine, glutamic acid and diaminopimelic acid. It was shown that the peptidoglycan was, however, resistant to the hydrolytic action of egg-white lysozyme and to the lysosomal endo N-acetylmuramidases of amoebael origin. PMID:6083704

  6. Genome degeneration affects both extracellular and intracellular bacterial endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Feldhaar, Heike; Gross, Roy

    2009-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial endosymbionts of insects are a paradigm for reductive genome evolution. A study published recently in BMC Biology demonstrates that similar evolutionary forces shaping genome structure may also apply to extracellular endosymbionts. PMID:19435469

  7. Adaptive immunity to the obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jeffrey G; Heinzen, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes the zoonosis Q fever. While an effective whole-cell vaccine (WCV) against Q fever exists, the vaccine has limitations in being highly reactogenic in sensitized individuals. Thus, a safe and effective vaccine based on recombinant protein antigen (Ag) is desirable. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of the host response to primary infection and the precise mechanisms involved in protective immunity to C. burnetii are needed. This review summarizes our current understanding of adaptive immunity to C. burnetii with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:18813881

  8. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungalrelated parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and...

  9. Metabolic Interdependence of Obligate Intracellular Bacteria and Their Insect Hosts†

    PubMed Central

    Zientz, Evelyn; Dandekar, Thomas; Gross, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Mutualistic associations of obligate intracellular bacteria and insects have attracted much interest in the past few years due to the evolutionary consequences for their genome structure. However, much less attention has been paid to the metabolic ramifications for these endosymbiotic microorganisms, which have to compete with but also to adapt to another metabolism—that of the host cell. This review attempts to provide insights into the complex physiological interactions and the evolution of metabolic pathways of several mutualistic bacteria of aphids, ants, and tsetse flies and their insect hosts. PMID:15590782

  10. Molecular pathogenesis of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Erin J.; Chen, Chen; Mertens, Katja; Weber, Mary M.; Samuel, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute and chronic infections. The study of C. burnetii pathogenesis has benefited from two recent fundamental advances: improved genetic tools and the ability to grow the bacterium in extracellular media. In this Review, we describe how these recent advances have improved our understanding of C. burnetii invasion and host cell modulation, including the formation of replication-permissive Coxiella-containing vacuoles. Furthermore, we describe the Dot/Icm (defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication) system, which is used by C. burnetii to secrete a range of effector proteins into the host cell, and we discuss the role of these effectors in remodelling the host cell. PMID:23797173

  11. Evolutionary Genomics of a Temperate Bacteriophage in an Obligate Intracellular Bacteria (Wolbachia)

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Bethany N.; Funkhouser, Lisa J.; Setia, Shefali; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2011-01-01

    Genome evolution of bacteria is usually influenced by ecology, such that bacteria with a free-living stage have large genomes and high rates of horizontal gene transfer, while obligate intracellular bacteria have small genomes with typically low amounts of gene exchange. However, recent studies indicate that obligate intracellular species that host-switch frequently harbor agents of horizontal transfer such as mobile elements. For example, the temperate double-stranded DNA bacteriophage WO in Wolbachia persistently transfers between bacterial coinfections in the same host. Here we show that despite the phage's rampant mobility between coinfections, the prophage's genome displays features of constraint related to its intracellular niche. First, there is always at least one intact prophage WO and usually several degenerate, independently-acquired WO prophages in each Wolbachia genome. Second, while the prophage genomes are modular in composition with genes of similar function grouping together, the modules are generally not interchangeable with other unrelated phages and thus do not evolve by the Modular Theory. Third, there is an unusual core genome that strictly consists of head and baseplate genes; other gene modules are frequently deleted. Fourth, the prophage recombinases are diverse and there is no conserved integration sequence. Finally, the molecular evolutionary forces acting on prophage WO are point mutation, intragenic recombination, deletion, and purifying selection. Taken together, these analyses indicate that while lateral transfer of phage WO is pervasive between Wolbachia with occasional new gene uptake, constraints of the intracellular niche obstruct extensive mixture between WO and the global phage population. Although the Modular Theory has long been considered the paradigm of temperate bacteriophage evolution in free-living bacteria, it appears irrelevant in phages of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:21949820

  12. Improved Quantification, Propagation, Purification and Storage of the Obligate Intracellular Human Pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi

    PubMed Central

    Giengkam, Suparat; Blakes, Alex; Utsahajit, Peemdej; Chaemchuen, Suwittra; Atwal, Sharanjeet; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Paris, Daniel H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Salje, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is a leading cause of serious febrile illness in rural Southeast Asia. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans by the bite of a Leptotrombidium mite. Research into the basic mechanisms of cell biology and pathogenicity of O. tsutsugamushi has lagged behind that of other important human pathogens. One reason for this is that O. tsutsugamushi is an obligate intracellular bacterium that can only be cultured in mammalian cells and that requires specific methodologies for propagation and analysis. Here, we have performed a body of work designed to improve methods for quantification, propagation, purification and long-term storage of this important but neglected human pathogen. These results will be useful to other researchers working on O. tsutsugamushi and also other obligate intracellular pathogens such as those in the Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales families. Methodology A clinical isolate of O. tsutsugamushi was grown in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast (L929) cells. Bacterial growth was measured using an O. tsutsugamushi-specific qPCR assay. Conditions leading to improvements in viability and growth were monitored in terms of the effect on bacterial cell number after growth in cultured mammalian cells. Key results Development of a standardised growth assay to quantify bacterial replication and viability in vitro. Quantitative comparison of different DNA extraction methods. Quantification of the effect on growth of FBS concentration, daunorubicin supplementation, media composition, host cell confluence at infection and frequency of media replacement. Optimisation of bacterial purification including a comparison of host cell lysis methods, purification temperature, bacterial yield calculations and bacterial pelleting at different centrifugation speeds. Quantification of bacterial viability loss after long term storage and freezing under a range of conditions including different freezing buffers and different rates of freezing. Conclusions Here we present a standardised method for comparing the viability of O. tsutsugamushi after purification, treatment and propagation under various conditions. Taken together, we present a body of data to support improved techniques for propagation, purification and storage of this organism. This data will be useful both for improving clinical isolation rates as well as performing in vitro cell biology experiments. PMID:26317517

  13. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Christina A.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Bakowski, Malina A.; Goldberg, Jonathan; Ma, Amy T.; Becnel, James J.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Fan, Lin; Heiman, David I.; Levin, Joshua Z.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Troemel, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungal-related parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and Nematocida sp1, which are natural pathogens of Caenorhabditis nematodes and provide model systems for studying microsporidian pathogenesis. We performed deep sequencing of transcripts from a time course of N. parisii infection. Examination of pathogen gene expression revealed compact transcripts and a dramatic takeover of host cells by Nematocida. We also performed phylogenomic analyses of Nematocida and other microsporidian genomes to refine microsporidian phylogeny and identify evolutionary events of gene loss, acquisition, and modification. In particular, we found that all microsporidia lost the tumor-suppressor gene retinoblastoma, which we speculate could accelerate the parasite cell cycle and increase the mutation rate. We also found that microsporidia acquired transporters that could import nucleosides to fuel rapid growth. In addition, microsporidian hexokinases gained secretion signal sequences, and in a functional assay these were sufficient to export proteins out of the cell; thus hexokinase may be targeted into the host cell to reprogram it toward biosynthesis. Similar molecular changes appear during formation of cancer cells and may be evolutionary strategies adopted independently by microsporidia to proliferate rapidly within host cells. Finally, analysis of genome polymorphisms revealed evidence for a sexual cycle that may provide genetic diversity to alleviate problems caused by clonal growth. Together these events may explain the emergence and success of these diverse intracellular parasites. PMID:22813931

  14. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Christina A; Desjardins, Christopher A; Bakowski, Malina A; Goldberg, Jonathan; Ma, Amy T; Becnel, James J; Didier, Elizabeth S; Fan, Lin; Heiman, David I; Levin, Joshua Z; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Troemel, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungal-related parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and Nematocida sp1, which are natural pathogens of Caenorhabditis nematodes and provide model systems for studying microsporidian pathogenesis. We performed deep sequencing of transcripts from a time course of N. parisii infection. Examination of pathogen gene expression revealed compact transcripts and a dramatic takeover of host cells by Nematocida. We also performed phylogenomic analyses of Nematocida and other microsporidian genomes to refine microsporidian phylogeny and identify evolutionary events of gene loss, acquisition, and modification. In particular, we found that all microsporidia lost the tumor-suppressor gene retinoblastoma, which we speculate could accelerate the parasite cell cycle and increase the mutation rate. We also found that microsporidia acquired transporters that could import nucleosides to fuel rapid growth. In addition, microsporidian hexokinases gained secretion signal sequences, and in a functional assay these were sufficient to export proteins out of the cell; thus hexokinase may be targeted into the host cell to reprogram it toward biosynthesis. Similar molecular changes appear during formation of cancer cells and may be evolutionary strategies adopted independently by microsporidia to proliferate rapidly within host cells. Finally, analysis of genome polymorphisms revealed evidence for a sexual cycle that may provide genetic diversity to alleviate problems caused by clonal growth. Together these events may explain the emergence and success of these diverse intracellular parasites. PMID:22813931

  15. Disrupting protein expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids reduces infection by obligate intracellular Rickettsia.

    PubMed

    Pelc, Rebecca S; McClure, Jennifer C; Kaur, Simran J; Sears, Khandra T; Rahman, M Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria's ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:25781160

  16. Disrupting Protein Expression with Peptide Nucleic Acids Reduces Infection by Obligate Intracellular Rickettsia

    PubMed Central

    Pelc, Rebecca S.; McClure, Jennifer C.; Kaur, Simran J.; Sears, Khandra T.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Ceraul, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are single-stranded synthetic nucleic acids with a pseudopeptide backbone in lieu of the phosphodiester linked sugar and phosphate found in traditional oligos. PNA designed complementary to the bacterial Shine-Dalgarno or start codon regions of mRNA disrupts translation resulting in the transient reduction in protein expression. This study examines the use of PNA technology to interrupt protein expression in obligate intracellular Rickettsia sp. Their historically intractable genetic system limits characterization of protein function. We designed PNA targeting mRNA for rOmpB from Rickettsia typhi and rickA from Rickettsia montanensis, ubiquitous factors important for infection. Using an in vitro translation system and competitive binding assays, we determined that our PNAs bind target regions. Electroporation of R. typhi and R. montanensis with PNA specific to rOmpB and rickA, respectively, reduced the bacteria’s ability to infect host cells. These studies open the possibility of using PNA to suppress protein synthesis in obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:25781160

  17. Macrophage cell death upon intracellular bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xin-He; Xu, Yunsheng; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage-pathogen interaction is a complex process and the outcome of this tag-of-war for both sides is to live or die. Without attempting to be comprehensive, this review will discuss the complexity and significance of the interaction outcomes between macrophages and some facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens as exemplified by Francisella, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia. Upon bacterial infection, macrophages can die by a variety of ways, such as apoptosis, autophagic cell death, necrosis, necroptosis, oncosis, pyronecrosis, pyroptosis etc, which is the focus of this review. PMID:26690967

  18. Rickettsia Phylogenomics: Unwinding the Intricacies of Obligate Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Williams, Kelly; Shukla, Maulik; Snyder, Eric E.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Ceraul, Shane M.; Dharmanolla, Chitti; Rainey, Daphne; Soneja, Jeetendra; Shallom, Joshua M.; Vishnubhat, Nataraj Dongre; Wattam, Rebecca; Purkayastha, Anjan; Czar, Michael; Crasta, Oswald; Setubal, Joao C.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular α-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial genes and other group specific genes (class 1 OGs or C1OGs) from those distributed indiscriminately throughout the rickettsial tree (class 2 OG or C2OGs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present 1823 representative (no gene duplications) and 259 non-representative (at least one gene duplication) rickettsial OGs. While the highly reductive (∼1.2 MB) Rickettsia genomes range in predicted ORFs from 872 to 1512, a core of 752 OGs was identified, depicting the essential Rickettsia genes. Unsurprisingly, this core lacks many metabolic genes, reflecting the dependence on host resources for growth and survival. Additionally, we bolster our recent reclassification of Rickettsia by identifying OGs that define the AG (ancestral group), TG (typhus group), TRG (transitional group), and SFG (spotted fever group) rickettsiae. OGs for insect-associated species, tick-associated species and species that harbor plasmids were also predicted. Through superimposition of all OGs over robust phylogeny estimation, we discern between C1OGs and C2OGs, the latter depicting genes either decaying from the conserved C1OGs or acquired laterally. Finally, scrutiny of non-representative OGs revealed high levels of split genes versus gene duplications, with both phenomena confounding gene orthology assignment. Interestingly, non-representative OGs, as well as OGs comprised of several gene families typically involved in microbial pathogenicity and/or the acquisition of virulence factors, fall predominantly within C2OG distributions. Conclusion/Significance Collectively, we determined the relative conservation and distribution of 14354 predicted ORFs from 10 rickettsial genomes across robust phylogeny estimation. The data, available at PATRIC (PathoSystems Resource Integration Center), provide novel information for unwinding the intricacies associated with Rickettsia pathogenesis, expanding the range of potential diagnostic, vaccine and therapeutic targets. PMID:19194535

  19. Iron depletion limits intracellular bacterial growth in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Paradkar, Prasad N.; De Domenico, Ivana; Durchfort, Nina; Zohn, Irene; Kaplan, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Many intracellular pathogens infect macrophages and these pathogens require iron for growth. Here we demonstrate in vitro that the intracellular growth of Chlamydia psittaci, trachomatis, and Legionella pneumophila is regulated by the levels of intracellular iron. Macrophages that express cell surface ferroportin, the only known cellular iron exporter, limit the intracellular growth of these bacteria. Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide secreted by the liver in response to inflammation. Hepcidin binds to ferroportin mediating its internalization and degradation. Addition of hepcidin to infected macrophages enhanced the intracellular growth of these pathogens. Macrophages from flatiron mice, a strain heterozygous for a loss-of-function ferroportin mutation, showed enhanced intracellular bacterial growth independent of the presence of exogenous hepcidin. Macrophages, from wild-type or flatiron mice, incubated with the oral iron chelator deferriprone or desferasirox showed reduced intracellular bacterial growth suggesting that these chelators might be therapeutic in chronic intracellular bacterial infections. PMID:18369153

  20. Dining in: intracellular bacterial pathogen interplay with autophagy.

    PubMed

    Winchell, Caylin G; Steele, Shaun; Kawula, Tom; Voth, Daniel E

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved many ways to manipulate host cells for successful infection. Many of these pathogens use specialized secretion systems to inject bacterial proteins into the host cytosol that manipulate cellular processes to favor infection. Autophagy is a eukaryotic cellular remodeling process with a critical role in many diseases, including bacterial clearance. A growing field of research highlights mechanisms used by intracellular bacteria to manipulate autophagy as a pro-survival strategy. This review focuses on a select group of bacterial pathogens with diverse intracellular lifestyles that exploit autophagy-derived nutrients and membrane for survival. This group of pathogens uses secretion systems and specific effectors to subvert distinct components of autophagy. By understanding how intracellular pathogens manipulate autophagy, we gain insight not only into bacterial pathogenesis but also host cell signaling and autophagolysosome maturation. PMID:26462048

  1. Laser microdissection coupled with RNA-seq analysis of porcine enterocytes infected with an obligate intracellular pathogen (Lawsonia intracellularis)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiologic agent of proliferative enteropathy. The disease is endemic in pigs, emerging in horses and has been described in various other species including nonhuman primates. Cell proliferation is associated with bacterial replication in enterocyte cytoplasm, but the molecular basis of the host-pathogen interaction is unknown. We used laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA-seq technology to characterize the transcriptional responses of infected enterocytes and the host-pathogen interaction. Results Proliferative enterocytes was associated with activation of transcription, protein biosynthesis and genes acting on the G1 phase of the host cell cycle (Rho family). The lack of differentiation in infected enterocytes was demonstrated by the repression of membrane transporters related to nutrient acquisition. The activation of the copper uptake transporter by infected enterocytes was associated with high expression of the Zn/Cu superoxide dismutase by L. intracellularis. This suggests that the intracellular bacteria incorporate intracytoplasmic copper and express a sophisticated mechanism to cope with oxidative stress. Conclusions The feasibility of coupling microdissection and RNA-seq was demonstrated by characterizing the host-bacterial interactions from a specific cell type in a heterogeneous tissue. High expression of L. intracellularis genes encoding hypothetical proteins and activation of host Rho genes infers the role of unrecognized bacterial cyclomodulins in the pathogenesis of proliferative enteropathy. PMID:23800029

  2. Transient Transfection and Expression in the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Dominique; Boothroyd, John C.

    1993-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen that produces severe disease in humans and animals. This obligate intracellular parasite provides an excellent model for the study of how such pathogens are able to invade, survive, and replicate intracellularly. DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was introduced into T. gondii and transiently expressed with the use of three vectors based on different Toxoplasma genes. The ability to introduce genes and have them efficiently and faithfully expressed is an essential tool for understanding the structure-function relation of genes and their products.

  3. Bacterial pathogens commandeer Rab GTPases to establish intracellular niches.

    PubMed

    Stein, Mary-Pat; Mller, Matthias P; Wandinger-Ness, Angela

    2012-12-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens deploy virulence factors termed effectors to inhibit degradation by host cells and to establish intracellular niches where growth and differentiation take place. Here, we describe mechanisms by which human bacterial pathogens (including Chlamydiae; Coxiella burnetii; Helicobacter pylori; Legionella pneumophila; Listeria monocytogenes; Mycobacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica) modulate endocytic and exocytic Rab GTPases in order to thrive in host cells. Host cell Rab GTPases are critical for intracellular transport following pathogen phagocytosis or endocytosis. At the molecular level bacterial effectors hijack Rab protein function to: evade degradation, direct transport to particular intracellular locations and monopolize host vesicles carrying molecules that are needed for a stable niche and/or bacterial growth and differentiation. Bacterial effectors may serve as specific receptors for Rab GTPases or as enzymes that post-translationally modify Rab proteins or endosomal membrane lipids required for Rab function. Emerging data indicate that bacterial effector expression is temporally and spatially regulated and multiple virulence factors may act concertedly to usurp Rab GTPase function, alter signaling and ensure niche establishment and intracellular bacterial growth, making this field an exciting area for further study. PMID:22901006

  4. The Genome of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: New Insights into Microsporidian Genome Dynamics and Reductive Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Eva; Williams, Tom A.; Nakjang, Sirintra; Noël, Christophe J.; Swan, Daniel C.; Goldberg, Alina V.; Harris, Simon R.; Weinmaier, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie; Becher, Dörte; Bernhardt, Jörg; Dagan, Tal; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John M.; Schweder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Hall, Neil; Hirt, Robert P.; Embley, T. Martin

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of reductive genome evolution for eukaryotes living inside other eukaryotic cells are poorly understood compared to well-studied model systems involving obligate intracellular bacteria. Here we present 8.5 Mb of sequence from the genome of the microsporidian Trachipleistophora hominis, isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient, which is an outgroup to the smaller compacted-genome species that primarily inform ideas of evolutionary mode for these enormously successful obligate intracellular parasites. Our data provide detailed information on the gene content, genome architecture and intergenic regions of a larger microsporidian genome, while comparative analyses allowed us to infer genomic features and metabolism of the common ancestor of the species investigated. Gene length reduction and massive loss of metabolic capacity in the common ancestor was accompanied by the evolution of novel microsporidian-specific protein families, whose conservation among microsporidians, against a background of reductive evolution, suggests they may have important functions in their parasitic lifestyle. The ancestor had already lost many metabolic pathways but retained glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway to provide cytosolic ATP and reduced coenzymes, and it had a minimal mitochondrion (mitosome) making Fe-S clusters but not ATP. It possessed bacterial-like nucleotide transport proteins as a key innovation for stealing host-generated ATP, the machinery for RNAi, key elements of the early secretory pathway, canonical eukaryotic as well as microsporidian-specific regulatory elements, a diversity of repetitive and transposable elements, and relatively low average gene density. Microsporidian genome evolution thus appears to have proceeded in at least two major steps: an ancestral remodelling of the proteome upon transition to intracellular parasitism that involved reduction but also selective expansion, followed by a secondary compaction of genome architecture in some, but not all, lineages. PMID:23133373

  5. Exploring Anti-Bacterial Compounds against Intracellular Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Christopher F.; Kicka, Sbastien; Trofimov, Valentin; Berschl, Kathrin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Ackermann, Nikolaus; Hedberg, Christian; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry; Hilbi, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous fresh-water bacterium which reproduces within its erstwhile predators, environmental amoeba, by subverting the normal pathway of phagocytosis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms which confer resistance to amoeba are apparently conserved and also allow replication within macrophages. Thus, L. pneumophila can act as an accidental human pathogen and cause a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires disease. The intracellular localisation of L.pneumophila protects it from some antibiotics, and this fact must be taken into account to develop new anti-bacterial compounds. In addition, the intracellular lifestyle of L. pneumophila may render the bacteria susceptible to compounds diminishing bacterial virulence and decreasing intracellular survival and replication of this pathogen. The development of a single infection cycle intracellular replication assay using GFP-producing L. pneumophila and Acanthamoebacastellanii amoeba is reported here. This fluorescence-based assay allows for continuous monitoring of intracellular replication rates, revealing the effect of bacterial gene deletions or drug treatment. To examine how perturbations of the host cell affect L. pneumophila replication, several known host-targeting compounds were tested, including modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle scission and Ras GTPase localisation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrealized potential antibiotic property of the ?-lactone-based Ras depalmitoylation inhibitor palmostatin M, but not the closely related inhibitor palmostatin B. Further characterisation indicated that this compound caused specific growth inhibition of Legionella and Mycobacterium species, suggesting that it may act on a common bacterial target. PMID:24058631

  6. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla Pareja, Maria Eugenia; Colombo, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance. PMID:24137567

  7. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites.

    PubMed

    Woo, Yong H; Ansari, Hifzur; Otto, Thomas D; Klinger, Christen M; Kolisko, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Saxena, Alka; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Tayyrov, Annageldi; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ali, Shahjahan; Bernal, Axel; del Campo, Javier; Cihlář, Jaromír; Flegontov, Pavel; Gornik, Sebastian G; Hajdušková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Janouškovec, Jan; Katris, Nicholas J; Mast, Fred D; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Nair, Mridul; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Rawlings, Neil D; Padron-Regalado, Eriko; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Samad, Nadira; Tomčala, Aleš; Wilkes, Jon; Neafsey, Daniel E; Doerig, Christian; Bowler, Chris; Keeling, Patrick J; Roos, David S; Dacks, Joel B; Templeton, Thomas J; Waller, Ross F; Lukeš, Julius; Oborník, Miroslav; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. PMID:26175406

  8. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yong H; Ansari, Hifzur; Otto, Thomas D; Klinger, Christen M; Kolisko, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Saxena, Alka; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Tayyrov, Annageldi; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Ali, Shahjahan; Bernal, Axel; del Campo, Javier; Cihlář, Jaromír; Flegontov, Pavel; Gornik, Sebastian G; Hajdušková, Eva; Horák, Aleš; Janouškovec, Jan; Katris, Nicholas J; Mast, Fred D; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Nair, Mridul; Panigrahi, Aswini K; Rawlings, Neil D; Padron-Regalado, Eriko; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Samad, Nadira; Tomčala, Aleš; Wilkes, Jon; Neafsey, Daniel E; Doerig, Christian; Bowler, Chris; Keeling, Patrick J; Roos, David S; Dacks, Joel B; Templeton, Thomas J; Waller, Ross F; Lukeš, Julius; Oborník, Miroslav; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06974.001 PMID:26175406

  9. Apoptotic mimicry by an obligate intracellular parasite downregulates macrophage microbicidal activity.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Balanco, J M; Moreira, M E; Bonomo, A; Bozza, P T; Amarante-Mendes, G; Pirmez, C; Barcinski, M A

    2001-11-27

    Programmed cell death by apoptosis of unnecessary or potentially harmful cells is clearly beneficial to multicellular organisms. Proper functioning of such a program demands that the removal of dying cells proceed without an inflammatory reaction. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is one of the ligands displayed by apoptotic cells that participates in their noninflammatory removal when recognized by neighboring phagocytes. PS ligation induces the release of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), an antiinflammatory cytokine that mediates the suppression of macrophage-mediated inflammation. In Hydra vulgaris, an organism that stands at the base of metazoan evolution, the selective advantage provided by apoptosis lies in the fact that Hydra can survive recycling apoptotic cells by phagocytosis. In unicellular organisms, it has been proposed that altruistic death benefits clonal populations of yeasts and trypanosomatids. Now we show that advantageous features of the apoptotic process can operate without death as the necessary outcome. Leishmania spp are able to evade the killing activity of phagocytes and establish themselves as obligate intracellular parasites. Amastigotes, responsible for disease propagation, similar to apoptotic cells, inhibit macrophage activity by exposing PS. Exposed PS participates in amastigote internalization. Recognition of this moiety by macrophages induces TGF-beta secretion and IL-10 synthesis, inhibits NO production, and increases susceptibility to intracellular leishmanial growth. PMID:11728310

  10. The Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Secretes a Soluble Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishith; Hartmann, Anne; Lucius, Richard; Voelker, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite capable of causing fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. Examination of the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) metabolism of T. gondii reveals that the parasite secretes a soluble form of PtdSer decarboxylase (TgPSD1), which preferentially decarboxylates liposomal PtdSer with an apparent Km of 67 ?m. The specific enzyme activity increases by 3-fold during the replication of T. gondii, and soluble phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD) accounts for ?20% of the total PSD, prior to the parasite egress from the host cells. Extracellular T. gondii secreted ?20% of its total PSD activity at 37 C, and the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) inhibited the process by 50%. Cycloheximide, brefeldin A, ionic composition of the medium, and exogenous PtdSer did not modulate the enzyme secretion, which suggests a constitutive discharge of a presynthesized pool of PSD in axenic T. gondii. TgPSD1 consists of 968 amino acids with a 26-amino acid hydrophobic peptide at the N terminus and no predicted membrane domains. Parasites overexpressing TgPSD1-HA secreted 10-fold more activity compared with the parental strain. Exposure of apoptotic Jurkat cells to transgenic parasites demonstrated interfacial catalysis by secreted TgPSD1 that reduced host cell surface exposure of PtdSer. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that TgPSD1 resides in the dense granules of T. gondii and is also found in the parasitophorous vacuole of replicating parasites. Together, these findings demonstrate novel features of the parasite enzyme because a secreted, soluble, and interfacially active form of PSD has not been previously described for any organism. PMID:22563079

  11. The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

    2005-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

  12. Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

  13. The Genome Sequence of Rickettsia felis Identifies the First Putative Conjugative Plasmid in an Obligate Intracellular Parasite

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated obligate intracellular ?-proteobacterium causing spotted fever in humans. Besides a circular chromosome of 1,485,148 bp, R. felis exhibits the first putative conjugative plasmid identified among obligate intracellular bacteria. This plasmid is found in a short (39,263 bp) and a long (62,829 bp) form. R. felis contrasts with previously sequenced Rickettsia in terms of many other features, including a number of transposases, several chromosomal toxinantitoxin genes, many more spoT genes, and a very large number of ankyrin- and tetratricopeptide-motif-containing genes. Host-invasion-related genes for patatin and RickA were found. Several phenotypes predicted from genome analysis were experimentally tested: conjugative pili and mating were observed, as well as ?-lactamase activity, actin-polymerization-driven mobility, and hemolytic properties. Our study demonstrates that complete genome sequencing is the fastest approach to reveal phenotypic characters of recently cultured obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:15984913

  14. Metabolic host responses to infection by intracellular bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rudel, Thomas; Goebel, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of bacterial pathogens with mammalian hosts leads to a variety of physiological responses of the interacting partners aimed at an adaptation to the new situation. These responses include multiple metabolic changes in the affected host cells which are most obvious when the pathogen replicates within host cells as in case of intracellular bacterial pathogens. While the pathogen tries to deprive nutrients from the host cell, the host cell in return takes various metabolic countermeasures against the nutrient theft. During this conflicting interaction, the pathogen triggers metabolic host cell responses by means of common cell envelope components and specific virulence-associated factors. These host reactions generally promote replication of the pathogen. There is growing evidence that pathogen-specific factors may interfere in different ways with the complex regulatory network that controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. The host cell defense answers include general metabolic reactions, like the generation of oxygen- and/or nitrogen-reactive species, and more specific measures aimed to prevent access to essential nutrients for the respective pathogen. Accurate results on metabolic host cell responses are often hampered by the use of cancer cell lines that already exhibit various de-regulated reactions in the primary carbon metabolism. Hence, there is an urgent need for cellular models that more closely reflect the in vivo infection conditions. The exact knowledge of the metabolic host cell responses may provide new interesting concepts for antibacterial therapies. PMID:23847769

  15. Draft genome sequences for the obligate bacterial predators Bacteriovorax spp. of four phylogenetic clusters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriovorax is the halophilic genus of the obligate bacterial predators, Bdellovibrio and like organisms. The predators are known for their unique biphasic life style in which they search for and attack their prey in the free living phase; penetrate, grow, multiply and lyse the prey in the intraperiplasmic phase. Bacteriovorax isolates representing four phylogenetic clusters were selected for genomic sequencing. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the genus Bacteriovorax. We report the genomes from non-type strains isolated from aquatic environments. Here we describe and compare the genomic features of the four strains, together with the classification and annotation. PMID:26203326

  16. Innovative approach for transcriptomic analysis of obligate intracellular pathogen: selective capture of transcribed sequences of Ehrlichia ruminantium

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Whole genome transcriptomic analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the pathogenesis of obligate intracellular bacteria. However, the major hurdle resides in the low quantity of prokaryotic mRNAs extracted from host cells. Our model Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER), the causative agent of heartwater, is transmitted by tick Amblyomma variegatum. This bacterium affects wild and domestic ruminants and is present in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean islands. Because of its strictly intracellular location, which constitutes a limitation for its extensive study, the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathogenicity are still poorly understood. Results We successfully adapted the SCOTS method (Selective Capture of Transcribed Sequences) on the model Rickettsiales ER to capture mRNAs. Southern Blots and RT-PCR revealed an enrichment of ER's cDNAs and a diminution of ribosomal contaminants after three rounds of capture. qRT-PCR and whole-genome ER microarrays hybridizations demonstrated that SCOTS method introduced only a limited bias on gene expression. Indeed, we confirmed the differential gene expression between poorly and highly expressed genes before and after SCOTS captures. The comparative gene expression obtained from ER microarrays data, on samples before and after SCOTS at 96 hpi was significantly correlated (R2 = 0.7). Moreover, SCOTS method is crucial for microarrays analysis of ER, especially for early time points post-infection. There was low detection of transcripts for untreated samples whereas 24% and 70.7% were revealed for SCOTS samples at 24 and 96 hpi respectively. Conclusions We conclude that this SCOTS method has a key importance for the transcriptomic analysis of ER and can be potentially used for other Rickettsiales. This study constitutes the first step for further gene expression analyses that will lead to a better understanding of both ER pathogenicity and the adaptation of obligate intracellular bacteria to their environment. PMID:20034374

  17. Host-derived glucose and its transporter in the obligate intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii are dispensable by glutaminolysis

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Martin; Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Landfear, Scott; Fleige, Tobias; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, as an obligate intracellular and promiscuous pathogen of mammalian cells, utilizes host sugars for energy and to generate glycoconjugates that are important to its survival and virulence. Here, we report that T. gondii glucose transporter (TgGT1) is proficient in transporting mannose, galactose, and fructose besides glucose, and serves as a major hexose transporter at its plasma membrane. Toxoplasma harbors 3 additional putative sugar transporters (TgST13), of which TgST2 is expressed at its surface, whereas TgST1 and TgST3 are intracellular. Surprisingly, TgGT1 and TgST2 are nonessential to the parasite as their ablations inflict only a 30% or no defect in its intracellular growth, respectively. Indeed, Toxoplasma can also tolerate the deletion of both genes while incurring no further growth phenotype. Unlike ?tgst2, the modest impairment in ?tggt1 and ?tggt1/?tgst2 mutants is because of a minor delay in their intracellular replication, which is a direct consequence of the abolished import of glucose. The ?tggt1 displays an attenuated motility in defined minimal media that is rescued by glutamine. TgGT1-complemented parasites show an entirely restored growth, motility, and sugar import. The lack of exogenous glucose in ?tggt1 culture fails to accentuate its intrinsic growth defect and prompts it to procure glutamine to sustain its metabolism. Unexpectedly, in vivo virulence of ?tggt1 in mice remains unaffected. Taken together, our data demonstrate that glucose is nonessential for T. gondii tachyzoites, underscore glutamine is a complement substrate, and provide a basis for understanding the adaptation of T. gondii to diverse host cells. PMID:19617561

  18. Genomic insights into an obligate epibiotic bacterial predator: Micavibrio aeruginosavorus ARL-13

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although bacterial predators play important roles in the dynamics of natural microbial communities, little is known about the molecular mechanism of bacterial predation and the evolution of diverse predatory lifestyles. Results We determined the complete genome sequence of Micavibrio aeruginosavorus ARL-13, an obligate bacterial predator that feeds by "leeching" externally to its prey. Despite being an obligate predator depending on prey for replication, M. aeruginosavorus encodes almost all major metabolic pathways. However, our genome analysis suggests that there are multiple amino acids that it can neither make nor import directly from the environment, thus providing a simple explanation for its strict dependence on prey. Remarkably, despite apparent genome reduction, there is a massive expansion of genomic islands of foreign origin. At least nine genomic islands encode many genes that are likely important for Micavibrio-prey interaction such as hemolysin-related proteins. RNA-Seq analysis shows substantial transcriptome differences between the attack phase, when M. aeruginosavorus seeks its prey, and the attachment phase, when it feeds and multiplies. Housekeeping genes as well as genes involved in protein secretion were all dramatically up-regulated in the attachment phase. In contrast, genes involved in chemotaxis and flagellum biosynthesis were highly expressed in the attack phase but were shut down in the attachment phase. Our transcriptomic analysis identified additional genes likely important in Micavibrio predation, including porins, pilins and many hypothetical genes. Conclusions The findings from our phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses shed new light on the biology and evolution of the epibiotic predatory lifestyle of M. aeruginosavorus. The analysis reported here and the availability of the complete genome sequence should catalyze future studies of this organism. PMID:21936919

  19. Stable DNA transformation in the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii by complementation of tryptophan auxotrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, L D; Messina, M; Niesman, I R

    1994-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts and is an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans. Although Toxoplasma is amenable to both biochemical and cellular experimental approaches, the molecular basis of its success as an intracellular parasite is poorly understood. To provide a system for molecular genetic analyses, we have developed a stable DNA transformation system for Toxoplasma based on complementation of its naturally occurring tryptophan auxotrophy. Complementation was accomplished by expressing the Escherichia coli trpB gene, encoding the beta subunit of tryptophan synthase (EC 4.2.1.20), the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of tryptophan from indole plus serine. Transformants were obtained by electroporation of a plasmid, called SAG1/trpB, containing the trpB gene flanked by Toxoplasma surface antigen 1 (SAG1) gene sequences and selection for growth on indole. Transformants were obtained with circular forms of the SAG1/trpB plasmid with efficiencies of 10(-4) per cell. Transformation with either circular or linear SAG1/trpB resulted in integration into the genome at distinct, nonhomologous sites. Trp+ transformants typically contained tandemly repeated copies of the SAG1/trpB plasmid and were stable in the absence of continued selection. The Trp phenotype provides a dominant selectable marker that should allow expression of foreign or altered genes in Toxoplasma and facilitate molecular analyses of genes important for intracellular survival. Images PMID:8202518

  20. Motor-driven intracellular transport powers bacterial gliding motility

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingzhai; Wartel, Morgane; Cascales, Eric; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Mignot, Tm

    2011-01-01

    Protein-directed intracellular transport has not been observed in bacteria despite the existence of dynamic protein localization and a complex cytoskeleton. However, protein trafficking has clear potential uses for important cellular processes such as growth, development, chromosome segregation, and motility. Conflicting models have been proposed to explain Myxococcus xanthus motility on solid surfaces, some favoring secretion engines at the rear of cells and others evoking an unknown class of molecular motors distributed along the cell body. Through a combination of fluorescence imaging, force microscopy, and genetic manipulation, we show that membrane-bound cytoplasmic complexes consisting of motor and regulatory proteins are directionally transported down the axis of a cell at constant velocity. This intracellular motion is transmitted to the exterior of the cell and converted to traction forces on the substrate. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of a conserved class of processive intracellular motors in bacteria and shows how these motors have been adapted to produce cell motility. PMID:21482768

  1. Motor-driven intracellular transport powers bacterial gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhai; Wartel, Morgane; Cascales, Eric; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Mignot, Tm

    2011-05-01

    Protein-directed intracellular transport has not been observed in bacteria despite the existence of dynamic protein localization and a complex cytoskeleton. However, protein trafficking has clear potential uses for important cellular processes such as growth, development, chromosome segregation, and motility. Conflicting models have been proposed to explain Myxococcus xanthus motility on solid surfaces, some favoring secretion engines at the rear of cells and others evoking an unknown class of molecular motors distributed along the cell body. Through a combination of fluorescence imaging, force microscopy, and genetic manipulation, we show that membrane-bound cytoplasmic complexes consisting of motor and regulatory proteins are directionally transported down the axis of a cell at constant velocity. This intracellular motion is transmitted to the exterior of the cell and converted to traction forces on the substrate. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of a conserved class of processive intracellular motors in bacteria and shows how these motors have been adapted to produce cell motility. PMID:21482768

  2. Immunological mechanisms contributing to the double burden of diabetes and intracellular bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Kelly; Morris, Jodie; Bridson, Tahnee; Govan, Brenda; Rush, Catherine; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes has been recognized as an important risk factor for a variety of intracellular bacterial infections, but research into the dysregulated immune mechanisms contributing to the impaired host–pathogen interactions is in its infancy. Diabetes is characterized by a chronic state of low-grade inflammation due to activation of pro-inflammatory mediators and increased formation of advanced glycation end products. Increased oxidative stress also exacerbates the chronic inflammatory processes observed in diabetes. The reduced phagocytic and antibacterial activity of neutrophils and macrophages provides an intracellular niche for the pathogen to replicate. Phagocytic and antibacterial dysfunction may be mediated directly through altered glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. Furthermore, impaired activation of natural killer cells contributes to decreased levels of interferon-γ, required for promoting macrophage antibacterial mechanisms. Together with impaired dendritic cell function, this impedes timely activation of adaptive immune responses. Increased intracellular oxidation of antigen-presenting cells in individuals with diabetes alters the cytokine profile generated and the subsequent balance of T-cell immunity. The establishment of acute intracellular bacterial infections in the diabetic host is associated with impaired T-cell-mediated immune responses. Concomitant to the greater intracellular bacterial burden and potential cumulative effect of chronic inflammatory processes, late hyper-inflammatory cytokine responses are often observed in individuals with diabetes, contributing to systemic pathology. The convergence of intracellular bacterial infections and diabetes poses new challenges for immunologists, providing the impetus for multidisciplinary research. PMID:25262977

  3. The Genome of the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium Ehrlichia canis Reveals Themes of Complex Membrane Structure and Immune Evasion Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K; Doyle, C Kuyler; Lykidis, A; Ivanova, N; Francino, M P; Chain, Patrick S; Shin, M; Malfatti, Stephanie; Larimer, Frank W; Copeland, A; Detter, J C; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Yu, X J; Walker, D H; McBride, J W; Kyripides, N C

    2006-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, {alpha}-proteobacterium, is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of noncoding sequence (27%). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly(G-C) tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Genes associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified, including a small group encoding proteins (n = 12) with tandem repeats and another group encoding proteins with eukaryote-like ankyrin domains (n = 7).

  4. Intracellular Bacterial Communities: A Potential Etiology for Chronic Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Victoria C. S.; Haake, David A.; Churchill, Bernard M.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Kim, Ja-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms and negative urine cultures are often difficult to treat. Infection may go undetected in these patients because the concentrations of bacteria in their urine are beneath the threshold of standard urine culture techniques. Empiric treatment may result in temporary relief, followed by recurrent symptoms. Occult and recurrent urinary tract infection may be due to both invasion of the bladder wall by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and the formation of biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities. This review examines emerging evidence for a role of intracellular bacterial communities in human infection. PMID:26189137

  5. Host-Directed Antimicrobial Drugs with Broad-Spectrum Efficacy against Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Czyż, Daniel M.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Riley, Sean P.; Martinez, Juan J.; Steck, Theodore L.; Crosson, Sean; Gabay, Joëlle E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sought a new approach to treating infections by intracellular bacteria, namely, by altering host cell functions that support their growth. We screened a library of 640 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved compounds for agents that render THP-1 cells resistant to infection by four intracellular pathogens. We identified numerous drugs that are not antibiotics but were highly effective in inhibiting intracellular bacterial growth with limited toxicity to host cells. These compounds are likely to target three kinds of host functions: (i) G protein-coupled receptors, (ii) intracellular calcium signals, and (iii) membrane cholesterol distribution. The compounds that targeted G protein receptor signaling and calcium fluxes broadly inhibited Coxiella burnetii, Legionella pneumophila, Brucella abortus, and Rickettsia conorii, while those directed against cholesterol traffic strongly attenuated the intracellular growth of C. burnetii and L. pneumophila. These pathways probably support intracellular pathogen growth so that drugs that perturb them may be therapeutic candidates. Combining host- and pathogen-directed treatments is a strategy to decrease the emergence of drug-resistant intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:25073644

  6. Directed antigen delivery as a vaccine strategy for an intracellular bacterial pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwer, H. G. Archie; Alberti-Segui, Christine; Montfort, Megan J.; Berkowitz, Nathan D.; Higgins, Darren E.

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a vaccine strategy for generating an attenuated strain of an intracellular bacterial pathogen that, after uptake by professional antigen-presenting cells, does not replicate intracellularly and is readily killed. However, after degradation of the vaccine strain within the phagolysosome, target antigens are released into the cytosol for endogenous processing and presentation for stimulation of CD8+ effector T cells. Applying this strategy to the model intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we show that an intracellular replication-deficient vaccine strain is cleared rapidly in normal and immunocompromised animals, yet antigen-specific CD8+ effector T cells are stimulated after immunization. Furthermore, animals immunized with the intracellular replication-deficient vaccine strain are resistant to lethal challenge with a virulent WT strain of L. monocytogenes. These studies suggest a general strategy for developing safe and effective, attenuated intracellular replication-deficient vaccine strains for stimulation of protective immune responses against intracellular bacterial pathogens. CD8+ T cell | replication-deficient | Listeria monocytogenes

  7. Microfluidic pretreatment of bacterial cells for analysis of intracellular contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Lu, Chang; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    Electrical lysis of biological cells on a microfluidic platform has been raising a lot of interests due to its applications in rapid recovering intracellular contents without introducing lytic agents. In this study, we demonstrated a simple microfluidic device which lysed green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing E. coli cells under continuous DC voltage while cells flowed through. The cell lysis only happened in a defined section of a microfluidic channel due to the local field amplification by geometric modification. The geometric modification also effectively decreased the required voltage for lysis by several folds. We found that a local field strength of 1500V/cm was required for lysis of nearly 100% of E. coli cells. This lysis field strength was considerably lower than the value reported in the literature, possibly due to the longer duration of the field. The lysis was witnessed by plate count and fluorescence spectroscopy. The devices were fabricated using low-cost soft lithography with channel widths considerably larger than the cell size to avoid clogging and ensure stable performance. Our tool will be ideal for high throughput processing of a large number of cells. Furthermore, the application of continuous DC field makes it straightforward to couple our cell lysis device with on-chip electrophoresis to realize the integration of cell pretreatment and chemical analysis. In principle, the same approach can also be applied for the lysis of mammalian cells and for the electroporation and transfection.

  8. Infected Dendritic Cells Facilitate Systemic Dissemination and Transplacental Passage of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Neospora caninum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collantes-Fernandez, Esther; Arrighi, Romanico B. G.; lvarez-Garca, Gema; Weidner, Jessica M.; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Boothroyd, John C.; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.; Barragan, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Neospora caninum disseminates across the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, to reach sites where it causes severe pathology or establishes chronic persistent infections. The mechanisms used by N. caninum to breach restrictive biological barriers remain elusive. To examine the cellular basis of these processes, migration of different N. caninum isolates (Nc-1, Nc-Liverpool, Nc-SweB1 and the Spanish isolates: Nc-Spain 3H, Nc-Spain 4H, Nc-Spain 6, Nc-Spain 7 and Nc-Spain 9) was studied in an in vitro model based on a placental trophoblast-derived BeWo cell line. Here, we describe that infection of dendritic cells (DC) by N. caninum tachyzoites potentiated translocation of parasites across polarized cellular monolayers. In addition, powered by the parasite's own gliding motility, extracellular N. caninum tachyzoites were able to transmigrate across cellular monolayers. Altogether, the presented data provides evidence of two putative complementary pathways utilized by N. caninum, in an isolate-specific fashion, for passage of restrictive cellular barriers. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of tachyzoite-infected DC in mice resulted in increased parasitic loads in various organs, e.g. the central nervous system, compared to infections with free parasites. Inoculation of pregnant mice with infected DC resulted in an accentuated vertical transmission to the offspring with increased parasitic loads and neonatal mortality. These findings reveal that N. caninum exploits the natural cell trafficking pathways in the host to cross cellular barriers and disseminate to deep tissues. The findings are indicative of conserved dissemination strategies among coccidian apicomplexan parasites. PMID:22403627

  9. An efficient system for intracellular delivery of beta-lactam antibiotics to overcome bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Abed, Nadia; Sad-Hassane, Fatouma; Zouhiri, Fatima; Mougin, Julie; Nicolas, Valrie; Desmale, Didier; Gref, Ruxandra; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Golden era" of antibiotics is definitely an old story and this is especially true for intracellular bacterial infections. The poor intracellular bioavailability of antibiotics reduces the efficency of many treatments and thereby promotes resistances. Therefore, the development of nanodevices coupled with antibiotics that are capable of targeting and releasing the drug into the infected-cells appears to be a promising solution to circumvent these complications. Here, we took advantage of two natural terpenes (farnesyl and geranyl) to design nanodevices for an efficient intracellular delivery of penicillin G. The covalent linkage between the terpene moieties and the antibiotic leads to formation of prodrugs that self-assemble to form nanoparticles with a high drug payload between 55-63%. Futhermore, the addition of an environmentally-sensitive bond between the antibiotic and the terpene led to an efficient antibacterial activity against the intracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with reduced intracellular replication of about 99.9% compared to untreated infected cells. Using HPLC analysis, we demonstrated and quantified the intracellular release of PenG when this sensitive-bond (SB) was present on the prodrug, showing the success of this technology to deliver antibiotics directly into cells. PMID:26311631

  10. An efficient system for intracellular delivery of beta-lactam antibiotics to overcome bacterial resistance

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Nadia; Sad-Hassane, Fatouma; Zouhiri, Fatima; Mougin, Julie; Nicolas, Valrie; Desmale, Didier; Gref, Ruxandra; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Golden era of antibiotics is definitely an old story and this is especially true for intracellular bacterial infections. The poor intracellular bioavailability of antibiotics reduces the efficency of many treatments and thereby promotes resistances. Therefore, the development of nanodevices coupled with antibiotics that are capable of targeting and releasing the drug into the infected-cells appears to be a promising solution to circumvent these complications. Here, we took advantage of two natural terpenes (farnesyl and geranyl) to design nanodevices for an efficient intracellular delivery of penicillin G. The covalent linkage between the terpene moieties and the antibiotic leads to formation of prodrugs that self-assemble to form nanoparticles with a high drug payload between 5563%. Futhermore, the addition of an environmentally-sensitive bond between the antibiotic and the terpene led to an efficient antibacterial activity against the intracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with reduced intracellular replication of about 99.9% compared to untreated infected cells. Using HPLC analysis, we demonstrated and quantified the intracellular release of PenG when this sensitive-bond (SB) was present on the prodrug, showing the success of this technology to deliver antibiotics directly into cells. PMID:26311631

  11. A bacterial-two-hybrid selection system for one-step isolation of intracellularly functional Nanobodies.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Mireille; Pardon, Els; Zolghadr, Kourosh; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Vincke, Ccile; Kinne, Joerg; Dierynck, Inge; Hertogs, Kurt; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Messens, Joris; Muyldermans, Serge; Conrath, Katja

    2012-10-15

    Camel single-domain antibody fragments or Nanobodies, are practical in a wide range of applications. Their unique biochemical and biophysical properties permit an intracellular expression and antigen targeting. The availability of an efficient intracellular selection step would immediately identify the best intracellularly performing functional antibody fragments. Therefore, we assessed a bacterial-two-hybrid system to retrieve such Nanobodies. With GFP as an antigen we demonstrate that antigen-specific Nanobodies of sub-micromolar affinity and stability above 30 kJ/mol, at a titer of 10(-4) can be retrieved in a single-step selection. This was further proven practically by the successful recovery from an 'immune' library of multiple stable, antigen-specific Nanobodies of good affinity for HIV-1 integrase or nucleoside hydrolase. The sequence diversity, intrinsic domain stability, antigen-specificity and affinity of these binders compare favorably to those that were retrieved in parallel by phage display pannings. PMID:22583807

  12. Search for MicroRNAs Expressed by Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens in Infected Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Furuse, Yuki; Finethy, Ryan; Saka, Hector A.; Xet-Mull, Ana M.; Sisk, Dana M.; Smith, Kristen L. Jurcic; Lee, Sunhee; Coers, Jörn; Valdivia, Raphael H.; Tobin, David M.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin. PMID:25184567

  13. Hydrogen peroxide staining to visualize intracellular bacterial infections of seedling root cells.

    PubMed

    White, James F; Torres, Mnica S; Somu, Mohini P; Johnson, Holly; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Ning; Walsh, Emily; Tadych, Mariusz; Bergen, Marshall

    2014-08-01

    Visualization of bacteria in living plant cells and tissues is often problematic due to lack of stains that pass through living plant cell membranes and selectively stain bacterial cells. In this article, we report the use of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrachloride (DAB) to stain hydrogen peroxide associated with bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells. Tissues were counterstained with aniline blue/lactophenol to stain protein in bacterial cells. Using this staining method to visualize intracellular bacterial (Burkholderia gladioli) colonization of seedling roots of switch grass (Panicum virgatum), we compared bacterial free seedling roots and those inoculated with the bacterium. To further assess application of the technique in multiple species of vascular plants, we examined vascular plants for seedling root colonization by naturally occurring seed-transmitted bacteria. Colonization by bacteria was only observed to occur within epidermal (including root hairs) and cortical cells of root tissues, suggesting that bacteria may not be penetrating deeply into root tissues. DAB/peroxidase with counter stain aniline blue/lactophenol was effective in penetration of root cells to selectively stain bacteria. Furthermore, this stain combination permitted the visualization of the bacterial lysis process. Before any evidence of H2 O2 staining, intracellular bacteria were seen to stain blue for protein content with aniline blue/lactophenol. After H2 O2 staining became evident, bacteria were often swollen, without internal staining by aniline blue/lactophenol; this suggests loss of protein content. This staining method was effective for seedling root tissues; however, it was not effective at staining bacteria in shoot tissues due to poor penetration. PMID:24825573

  14. RIG-I Detects mRNA of Intracellular Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium during Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schmolke, Mirco; Patel, Jenish R.; de Castro, Elisa; Snchez-Aparicio, Maria T.; Uccellini, Melissa B.; Miller, Jennifer C.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Satoh, Takashi; Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo; Merad, Miriam; Garca-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytoplasmic helicase RIG-I is an established sensor for viral 5?-triphosphorylated RNA species. Recently, RIG-I was also implicated in the detection of intracellular bacteria. However, little is known about the host cell specificity of this process and the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates RIG-I. Here we show that RNA of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium activates production of beta interferon in a RIG-I-dependent fashion only in nonphagocytic cells. In phagocytic cells, RIG-I is obsolete for detection of Salmonella infection. We further demonstrate that Salmonella mRNA reaches the cytoplasm during infection and is thus accessible for RIG-I. The results from next-generation sequencing analysis of RIG-I-associated RNA suggest that coding bacterial mRNAs represent the activating PAMP. PMID:24692634

  15. Cellular uptake and intracellular fate of protein releasing bacterial amyloids in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-04-14

    Bacterial Inclusion Bodies (IBs) are amyloidal protein deposits that functionally mimic secretory granules from the endocrine system. When formed by therapeutically relevant proteins, they complement missing intracellular activities in jeopardized cell cultures, offering an intriguing platform for protein drug delivery in substitutive therapies. Despite the therapeutic potential of IBs, their capability to interact with eukaryotic cells, cross the cell membrane and release their functional building blocks into the cytosolic space remains essentially unexplored. We have systematically dissected the process by which bacterial amyloids interact with mammalian cells. An early and tight cell membrane anchorage of IBs is followed by cellular uptake of single or grouped IBs of variable sizes by macropinocytosis. Although an important fraction of the penetrating particles is led to lysosomal degradation, biologically significant amounts of protein are released into the cytosol. In addition, our data suggest the involvement of the bacterial cell folding modulator DnaK in the release of functional proteins from these amyloidal reservoirs. The mechanisms supporting the internalization of disintegrable protein nanoparticles revealed here offer clues to implement novel approaches for protein drug delivery based on controlled protein packaging as bacterial IBs. PMID:26956912

  16. Trogocytosis-associated cell to cell spread of intracellular bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Shaun; Radlinski, Lauren; Taft-Benz, Sharon; Brunton, Jason; Kawula, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are myeloid-derived phagocytic cells and one of the first immune cell types to respond to microbial infections. However, a number of bacterial pathogens are resistant to the antimicrobial activities of macrophages and can grow within these cells. Macrophages have other immune surveillance roles including the acquisition of cytosolic components from multiple types of cells. We hypothesized that intracellular pathogens that can replicate within macrophages could also exploit cytosolic transfer to facilitate bacterial spread. We found that viable Francisella tularensis, as well as Salmonella enterica bacteria transferred from infected cells to uninfected macrophages along with other cytosolic material through a transient, contact dependent mechanism. Bacterial transfer occurred when the host cells exchanged plasma membrane proteins and cytosol via a trogocytosis related process leaving both donor and recipient cells intact and viable. Trogocytosis was strongly associated with infection in mice, suggesting that direct bacterial transfer occurs by this process in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10625.001 PMID:26802627

  17. Genomic revelations of a mutualism: the pea aphid and its obligate bacterial symbiont.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Shuji; Wilson, Alex C C

    2011-04-01

    The symbiosis of the pea aphid Acyrthosphion pisum with the bacterium Buchnera aphidicola APS represents the best-studied insect obligate symbiosis. Here we present a refined picture of this symbiosis by linking pre-genomic observations to new genomic data that includes the complete genomes of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbiotic partners. In doing so, we address four issues central to understanding the patterns and processes operating at the A. pisum/Buchnera APS interface. These four issues include: (1) lateral gene transfer, (2) host immunity, (3) symbiotic metabolism, and (4) regulation. PMID:21390549

  18. Development of intracellular bacterial communities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli depends on type 1 pili.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kelly J; Seed, Patrick C; Hultgren, Scott J

    2007-09-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, the predominant causative agent of urinary tract infections, use type 1 pili to bind and invade bladder epithelial cells. Upon entry, the bacteria rapidly replicate and enter a complex developmental pathway ultimately forming intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs), a niche with biofilm-like properties protected from innate defences and antibiotics. Paradoxically, bacteria within IBCs produce type 1 pili, an organelle thought only to be an extracellular colonization factor. Thus, we investigated the function of type 1 pili in IBC development. The cystitis isolate, UTI89, was genetically manipulated for conditional fim expression under control of the tet promoter. In this strain, UTI89-tetR/P(tet) fim, piliation is constitutively inhibited by the tetracycline repressor, TetR. Repression is relieved by anhydrotetracycline (AHT) treatment. UTI89-tetR/P(tet) fim and the isogenic control strain, UTI89-tetR, grown in the presence of AHT, colonized the bladder and invaded the superficial umbrella cells at similar levels at early times in a murine model of infection. However, after invasion UTI89-tetR/P(tet) fim became non-piliated and was unable to form typical IBCs comprised of tightly packed, coccoid-shaped bacteria in contrast to the control strain, UTI89-tetR. Thus, this work changes the extracellular colonization functional paradigm of pili by demonstrating their intracellular role in biofilm formation. PMID:17490405

  19. An obligately photosynthetic bacterial anaerobe from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Beatty, J Thomas; Overmann, Jörg; Lince, Michael T; Manske, Ann K; Lang, Andrew S; Blankenship, Robert E; Van Dover, Cindy L; Martinson, Tracey A; Plumley, F Gerald

    2005-06-28

    The abundance of life on Earth is almost entirely due to biological photosynthesis, which depends on light energy. The source of light in natural habitats has heretofore been thought to be the sun, thus restricting photosynthesis to solar photic environments on the surface of the Earth. If photosynthesis could take place in geothermally illuminated environments, it would increase the diversity of photosynthetic habitats both on Earth and on other worlds that have been proposed to possibly harbor life. Green sulfur bacteria are anaerobes that require light for growth by the oxidation of sulfur compounds to reduce CO2 to organic carbon, and are capable of photosynthetic growth at extremely low light intensities. We describe the isolation and cultivation of a previously unknown green sulfur bacterial species from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, where the only source of light is geothermal radiation that includes wavelengths absorbed by photosynthetic pigments of this organism. PMID:15967984

  20. Metabolic Cooperation of Glucose and Glutamine Is Essential for the Lytic Cycle of Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Richard; Zagoriy, Vyacheslav; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite infecting nearly all warm-blooded organisms. Asexual reproduction of the parasite within its host cells is achieved by consecutive lytic cycles, which necessitates biogenesis of significant energy and biomass. Here we show that glucose and glutamine are the two major physiologically important nutrients used for the synthesis of macromolecules (ATP, nucleic acid, proteins, and lipids) in T. gondii, and either of them is sufficient to ensure the parasite survival. The parasite can counteract genetic ablation of its glucose transporter by increasing the flux of glutamine-derived carbon through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and by concurrently activating gluconeogenesis, which guarantee a continued biogenesis of ATP and biomass for host-cell invasion and parasite replication, respectively. In accord, a pharmacological inhibition of glutaminolysis or oxidative phosphorylation arrests the lytic cycle of the glycolysis-deficient mutant, which is primarily a consequence of impaired invasion due to depletion of ATP. Unexpectedly, however, intracellular parasites continue to proliferate, albeit slower, notwithstanding a simultaneous deprivation of glucose and glutamine. A growth defect in the glycolysis-impaired mutant is caused by a compromised synthesis of lipids, which cannot be counterbalanced by glutamine but can be restored by acetate. Consistently, supplementation of parasite cultures with exogenous acetate can amend the lytic cycle of the glucose transport mutant. Such plasticity in the parasite's carbon flux enables a growth-and-survival trade-off in assorted nutrient milieus, which may underlie the promiscuous survival of T. gondii tachyzoites in diverse host cells. Our results also indicate a convergence of parasite metabolism with cancer cells. PMID:26518878

  1. Two apextrin-like proteins mediate extracellular and intracellular bacterial recognition in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Yan, Xinyu; Yang, Ping; Li, Jun; Xu, Weiya; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Ruihua; Yu, Yingcai; Yuan, Shaochun; Chen, Shangwu; Luo, Guangbin; Xu, Anlong

    2014-09-16

    Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition proteins (PRPs). Here, we present a novel type of protein domain structure capable of binding to bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and the minimal PGN motif muramyl dipeptide (MDP). This domain is designated as apextrin C-terminal domain (ApeC), and its presence was confirmed in several invertebrate phyla and subphyla. Two apextrin-like proteins (ALP1 and ALP2) were identified in a basal chordate, the Japanese amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum (bj). bjALP1 is a mucosal effector secreted into the gut lumen to agglutinate the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus via PGN binding. Neutralization of secreted bjALP1 by anti-bjALP1 monoclonal antibodies caused serious damage to the gut epithelium and rapid death of the animals after bacterial infection. bjALP2 is an intracellular PGN sensor that binds to TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and prevents TRAF6 from self-ubiquitination and hence from NF-?B activation. MDP was found to compete with TRAF6 for bjALP2, which released TRAF6 to activate the NF-?B pathway. BjALP1 and bjALP2 therefore play distinct and complementary functions in amphioxus gut mucosal immunity. In conclusion, discovery of the ApeC domain and the functional analyses of amphioxus ALP1 and ALP2 allowed us to define a previously undocumented type of PRP that is represented across different animal phyla. PMID:25187559

  2. Two apextrin-like proteins mediate extracellular and intracellular bacterial recognition in amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Yan, Xinyu; Yang, Ping; Li, Jun; Xu, Weiya; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Ruihua; Yu, Yingcai; Yuan, Shaochun; Chen, Shangwu; Luo, Guangbin; Xu, Anlong

    2014-01-01

    Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition proteins (PRPs). Here, we present a novel type of protein domain structure capable of binding to bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and the minimal PGN motif muramyl dipeptide (MDP). This domain is designated as apextrin C-terminal domain (ApeC), and its presence was confirmed in several invertebrate phyla and subphyla. Two apextrin-like proteins (ALP1 and ALP2) were identified in a basal chordate, the Japanese amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum (bj). bjALP1 is a mucosal effector secreted into the gut lumen to agglutinate the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus via PGN binding. Neutralization of secreted bjALP1 by anti-bjALP1 monoclonal antibodies caused serious damage to the gut epithelium and rapid death of the animals after bacterial infection. bjALP2 is an intracellular PGN sensor that binds to TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and prevents TRAF6 from self-ubiquitination and hence from NF-?B activation. MDP was found to compete with TRAF6 for bjALP2, which released TRAF6 to activate the NF-?B pathway. BjALP1 and bjALP2 therefore play distinct and complementary functions in amphioxus gut mucosal immunity. In conclusion, discovery of the ApeC domain and the functional analyses of amphioxus ALP1 and ALP2 allowed us to define a previously undocumented type of PRP that is represented across different animal phyla. PMID:25187559

  3. Hpt, a bacterial homolog of the microsomal glucose- 6-phosphate translocase, mediates rapid intracellular proliferation in Listeria

    PubMed Central

    Chico-Calero, Isabel; Suárez, Mónica; González-Zorn, Bruno; Scortti, Mariela; Slaghuis, Jörg; Goebel, Werner; Vázquez-Boland, José A.

    2002-01-01

    Efficient replication in vivo is essential for a microparasite to colonize its host and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial pathogens grow within host tissues can lead to the discovery of novel therapies to treat infection. Here we present evidence that the foodborne bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a facultative intracellular parasite, exploits hexose phosphates (HP) from the host cell as a source of carbon and energy to fuel fast intracellular growth. HP uptake is mediated by Hpt, a bacterial homolog of the mammalian translocase that transports glucose-6-phosphate from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum in the final step of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Expression of the Hpt permease is tightly controlled by the central virulence regulator PrfA, which upon entry into host cells induces a set of virulence factors required for listerial intracellular parasitism. Loss of Hpt resulted in impaired listerial intracytosolic proliferation and attenuated virulence in mice. Hpt is the first virulence factor to be identified as specifically involved in the replication phase of a facultative intracellular pathogen. It is also a clear example of how adaptation to intracellular parasitism by microbial pathogens involves mimicry of physiological mechanisms of their eukaryotic host cells. PMID:11756655

  4. The Omentum Is a Site of Protective IgM Production during Intracellular Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Derek D.; Racine, Rachael; Wittmer, Susan T.; Harston, Louise; Papillion, Amber M.; Dishaw, Lisa M.; Randall, Troy D.; Woodland, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Infection of mice with the bacterium Ehrlichia muris elicits a protective T cell-independent (TI) IgM response mediated primarily by a population of CD11c-expressing plasmablasts in the spleen. Although splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells are considered to be important for TI responses to blood-borne pathogens, MZ B cells were not responsible for generating plasmablasts in response to Ehrlichia muris. Moreover, antigen-specific serum IgM was decreased only modestly in splenectomized mice and in mice that lacked spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches (SLP mice). Both splenectomized and SLP mice were protected against lethal ehrlichial challenge infection. Moreover, we found a high frequency of Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts in the omentum of both conventional and SLP mice. Omental plasmablasts elicited during Ehrlichia infection lacked expression of CD138 but expressed CD11c in a manner similar to that of their splenic counterparts. Selective ablation of CD11c-expressing B cells nearly eliminated the omental Ehrlichia-specific plasmablasts and reduced antigen-specific serum IgM, identifying the omental B cells as a source of IgM production in the SLP mice. Generation of the omental plasmablasts was route dependent, as they were detected following peritoneal infection but not following intravenous infection. Our data identify the omentum as an important auxiliary site of IgM production during intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:25776744

  5. Characterization of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium in the Midgut Epithelium of the Bulrush Bug Chilacis typhae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Artheneinae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Dettner, Konrad; Kehl, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Many members of the suborder Heteroptera have symbiotic bacteria, which are usually found extracellularly in specific sacs or tubular outgrowths of the midgut or intracellularly in mycetomes. In this study, we describe the second molecular characterization of a symbiotic bacterium in a monophagous, seed-sucking stink bug of the family Lygaeidae (sensu stricto). Chilacis typhae possesses at the end of the first section of the midgut a structure which is composed of circularly arranged, strongly enlarged midgut epithelial cells. It is filled with an intracellular endosymbiont. This “mycetocytic belt” might represent an evolutionarily intermediate stage of the usual symbiotic structures found in stink bugs. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and the groEL genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, and it revealed a phylogenetic relationship with a secondary bacterial endosymbiont of Cimex lectularius and free-living plant pathogens such as Pectobacterium and Dickeya. The distribution and ultrastructure of the rod-shaped Chilacis endosymbiont were studied in adults and nymph stages using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and electron microscopy. The detection of symbionts at the anterior poles of developing eggs indicates that endosymbionts are transmitted vertically. A new genus and species name, “Candidatus Rohrkolberia cinguli,” is proposed for this newly characterized clade of symbiotic bacteria. PMID:21378044

  6. Proteomic Analyses of Intracellular Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveal Extensive Bacterial Adaptations to Infected Host Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Zhang, Qiufeng; Hu, Mo; Yu, Kaiwen; Fu, Jiaqi; Zhou, Fan; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella species can gain access into nonphagocytic cells, where the bacterium proliferates in a unique membrane-bounded compartment. In order to reveal bacterial adaptations to their intracellular niche, here we conducted the first comprehensive proteomic survey of Salmonella isolated from infected epithelial cells. Among ? 3,300 identified bacterial proteins, we found that about 100 proteins were significantly altered at the onset of Salmonella intracellular replication. In addition to substantially increased iron-uptake capacities, bacterial high-affinity manganese and zinc transporters were also upregulated, suggesting an overall limitation of metal ions in host epithelial cells. We also found that Salmonella induced multiple phosphate utilization pathways. Furthermore, our data suggested upregulation of the two-component PhoPQ system as well as of many downstream virulence factors under its regulation. Our survey also revealed that intracellular Salmonella has increased needs for certain amino acids and biotin. In contrast, Salmonella downregulated glycerol and maltose utilization as well as chemotaxis pathways. PMID:25939512

  7. Proteomic Analyses of Intracellular Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveal Extensive Bacterial Adaptations to Infected Host Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhua; Zhang, Qiufeng; Hu, Mo; Yu, Kaiwen; Fu, Jiaqi; Zhou, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella species can gain access into nonphagocytic cells, where the bacterium proliferates in a unique membrane-bounded compartment. In order to reveal bacterial adaptations to their intracellular niche, here we conducted the first comprehensive proteomic survey of Salmonella isolated from infected epithelial cells. Among ∼3,300 identified bacterial proteins, we found that about 100 proteins were significantly altered at the onset of Salmonella intracellular replication. In addition to substantially increased iron-uptake capacities, bacterial high-affinity manganese and zinc transporters were also upregulated, suggesting an overall limitation of metal ions in host epithelial cells. We also found that Salmonella induced multiple phosphate utilization pathways. Furthermore, our data suggested upregulation of the two-component PhoPQ system as well as of many downstream virulence factors under its regulation. Our survey also revealed that intracellular Salmonella has increased needs for certain amino acids and biotin. In contrast, Salmonella downregulated glycerol and maltose utilization as well as chemotaxis pathways. PMID:25939512

  8. Activation of Pattern Recognition Receptors Upregulates Metallothioneins, Thereby Increasing Intracellular Accumulation of Zinc, Autophagy, and Bacterial Clearance by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Amit; Abraham, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Continuous stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) (variants in NOD2 have been associated with Crohn's disease), alters the phenotype of myeloid-derived cells, reducing production of inflammatory cytokines and increasing clearance of microbes. We investigated the mechanisms by which microbial clearance increases in macrophages under these conditions. METHODS Monocytes were purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and differentiated to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We also isolated human intestinal macrophages. Bacterial clearance by MDMs was assessed in gentamicin protection assays. Effects of intracellular zinc and autophagy were measured by flow cytometry, immunoblot, reverse transcription PCR, and microscopy experiments. Small interfering RNAs were used to knock down specific proteins in MDMs. NOD2/ and C57BL/6J mice, maintained in a specific pathogen-free facility, were given antibiotics, muramyl dipeptide (to stimulate NOD2), or dextran sodium sulfate; intestinal lamina propria cells were collected and analyzed. RESULTS Chronic stimulation of human MDMs through NOD2 upregulated the expression of multiple genes encoding metallothioneins, which bind and regulate levels of intracellular zinc. Intestinal myeloid-derived cells are continually stimulated through PRRs; metallothionein expression was upregulated in human and mouse intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Continuous stimulation of NOD2 increased levels of intracellular zinc, thereby increasing autophagy and bacterial clearance. The metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) was required for regulation of metallothionein genes in human MDMs. Knockdown of MTF-1 did not affect baseline clearance of bacteria by MDMs. However, the increase in intracellular zinc, autophagy, and bacterial clearance observed with continuous NOD2 stimulation was impaired in MDMs upon MTF-1 knockdown. Addition of zinc or induction of autophagy restored bacterial clearance to MDMs following metallothionein knockdown. NOD2 synergized with the PRRs TLR5 and TLR9 to increase the effects of metallothioneins in MDMs. In mice, the intestinal microbiota contributed to the regulation in expression of metallothioneins, levels of zinc, autophagy, and bacterial clearance by intestinal macrophages. CONCLUSIONS In studies of human MDMs and in mice, continuous stimulation of PRRs induces expression of metallothioneins. This leads to increased levels of intracellular zinc and enhanced clearance of bacteria via autophagy in macrophages. PMID:24960189

  9. TLR-Independent Type I Interferon Induction in Response to an Extracellular Bacterial Pathogen via Intracellular Recognition of Its DNA

    PubMed Central

    Charrel-Dennis, Marie; Latz, Eicke; Halmen, Kristen A.; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Type I interferon (IFN) is an important host defense cytokine against intracellular pathogens, mainly viruses. In assessing IFN production in response to group B streptococcus (GBS), we find that IFN-? was produced by macrophages upon stimulation with both heat-killed and live GBS. Exposure of macrophages to heat-killed GBS activated a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent pathway, whereas live GBS activated a TLR/NOD/RIG-like receptor (RLR)-independent pathway. This latter pathway required bacterial phagocytosis, proteolytic bacterial degradation, and phagolysosomal membrane destruction by GBS pore-forming toxins, leading to the release of bacterial DNA into the cytosol. GBS DNA in the cytosol induced IFN-? production via a pathway dependent on the activation of the serine-threonine kinase TBK1 and phosphorylation of the transcription factor IRF3. Thus, activation of IFN-?/-? production during infection with GBS, commonly considered an extracellular pathogen, appears to result from the interaction of GBS DNA with a putative intracellular DNA sensor or receptor. PMID:19064255

  10. Novel bioactive hydrophobic gentamicin carriers for the treatment of intracellular bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Elizondo, Elisa; Gamazo, Carlos; Moreno-Calvo, Evelyn; Veciana, Jaume; Ventosa, Nora; Blanco-Prieto, María J

    2011-04-01

    Gentamicin (GEN) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a potent antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacteria. However, its poor cellular penetration limits its use in the treatment of infections caused by intracellular pathogens. One potential strategy to overcome this problem is the use of particulate carriers that can target the intracellular sites of infection. In this study GEN was ion-paired with the anionic AOT surfactant to obtain a hydrophobic complex (GEN-AOT) that was formulated as a particulated material either by the precipitation with a compressed antisolvent (PCA) method or by encapsulation into poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The micronization of GEN-AOT by PCA yielded a particulated material with a higher surface area than the non-precipitated complex, while PLGA NPs within a size range of 250-330 nm and a sustained release of the drug over 70 days were obtained by preparing the NPs using the emulsion solvent evaporation method. For the first time, GEN encapsulation efficiency values of ∼100% were achieved for the different NP formulations with no signs of interaction between the drug and the polymer. Finally, in vitro studies against the intracellular bacteria Brucella melitensis, used as a model of intracellular pathogen, demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of GEN was unmodified after ion-pairing, precipitation or encapsulation into NPs. These results encourage their use for treatment for infections caused by GEN-sensitive intracellular bacteria. PMID:21115143

  11. Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vural, Ali; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Shi, Chong-Shan; Srinivasan, Lalitha; McQuiston, Travis J; Hwang, Il-Young; Yeh, Anthony J; Blumer, Joe B; Briken, Volker; Williamson, Peter R; Otto, Michael; Fraser, Iain D C; Kehrl, John H

    2016-01-15

    Many intracellular pathogens cause disease by subverting macrophage innate immune defense mechanisms. Intracellular pathogens actively avoid delivery to or directly target lysosomes, the major intracellular degradative organelle. In this article, we demonstrate that activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3), an LPS-inducible protein in macrophages, affects both lysosomal biogenesis and activity. AGS3 binds the Gi family of G proteins via its G-protein regulatory (GoLoco) motif, stabilizing the G? subunit in its GDP-bound conformation. Elevated AGS3 levels in macrophages limited the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a sensor of cellular nutritional status. This triggered the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB, a known activator of lysosomal gene transcription. In contrast, AGS3-deficient macrophages had increased mammalian target of rapamycin activity, reduced transcription factor EB activity, and a lower lysosomal mass. High levels of AGS3 in macrophages enhanced their resistance to infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas AGS3-deficient macrophages were more susceptible. We conclude that LPS priming increases AGS3 levels, which enhances lysosomal function and increases the capacity of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens. PMID:26667172

  12. Molecular mechanisms of cell–cell spread of intracellular bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ireton, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Several bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri and Rickettsia spp., have evolved mechanisms to actively spread within human tissues. Spreading is initiated by the pathogen-induced recruitment of host filamentous (F)-actin. F-actin forms a tail behind the microbe, propelling it through the cytoplasm. The motile pathogen then encounters the host plasma membrane, forming a bacterium-containing protrusion that is engulfed by an adjacent cell. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made in elucidating mechanisms of F-actin tail formation. Listeria and Shigella produce tails of branched actin filaments by subverting the host Arp2/3 complex. By contrast, Rickettsia forms tails with linear actin filaments through a bacterial mimic of eukaryotic formins. Compared with F-actin tail formation, mechanisms controlling bacterial protrusions are less well understood. However, recent findings have highlighted the importance of pathogen manipulation of host cell–cell junctions in spread. Listeria produces a soluble protein that enhances bacterial protrusions by perturbing tight junctions. Shigella protrusions are engulfed through a clathrin-mediated pathway at ‘tricellular junctions’—specialized membrane regions at the intersection of three epithelial cells. This review summarizes key past findings in pathogen spread, and focuses on recent developments in actin-based motility and the formation and internalization of bacterial protrusions. PMID:23864553

  13. Assay Development for Image-Based Quantification of Intracellular Bacterial Replication and Analysis of the Innate Immune Response to Infection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexandra H; Vayttaden, Sharat J; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; Fraser, Iain D C

    2015-11-01

    Severe bacterial infection can lead to inflammation, host tissue damage, and ultimately disseminated septic shock. The mammalian innate immune system responds to microbial infection through the detection of invariant pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by a range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by the host cell. A successful immune response involves tightly coordinated signaling from these receptors, leading to a robust transcriptional response producing cytokines and antimicrobial effectors. While the PRR-expressing phagocytes of the host innate immune system function to contain and degrade internalized bacteria through pathways such as selective autophagy, pathogenic bacteria may subvert this process to replicate in the host cell. We describe the development of imaging assays to investigate these host-pathogen interactions through gene perturbation screens, which could lead to the identification of novel effectors of the host response to bacterial infection. We identify markers of coordinated initial signaling in macrophages challenged with ligands to PRRs of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and compare this response to that induced by intact bacteria of the Burkholderia cenocepacia complex (Bcc), an opportunistic pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. Bcc has been shown to escape the endocytic pathway, activate selective autophagy, and replicate within human macrophages. We demonstrate robust image-based quantification of multiple stages of Bcc infection of macrophages: ubiquitin tagging of cytosolic bacteria, recruitment of selective autophagy effector proteins, and intracellular bacterial replication, and we show perturbation of bacterial replication using drug treatment or siRNA-based gene knockdown. The described panel of imaging assays can be extended to other bacterial infections and pathogenic ligand combinations where high-content siRNA screening could provide significant new insight into regulation of the innate immune response to infection. PMID:26505731

  14. Polysaccharide capsule and sialic acid-mediated regulation promote biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities during cystitis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gregory G; Goller, Carlos C; Justice, Sheryl; Hultgren, Scott J; Seed, Patrick C

    2010-03-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A murine UTI model has revealed an infection cascade whereby UPEC undergoes cycles of invasion of the bladder epithelium, intracellular proliferation in polysaccharide-containing biofilm-like masses called intracellular bacterial communities (IBC), and then dispersal into the bladder lumen to initiate further rounds of epithelial colonization and invasion. We predicted that the UPEC K1 polysaccharide capsule is a key constituent of the IBC matrix. Compared to prototypic E. coli K1 strain UTI89, a capsule assembly mutant had a fitness defect in functionally TLR4(+) and TLR4(-) mice, suggesting a protective role of capsule in inflamed and noninflamed hosts. K1 capsule assembly and synthesis mutants had dramatically reduced IBC formation, demonstrating the common requirement for K1 polysaccharide in IBC development. The capsule assembly mutant appeared dispersed in the cytoplasm of the bladder epithelial cells and failed to undergo high-density intracellular replication during later stages of infection, when the wild-type strain continued to form serial generations of IBC. Deletion of the sialic acid regulator gene nanR partially restored IBC formation in the capsule assembly mutant. These data suggest that capsule is necessary for efficient IBC formation and that aberrant sialic acid accumulation, resulting from disruption of K1 capsule assembly, produces a NanR-mediated defect in intracellular proliferation and IBC development. Together, these data demonstrate the complex but important roles of UPEC polysaccharide encapsulation and sialic acid signaling in multiple stages of UTI pathogenesis. PMID:20086090

  15. Anhydrobiotic engineering of bacterial and mammalian cells: is intracellular trehalose sufficient?

    PubMed

    Tunnacliffe, A; Garca de Castro, A; Manzanera, M

    2001-09-01

    Anhydrobiotic engineering aims to confer a high degree of desiccation tolerance on otherwise sensitive living organisms and cells by adopting the strategies of anhydrobiosis. Nonreducing disaccharides such as trehalose and sucrose are thought to play a pivotal role in resistance to desiccation stress in many microorganisms, invertebrates, and plants, and in vitro trehalose is known to confer stability on dried biomolecules and biomembranes. We have therefore tested the hypothesis that intracellular trehalose (or a similar molecule) may be not only necessary for anhydrobiosis but also sufficient. High concentrations of trehalose were produced in bacteria by osmotic preconditioning, and in mammalian cells by genetic engineering, but in neither system was desiccation tolerance similar to that seen in anhydrobiotic organisms, suggesting that trehalose alone is not sufficient for anhydrobiosis. In Escherichia coli such desiccation tolerance was achievable, but only when bacteria were dried in the presence of both extracellular trehalose and intracellular trehalose. In mouse L cells, improved osmotolerance was observed with up to 100 mM intracellular trehalose, but desiccation was invariably lethal even with extracellular trehalose present. We conclude that anhydrobiotic engineering of at least some microorganisms is achievable with present technology, but that further advances are needed for similar desiccation tolerance of mammalian cells. PMID:11846467

  16. Modulation of neutrophil superoxide response and intracellular diacylglyceride levels by the bacterial pigment pyocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, M; Sorrell, T C

    1997-01-01

    Low concentrations of pyocyanin are reported to enhance superoxide production by human neutrophils exposed to various stimuli, yet the mechanism remains unknown. Using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, we examined the kinetics of the neutrophil superoxide response in the presence of pyocyanin. At all concentrations (12.5 to 200 microM), pyocyanin decreased the peak superoxide response while prolonging the duration of the response. The prolonged response may be associated with an observed increase in intracellular diacylglyceride levels due to pyocyanin exposure. PMID:9169797

  17. Bacterial translocation affects intracellular neuroinflammatory pathways in a depression-like model in rats.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, David; Caso, Javier R; Bris, Álvaro G; Maus, Sandra R; Madrigal, José L M; García-Bueno, Borja; MacDowell, Karina S; Alou, Luis; Gómez-Lus, Maria Luisa; Leza, Juan C

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that depression is accompanied by an increased intestinal permeability which would be related to the inflammatory pathophysiology of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether experimental depression presents with bacterial translocation that in turn can lead to the TLR-4 in the brain affecting the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and antioxidant pathways. Male Wistar rats were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) and the intestinal integrity, presence of bacteria in tissues and plasma lipopolysaccharide levels were analyzed. We also studied the expression in the prefrontal cortex of activated forms of MAPK and some of their activation controllers and the effects of CMS on the antioxidant Nrf2 pathway. Our results indicate that after exposure to a CMS protocol there is increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. CMS also increases the expression of the activated form of the MAPK p38 while decreasing the expression of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. The actions of antibiotic administration to prevent bacterial translocation on elements of the MAPK and Nrf2 pathways indicate that the translocated bacteria are playing a role in these effects. In effect, our results propose a role of the translocated bacteria in the pathophysiology of depression through the p38 MAPK pathway which could aggravate the neuroinflammation and the oxidative/nitrosative damage present in this pathology. Moreover, our results reveal that the antioxidant factor Nrf2 and its activators may be involved in the consequences of the CMS on the brain. PMID:26686392

  18. A Salmonella Small Non-Coding RNA Facilitates Bacterial Invasion and Intracellular Replication by Modulating the Expression of Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hao; Vu, Gia-Phong; Bai, Yong; Chan, Elton; Wu, Ruobin; Yang, Edward; Liu, Fenyong; Lu, Sangwei

    2011-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that act as regulators of gene expression have been identified in all kingdoms of life, including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) in eukaryotic cells. Numerous sRNAs identified in Salmonella are encoded by genes located at Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) that are commonly found in pathogenic strains. Whether these sRNAs are important for Salmonella pathogenesis and virulence in animals has not been reported. In this study, we provide the first direct evidence that a pathogenicity island-encoded sRNA, IsrM, is important for Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells, intracellular replication inside macrophages, and virulence and colonization in mice. IsrM RNA is expressed in vitro under conditions resembling those during infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, IsrM is found to be differentially expressed in vivo, with higher expression in the ileum than in the spleen. IsrM targets the mRNAs coding for SopA, a SPI-1 effector, and HilE, a global regulator of the expression of SPI-1 proteins, which are major virulence factors essential for bacterial invasion. Mutations in IsrM result in disregulation of expression of HilE and SopA, as well as other SPI-1 genes whose expression is regulated by HilE. Salmonella with deletion of isrM is defective in bacteria invasion of epithelial cells and intracellular replication/survival in macrophages. Moreover, Salmonella with mutations in isrM is attenuated in killing animals and defective in growth in the ileum and spleen in mice. Our study has shown that IsrM sRNA functions as a pathogenicity island-encoded sRNA directly involved in Salmonella pathogenesis in animals. Our results also suggest that sRNAs may represent a distinct class of virulence factors that are important for bacterial infection in vivo. PMID:21949647

  19. Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens Trigger the Formation of U Small Nuclear RNA Bodies (U Bodies) through Metabolic Stress Induction.

    PubMed

    Tsalikis, Jessica; Tattoli, Ivan; Ling, Arthur; Sorbara, Matthew T; Croitoru, David O; Philpott, Dana J; Girardin, Stephen E

    2015-08-21

    Invasive bacterial pathogens induce an amino acid starvation (AAS) response in infected host cells that controls host defense in part by promoting autophagy. However, whether AAS has additional significant effects on the host response to intracellular bacteria remains poorly characterized. Here we showed that Shigella, Salmonella, and Listeria interfere with spliceosomal U snRNA maturation in the cytosol. Bacterial infection resulted in the rerouting of U snRNAs and their cytoplasmic escort, the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex, to processing bodies, thus forming U snRNA bodies (U bodies). This process likely contributes to the decline in the cytosolic levels of U snRNAs and of the SMN complex proteins SMN and DDX20 that we observed in infected cells. U body formation was triggered by membrane damage in infected cells and was associated with the induction of metabolic stresses, such as AAS or endoplasmic reticulum stress. Mechanistically, targeting of U snRNAs to U bodies was regulated by translation initiation inhibition and the ATF4/ATF3 pathway, and U bodies rapidly disappeared upon removal of the stress, suggesting that their accumulation represented an adaptive response to metabolic stress. Importantly, this process likely contributed to shape the host response to invasive bacteria because down-regulation of DDX20 expression using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) amplified ATF3- and NF-?B-dependent signaling. Together, these results identify a critical role for metabolic stress and invasive bacterial pathogens in U body formation and suggest that this process contributes to host defense. PMID:26134566

  20. Quorum sensing-controlled buoyancy through gas vesicles: Intracellular bacterial microcompartments for environmental adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Joshua P.

    2012-01-01

    Gas vesicles are gas-filled microcompartments produced by many cyanobacteria and haloarchaea to regulate buoyancy and control positioning in the water column. Recently we identified the first case of gas vesicle production by a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, Serratiasp ATCC39006. Gas vesicle production enabled colonisation of the air-liquid interface and was positively regulated in low-oxygen conditions, suggesting development of these intracellular organelles is an adpative mechanism facilitating migration to the water surface. Vesicle production was also regulated by the intercellular communication molecule N?butanoyl-L?homoserine lactone (BHL) showing that gas vesicle production is controlled at the population level, through quorum sensing, with BHL acting as a morphogen. Gas vesicle production was also reciprocally regulated with flagella-driven swarming motility by the global regulatory protein RsmA, suggesting a fork in the regulatory pathway that controls induction of these distinct modes of mobility. Here we discuss these findings in the context of the interesting physiology of Serratia 39006 and highlight future prospects for gas vesicle research in this highly tractable strain. PMID:22482022

  1. Applying an Inducible Expression System to Study Interference of Bacterial Virulence Factors with Intracellular Signaling.

    PubMed

    Berens, Christian; Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Lhrmann, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The technique presented here allows one to analyze at which step a target protein, or alternatively a small molecule, interacts with the components of a signaling pathway. The method is based, on the one hand, on the inducible expression of a specific protein to initiate a signaling event at a defined and predetermined step in the selected signaling cascade. Concomitant expression, on the other hand, of the gene of interest then allows the investigator to evaluate if the activity of the expressed target protein is located upstream or downstream of the initiated signaling event, depending on the readout of the signaling pathway that is obtained. Here, the apoptotic cascade was selected as a defined signaling pathway to demonstrate protocol functionality. Pathogenic bacteria, such as Coxiella burnetii, translocate effector proteins that interfere with host cell death induction in the host cell to ensure bacterial survival in the cell and to promote their dissemination in the organism. The C. burnetii effector protein CaeB effectively inhibits host cell death after induction of apoptosis with UV-light or with staurosporine. To narrow down at which step CaeB interferes with the propagation of the apoptotic signal, selected proteins with well-characterized pro-apoptotic activity were expressed transiently in a doxycycline-inducible manner. If CaeB acts upstream of these proteins, apoptosis will proceed unhindered. If CaeB acts downstream, cell death will be inhibited. The test proteins selected were Bax, which acts at the level of the mitochondria, and caspase 3, which is the major executioner protease. CaeB interferes with cell death induced by Bax expression, but not by caspase 3 expression. CaeB, thus, interacts with the apoptotic cascade between these two proteins. PMID:26168006

  2. Coinfection of tick cell lines has variable effects on replication of intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Anna; Rckert, Claudia; Alberdi, M. Pilar; Barry, Gerald; Stevenson, Brian; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Ticks transmit various human and animal microbial pathogens and may harbour more than one pathogen simultaneously. Both viruses and bacteria can trigger, and may subsequently suppress, vertebrate host and arthropod vector anti-microbial responses. Microbial coinfection of ticks could lead to an advantage or disadvantage for one or more of the microorganisms. In this preliminary study, cell lines derived from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus were infected sequentially with 2 arthropod-borne pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Ehrlichia ruminantium, or Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and the effect of coinfection on the replication of these pathogens was measured. Prior infection of tick cell cultures with the spirochaete B. burgdorferi enhanced subsequent replication of the rickettsial pathogen E. ruminantium whereas addition of spirochaetes to cells infected with E. ruminantium had no effect on growth of the latter. Both prior and subsequent presence of B. burgdorferi also had a positive effect on SFV replication. Presence of E. ruminantium or SFV had no measurable effect on B. burgdorferi growth. In tick cells infected first with E. ruminantium and then with SFV, virus replication was significantly higher across all time points measured (24, 48, 72h post infection), while presence of the virus had no detectable effect on bacterial growth. When cells were infected first with SFV and then with E. ruminantium, there was no effect on replication of either pathogen. The results of this preliminary study indicate that interplay does occur between different pathogens during infection of tick cells. Further study is needed to determine if this results from direct pathogenpathogen interaction or from effects on host cell defences, and to determine if these observations also apply in vivo in ticks. If presence of one pathogen in the tick vector results in increased replication of another, this could have implications for disease transmission and incidence. PMID:24685441

  3. Coinfection of tick cell lines has variable effects on replication of intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Anna; Rückert, Claudia; Alberdi, M Pilar; Barry, Gerald; Stevenson, Brian; Fazakerley, John K; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2014-06-01

    Ticks transmit various human and animal microbial pathogens and may harbour more than one pathogen simultaneously. Both viruses and bacteria can trigger, and may subsequently suppress, vertebrate host and arthropod vector anti-microbial responses. Microbial coinfection of ticks could lead to an advantage or disadvantage for one or more of the microorganisms. In this preliminary study, cell lines derived from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus were infected sequentially with 2 arthropod-borne pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Ehrlichia ruminantium, or Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and the effect of coinfection on the replication of these pathogens was measured. Prior infection of tick cell cultures with the spirochaete B. burgdorferi enhanced subsequent replication of the rickettsial pathogen E. ruminantium whereas addition of spirochaetes to cells infected with E. ruminantium had no effect on growth of the latter. Both prior and subsequent presence of B. burgdorferi also had a positive effect on SFV replication. Presence of E. ruminantium or SFV had no measurable effect on B. burgdorferi growth. In tick cells infected first with E. ruminantium and then with SFV, virus replication was significantly higher across all time points measured (24, 48, 72h post infection), while presence of the virus had no detectable effect on bacterial growth. When cells were infected first with SFV and then with E. ruminantium, there was no effect on replication of either pathogen. The results of this preliminary study indicate that interplay does occur between different pathogens during infection of tick cells. Further study is needed to determine if this results from direct pathogen-pathogen interaction or from effects on host cell defences, and to determine if these observations also apply in vivo in ticks. If presence of one pathogen in the tick vector results in increased replication of another, this could have implications for disease transmission and incidence. PMID:24685441

  4. Functional genomic studies of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and host urothelial cells when intracellular bacterial communities are assembled.

    PubMed

    Reigstad, Christopher S; Hultgren, Scott J; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2007-07-20

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the principal cause of urinary tract infection in women, colonizes the gut as well as the genitourinary tract. Studies of mice inoculated with UTI89, a sequenced isolate, have revealed a complex life cycle that includes formation of intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) in bladder urothelial cells. To understand how UPEC adapts to life in IBCs, we have used GeneChips and/or quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR to study UTI89 recovered from the distal gut of gnotobiotic mice and from IBCs harvested by laser capture microdissection from the bladder urothelium of infected C3H/HeJ female mice. Host responses were characterized in laser capture microdissected urothelial cells that do or do not contain IBCs. The results reveal components of ferric iron acquisition systems in UTI89 that are expressed at significantly higher levels in IBCs compared with the intestine, including the hemin receptor chuA (1,390 +/- 188-fold). Localized urothelial responses to IBCs help oppose bacterial salvage of host cell iron (e.g. up-regulation of Tfrc (transferrin receptor) and Lcn2 (lipocalin 2)), facilitate glucose import (e.g. Hk2 (hexokinase 2)), and maintain epithelial structural integrity (e.g. Ivl (involucrin) and Sbsn (suprabasin)). DeltachuA mutants produce significantly smaller IBCs compared with wild type UTI89. This difference was not observed in strains lacking sitA (ABC-type iron/manganese transporter subunit), iroN (salmochelin receptor), hlyA (alpha-hemolysin), or entF (enterobactin synthetase subunit). Together, these studies indicate that heme- and siderophore-associated iron play key roles in IBC development and provide a series of microbial and host biomarkers for comparing UPEC strains isolated from humans. PMID:17504765

  5. Inhibition of intracellular bacterial replication in fibroblasts is dependent on the perforin-like protein (perforin-2) encoded by macrophage-expressed gene 1.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Ryan; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Ramos, Jahir E; Podack, Eckhard R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblasts are known to eliminate intracellular bacteria, but the lethal hit of the bactericidal mechanism has not been defined. We show that primary embryonic and established fibroblasts can be induced by interferons or by intracellular bacterial infection to express a perforin-like mRNA previously described as macrophage-expressed gene 1 (Mpeg1). The presence and level of the perforin-like mRNA correlate with the ability of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) to eliminate intracellular bacteria. In addition, siRNA knockdown of the perforin-like molecule abolishes bactericidal activity and allows intracellular bacterial replication. Complementation of MEF in which the endogenous perforin-like molecule has been knocked down with a red fluorescent protein-tagged version restores bactericidal activity. The perforin-like molecule has broad bactericidal specificity for pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, including Gram-positive and -negative, and acid fast bacteria. The perforin-like molecule renders previously lysozyme-resistant bacteria sensitive to lysis by lysozyme suggesting physical damage of the outer cell wall by the perforin-like protein. MEF damage cell walls of intracellular bacteria by insertion, polymerization, and pore formation of the perforin-like protein, analogous to pore formers of complement and perforin-1 of cytolytic lymphocytes. We propose the name perforin-2. PMID:23257510

  6. Self-assembling, protein-based intracellular bacterial organelles: emerging vehicles for encapsulating, targeting and delivering therapeutical cargoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many bacterial species contain intracellular nano- and micro-compartments consisting of self-assembling proteins that form protein-only shells. These structures are built up by combinations of a reduced number of repeated elements, from 60 repeated copies of one unique structural element self-assembled in encapsulins of 24 nm to 10,000-20,000 copies of a few protein species assembled in a organelle of around 100-150 nm in cross-section. However, this apparent simplicity does not correspond to the structural and functional sophistication of some of these organelles. They package, by not yet definitely solved mechanisms, one or more enzymes involved in specific metabolic pathways, confining such reactions and sequestering or increasing the inner concentration of unstable, toxics or volatile intermediate metabolites. From a biotechnological point of view, we can use the self assembling properties of these particles for directing shell assembling and enzyme packaging, mimicking nature to design new applications in biotechnology. Upon appropriate engineering of the building blocks, they could act as a new family of self-assembled, protein-based vehicles in Nanomedicine to encapsulate, target and deliver therapeutic cargoes to specific cell types and/or tissues. This would provide a new, intriguing platform of microbial origin for drug delivery. PMID:22046962

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase p110δ Isoform Regulates CD8+ T Cell Responses during Acute Viral and Intracellular Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Gracias, Donald T; Boesteanu, Alina C; Fraietta, Joseph A; Hope, Jennifer L; Carey, Alison J; Mueller, Yvonne M; Kawalekar, Omkar U; Fike, Adam J; June, Carl H; Katsikis, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The p110δ isoform of PI3K is known to play an important role in immunity, yet its contribution to CTL responses has not been fully elucidated. Using murine p110δ-deficient CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated a critical role for the p110δ subunit in the generation of optimal primary and memory CD8(+) T cell responses. This was demonstrated in both acute viral and intracellular bacterial infections in mice. We show that p110δ signaling is required for CD8(+) T cell activation, proliferation and effector cytokine production. We provide evidence that the effects of p110δ signaling are mediated via Akt activation and through the regulation of TCR-activated oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. In light of recent clinical trials that employ drugs targeting p110δ in certain cancers and other diseases, our study suggests caution in using these drugs in patients, as they could potentially increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. These studies therefore reveal a novel and direct role for p110δ signaling in in vivo CD8(+) T cell immunity to microbial pathogens. PMID:26740110

  8. Invasion of the Central Nervous System by Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Drevets, Douglas A.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.; Greenfield, Ronald A.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a severe and frequently fatal event during the course of many diseases caused by microbes with predominantly intracellular life cycles. Examples of these include the facultative intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Brucella and Salmonella spp. and obligate intracellular microbes of the Rickettsiaceae family and Tropheryma whipplei. Unfortunately, the mechanisms used by intracellular bacterial pathogens to enter the CNS are less well known than those used by bacterial pathogens with an extracellular life cycle. The goal of this review is to elaborate on the means by which intracellular bacterial pathogens establish infection within the CNS. This review encompasses the clinical and pathological findings that pertain to the CNS infection in humans and includes experimental data from animal models that illuminate how these microbes enter the CNS. Recent experimental data showing that L. monocytogenes can invade the CNS by more than one mechanism make it a useful model for discussing the various routes for neuroinvasion used by intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:15084504

  9. Characterization of a lipopolysaccharide-targeted monoclonal antibody and its variable fragments as candidates for prophylaxis against the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Schoenlaub, Laura; Elliott, Alexandra; Mitchell, William J; Zhang, Guoquan

    2014-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that treatment of Coxiella burnetii with the phase I lipopolysaccharide (PI-LPS)-targeted monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1E4 significantly inhibited C. burnetii infection in mice, suggesting that 1E4 is a protective MAb. To determine whether passive transfer of antibodies (Abs) can provide protection against C. burnetii natural infection, we examined if passive transfer of 1E4 would protect SCID mice against C. burnetii aerosol infection. The results indicated that 1E4 conferred significant protection against aerosolized C. burnetii, suggesting that 1E4 may be useful for preventing C. burnetii natural infection. To further understand the mechanisms of 1E4-mediated protection and to test the possibility of using humanized 1E4 to prevent C. burnetii infection, we examined whether the Fab fragment of 1E4 (Fab1E4), a recombinant murine single-chain variable fragment (muscFv1E4), and a humanized single-chain variable fragment (huscFv1E4) retained the ability of 1E4 to inhibit C. burnetii infection. The results indicated that Fab1E4, muscFv1E4, and huscFv1E4 were able to inhibit C. burnetii infection in mice but that their ability to inhibit C. burnetii infection was lower than that of 1E4. In addition, treatment of C. burnetii with Fab1E4, muscFv1E4, or huscFv1E4 can block C. burnetii infection of macrophages. Interestingly, treatment of C. burnetii with huscFv1E4 can significantly reduce C. burnetii infectivity in human macrophages. This report provides the first evidence to demonstrate that the humanized variable fragments of an LPS-specific MAb can neutralize C. burnetii infection and appears to be a promising step toward the potential use of a humanized MAb as emergency prophylaxis against C. burnetii exposure. PMID:25114119

  10. Characterization of a Lipopolysaccharide-Targeted Monoclonal Antibody and Its Variable Fragments as Candidates for Prophylaxis against the Obligate Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Schoenlaub, Laura; Elliott, Alexandra; Mitchell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that treatment of Coxiella burnetii with the phase I lipopolysaccharide (PI-LPS)-targeted monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1E4 significantly inhibited C. burnetii infection in mice, suggesting that 1E4 is a protective MAb. To determine whether passive transfer of antibodies (Abs) can provide protection against C. burnetii natural infection, we examined if passive transfer of 1E4 would protect SCID mice against C. burnetii aerosol infection. The results indicated that 1E4 conferred significant protection against aerosolized C. burnetii, suggesting that 1E4 may be useful for preventing C. burnetii natural infection. To further understand the mechanisms of 1E4-mediated protection and to test the possibility of using humanized 1E4 to prevent C. burnetii infection, we examined whether the Fab fragment of 1E4 (Fab1E4), a recombinant murine single-chain variable fragment (muscFv1E4), and a humanized single-chain variable fragment (huscFv1E4) retained the ability of 1E4 to inhibit C. burnetii infection. The results indicated that Fab1E4, muscFv1E4, and huscFv1E4 were able to inhibit C. burnetii infection in mice but that their ability to inhibit C. burnetii infection was lower than that of 1E4. In addition, treatment of C. burnetii with Fab1E4, muscFv1E4, or huscFv1E4 can block C. burnetii infection of macrophages. Interestingly, treatment of C. burnetii with huscFv1E4 can significantly reduce C. burnetii infectivity in human macrophages. This report provides the first evidence to demonstrate that the humanized variable fragments of an LPS-specific MAb can neutralize C. burnetii infection and appears to be a promising step toward the potential use of a humanized MAb as emergency prophylaxis against C. burnetii exposure. PMID:25114119

  11. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH_1387 Is Expressed throughout Bacterial Intracellular Development and Localizes to the Pathogen-Occupied Vacuolar Membrane▿

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bernice; Troese, Matthew J.; Ye, Shaojing; Sims, Jonathan T.; Galloway, Nathan L.; Borjesson, Dori L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    Obligate vacuolar pathogens produce proteins that localize to the host cell-derived membranes of the vacuoles in which they reside, yielding unique organelles that are optimally suited for pathogen survival. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate vacuolar bacterium that infects neutrophils and causes the emerging and potentially fatal disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here we identified APH_1387 as the first A. phagocytophilum-derived protein that associates with the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuolar membrane (AVM). APH_1387, also referred to as P100, is a 61.4-kDa acidic protein that migrates with an apparent molecular weight of 115 kDa on SDS-PAGE gels. It carries 3 tandem direct repeats that comprise 58% of the protein. Each APH_1387 repeat carries a bilobed hydrophobic alpha-helix domain, which is a structural characteristic that is consistent with the structure of chlamydia-derived proteins that traverse inclusion membranes. APH_1387 is not detectable on the surfaces of A. phagocytophilum dense core organisms bound at the HL-60 cell surface, but abundant APH_1387 is detected on the surfaces of intravacuolar reticulate cell and dense core organisms. APH_1387 accumulates on the AVM throughout infection. It associates with the AVM in human HL-60, THP-1, and HMEC-1 cells and tick ISE6 cells. APH_1387 is expressed and localizes to the AVM in neutrophils recovered from A. phagocytophilum-infected mice. This paper presents the first direct evidence that A. phagocytophilum actively modifies its host cell-derived vacuole. PMID:20212090

  12. Anaplasma phagocytophilum APH_1387 is expressed throughout bacterial intracellular development and localizes to the pathogen-occupied vacuolar membrane.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bernice; Troese, Matthew J; Ye, Shaojing; Sims, Jonathan T; Galloway, Nathan L; Borjesson, Dori L; Carlyon, Jason A

    2010-05-01

    Obligate vacuolar pathogens produce proteins that localize to the host cell-derived membranes of the vacuoles in which they reside, yielding unique organelles that are optimally suited for pathogen survival. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate vacuolar bacterium that infects neutrophils and causes the emerging and potentially fatal disease human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here we identified APH_1387 as the first A. phagocytophilum-derived protein that associates with the A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuolar membrane (AVM). APH_1387, also referred to as P100, is a 61.4-kDa acidic protein that migrates with an apparent molecular weight of 115 kDa on SDS-PAGE gels. It carries 3 tandem direct repeats that comprise 58% of the protein. Each APH_1387 repeat carries a bilobed hydrophobic alpha-helix domain, which is a structural characteristic that is consistent with the structure of chlamydia-derived proteins that traverse inclusion membranes. APH_1387 is not detectable on the surfaces of A. phagocytophilum dense core organisms bound at the HL-60 cell surface, but abundant APH_1387 is detected on the surfaces of intravacuolar reticulate cell and dense core organisms. APH_1387 accumulates on the AVM throughout infection. It associates with the AVM in human HL-60, THP-1, and HMEC-1 cells and tick ISE6 cells. APH_1387 is expressed and localizes to the AVM in neutrophils recovered from A. phagocytophilum-infected mice. This paper presents the first direct evidence that A. phagocytophilum actively modifies its host cell-derived vacuole. PMID:20212090

  13. The pleiotropic transcriptional response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to vitamin C is robust and overlaps with the bacterial response to multiple intracellular stresses.

    PubMed

    Sikri, Kriti; Batra, Sakshi Dhingra; Nandi, Malobi; Kumari, Priyanka; Taneja, Neetu Kumra; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) owes its success as a pathogen in large measure to its ability to exist in a persistent state of 'dormancy' resulting in a lifelong latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. An understanding of bacterial adaptation during dormancy will help in devising approaches to counter latent TB infection. In vitro models have provided valuable insights into bacterial adaptation; however, they have limitations because they do not disclose the bacterial response to the intracellular environment wherein the bacteria are simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses. We describe the pleiotropic response of Mtb in the vitamin C (vit C) model of dormancy developed in our laboratory. Vit C mediates a rapid regulation of genes representing ~14 % of the genome in Mtb cultures. The upregulated genes were better represented in lipid, intermediary metabolism and regulatory protein categories. The downregulated genes mainly related to virulence, detoxification, information pathways and cell wall processes. A comparison of this response to that in other models indicates that vit C generates a multiple-stress environment for axenic Mtb cultures that resembles a macrophage-like environment. The bacterial response to vit C resembles responses to gaseous stresses such as hypoxia and nitric oxide, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, nutrient starvation and, notably, the activated macrophage environment itself. These responses demonstrate that the influence of vit C on Mtb gene expression extends well beyond the DevR dormancy regulon. A detailed characterization of the response to vit C is expected to disclose useful strategies to counter the adaptive mechanisms essential to Mtb dormancy. PMID:25645949

  14. Intracellular replication of Staphylococcus aureus in mature phagolysosomes in macrophages precedes host cell death, and bacterial escape and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Flannagan, Ronald S; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E

    2016-04-01

    The success of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen is partly attributable to its ability to thwart host innate immune responses, which includes resisting the antimicrobial functions of phagocytes. Here, we have studied the interaction of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 with murine RAW 264.7 and primary human macrophages using molecular imaging and single cell analysis to obtain an unprecedented understanding of the interaction between the macrophage and MRSA. Herein we demonstrate that macrophages fail to control intracellular infection by MRSA USA300 despite trafficking the bacteria into mature phagolysosomes. Using fluorescence-based proliferation assays we also show that intracellular staphylococci proliferate and that replication commences while the bacteria are residing in mature phagolysosomes hours after initial phagocytosis. Finally, live-cell fluorescence video microscopy allowed for unprecedented visual insight into the escape of MRSA from macrophages, demonstrating that the macrophages die through a pathway characterized by membrane blebbing and activation of caspase-3 followed by acquisition of the vital dye propidium iodide. Moreover, cell death precedes the emergence of MRSA from infected macrophages, and these events can be ablated by prolonged exposure of infected phagocytes to gentamicin. PMID:26408990

  15. Activation of human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells by a Brucella suis non-peptidic fraction impairs bacterial intracellular multiplication in monocytic infected cells.

    PubMed

    Ottones, F; Liautard, J; Gross, A; Rabenoelina, F; Liautard, J P; Favero, J

    2000-06-01

    Human gamma delta T cells are considered to play an important role in the early response to infection with intracellular pathogens. Evidence has been presented that the percentage of gamma delta T cells with Vgamma9Vdelta2 phenotype is dramatically increased in the peripheral blood of patients with acute brucellosis. This specific gd T-cell subpopulation is known to be activated by small non-peptidic molecules that can either be produced by the pathogen itself or released from damaged cells after infection. In the present work we provide evidence that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors can be specifically activated by non-peptidic low-molecular-weight compound(s) from Brucella suis lysate. Moreover, we show that Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells activated by this B. suis fraction produce tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, which reduce bacterial multiplication inside infected cells. PMID:10886403

  16. Diversity of Bacterial Endosymbionts of Environmental Acanthamoeba Isolates▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Toenshoff, Elena R.; Haider, Susanne; Heinz, Eva; Hoenninger, Verena M.; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are frequent hosts for bacterial endosymbionts. In this study, the symbionts of eight novel environmental Acanthamoeba strains isolated from different locations worldwide were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were related to one of four evolutionary lineages of amoeba symbionts recognized previously. This study provides evidence for the existence of only a small number of phylogenetically well-separated groups of obligate intracellular endosymbionts of acanthamoebae with global distribution. PMID:18641160

  17. Complete Bacteriophage Transfer in a Bacterial Endosymbiont (Wolbachia) Determined by Targeted Genome Capture

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Bethany N.; Salichos, Leonidas; Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis; Newton, Irene L. G.; Clark, Michael E.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriophage flux can cause the majority of genetic diversity in free-living bacteria. This tenet of bacterial genome evolution generally does not extend to obligate intracellular bacteria owing to their reduced contact with other microbes and a predominance of gene deletion over gene transfer. However, recent studies suggest intracellular coinfections in the same host can facilitate exchange of mobile elements between obligate intracellular bacteria—a means by which these bacteria can partially mitigate the reductive forces of the intracellular lifestyle. To test whether bacteriophages transfer as single genes or larger regions between coinfections, we sequenced the genome of the obligate intracellular Wolbachia strain wVitB from the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis and compared it against the prophage sequences of the divergent wVitA coinfection. We applied, for the first time, a targeted sequence capture array to specifically trap the symbiont's DNA from a heterogeneous mixture of eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral DNA. The tiled array successfully captured the genome with 98.3% efficiency. Examination of the genome sequence revealed the largest transfer of bacteriophage and flanking genes (52.2 kb) to date between two obligate intracellular coinfections. The mobile element transfer occurred in the recent evolutionary past based on the 99.9% average nucleotide identity of the phage sequences between the two strains. In addition to discovering an evolutionary recent and large-scale horizontal phage transfer between coinfecting obligate intracellular bacteria, we demonstrate that “targeted genome capture” can enrich target DNA to alleviate the problem of isolating symbiotic microbes that are difficult to culture or purify from the conglomerate of organisms inside eukaryotes. PMID:21292630

  18. Extracellular ATP protects against sepsis through macrophage P2X7 purinergic receptors by enhancing intracellular bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Balázs; Németh, Zoltán H; Törő, Gábor; Idzko, Marco; Zech, Andreas; Koscsó, Balázs; Spolarics, Zoltán; Antonioli, Luca; Cseri, Karolina; Erdélyi, Katalin; Pacher, Pál; Haskó, György

    2015-09-01

    Extracellular ATP binds to and signals through P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) to modulate immune function in both inflammasome-dependent and -independent manners. In this study, P2X7(-/-) mice, the pharmacological agonists ATP-magnesium salt (Mg-ATP; 100 mg/kg, EC50 ≈ 1.32 mM) and benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP; 10 mg/kg, EC50 ≈ 285 μM), and antagonist oxidized ATP (oxi-ATP; 40 mg/kg, IC50 ≈ 100 μM) were used to show that P2X7R activation is crucial for the control of mortality, bacterial dissemination, and inflammation in cecal ligation and puncture-induced polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Our results with P2X7(-/-) bone marrow chimeric mice, adoptive transfer of peritoneal macrophages, and myeloid-specific P2X7(-/-) mice indicate that P2X7R signaling on macrophages is essential for the protective effect of P2X7Rs. P2X7R signaling protects through enhancing bacterial killing by macrophages, which is independent of the inflammasome. By using the connexin (Cx) channel inhibitor Gap27 (0.1 mg/kg, IC50 ≈ 0.25 μM) and pannexin channel inhibitor probenecid (10 mg/kg, IC50 ≈ 11.7 μM), we showed that ATP release through Cx is important for inhibiting inflammation and bacterial burden. In summary, targeting P2X7Rs provides a new opportunity for harnessing an endogenous protective immune mechanism in the treatment of sepsis. PMID:26060214

  19. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  20. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  1. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL1 restricts intracellular growth of Legionella, localizes to the replicative vacuole and binds to the bacterial effector LpnE.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan S; Ragaz, Curdin; Hilbi, Hubert

    2009-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates within a specific vacuole in amoebae and macrophages. To form these 'Legionella-containing vacuoles' (LCVs), the bacteria employ the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and effector proteins, some of which anchor to the LCV membrane via the host glycolipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P]. Here we analysed the role of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (IP5Ps) during L. pneumophila infections. Bacterial replication and LCV formation occurred more efficiently in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae lacking the IP5P Dd5P4, a homologue of human OCRL1 (Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe), implicated in retrograde endosome to Golgi trafficking. The phenotype was complemented by Dd5P4 but not the catalytically inactive 5-phosphatase. Ectopically expressed Dd5P4 or OCRL1 localized to LCVs in D. discoideum via an N-terminal domain previously not implicated in membrane targeting, and OCRL1 was also identified on LCVs in macrophages. Dd5P4 was catalytically active on LCVs and accumulated on LCVs harbouring wild-type but not DeltaicmT mutant L. pneumophila. The N-terminal domain of OCRL1 bound L. pneumophila LpnE, a Sel1-like repeat protein involved in LCV formation, which localizes to LCVs and selectively binds PtdIns(3)P. Our results indicate that OCRL1 restricts intracellular growth of L. pneumophila and binds to LCVs in association with LpnE. PMID:19021631

  2. Identification of New Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Markers for Inter- and Intraspecies Discrimination of Obligate Bacterial Parasites (Pasteuria spp.) of Invertebrates ?

    PubMed Central

    Mauchline, Tim H.; Knox, Rachel; Mohan, Sharad; Powers, Stephen J.; Kerry, Brian R.; Davies, Keith G.; Hirsch, Penny R.

    2011-01-01

    Protein-encoding and 16S rRNA genes of Pasteuria penetrans populations from a wide range of geographic locations were examined. Most interpopulation single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the 16S rRNA gene. However, in order to fully resolve all populations, these were supplemented with SNPs from protein-encoding genes in a multilocus SNP typing approach. Examination of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the occurrence of cryptic SNPs which were not present in the consensus sequences of any P. penetrans population. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analysis separated P. penetrans 16S rRNA gene clones into four groups, and one of which contained sequences from the most highly passaged population, demonstrating that it is possible to manipulate the population structure of this fastidious bacterium. The other groups were made from representatives of the other populations in various proportions. Comparison of sequences among three Pasteuria species, namely, P. penetrans, P. hartismeri, and P. ramosa, showed that the protein-encoding genes provided greater discrimination than the 16S rRNA gene. From these findings, we have developed a toolbox for the discrimination of Pasteuria at both the inter- and intraspecies levels. We also provide a model to monitor genetic variation in other obligate hyperparasites and difficult-to-culture microorganisms. PMID:21803895

  3. Measuring Intergenerational Obligations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have defined intergenerational obligations in diverse ways, and they have used many labels and ways of measuring intergenerational obligations. Using vignettes, we compared responses to questions about what family members should do when another family member needed assistance ("normative obligations") with responses to questions about

  4. Patho-epigenetics of Infectious Diseases Caused by Intracellular Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular eukaryotes including plants, animals and humans, epigenetic reprogramming may play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. Recent studies revealed that in addition to viruses, pathogenic bacteria are also capable to dysregulate the epigenetic machinery of their target cells. In this chapter we focus on epigenetic alterations induced by bacteria infecting humans. Most of them are obligate or facultative intracellular bacteria that produce either bacterial toxins and surface proteins targeting the host cell membrane, or synthesise effector proteins entering the host cell nucleus. These bacterial products typically elicit histone modifications, i.e. alter the "histone code". Bacterial pathogens are capable to induce alterations of host cell DNA methylation patterns, too. Such changes in the host cell epigenotype and gene expression pattern may hinder the antibacterial immune response and create favourable conditions for bacterial colonization, growth, or spread. Epigenetic dysregulation mediated by bacterial products may also facilitate the production of inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators affecting the epigenotype of their target cells. Such indirect epigenetic changes as well as direct interference with the epigenetic machinery of the host cells may contribute to the initiation and progression of malignant tumors associated with distinct bacterial infections. PMID:26659266

  5. Lipid Acquisition by Intracellular Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Elwell, Cherilyn A.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that are important causes of human genital tract, ocular, and respiratory infections. The bacteria replicate within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and require host-derived lipids for intracellular growth and development. Emerging evidence indicates that Chlamydia has evolved clever strategies to fulfill its lipid needs by interacting with multiple host cell compartments and redirecting trafficking pathways to its intracellular niche. In this review, we highlight recent findings that have significantly expanded our understanding of how Chlamydia exploit lipid trafficking pathways to ensure the survival of this important human pathogen. PMID:22452394

  6. NCI & Division Obligations

    Cancer.gov

    Displays obligations for grants, contracts, training fellowships, intramural research, and management and support, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percent of the total NCI budget.

  7. Utilization of an intracellular bacterial community pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae urinary tract infection and the effects of FimK on type 1 pilus expression.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David A; Pinkner, Jerome S; Jones, Jennifer M; Walker, Jennifer N; Clegg, Steven; Hultgren, Scott J

    2008-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), but little is known about its pathogenesis in vivo. The pathogenesis of the K. pneumoniae cystitis isolate TOP52 was compared to that of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolate UTI89 in a murine cystitis model. Bladder and kidney titers of TOP52 were lower than those of UTI89 at early time points but similar at later time points. TOP52, like UTI89, formed biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) within the murine bladder, albeit at significantly lower levels than UTI89. Additionally, filamentation of TOP52 was observed, a process critical for UTI89 evasion of neutrophil phagocytosis and persistence in the bladder. Thus, the IBC pathway is not specific to UPEC alone. We investigated if differences in type 1 pilus expression may explain TOP52's early defect in vivo. The type 1 pilus operon is controlled by recombinase-mediated (fimE, fimB, and fimX) phase variation of an invertible promoter element. We found that K. pneumoniae carries an extra gene of unknown function at the 3' end of its type 1 operon, fimK, and the genome lacks the recombinase fimX. A deletion mutant of fimK was constructed, and TOP52 Delta fimK had higher titers and formed more IBCs in the murine cystitis model than wild type. The loss of fimK or expression of E. coli fimX from a plasmid in TOP52 resulted in a larger phase-ON population and higher expression levels of type 1 pili and gave TOP52 the ability to form type 1-dependent biofilms. Complementation with pfimK decreased type 1 pilus expression and biofilm formation of TOP52 Delta fimK and decreased UTI89 biofilm formation. Thus, K. pneumoniae appears programmed for minimal expression of type 1 pili, which may explain, in part, why K. pneumoniae is a less prevalent etiologic agent of UTI than UPEC. PMID:18411285

  8. Chlamydial Intracellular Survival Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Robert J.; Elwell, Cherilyn A.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of blinding trachoma. Although Chlamydia is protected from humoral immune responses by residing within remodeled intracellular vacuoles, it still must contend with multilayered intracellular innate immune defenses deployed by its host while scavenging for nutrients. Here we provide an overview of Chlamydia biology and highlight recent findings detailing how this vacuole-bound pathogen manipulates hostcellular functions to invade host cells and maintain a replicative niche. PMID:23637308

  9. Strategies of genomic integration within insect-bacterial mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Insects, the most diverse group of macroorganisms with 900,000 known species, have been a rich playground for the evolution of symbiotic associations. Symbionts of this enormous animal group include a range of microbial partners. Insects are prone to establishing relationships with intracellular bacteria, which include the most intimate, highly integrated mutualisms known in the biological world. In recent years, an explosion of genomic studies has offered new insights into the molecular, functional, and evolutionary consequences of these insect-bacterial partnerships. In this review, I highlight some insights from genome sequences of bacterial endosymbionts and select insect hosts. Notably, comparisons of facultative versus obligate bacterial mutualists have revealed distinct genome features representing different stages along a shared trajectory of genome reduction. Bacteria associated with the cedar aphid offer a snapshot of a transition from facultative to obligate mutualism, illustrating the genomic basis of this key step along the symbiotic spectrum. In addition, genomes of stable, dual bacterial symbionts reflect independent instances of astonishing metabolic integration. In these systems, synthesis of key nutrients, and perhaps basic cellular processes, require collaboration among co-residing bacteria and their insect host. These findings provide a launching point for a new era of genomic explorations of bacterial-animal symbioses. Future studies promise to reveal symbiotic strategies across a broad ecological and phylogenetic range, to clarify key transitions along a spectrum of interaction types, and to fuel new experimental approaches to dissect the mechanistic basis of intimate host-symbiont associations. PMID:22983037

  10. Intracellular proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Kolset, Svein Olav; Prydz, Kristian; Pejler, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are proteins with glycosaminoglycan chains, are ubiquitously expressed and have a wide range of functions. PGs in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface have been the subject of extensive structural and functional studies. Less attention has so far been given to PGs located in intracellular compartments, although several reports suggest that these have biological functions in storage granules, the nucleus and other intracellular organelles. The purpose of this review is, therefore, to present some of these studies and to discuss possible functions linked to PGs located in different intracellular compartments. Reference will be made to publications relevant for the topics we present. It is beyond the scope of this review to cover all publications on PGs in intracellular locations. PMID:14759226

  11. Intracellular life of Coxiella burnetii in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ghigo, Eric; Pretat, Lionel; Desnues, Benot; Capo, Christian; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2009-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is considered a potential biological weapon of category B. C. burnetii survives within myeloid cells by subverting receptor-mediated phagocytosis and preventing phagosome maturation. The intracellular fate of C. burnetii also depends on the functional state of myeloid cells. This review describes the mechanisms used by C. burnetii to circumvent uptake and trafficking events, and the role of cytokines on C. burnetii survival in myeloid cells. PMID:19538264

  12. The Serials Manager's Obligation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1987-01-01

    Discusses both the serials manager's external relationships with subscription agents and journal publishers and his/her obligation to be an equal and respected participant in acquiring information for users. Methods of gaining equality are considered, including education, communication with colleagues and vendors' representatives, and informed

  13. GRANDPARENTS' ENTITLEMENTS AND OBLIGATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In this article, it is argued that grandparents' obligations originate from parental obligations (i.e from the relationship they have with their children, the parents of their grandchildren) and not from the role of grandparent per se, and any entitlements flow from the extent to which these obligations are met. The position defended is, therefore, that grandparents qua grandparents are not entitled to form or continue relationships with their grandchildren. A continuation of grandparent-grandchildren relationships may be in the interests of children, but the grandparental nature of the relationship is not decisive. What counts is the extent to which relationships children have with any adults who are not their parents are is significant to them. Sometimes, however, grandparents become parents or co-parents of their grandchildren. They then gain parental rights, and as such are as entitled, ceteris parius, as any parent to expect their relationship with the child to continue. The issue of grandparents' entitlements can come to the fore when parents separate, and grandparents are unhappy with the access they have to their grandchildren. Grandparents' obligations may become a particular issue when parents die, struggle, or fail to care for their children. This article focuses particularly on these kinds of circumstances. PMID:23718643

  14. Classical Labeling of Bacterial Pathogens According to Their Lifestyle in the Host: Inconsistencies and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuel T.

    2012-01-01

    An ample understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen will improve our ability to develop new prophylactic and therapeutic measures against infection. Precise classification of infectious agents in regards to their infective lifestyles in the host and corresponding pathogenic implications are required because clear concepts are essential to plan fruitful research. Classically, pathogenic bacteria are classified as extracellular, facultative intracellular, and obligate intracellular. In my opinion, this classification is inadequate because, as concluded from data here discussed, it is based on inconsistencies and hyper-valorizes the capacity of the infectious agent replicate in vitro in cell-free media. For a microbial pathogen, what matters is whether intra- or extracellularity is in the context of the in vivo life and in association with pathogenicity. When living as a pathogen in association with its host, what is relevant in microbiological terms is not the ability to grow in artificial cell-free bacteriological media or in environmental niches but whether the intracellular infectious agent, besides the phase of intracellular growth which is behind its label, also is able to live extracellularly in the natural settings of the extracellular territories of their hosts. To eliminate the inconsistencies associated with the classical labeling of bacterial pathogens, I propose that bacterial pathogens be labeled exclusive extracellular, dual intracellular/extracellular and exclusive intracellular based on their infective lifestyle in the host, not in the ability to grow in artificial bacteriological media. PMID:22393329

  15. ATP-mediated killing of intracellular mycobacteria by macrophages is a P2X(7)-dependent process inducing bacterial death by phagosome-lysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, I P; Stober, C B; Kumararatne, D S; Lammas, D A

    2001-09-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives within host macrophages by actively inhibiting phagosome fusion with lysosomes. Treatment of infected macrophages with ATP induces both cell apoptosis and rapid killing of intracellular mycobacteria. The following studies were undertaken to characterize the effector pathway(s) involved. Macrophages were obtained from p47(phox) and inducible NO synthase gene-disrupted mice (which are unable to produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals, respectively) and P2X(7) gene-disrupted mice. RAW murine macrophages transfected with either the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene 1 (Nramp1)-resistant or Nramp1-susceptible gene were also used. The cells were infected with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and intracellular mycobacterial trafficking was analyzed using confocal and electron microscopy. P2X(7) receptor activation was essential for effective ATP-induced mycobacterial killing, as its bactericidal activity was radically diminished in P2X(7)(-/-) macrophages. ATP-mediated killing of BCG within p47(phox-/-), inducible NO synthase(-/-), and Nramp(s) cells was unaffected, demonstrating that none of these mechanisms have a role in the ATP/P2X(7) effector pathway. Following ATP stimulation, BCG-containing phagosomes rapidly coalesce and fuse with lysosomes. Blocking of macrophage phospholipase D activity with butan-1-ol blocked BCG killing, but not macrophage death. ATP stimulates phagosome-lysosome fusion with concomitant mycobacterial death via P2X(7) receptor activation. Macrophage death and mycobacterial killing induced by the ATP/P2X(7) signaling pathway can be uncoupled, and diverge proximal to phospholipase D activation. PMID:11544318

  16. Thermal adaptation in yeast: obligate psychrophiles are obligate aerobes, and obligate thermophiles are facultative anaerobes.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K; Arthur, H; Morton, H

    1978-01-01

    The obligate psychrophilic yeasts Torulopsis psychrophila, T. austromarina, Leucosporidium frigidum, L. gelidum, and L. nivalis were obligate aerobes and were unable to grow anaerobically. In contrast, the obligate thermophilic yeasts T. bovina, T. pintolopesii, Candida slooffii, and Saccharomyces telluris were facultative anaerobes. PMID:568620

  17. Intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Barth D; Sato, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Studies in C. elegans have begun to reveal new components and new mechanisms associated with intracellular membrane traffic in a variety of cell types. The worm benefits from many of the advantages of yeast as a genetically tractable organism for these kinds of studies while offering the unique opportunity to probe how these pathways have been extended and modified in the context of a multicellular animal undergoing development to produce diverse cell types such as muscles, nerves, and polarized epithelia. This review summarizes recent work elucidating endocytic pathways, primarily in the worm germ line and coelomocytes, and also touches on diverse studies of secretion, especially in ectodermal cells of epithelial character. PMID:18050485

  18. Intracellular microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humar, Matjaž; Hyun Yun, Seok

    2015-09-01

    Optical microresonators, which confine light within a small cavity, are widely exploited for various applications ranging from the realization of lasers and nonlinear devices to biochemical and optomechanical sensing. Here we use microresonators and suitable optical gain materials inside biological cells to demonstrate various optical functions in vitro including lasing. We explore two distinct types of microresonator—soft and hard—that support whispering-gallery modes. Soft droplets formed by injecting oil or using natural lipid droplets support intracellular laser action. The laser spectra from oil-droplet microlasers can chart cytoplasmic internal stress (˜500 pN μm-2) and its dynamic fluctuations at a sensitivity of 20 pN μm-2 (20 Pa). In a second form, whispering-gallery modes within phagocytized polystyrene beads of different sizes enable individual tagging of thousands of cells easily and, in principle, a much larger number by multiplexing with different dyes.

  19. Intracellular Biosynthesis of Fluorescent CdSe Quantum Dots in Bacillus subtilis: A Strategy to Construct Signaling Bacterial Probes for Visually Detecting Interaction Between Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Ai, Xiao-Xia; Su, Yi-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Shan, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells' surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior. PMID:26687198

  20. Intracellular microlasers

    PubMed Central

    Humar, Matjaž; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Optical microresonators1 which confine light within a small cavity are widely exploited for various applications ranging from the realization of lasers2 and nonlinear devices3, 4, 5 to biochemical and optomechanical sensing6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we employ microresonators and suitable optical gain materials inside biological cells to demonstrate various optical functions in vitro including lasing. We explored two distinct types of microresonators: soft and hard, that support whispering-gallery modes (WGM). Soft droplets formed by injecting oil or using natural lipid droplets support intracellular laser action. The laser spectra from oil-droplet microlasers can chart cytoplasmic internal stress (~500 pN/μm2) and its dynamic fluctuations at a sensitivity of 20 pN/μm2 (20 Pa). In a second form, WGMs within phagocytized polystyrene beads of different sizes enable individual tagging of thousands of cells easily and, in principle, a much larger number by multiplexing with different dyes. PMID:26417383

  1. The genome of the obligate endobacterium of an AM fungus reveals an interphylum network of nutritional interactions.

    PubMed

    Ghignone, Stefano; Salvioli, Alessandra; Anca, Iulia; Lumini, Erica; Ortu, Giuseppe; Petiti, Luca; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Bianciotto, Valeria; Piffanelli, Pietro; Lanfranco, Luisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2012-01-01

    As obligate symbionts of most land plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a crucial role in ecosystems, but to date, in the absence of genomic data, their adaptive biology remains elusive. In addition, endobacteria are found in their cytoplasm, the role of which is unknown. In order to investigate the function of the Gram-negative Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, an endobacterium of the AMF Gigaspora margarita, we sequenced its genome, leading to an ∼1.72-Mb assembly. Phylogenetic analyses placed Ca. G. gigasporarum in the Burkholderiaceae whereas metabolic network analyses clustered it with insect endobacteria. This positioning of Ca. G. gigasporarum among different bacterial classes reveals that it has undergone convergent evolution to adapt itself to intracellular lifestyle. The genome annotation of this mycorrhizal-fungal endobacterium has revealed an unexpected genetic mosaic where typical determinants of symbiotic, pathogenic and free-living bacteria are integrated in a reduced genome. Ca. G. gigasporarum is an aerobic microbe that depends on its host for carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen supply; it also expresses type II and type III secretion systems and synthesizes vitamin B12, antibiotics- and toxin-resistance molecules, which may contribute to the fungal host's ecological fitness. Ca. G. gigasporarum has an extreme dependence on its host for nutrients and energy, whereas the fungal host is itself an obligate biotroph that relies on a photosynthetic plant. Our work represents the first step towards unraveling a complex network of interphylum interactions, which is expected to have a previously unrecognized ecological impact. PMID:21866182

  2. Phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA identification of culturable non-obligate halophilic bacterial communities from a hypersaline lake, La Sal del Rey, in extreme South Texas (USA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background La Sal del Rey ("the King's Salt") is one of several naturally-occurring salt lakes in Hidalgo County, Texas and is part of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge. The research objective was to isolate and characterize halophilic microorganisms from La Sal del Rey. Water samples were collected from the lake and a small creek that feeds into the lake. Soil samples were collected from land adjacent to the water sample locations. Sample salinity was determined using a refractometer. Samples were diluted and cultured on a synthetic saline medium to grow halophilic bacteria. The density of halophiles was estimated by viable plate counts. A collection of isolates was selected, gram-stained, tested for catalase, and characterized using API 20E test strips. Isolates were putatively identified by sequencing the 16S rDNA. Carbon source utilization by the microbial community from each sample site was examined using EcoPlate assays and the carbon utilization total activity of the community was determined. Results Results showed that salinity ranged from 4 parts per thousand (ppt) at the lake water source to 420 ppt in water samples taken just along the lake shore. The density of halophilic bacteria in water samples ranged from 1.2 102 - 5.2 103 colony forming units per ml (cfu ml-1) whereas the density in soil samples ranged from 4.0 105 - 2.5 106 colony forming units per gram (cfu g-1). In general, as salinity increased the density of the bacterial community decreased. Microbial communities from water and soil samples were able to utilize 12 - 31 carbon substrates. The greatest number of substrates utilized was by water-borne communities compared to soil-based communities, especially at lower salinities. The majority of bacteria isolated were gram-negative, catalase-positive, rods. Biochemical profiles constructed from API 20E test strips showed that bacterial isolates from low-salinity water samples (4 ppt) showed the greatest phenotypic diversity with regards to the types and number of positive tests from the strip. Isolates taken from water samples at the highest salinity (420 ppt) tended to be less diverse and have only a limited number of positive tests. Sequencing of 16S DNA displayed the presence of members of bacterial genera Bacillus, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium and others. The genus Bacillus was most commonly identified. None of the isolates were members of the Archaea probably due to dilution of salts in the samples. Conclusions The La Sal del Rey ecosystem supports a robust and diverse bacterial community despite the high salinity of the lake and soil. However, salinity does appear to a limiting factor with regards to the density and diversity of the bacterial communities that inhabit the lake and surrounding area. PMID:22480362

  3. Obligately barophilic bacterium from the Mariana trench.

    PubMed Central

    Yayanos, A A; Dietz, A S; Van Boxtel, R

    1981-01-01

    An amphipod (Hirondellea gigas) was retrieved with decompression in an insulated trap from an ocean depth of 10,476 m. Bacterial isolates were obtained from the dead and cold animal by using silica gel medium incubated at 1000 bars (1 bar = 10(5) Pa) and 2 degrees C. The isolate designated MT41 was found to be obligately barophilic and did not grow at a pressure close to that of 380 bars found at average depths of the sea. The optimal generation time of about 25 hr was at 2 degrees C and 690 bars. The generation time at 2 degrees C and 1,035 bars, a pressure close to that at the depth of origin, was about 33 hr. Among the conclusions are: (i) pressure is an important determinant of zonation along the water column of the sea; (ii) some obligately barophilic bacteria survive decompressions; (iii) the pressure of optimal growth at 2 degrees C appears to be less than the pressure at the depth of origin and may be diagnostic for the depth of origin; (iv) rates of reproduction are slow yet significant and an order of magnitude greater than previously thought; and (v) much of deep-sea microbiology may have been done with spurious deep-sea organisms due to warming of samples. Images PMID:6946468

  4. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  5. Targeting intracellular targets.

    PubMed

    Panyam, Jayanth; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2004-07-01

    Many therapeutic agents have intracellular compartments as their site of action. Targeted delivery of these agents to their specific intracellular targets could result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxicity. Various carriers have been shown useful in targeted delivery of different classes of therapeutic agents. Among these carriers, biodegradable nanoparticles formulated from biocompatible polymers poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polylactide (PLA) have shown the potential for sustained intracellular delivery of different therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss different intracellular targets, barriers to intracellular delivery, mechanism and pathways of intracellular delivery, and various carriers and approaches that have been investigated for intracellular drug delivery. PMID:16305387

  6. Studies of polyamine metabolism in obligately alkalophilic Bacillus alcalophilus that grow at pH 11

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, S.; Chen, K.Y.

    1987-05-01

    Bacillus alcalophilus, an obligately alkalophilic bacterium, grow at pH 11 with an intracellular pH greater than 9.5. Polyamines are positively charged at physiological pH, but less than 50% of polyamines will be charged at pH 9.5 and above. In view of the importance of polycationic nature of polyamines in their physiological functions, it is of interest to study the polyamine metabolism in B. alcalophilus, an unusual organism that grow at very high pH. Spermidine is the major polyamine in this organism, accounts for more than 90% of total polyamine. The level of spermidine fluctuates between 10 to 30 nmol per mg protein during growth. In contrast, putrescine and spermine levels stay constant during entire period of growth. No ornithine decarboxylase (DC) activity can be detected in B. alcalophilus under all conditions examined. When (/sup 3/H)arginine was added to the bacterial culture, the distribution of radioactivity in polyamine pool was 3% for putrescine, 94% for spermidine, and 3% for spermine, suggesting the presence of arginine pathway for polyamine biosynthesis. B. alcalophilus appears to possess a polyamine transport system that is Na/sup +/-dependent. Putrescine uptake in B. alcalophilus is sensitive to the inhibition of gramicidine S (10 ..mu..M) and valinomycin (2..mu..M).

  7. An Acanthamoeba sp. containing two phylogenetically different bacterial endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Eva; Kolarov, Irina; Kästner, Christian; Toenshoff, Elena R; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Acanthamoebae are ubiquitous free-living amoebae and important predators of microbial communities. They frequently contain obligate intracellular bacterial symbionts, which show a worldwide distribution. All Acanthamoeba spp. described so far harboured no or only a single specific endosymbiont phylotype, and in some cases evidence for coevolution between the symbiotic bacteria and the amoeba host has been reported. In this study we have isolated and characterized an Acanthamoeba sp. (strain OEW1) showing a stable symbiotic relationship with two morphologically different endosymbionts. 16S rRNA sequence analysis assigned these symbionts to the candidate genus Procabacter (Betaproteobacteria) and the genus Parachlamydia (Chlamydiae) respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the affiliation of the endosymbionts and showed their co-occurrence in the amoeba host cells and their intracellular location within separate compartments enclosed by host-derived membranes. Further analysis of this stable relationship should provide novel insights into the complex interactions of intracellular multiple-partner associations. PMID:17504498

  8. Genome sequence of Blochmannia pennsylvanicus indicates parallel evolutionary trends among bacterial mutualists of insects.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Patrick H; Lazarus, Adam B; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2005-08-01

    The distinct lifestyle of obligately intracellular bacteria can alter fundamental forces that drive and constrain genome change. In this study, sequencing the 792-kb genome of Blochmannia pennsylvanicus, an obligate endosymbiont of Camponotus pennsylvanicus, enabled us to trace evolutionary changes that occurred in the context of a bacterial-ant association. Comparison to the genome of Blochmannia floridanus reveals differential loss of genes involved in cofactor biosynthesis, the composition and structure of the cell wall and membrane, gene regulation, and DNA replication. However, the two Blochmannia species show complete conservation in the order and strand orientation of shared genes. This finding of extreme stasis in genome architecture, also reported previously for the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera, suggests that genome stability characterizes long-term bacterial mutualists of insects and constrains their evolutionary potential. Genome-wide analyses of protein divergences reveal 10- to 50-fold faster amino acid substitution rates in Blochmannia compared to related bacteria. Despite these varying features of genome evolution, a striking correlation in the relative divergences of proteins indicates parallel functional constraints on gene functions across ecologically distinct bacterial groups. Furthermore, the increased rates of amino acid substitution and gene loss in Blochmannia have occurred in a lineage-specific fashion, which may reflect life history differences of their ant hosts. PMID:16077009

  9. Bacterial-induced cell reprogramming to stem cell-like cells: new premise in host-pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Samuel; Rambukkana, Anura

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens employ a myriad of strategies to alter host tissue cell functions for bacterial advantage during infection. Recent advances revealed a fusion of infection biology with stem cell biology by demonstrating developmental reprogramming of lineage committed host glial cells to progenitor/stem cell-like cells by an intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. Acquisition of migratory and immunomodulatory properties of such reprogrammed cells provides an added advantage for promoting bacterial spread. This presents a previously unseen sophistication of cell manipulation by hijacking the genomic plasticity of host cells by a human bacterial pathogen. The rationale for such extreme fate conversion of host cells may be directly linked to the exceedingly passive obligate life style of M. leprae with a degraded genome and host cell dependence for both bacterial survival and dissemination, particularly the use of host-derived stem cell-like cells as a vehicle for spreading infection without being detected by immune cells. Thus, this unexpected link between cell reprogramming and infection opens up a new premise in host-pathogen interactions. Furthermore, such bacterial ingenuity could also be harnessed for developing natural ways of reprogramming host cells for repairing damaged tissues from infection, injury and diseases. PMID:25541240

  10. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    PubMed

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment). PMID:19767463

  11. 12 CFR 987.10 - Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of United States with respect to consolidated obligations. 987.10 Section 987.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.10 Obligations of United States...

  12. Intracellular fate of Mycobacterium avium: use of dual-label spectrofluorometry to investigate the influence of bacterial viability and opsonization on phagosomal pH and phagosome-lysosome interaction.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y K; Straubinger, R M

    1996-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can survive and replicate within macrophages. We tested the hypotheses that survival mechanisms may include alteration of phagosomal pH or inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion. M. avium was surface labeled with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters of carboxyfluorescein (CF) and rhodamine (Rho) to enable measurement of the pH of individual M. avium-containing phagosomes and the interactions of bacterium-containing phagosomes with labeled secondary lysosomes. CF fluorescence is pH sensitive, whereas Rho is pH insensitive; pH can be calculated from their fluorescence ratios. Surface labeling of M. avium did not affect viability in broth cultures or within J774, a murine macrophage-like cell line. By fluorescence spectroscopy, live M. avium was exposed to an environmental pH of approximately 5.7 at 6 h after phagocytosis, whereas similarly labeled Salmonella typhimurium, zymosan A, or heat-killed M. avium encountered an environmental pH of < 5.0. Video fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy gave consistent pH results and demonstrated the heterogeneity of intracellular fate early in infection. pH became more homogeneous 6 h after infection. M. avium cells were coated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) or opsonized to investigate whether phagocytosis by the corresponding receptors would alter intracellular fate. Opsonized, unopsonized, and IgG-coated M. avium cells entered compartments of similar pH. Finally, the spatial distribution of intracellular bacteria and secondary lysosomes was compared. Only 18% of live fluorescent M. avium cells colocalized with fluorescent lysosomes, while 98% of heat-killed bacteria colocalized. Thus, both inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion and alteration of phagosomal pH may contribute to the intracellular survival of M. avium. PMID:8557358

  13. Ehrlichia chaffeensis Exploits Host SUMOylation Pathways To Mediate Effector-Host Interactions and Promote Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Paige Selvy; Luo, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that selectively infects mononuclear phagocytes. We recently reported that E. chaffeensis utilizes a type 1 secretion (T1S) system to export tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors and demonstrated that these effectors interact with a functionally diverse array of host proteins. By way of these interactions, TRP effectors modulate host cell functions; however, the molecular basis of these interactions and their roles in ehrlichial pathobiology are not well defined. In this study, we describe the first bacterial protein posttranslational modification (PTM) by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). The E. chaffeensis T1S effector TRP120 is conjugated to SUMO at a carboxy-terminal canonical consensus SUMO conjugation motif in vitro and in human cells. In human cells, TRP120 was selectively conjugated with SUMO2/3 isoforms. Disruption of TRP120 SUMOylation perturbed interactions with known host proteins, through predicted SUMO interaction motif-dependent and -independent mechanisms. E. chaffeensis infection did not result in dramatic changes in the global host SUMOylated protein profile, but a robust colocalization of predominately SUMO1 with ehrlichial inclusions was observed. Inhibiting the SUMO pathway with a small-molecule inhibitor had a significant impact on E. chaffeensis replication and recruitment of the TRP120-interacting protein polycomb group ring finger protein 5 (PCGF5) to the inclusion, indicating that the SUMO pathway is critical for intracellular survival. This study reveals the novel exploitation of the SUMO pathway by Ehrlichia, which facilitates effector-eukaryote interactions necessary to usurp the host and create a permissive intracellular niche. PMID:25047847

  14. Can’t Take the Heat: High Temperature Depletes Bacterial Endosymbionts of Ants

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yongliang; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the ant tribe Camponotini have coevolved with Blochmannia, an obligate intracellular bacterial mutualist. This endosymbiont lives within host bacteriocyte cells that line the ant midgut, undergoes maternal transmission from host queens to offspring, and contributes to host nutrition via nitrogen recycling and nutrient biosynthesis. While elevated temperature has been shown to disrupt obligate bacterial mutualists of some insects, its impact on the ant-Blochmannia partnership is less clear. Here, we test the effect of heat on the density of Blochmannia in two related Camponotus species in the lab. Transcriptionally active Blochmannia were quantified using RT-qPCR as the ratio of Blochmannia 16S rRNA to ant host elongation factor 1-α transcripts. Our results showed that 4 weeks of heat treatment depleted active Blochmannia by >99 % in minor workers and unmated queens. However, complete elimination of Blochmannia transcripts rarely occurred, even after 16 weeks of heat treatment. Possible mechanisms of observed thermal sensitivity may include extreme AT-richness and related features of Blochmannia genomes, as well as host stress responses. Broadly, the observed depletion of an essential microbial mutualist in heat-treated ants is analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. While the ecological relevance of Blochmannia’s thermal sensitivity is uncertain, our results argue that symbiont dynamics should be part of models predicting how ants and other animals will respond and adapt to a warming climate. PMID:23872930

  15. Can't take the heat: high temperature depletes bacterial endosymbionts of ants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yongliang; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-10-01

    Members of the ant tribe Camponotini have coevolved with Blochmannia, an obligate intracellular bacterial mutualist. This endosymbiont lives within host bacteriocyte cells that line the ant midgut, undergoes maternal transmission from host queens to offspring, and contributes to host nutrition via nitrogen recycling and nutrient biosynthesis. While elevated temperature has been shown to disrupt obligate bacterial mutualists of some insects, its impact on the ant-Blochmannia partnership is less clear. Here, we test the effect of heat on the density of Blochmannia in two related Camponotus species in the lab. Transcriptionally active Blochmannia were quantified using RT-qPCR as the ratio of Blochmannia 16S rRNA to ant host elongation factor 1-? transcripts. Our results showed that 4 weeks of heat treatment depleted active Blochmannia by >99 % in minor workers and unmated queens. However, complete elimination of Blochmannia transcripts rarely occurred, even after 16 weeks of heat treatment. Possible mechanisms of observed thermal sensitivity may include extreme AT-richness and related features of Blochmannia genomes, as well as host stress responses. Broadly, the observed depletion of an essential microbial mutualist in heat-treated ants is analogous to the loss of zooanthellae during coral bleaching. While the ecological relevance of Blochmannia's thermal sensitivity is uncertain, our results argue that symbiont dynamics should be part of models predicting how ants and other animals will respond and adapt to a warming climate. PMID:23872930

  16. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. More than 80 HAs have been detected as constituents of PHAs, which allows these thermoplastic materials to have various mechanical properties resembling hard crystalline polymer or elastic rubber depending on the incorporated monomer units. Even though PHAs have been recognized as good candidates for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs, and the productivity of greater than 2 g PHA/L/h has been achieved. Recent advances in understanding metabolism, molecular biology, and genetics of the PHA-synthesizing bacteria and cloning of more than 20 different PHA biosynthesis genes allowed construction of various recombinant strains that were able to synthesize polyesters having different monomer units and/or to accumulate much more polymers. Also, genetically engineered plants harboring the bacterial PHA biosynthesis genes are being developed for the economical production of PHAs. Improvements in fermentation/separation technology and the development of bacterial strains or plants that more efficiently synthesize PHAs will bring the costs down to make PHAs competitive with the conventional plastics. PMID:18623547

  17. Strategies for Intracellular Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Elizabeth M.; Devenish, Rodney J.; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease with high mortality that is prevalent in tropical regions of the world. A key component of the pathogenesis of melioidosis is the ability of B. pseudomallei to enter, survive, and replicate within mammalian host cells. For non-phagocytic cells, bacterial adhesins have been identified both on the bacterial surface and associated with Type 4 pili. Cell invasion involves components of one or more of the three Type 3 Secretion System clusters, which also mediate, at least in part, the escape of bacteria from the endosome into the cytoplasm, where bacteria move by actin-based motility. The mechanism of actin-based motility is not clearly understood, but appears to differ from characterized mechanisms in other bacterial species. A small proportion of intracellular bacteria is targeted by host cell autophagy, involving direct recruitment of LC3 to endosomes rather than through uptake by canonical autophagosomes. However, the majority of bacterial cells are able to circumvent autophagy and other intracellular defense mechanisms such as the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and then replicate in the cytoplasm and spread to adjacent cells via membrane fusion, resulting in the formation of multi-nucleated giant cells. A potential role for host cell ubiquitin in the autophagic response to bacterial infection has recently been proposed. PMID:22007185

  18. The role of autophagy in intracellular pathogen nutrient acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Shaun; Brunton, Jason; Kawula, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Following entry into host cells intracellular pathogens must simultaneously evade innate host defense mechanisms and acquire energy and anabolic substrates from the nutrient-limited intracellular environment. Most of the potential intracellular nutrient sources are stored within complex macromolecules that are not immediately accessible by intracellular pathogens. To obtain nutrients for proliferation, intracellular pathogens must compete with the host cell for newly-imported simple nutrients or degrade host nutrient storage structures into their constituent components (fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids). It is becoming increasingly evident that intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide variety of strategies to accomplish this task. One recurrent microbial strategy is to exploit host degradative processes that break down host macromolecules into simple nutrients that the microbe can use. Herein we focus on how a subset of bacterial, viral, and eukaryotic pathogens leverage the host process of autophagy to acquire nutrients that support their growth within infected cells. PMID:26106587

  19. The role of autophagy in intracellular pathogen nutrient acquisition.

    PubMed

    Steele, Shaun; Brunton, Jason; Kawula, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Following entry into host cells intracellular pathogens must simultaneously evade innate host defense mechanisms and acquire energy and anabolic substrates from the nutrient-limited intracellular environment. Most of the potential intracellular nutrient sources are stored within complex macromolecules that are not immediately accessible by intracellular pathogens. To obtain nutrients for proliferation, intracellular pathogens must compete with the host cell for newly-imported simple nutrients or degrade host nutrient storage structures into their constituent components (fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids). It is becoming increasingly evident that intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide variety of strategies to accomplish this task. One recurrent microbial strategy is to exploit host degradative processes that break down host macromolecules into simple nutrients that the microbe can use. Herein we focus on how a subset of bacterial, viral, and eukaryotic pathogens leverage the host process of autophagy to acquire nutrients that support their growth within infected cells. PMID:26106587

  20. 38 CFR 17.632 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Program 17.632 Obligated service. (a... service. Geographic relocation may be required. (e) Creditability of advanced clinical training. No...

  1. 7 CFR 989.37 - Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee 989.37 Obligation. Upon the...

  2. 7 CFR 989.37 - Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee 989.37 Obligation. Upon the...

  3. 7 CFR 989.37 - Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee 989.37 Obligation. Upon the...

  4. 7 CFR 989.37 - Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee 989.37 Obligation. Upon the...

  5. 7 CFR 989.37 - Obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee 989.37 Obligation. Upon the...

  6. Cell-cycle progress in obligate predatory bacteria is dependent upon sequential sensing of prey recognition and prey quality cues.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Or; Pasternak, Zohar; Shimoni, Eyal; Belausov, Eduard; Porat, Ziv; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2015-11-01

    Predators feed on prey to acquire the nutrients necessary to sustain their survival, growth, and replication. In Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, cell growth and replication are tied to a shift from a motile, free-living phase of search and attack to a sessile, intracellular phase of growth and replication during which a single prey cell is consumed. Engagement and sustenance of growth are achieved through the sensing of two unidentified prey-derived cues. We developed a novel ex vivo cultivation system for B. bacteriovorus composed of prey ghost cells that are recognized and invaded by the predator. By manipulating their content, we demonstrated that an early cue is located in the prey envelope and a late cue is found within the prey soluble fraction. These spatially and temporally separated cues elicit discrete and combinatory regulatory effects on gene transcription. Together, they delimit a poorly characterized transitory phase between the attack phase and the growth phase, during which the bdelloplast (the invaded prey cell) is constructed. This transitory phase constitutes a checkpoint in which the late cue presumably acts as a determinant of the prey's nutritional value before the predator commits. These regulatory adaptations to a unique bacterial lifestyle have not been reported previously. PMID:26487679

  7. The Olive Fly Endosymbiont, “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola,” Switches from an Intracellular Existence to an Extracellular Existence during Host Insect Development▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of “Ca. Erwinia dacicola,” the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment). PMID:19767463

  8. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  9. Bacterial DNA Sifted from the Trichoplax adhaerens (Animalia: Placozoa) Genome Project Reveals a Putative Rickettsial Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Timothy; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Nordberg, Eric K.; Azad, Abdu F.; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genome sequencing projects often yield bacterial DNA sequences, data typically considered as microbial contamination. However, these sequences may also indicate either symbiont genes or lateral gene transfer (LGT) to host genomes. These bacterial sequences can provide clues about eukaryote–microbe interactions. Here, we used the genome of the primitive animal Trichoplax adhaerens (Metazoa: Placozoa), which is known to harbor an uncharacterized Gram-negative endosymbiont, to search for the presence of bacterial DNA sequences. Bioinformatic and phylogenomic analyses of extracted data from the genome assembly (181 bacterial coding sequences [CDS]) and trace read archive (16S rDNA) revealed a dominant proteobacterial profile strongly skewed to Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) genomes. By way of phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and 113 proteins conserved across proteobacterial genomes, as well as identification of 27 rickettsial signature genes, we propose a Rickettsiales endosymbiont of T. adhaerens (RETA). The majority (93%) of the identified bacterial CDS belongs to small scaffolds containing prokaryotic-like genes; however, 12 CDS were identified on large scaffolds comprised of eukaryotic-like genes, suggesting that T. adhaerens might have recently acquired bacterial genes. These putative LGTs may coincide with the placozoan’s aquatic niche and symbiosis with RETA. This work underscores the rich, and relatively untapped, resource of eukaryotic genome projects for harboring data pertinent to host–microbial interactions. The nature of unknown (or poorly characterized) bacterial species may only emerge via analysis of host genome sequencing projects, particularly if these species are resistant to cell culturing, as are many obligate intracellular microbes. Our work provides methodological insight for such an approach. PMID:23475938

  10. Collectivizing rescue obligations in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Bioethicists invoke a duty to rescue in a wide range of cases. Indeed, arguably, there exists an entire medical paradigm whereby vast numbers of medical encounters are treated as rescue cases. The intuitive power of the rescue paradigm is considerable, but much of this power stems from the problematic way that rescue cases are conceptualized-namely, as random, unanticipated, unavoidable, interpersonal events for which context is irrelevant and beneficence is the paramount value. In this article, I critique the basic assumptions of the rescue paradigm, reframe the ethical landscape in which rescue obligations are understood, and defend the necessity and value of a wider social and institutional view. Along the way, I move back and forth between ethical theory and a concrete case where the duty to rescue has been problematically applied: the purported duty to regularly return incidental findings and individual research results in genomic and genetic research. PMID:25674948

  11. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? 7.5 General...

  12. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? 7.5 General...

  13. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? 7.5 General...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must...

  15. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees,...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees,...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees,...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees,...

  19. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... evidence satisfactory to the Committee. (c) FP dates. Withholding obligations on FP dates shall be based on... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withholding obligation. 987.145 Section 987.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  20. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General...

  1. 47 CFR 7.5 - General Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Obligations. 7.5 Section 7.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO VOICEMAIL AND INTERACTIVE MENU SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 7.5 General...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and...

  3. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership 27.1340 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and...

  4. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 17.607 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Va Health... obligated service for a participant who attended school as a full-time student shall be 1 year for each... regulations. The period of obligated service for a participant who attended school as a part-time...

  5. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 17.607 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Va Health... obligated service for a participant who attended school as a full-time student shall be 1 year for each... regulations. The period of obligated service for a participant who attended school as a part-time...

  6. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 17.607 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Va Health... obligated service for a participant who attended school as a full-time student shall be 1 year for each... regulations. The period of obligated service for a participant who attended school as a part-time...

  7. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 17.607 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Va Health... obligated service for a participant who attended school as a full-time student shall be 1 year for each... regulations. The period of obligated service for a participant who attended school as a part-time...

  8. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission 352.908 Agency obligation....

  9. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission 352.908 Agency obligation....

  10. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission 352.908 Agency obligation....

  11. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission 352.908 Agency obligation....

  12. 5 CFR 352.908 - Agency obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency obligation. 352.908 Section 352.908 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission 352.908 Agency obligation....

  13. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies,...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies,...

  15. Antibody- and TRIM21-dependent intracellular restriction of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Lentes, Sabine; Neumann, Heinz; James, Leo C; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra

    2014-11-01

    TRIM21 ('tripartite motif-containing protein 21', Ro52) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic Fc receptor, which has a potent role in protective immunity against nonenveloped viruses. TRIM21 mediates intracellular neutralisation of antibody-coated viruses, a process called ADIN (antibody-dependent intracellular neutralisation). Our results reveal a similar mechanism to fight bacterial infections. TRIM21 is recruited to the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica in epithelial cells early in infection. TRIM21 does not bind directly to S. enterica, but to antibodies opsonising it. Most importantly, bacterial restriction is dependent on TRIM21 as well as on the opsonisation state of the bacteria. Finally, Salmonella and TRIM21 colocalise with the autophagosomal marker LC3, and intracellular defence is enhanced in starved cells suggesting an involvement of the autophagocytic pathway. Our data extend the protective role of TRIM21 from viruses to bacteria and thereby strengthening the general role of ADIN in cellular immunity. PMID:24920099

  16. Toward Intracellular Targeted Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hetal; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    A number of anti-cancer drugs have their targets localized to particular intracellular compartments. These drugs reach the targets mainly through diffusion, dependent on biophysical and biochemical forces that allow cell penetration. This means that both cancer cells and normal cells will be subjected to such diffusion; hence many of these drugs, like chemotherapeutics, are potentially toxic and the concentration achieved at the site of their action is often suboptimal. The same relates to radiation that indiscriminately affects normal and diseased cells. However, nature-designed systems enable compounds present in the extracellular environment to end up inside the cell and even travel to more specific intracellular compartments. For example, viruses and bacterial toxins can more or less specifically recognize eukaryotic cells, enter these cells, and direct some protein portions to designated intracellular areas. These phenomena have led to creative thinking, such as employing viruses or bacterial toxins for cargo delivery to cells and, more specifically, to cancer cells. Proteins can be genetically engineered in order to not only mimic what viruses and bacterial toxins can do, but also to add new functions, extending or changing the intracellular routes. It is possible to make conjugates or, more preferably, single-chain proteins that recognize cancer cells and deliver cargo inside the cells, even to the desired subcellular compartment. These findings offer new opportunities to deliver drugs/labels only to cancer cells and only to their site of action within the cells. The development of such dual-specificity vectors for targeting cancer cells is an attractive and potentially safer and more efficacious way of delivering drugs. We provide examples of this approach for delivering brain cancer therapeutics, using a specific biomarker on glioblastoma tumor cells. PMID:22671766

  17. Detection of a novel intracellular microbiome hosted in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Desirò, Alessandro; Salvioli, Alessandra; Ngonkeu, Eddy L; Mondo, Stephen J; Epis, Sara; Faccio, Antonella; Kaech, Andres; Pawlowska, Teresa E; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important members of the plant microbiome. They are obligate biotrophs that colonize the roots of most land plants and enhance host nutrient acquisition. Many AMF themselves harbor endobacteria in their hyphae and spores. Two types of endobacteria are known in Glomeromycota: rod-shaped Gram-negative Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, CaGg, limited in distribution to members of the Gigasporaceae family, and coccoid Mollicutes-related endobacteria, Mre, widely distributed across different lineages of AMF. The goal of the present study is to investigate the patterns of distribution and coexistence of the two endosymbionts, CaGg and Mre, in spore samples of several strains of Gigaspora margarita. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that some AMF could host populations of both endobacteria. To test this hypothesis, we performed an extensive investigation of both endosymbionts in G. margarita spores sampled from Cameroonian soils as well as in the Japanese G. margarita MAFF520054 isolate using different approaches (molecular phylotyping, electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR). We found that a single AMF host can harbour both types of endobacteria, with Mre population being more abundant, variable and prone to recombination than the CaGg one. Both endosymbionts seem to retain their genetic and lifestyle peculiarities regardless of whether they colonize the host alone or together. These findings show for the first time that fungi support an intracellular bacterial microbiome, in which distinct types of endobacteria coexist in a single cell. PMID:24008325

  18. Detection of a novel intracellular microbiome hosted in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    PubMed Central

    Desirò, Alessandro; Salvioli, Alessandra; Ngonkeu, Eddy L; Mondo, Stephen J; Epis, Sara; Faccio, Antonella; Kaech, Andres; Pawlowska, Teresa E; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important members of the plant microbiome. They are obligate biotrophs that colonize the roots of most land plants and enhance host nutrient acquisition. Many AMF themselves harbor endobacteria in their hyphae and spores. Two types of endobacteria are known in Glomeromycota: rod-shaped Gram-negative Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum, CaGg, limited in distribution to members of the Gigasporaceae family, and coccoid Mollicutes-related endobacteria, Mre, widely distributed across different lineages of AMF. The goal of the present study is to investigate the patterns of distribution and coexistence of the two endosymbionts, CaGg and Mre, in spore samples of several strains of Gigaspora margarita. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that some AMF could host populations of both endobacteria. To test this hypothesis, we performed an extensive investigation of both endosymbionts in G. margarita spores sampled from Cameroonian soils as well as in the Japanese G. margarita MAFF520054 isolate using different approaches (molecular phylotyping, electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR). We found that a single AMF host can harbour both types of endobacteria, with Mre population being more abundant, variable and prone to recombination than the CaGg one. Both endosymbionts seem to retain their genetic and lifestyle peculiarities regardless of whether they colonize the host alone or together. These findings show for the first time that fungi support an intracellular bacterial microbiome, in which distinct types of endobacteria coexist in a single cell. PMID:24008325

  19. Intracellular Invasion of Orientia tsutsugamushi Activates Inflammasome in ASC-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Jung-Eun; Hong, Hye-Jin; Dearth, Andrea; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Koh, Young-Sang

    2012-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, a causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium, which escapes from the endo/phagosome and replicates in the host cytoplasm. O. tsutsugamushi infection induces production of pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1? (IL-1?), which is secreted mainly from macrophages upon cytosolic stimuli by activating cysteine protease caspase-1 within a complex called the inflammasome, and is a key player in initiating and maintaining the inflammatory response. However, the mechanism for IL-1? maturation upon O. tsutsugamushi infection has not been identified. In this study, we show that IL-1 receptor signaling is required for efficient host protection from O. tsutsugamushi infection. Live Orientia, but not heat- or UV-inactivated Orientia, activates the inflammasome through active bacterial uptake and endo/phagosomal maturation. Furthermore, Orientia-stimulated secretion of IL-1? and activation of caspase-1 are ASC- and caspase-1- dependent since IL-1? production was impaired in Asc- and caspase-1-deficient macrophages but not in Nlrp3-, Nlrc4- and Aim2-deficient macrophages. Therefore, live O. tsutsugamushi triggers ASC inflammasome activation leading to IL-1? production, which is a critical innate immune response for effective host defense. PMID:22723924

  20. Bacterial computing with engineered populations.

    PubMed

    Amos, Martyn; Axmann, Ilka Maria; Blüthgen, Nils; de la Cruz, Fernando; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Paton, Alfonso; Simmel, Friedrich

    2015-07-28

    We describe strategies for the construction of bacterial computing platforms by describing a number of results from the recently completed bacterial computing with engineered populations project. In general, the implementation of such systems requires a framework containing various components such as intracellular circuits, single cell input/output and cell-cell interfacing, as well as extensive analysis. In this overview paper, we describe our approach to each of these, and suggest possible areas for future research. PMID:26078340

  1. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gnter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  2. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  3. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... the sickness. All types of food poisoning cause diarrhea . Other symptoms include: Abdominal cramps Abdominal pain Bloody ...

  4. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  5. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  6. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  7. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 11 - Guarantee obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOMPLISHMENT OF VESSEL REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 11 Guarantee obligations. (a) Under the provisions of Article 10 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  13. 42 CFR 408.4 - Payment obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... kidney donors. (1) No premiums are required for SMI benefits related to the donation of a kidney if the donor is not an enrollee. (2) A kidney donor who is an enrollee is not relieved of the obligation...

  14. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.585 Importer obligations. (a) General....

  15. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  16. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  17. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  18. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  19. 12 CFR 966.4 - Form of consolidated obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of consolidated obligations. 966.4 Section 966.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS 966.4 Form of consolidated obligations. (a) All consolidated obligations shall be issued in...

  20. 46 CFR 298.30 - Nature and content of Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nature and content of Obligations. 298.30 Section 298.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Documentation § 298.30 Nature and content of Obligations. (a) Single page. An Obligation, in...

  1. [Influence of cultivation conditions on bacterial DNA content and bacterial membrane permeability].

    PubMed

    Tets, V V; Ivanov, S D; Tets, G V; Pisareva, M M; Iamshanov, V A

    2005-01-01

    The study included measurement of intracellular and extracellular DNA content and evaluation of bacterial membrane condition during plankton growth and in isolated communities. This was performed at different stages of bacterial development and after heating at the temperature of heat shock system activation. The content of intracellular bacterial DNA in the community decreased after 72 hours of cultivation growth more prominently than during plankton growth. Change of intracellular bacterial DNA content in the community overtook the increase of membrane permeability, which may indicate the onset of apoptosis. Heating at 420' decreased the permeability of bacterial membranes in the community, but did not affect this parameter in the bacteria during plankton growth. Extracellular DNA was found in the matrix of the communities after 24 hours of growth. Appearance of this DNA after 48-74 hours of cultivation may be associated with apoptotic process. PMID:16107017

  2. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  3. Neutrophils Mediate Immunopathology and Negatively Regulate Protective Immune Responses during Fatal Bacterial Infection-Induced Toxic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; Ghose, Purnima

    2013-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects primarily monocytes and macrophages and causes potentially fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) that mimics toxic-shock-like syndrome in immunocompetent hosts. Early recruitment of neutrophils to the sites of infection is critical for the control of bacterial infection and inflammatory responses. We recently observed rapid and sustained neutrophil recruitment at a primary site of infection (peritoneum) following lethal murine ehrlichial infection compared to innocuous ehrlichial infection. We examined here the contribution of neutrophils to protective immunity or immunopathology during infection with monocytic Ehrlichia. Unexpectedly, depletion of neutrophils from lethally infected mice enhanced bacterial elimination, decreased immune-mediated pathology, and prolonged survival. Furthermore, compared to lethally infected sham controls, neutrophil depletion in infected mice resulted in amelioration of pathogenic responses, as evidenced by a decreased number of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-producing CD8+ T cells, which is known to mediate immunopathology and toxic shock in a murine model of fatal ehrlichiosis. Although neutrophil depletion did not influence the number of CD4+ Th1 cells and NKT cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-?), it increased the ratio of IFN-?- to IL-10-producing NKT cells as well as the ratio of IFN-? to interleukin 10 (IL-10) transcripts in the liver. This may ameliorate the net suppressive effect of IL-10 on IFN-?-mediated activation of infected macrophages and thus may account for the enhanced bacterial elimination. Finally, transcriptional analysis of gene expression in the liver indicated that neutrophils contribute to overproduction of cytokines and chemokines during fatal ehrlichiosis. In conclusion, these results revealed an unexpected role of neutrophils in supporting bacterial replication indirectly and promoting immunopathology during severe infection with an intracellular bacterium. PMID:23478316

  4. Discovery of Putative Small Non-Coding RNAs from the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Wolbachia pipientis

    PubMed Central

    Woolfit, Megan; Algama, Manjula; Keith, Jonathan M.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Popovici, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that induces a wide range of effects in its insect hosts, including manipulation of reproduction and protection against pathogens. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-Wolbachia interaction, though it is likely to be mediated via the secretion of proteins or other factors. There is an increasing amount of evidence that bacteria regulate many cellular processes, including secretion of virulence factors, using small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs), but sRNAs have not previously been described from Wolbachia. We have used two independent approaches, one based on comparative genomics and the other using RNA-Seq data generated for gene expression studies, to identify candidate sRNAs in Wolbachia. We experimentally characterized the expression of one of these candidates in four Wolbachia strains, and showed that it is differentially regulated in different host tissues and sexes. Given the roles played by sRNAs in other host-associated bacteria, the conservation of the candidate sRNAs between different Wolbachia strains, and the sex- and tissue-specific differential regulation we have identified, we hypothesise that sRNAs may play a significant role in the biology of Wolbachia, and in particular in its interactions with its host. PMID:25739023

  5. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vaginosis can increase your chance of getting an STD. What is bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is ... contributes to BV. BV is not considered an STD, but having BV can increase your chances of ...

  6. Nanovehicular Intracellular Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    PROKOP, ALES; DAVIDSON, JEFFREY M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood–brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list “elementary” phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

  7. 30 CFR 717.11 - General obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.11 General obligations. (a) Compliance. All underground coal mining and associated reclamation operations conducted on lands where any..., underground coal mining and associated reclamation operations mean a combination of surface operations...

  8. 5 CFR 724.203 - Training obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Notification of Rights and Protections and Training § 724.203 Training obligations. (a) Each agency must develop a written plan to train all of its employees (including supervisors and... (including supervisors and managers) by December 17, 2006. Thereafter, each agency must train all...

  9. 17 CFR 200.54 - Constitutional obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constitutional obligations... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics 200.54 Constitutional... against any infringement of the constitutional rights, privileges, or immunities of those who are...

  10. 33 CFR 137.5 - Disclosure obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disclosure obligations. 137.5 Section 137.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR...

  11. 33 CFR 137.5 - Disclosure obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disclosure obligations. 137.5 Section 137.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR...

  12. 33 CFR 137.5 - Disclosure obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disclosure obligations. 137.5 Section 137.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR...

  13. 47 CFR 14.20 - Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obligations. 14.20 Section 14.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Implementation Requirements-What Must Covered Entities Do? ...

  14. 47 CFR 14.20 - Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligations. 14.20 Section 14.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Implementation Requirements-What Must Covered Entities Do? ...

  15. 31 CFR 1022.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1022.311 Section 1022.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES...

  16. 31 CFR 1022.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1022.311 Section 1022.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES Reports Required To Be Made By Money Services Businesses...

  17. 31 CFR 1022.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1022.311 Section 1022.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES...

  18. 31 CFR 1022.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1022.311 Section 1022.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR MONEY SERVICES BUSINESSES...

  19. Higher Education's Cultural Obligations: Views and Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John Y., Ed.

    Perspectives on the cultural obligations of higher education are presented in this collection of papers. Higher education's possible and probable cultural function is addressed from the perspective of business, the arts, education, and religion. Also discussed is the role of institutions of higher education in establishing a system of values,

  20. The author’s opportunity and obligation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peer review is a critical component of the scientific method and therefore should be an obligation for everyone who desires to publish their research results in refereed journals. This editorial is written to address a specific problem being encountered by editors of Soil & Tillage Research, but the...

  1. VIEWING RESEARCH PARTICIPATION AS A MORAL OBLIGATION

    PubMed Central

    RENNIE, STUART

    2015-01-01

    A moral paradigm shift has proposed for participation in health-related research. Its not just a praiseworthy option, some say; its a social obligation. Recasting research participation in this way would have global ramifications, however. Who ultimately stands to gain the most from it, and who has the most to lose? PMID:21495516

  2. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1021.311 Section 1021.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs...

  3. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  4. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  5. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  6. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  7. 19 CFR 10.765 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.765 Section 10.765 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free...

  8. 7 CFR 400.768 - FCIC obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....768 FCIC obligations. (a) FCIC will not interpret any specific factual situation or case, such as... assume the interpretation provided is correct for the applicable crop year. (f) All agency...

  9. 7 CFR 400.768 - FCIC obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....768 FCIC obligations. (a) FCIC will not interpret any specific factual situation or case, such as... assume the interpretation provided is correct for the applicable crop year. (f) All agency...

  10. 7 CFR 400.768 - FCIC obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....768 FCIC obligations. (a) FCIC will not interpret any specific factual situation or case, such as... assume the interpretation provided is correct for the applicable crop year. (f) All agency...

  11. 7 CFR 400.768 - FCIC obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....768 FCIC obligations. (a) FCIC will not interpret any specific factual situation or case, such as... assume the interpretation provided is correct for the applicable crop year. (f) All agency...

  12. 7 CFR 400.768 - FCIC obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....768 FCIC obligations. (a) FCIC will not interpret any specific factual situation or case, such as... assume the interpretation provided is correct for the applicable crop year. (f) All agency...

  13. 19 CFR 10.3005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.3005 Section 10.3005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia...

  14. 19 CFR 10.3005 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.3005 Section 10.3005 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia...

  15. 19 CFR 10.705 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.705 Section 10.705 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1340 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting obligations. 27.1340 Section 27.1340 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... deployed, which public safety entities are using the broadband network in each area of operation,...

  17. 7 CFR 987.145 - Withholding obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withholding obligation. 987.145 Section 987.145 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY,...

  18. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  19. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  20. 19 CFR 10.905 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.905 Section 10.905 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Peru Trade...

  1. 38 CFR 17.607 - Obligated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 17.607 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Va Health...-time student. A participant who attended school as a full-time student will agree to serve as a full... student. Obligated service to VA for a participant who attended school as a part-time student must...

  2. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1021.311 Section 1021.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs...

  3. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  4. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  5. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  6. 19 CFR 10.585 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.585 Section 10.585 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  7. 34 CFR 108.5 - Compliance obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance obligations. 108.5 Section 108.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH...

  8. 47 CFR 90.1440 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership 90.1440 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1440 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership 90.1440 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly...

  10. 47 CFR 90.1440 - Reporting obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership 90.1440 Reporting obligations. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Public Safety Broadband Licensee shall jointly file quarterly...

  11. 33 CFR 137.5 - Disclosure obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure obligations. 137.5 Section 137.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR...

  12. 33 CFR 137.5 - Disclosure obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disclosure obligations. 137.5 Section 137.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE...

  13. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free...

  14. 31 CFR 1021.311 - Filing obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Filing obligations. 1021.311 Section 1021.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Reports Required To Be Made By Casinos and Card Clubs...

  15. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  16. 19 CFR 10.412 - Importer obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importer obligations. 10.412 Section 10.412 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free...

  17. The Bacterial Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yu-Ling; Rothfield, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown that bacteria contain a number of cytoskeletal structures. The bacterial cytoplasmic elements include homologs of the three major types of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins (actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament proteins) and a fourth group, the MinD-ParA group, that appears to be unique to bacteria. The cytoskeletal structures play important roles in cell division, cell polarity, cell shape regulation, plasmid partition, and other functions. The proteins self-assemble into filamentous structures in vitro and form intracellular ordered structures in vivo. In addition, there are a number of filamentous bacterial elements that may turn out to be cytoskeletal in nature. This review attempts to summarize and integrate the in vivo and in vitro aspects of these systems and to evaluate the probable future directions of this active research field. PMID:16959967

  18. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  19. Azithromycin inhibition of intracellular Legionella micdadei.

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, G R; Earnhardt, K I

    1993-01-01

    Legionella micdadei is an intracellular parasite that is ingested, but not killed, by leukocytes. Within monocytes, the organism has been shown to grow 1.0 to 2.0 log10 units over 48 h (D. L. Weinbaum, R. R. Benner, J. N. Dowling, A. Alpern, A. W. Pasculle, and G. R. Donowitz, Infect. Immun. 46:68-73, 1984). Intracellular L. micdadei would appear to be a useful model in which to study the effect of antibiotics which accumulate intracellularly. Azithromycin, a newly introduced azalide, is highly concentrated within leukocytes and was therefore studied to determine its effect on a single strain of L. micdadei that had been ingested by human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes were allowed to ingest L. micdadei and extracellular, nonadherent organisms were subsequently removed by washing. Cells and cell-associated bacteria were then incubated at 0, 24, and 48 h in media with serial concentrations of azithromycin at sub-MIC levels (less than 1.0 microgram/ml). L. micdadei in cells not exposed to azithromycin grew 0.8 +/- 0.1 log10 units (mean +/- standard deviation) at 24 h and 1.7 +/- 0.4 log10 units at 48 h. At both 24 and 48 h, the lowest concentrations of azithromycin tested (0.02 microgram/ml) significantly inhibited bacterial growth in monocytes (P = 0.02). A stepwise inhibition of L. micdadei CFUs was noted with increasing azithromycin concentrations. In contrast, when cells were exposed to antibiotic before ingesting L. micdadei, a less effective antibacterial effect was noted. Under certain in vitro conditions, azithromycin is a potent agent against intracellular L. micdadei. PMID:8285604

  20. Understanding how commensal obligate anaerobic bacteria regulate immune functions in the large intestine.

    PubMed

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  1. Understanding How Commensal Obligate Anaerobic Bacteria Regulate Immune Functions in the Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Eva; Anderson, Rachel C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by trillions of commensal bacteria, most of which are obligate anaerobes residing in the large intestine. Appropriate bacterial colonisation is generally known to be critical for human health. In particular, the development and function of the immune system depends on microbial colonisation, and a regulated cross-talk between commensal bacteria, intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells is required to maintain mucosal immune homeostasis. This homeostasis is disturbed in various inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Several in vitro and in vivo studies indicate a role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila and segmented filamentous bacteria in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. These obligate anaerobes are abundant in the healthy intestine but reduced in several inflammatory diseases, suggesting an association with protective effects on human health. However, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of obligate anaerobic intestinal bacteria remains limited, in part due to the difficulty of co-culturing obligate anaerobes together with oxygen-requiring human epithelial cells. By using novel dual-environment co-culture models, it will be possible to investigate the effects of the unstudied majority of intestinal microorganisms on the human epithelia. This knowledge will provide opportunities for improving human health and reducing the risk of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25545102

  2. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... payable under such bank obligation. (j) Collection of accounts receivable purchased under GSM-5 will be... both the account receivable and the interest portions of the obligation. For the confirmed...

  3. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... both the account receivable and the interest portions of the obligation. For the confirmed amount... payable under such bank obligation. (j) Collection of accounts receivable purchased under GSM-5 will...

  4. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the...

  5. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the...

  6. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the...

  7. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  8. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  9. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  10. 49 CFR 22.17 - Compliance with child support obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance with child support obligations. 22.17...) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.17 Compliance with child support obligations. Any holder of 50% or... than 60 days delinquent on any obligation to pay child support arising under: (a) An...

  11. 7 CFR 4284.962 - Transfer of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Activities and Requirements 4284.962 Transfer of obligations. At the discretion of the Agency and on a case-by-case basis, an obligation of funds established for an applicant may be transferred to a different... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of obligations. 4284.962 Section...

  12. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  13. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  14. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  15. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  16. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  17. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  18. 22 CFR 204.15 - Paying agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying agent obligations. 204.15 Section 204.15... Guaranty 204.15 Paying agent obligations. Failure of the Paying Agent to perform any of its obligations... Agent by A.I.D. as a result of such failure or neglect; provided, however, that the Paying Agent is...

  19. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  20. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  1. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of...

  2. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... 8 Assistance 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided...

  3. 31 CFR 225.5 - Pledge of definitive Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government obligations to the bond official with all unmatured interest coupons attached. (2) Registered...) Delivery to bond official; receipt. All deliveries of definitive Government obligations from the obligor to... of definitive Government obligations, the bond official will issue the obligor a receipt. (c) Risk...

  4. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of bank obligations. 1488.12 Section 1488.12... Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Bank Obligations and Repayment 1488.12 Coverage of bank obligations. (a) U.S. banks and branch banks shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of bank obligations. 1488.12 Section 1488.12... Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Bank Obligations and Repayment 1488.12 Coverage of bank obligations. (a) U.S. banks and branch banks shall...

  6. 7 CFR 1488.12 - Coverage of bank obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of bank obligations. 1488.12 Section 1488.12... Sales of Agricultural Commodities From Private Stocks Under CCC Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Bank Obligations and Repayment 1488.12 Coverage of bank obligations. (a) U.S. banks and branch banks shall...

  7. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations issued at discount. 1.454-1 Section... Obligations issued at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount(1) Election... issued at a discount and redeemable for fixed amounts increasing at stated intervals (other than...

  8. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations issued at discount. 1.454-1 Section... Obligations issued at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount(1) Election... issued at a discount and redeemable for fixed amounts increasing at stated intervals (other than...

  9. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations issued at discount. 1.454-1 Section... at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount(1) Election to include... discount and redeemable for fixed amounts increasing at stated intervals (other than an obligation...

  10. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations issued at discount. 1.454-1 Section... Obligations issued at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount(1) Election... issued at a discount and redeemable for fixed amounts increasing at stated intervals (other than...

  11. 26 CFR 1.454-1 - Obligations issued at discount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations issued at discount. 1.454-1 Section... Obligations issued at discount. (a) Certain non-interest-bearing obligations issued at discount(1) Election... issued at a discount and redeemable for fixed amounts increasing at stated intervals (other than...

  12. 7 CFR 1717.1207 - RUS obligations under loan guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS obligations under loan guarantees. 1717.1207... ELECTRIC LOANS Settlement of Debt 1717.1207 RUS obligations under loan guarantees. Nothing in this subpart affects the obligations of RUS under loan guarantee commitments it has made to the...

  13. 34 CFR 686.43 - Obligation to repay the grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary in accordance with the relevant provisions of subpart A of 34 CFR part 685 if (1) The grant... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obligation to repay the grant. 686.43 Section 686.43... (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Service and Repayment Obligations 686.43 Obligation to repay the grant. (a)...

  14. 34 CFR 686.43 - Obligation to repay the grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary in accordance with the relevant provisions of subpart A of 34 CFR part 685 if (1) The grant... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obligation to repay the grant. 686.43 Section 686.43... (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Service and Repayment Obligations 686.43 Obligation to repay the grant. (a)...

  15. Exit Mechanisms of the Intracellular Bacterium Ehrlichia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sunil; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Walker, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The obligately intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis that resides in mononuclear phagocytes is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichia muris and Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE) are agents of mouse models of ehrlichiosis. The mechanism by which Ehrlichia are transported from an infected host cell to a non-infected cell has not been demonstrated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using fluorescence microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated that Ehrlichia was transported through the filopodia of macrophages during early stages of infection. If host cells were not present in the vicinity of an Ehrlichia-infected cell, the leading edge of the filopodium formed a fan-shaped structure filled with the pathogen. Formation of filopodia in the host macrophages was inhibited by cytochalasin D and ehrlichial transport were prevented due to the absence of filopodia formation. At late stages of infection the host cell membrane was ruptured, and the bacteria were released. Conclusions/Significance Ehrlichia are transported through the host cell filopodium during initial stages of infection, but are released by host cell membrane rupture during later stages of infection. PMID:21187937

  16. Intracellular trafficking of integrins in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Yasuhito; Nam, Jin-Min; Sabe, Hisataka

    2013-10-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors, which principally mediate the interaction between cells and their extracellular microenvironments. Because of their pivotal roles in cancer proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis, integrins have been recognized as promising targets for cancer treatment. As is the case with other receptors, the localization of integrins on the cell surface has provided opportunities to block their functions by various inhibitory monoclonal antibodies. A number of small molecule agents blocking integrin-ligand binding have also been established, and some such agents are currently on the market or in clinical trials for some diseases including cancer. This review exclusively focuses on another strategy for cancer therapy, which comes from the obligate localization of integrins on the cell surface; targeting the intracellular trafficking of integrins. A number of studies have shown the essential roles of integrin trafficking in hallmarks of cancer, such as activation of oncogenic signaling pathways as well as acquisition of invasiveness. Recent findings have shown that increased integrin recycling activity is associated with some types of gain-of-function mutations of p53, a common feature of diverse types of cancers, which also indicates that targeting integrin recycling could be widely applicable and effective against many cancers. We also discuss possible therapeutic contexts where integrin trafficking can be effectively targeted, and what molecular interfaces may hopefully be druggable. PMID:23711790

  17. Dominant obligate anaerobes revealed in lower respiratory tract infection in horses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

    2014-04-01

    Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152

  18. Dominant Obligate Anaerobes Revealed in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Horses by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    KINOSHITA, Yuta; NIWA, Hidekazu; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari; HARIU, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotellaespecially B. fragilis and P. heparinolyticaare dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin. PMID:24366152

  19. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  20. Bacterial Endocarditis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin, mouth, intestines or urinary tract enter the bloodstream (usually during a dental or medical procedure) and infect the heart. Causes & Risk Factors Who gets bacterial endocarditis? Although ...

  1. Intracellular Sterol Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mesmin, Bruno; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    We review the cellular mechanisms implicated in cholesterol trafficking and distribution. Recent studies have provided new information about the distribution of sterols within cells, including analysis of its transbilayer distribution. The cholesterol interaction with other lipids and its engagement in various trafficking processes will determine its proper level in a specific membrane; making the cholesterol distribution uneven among the various intracellular organelles. The cholesterol content is important since cholesterol plays an essential role in membranes by controlling their physicochemical properties as well as key cellular events such as signal transduction and protein trafficking. Cholesterol movement between cellular organelles is highly dynamic, and can be achieved by vesicular and non-vesicular processes. Various studies have analyzed the proteins that play a significant role in these processes, giving us new information about the relative importance of these two trafficking pathways in cholesterol transport. Although still poorly characterized in many trafficking routes, several potential sterol transport proteins have been described in detail; as a result, molecular mechanisms for sterol transport among membranes start to be appreciated. PMID:19286471

  2. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Gao, Beile; Novik, Veronica; Galn, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the USA and Europe. An important virulence attribute of this bacterial pathogen is its ability to enter and survive within host cells. Here we show through a quantitative proteomic analysis that upon entry into host cells, C. jejuni undergoes a significant metabolic downshift. Furthermore, our results indicate that intracellular C. jejuni reprograms its respiration, favoring the respiration of fumarate. These results explain the poor ability of C. jejuni obtained from infected cells to grow under standard laboratory conditions and provide the bases for the development of novel anti microbial strategies that would target relevant metabolic pathways. PMID:22412372

  3. A Genetically Encoded FRET Sensor for Intracellular Heme.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanqun; Yang, Maiyun; Wegner, Seraphine V; Zhao, Jingyi; Zhu, Rongfeng; Wu, Yun; He, Chuan; Chen, Peng R

    2015-07-17

    Heme plays pivotal roles in various cellular processes as well as in iron homeostasis in living systems. Here, we report a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor for selective heme imaging by employing a pair of bacterial heme transfer chaperones as the sensory components. This heme-specific probe allows spatial-temporal visualization of intracellular heme distribution within living cells. PMID:25860383

  4. PARKIN ubiquitin ligase mediates resistance to intracellular pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Ayres, Janelle S.; Watson, Robert O.; Collins, Angela C.; Souza, Gianne; Rae, Chris S.; Schneider, David S.; Nakamura, Ken; Shiloh, Michael U.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ubiquitin-mediated targeting of intracellular bacteria to the autophagy pathway is a key innate defense mechanism against invading microbes, including the important human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the ubiquitin ligases responsible for catalyzing ubiquitin chains that surround intracellular bacteria are poorly understood. PARKIN is a ubiquitin ligase with a well-established role in mitophagy, and mutations in the PARKIN gene (Park2) lead to increased susceptibility to Parkinsons disease. Surprisingly, genetic polymorphisms in the Park2 regulatory region are also associated with increased susceptibility to intracellular bacterial pathogens in humans, including Mycobacterium leprae and Salmonella typhi, but the function of PARKIN in immunity remains unexplored. Here we show that PARKIN plays a role in ubiquitin-mediated autophagy of M. tuberculosis. Both PARKIN-deficient mice and flies are sensitive to various intracellular bacterial infections, suggesting PARKIN plays a conserved role in metazoan innate defense. Moreover, our work reveals an unexpected functional link between mitophagy and infectious disease. PMID:24005326

  5. Glutathione activates virulence gene expression of an intracellular pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Reniere, Michelle L.; Whiteley, Aaron T.; Hamilton, Keri L.; John, Sonya M.; Lauer, Peter; Brennan, Richard G.; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens are responsible for much of the world-wide morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. To colonize their hosts successfully, pathogens must sense their environment and regulate virulence gene expression appropriately. Accordingly, on entry into mammalian cells, the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes remodels its transcriptional program by activating the master virulence regulator PrfA. Here we show that bacterial and host-derived glutathione are required to activate PrfA. In this study a genetic selection led to the identification of a bacterial mutant in glutathione synthase that exhibited reduced virulence gene expression and was attenuated 150-fold in mice. Genome sequencing of suppressor mutants that arose spontaneously in vivo revealed a single nucleotide change in prfA that locks the protein in the active conformation (PrfA*) and completely bypassed the requirement for glutathione during infection. Biochemical and genetic studies support a model in which glutathione-dependent PrfA activation is mediated by allosteric binding of glutathione to PrfA. Whereas glutathione and other low-molecular-weight thiols have important roles in redox homeostasis in all forms of life, here we demonstrate that glutathione represents a critical signalling molecule that activates the virulence of an intracellular pathogen. PMID:25567281

  6. Bacterial Gut Symbionts Contribute to Seed Digestion in an Omnivorous Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obligate bacterial symbionts alter the diets of host animals in numerous ways, but the ecological roles of facultative bacterial residents that consistently colonize insect guts remain unclear. Carabid beetles are a common group of beneficial insects appreciated for their ability to consume insect p...

  7. Ecophysiological Characteristics of Obligate Methanotrophic Bacteria and Methane Oxidation In Situ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Gary M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the obligate methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) described to date are neutrophilic mesophiles that grow optimally in dilute media. Kinetic analyses generally indicate that bacterial methane uptake occurs by transport systems with a K(sub m) greater than l micronM. These and other properties of MOB are inconsistent with characteristics of methane oxidation in situ. The inconsistencies indicate a need for greater attention to the ecophysiological characteristics of isolates and the design of enrichment and isolation schemes which emphasize ecologically relevant parameters (e.g., low temperature, limited and diverse substrate availability, low water potential).

  8. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Response Involved in Attenuation of Pathogen Intracellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cano, David A.; Martínez-Moya, Marina; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Groisman, Eduardo A.; Casadesús, Josep; García-Del Portillo, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium proliferates within cultured epithelial and macrophage cells. Intracellular bacterial proliferation is, however, restricted within normal fibroblast cells. To characterize this phenomenon in detail, we investigated the possibility that the pathogen itself might contribute to attenuating the intracellular growth rate. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutants were selected in normal rat kidney fibroblasts displaying an increased intracellular proliferation rate. These mutants harbored loss-of-function mutations in the virulence-related regulatory genes phoQ, rpoS, slyA, and spvR. Lack of a functional PhoP-PhoQ system caused the most dramatic change in the intracellular growth rate. phoP- and phoQ-null mutants exhibited an intracellular growth rate 20- to 30-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. This result showed that the PhoP-PhoQ system exerts a master regulatory function for preventing bacterial overgrowth within fibroblasts. In addition, an overgrowing clone was isolated harboring a mutation in a previously unknown serovar Typhimurium open reading frame, named igaA for intracellular growth attenuator. Mutations in other serovar Typhimurium virulence genes, such as ompR, dam, crp, cya, mviA, spiR (ssrA), spiA, and rpoE, did not result in pathogen intracellular overgrowth. Nonetheless, lack of either SpiA or the alternate sigma factor RpoE led to a substantial decrease in intracellular bacterial viability. These results prove for the first time that specific serovar Typhimurium virulence regulators are involved in a response designed to attenuate the intracellular growth rate within a nonphagocytic host cell. This growth-attenuating response is accompanied by functions that ensure the viability of intracellular bacteria. PMID:11553591

  9. INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A book chapter in ?Molecular Toxicology: Transcriptional Targets? reviewed the role of intracellular signaling in the developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals. This chapter covered a number of aspects including the development of the nervous system, role of intrace...

  10. Evaluation of the bacterial microbiome of two flea species using different DNA-isolation techniques provides insights into flea host ecology.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Chong, Rowena; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Fleas (Siphonaptera) are ubiquitous blood-sucking pests of animals worldwide and are vectors of zoonotic bacteria such as Rickettsia and Bartonella. We performed Ion Torrent PGM amplicon sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to compare the microbiome of the ubiquitous cat flea (Ctenocephalides f. felis) and the host-specific echidna stickfast flea (Echidnophaga a. ambulans) and evaluated potential bias produced during common genomic DNA-isolation methods. We demonstrated significant differences in the bacterial community diversity between the two flea species but not between protocols combining surface sterilisation with whole flea homogenisation or exoskeleton retention. Both flea species were dominated by obligate intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia, and the echidna stickfast fleas possessed the endosymbiont Cardinium. Cat fleas that were not surface sterilised showed presence of Candidatus 'Rickettsia senegalensis' DNA, the first report of its presence in Australia. In the case of Rickettsia, we show that sequencing depth of 50 000 was required for comparable sensitivity with Rickettsia qPCR. Low-abundance bacterial genera are suggested to reflect host ecology. The deep-sequencing approach demonstrates feasibility of pathogen detection with simultaneous quantitative analysis and evaluation of the inter-relationship of microbes within vectors. PMID:26542076

  11. Intracellular Adaptation of Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Julie; Forest, Anik; Marazzo, Elena; Denis, Franois; Butler, Heather; Michaud, Jean-Franois; Boucher, Lyne; Pedro, Ida; Villeneuve, Annie; Sitnikov, Dmitri; Trudel, Karine; Nassif, Najib; Boudjelti, Djamila; Tomaki, Fadi; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmn-Verri, Caterina; Brunet, Sylvain; Ct-Martin, Alexandra; Hunter, Joanna; Moreno, Edgardo; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages were infected with virulent B. abortus strain 2308 or attenuated strain 19. Intracellular bacteria were recovered at different times after infection and their proteomes compared. The virulent strain initially reduced most biosynthesis and altered its respiration, adaptations reversed later in infection. The attenuated strain was unable to match the magnitude of the virulent strains adjustments. The results provide insight into mechanisms utilized by Brucella to establish intracellular infections. PMID:19216536

  12. Bacterial Exotoxins and the Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Allison J.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    The inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that play an important role in innate immune sensing. Activation of inflammasomes leads to activation of caspase-1 and maturation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. In certain myeloid cells, this activation can also lead to an inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis). Inflammasome sensor proteins have evolved to detect a range of microbial ligands and bacterial exotoxins either through direct interaction or by detection of host cell changes elicited by these effectors. Bacterial exotoxins activate the inflammasomes through diverse processes, including direct sensor cleavage, modulation of ion fluxes through plasma membrane pore formation, and perturbation of various host cell functions. In this review, we summarize the findings on some of the bacterial exotoxins that activate the inflammasomes. PMID:26617605

  13. Bacterial exopolysaccharides--a perception.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anita Suresh; Mody, Kalpana; Jha, Bhavanath

    2007-04-01

    Microbial polysaccharides are multifunctional and can be divided into intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides (EPS). Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), produced by both prokaryotes (eubacteria and archaebacteria) and eukaryotes (phytoplankton, fungi, and algae), have been of topical research interest. Newer approaches are carried out today to replace the traditionally used plant gums by their bacterial counterparts. The bacterial exopolysaccharides represent a wide range of chemical structures, but have not yet acquired appreciable significance. Chemically, EPS are rich in high molecular weight polysaccharides (10 to 30 kDa) and have heteropolymeric composition. They have new-fangled applications due to the unique properties they possess. Owing to this, exopolysaccharides have found multifarious applications in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. Hence, the present article converges on bacterial exopolysaccharides. PMID:17440912

  14. High-Throughput Intracellular Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Kirby, James E

    2015-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic human pathogen that causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Notably, in the human host, the organism is believed to replicate solely within an intracellular compartment, predominantly within pulmonary macrophages. Consequently, successful therapy is predicated on antimicrobials penetrating into this intracellular growth niche. However, standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods test solely for extracellular growth inhibition. Here, we make use of a high-throughput assay to characterize intracellular growth inhibition activity of known antimicrobials. For select antimicrobials, high-resolution dose-response analysis was then performed to characterize and compare activity levels in both macrophage infection and axenic growth assays. Results support the superiority of several classes of nonpolar antimicrobials in abrogating intracellular growth. Importantly, our assay results show excellent correlations with prior clinical observations of antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, we also show the applicability of high-throughput automation to two- and three-dimensional synergy testing. High-resolution isocontour isobolograms provide in vitro support for specific combination antimicrobial therapy. Taken together, findings suggest that high-throughput screening technology may be successfully applied to identify and characterize antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens that make use of an intracellular growth niche. PMID:26392509

  15. Bacterial Keratitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Devin A Harrison MD Mar. 01, 2015 Bacterial keratitis is an infection of ... Medications Aug 18, 2014 Pink Eye and School Mar 11, 2014 Sun Exposure Mar 10, 2014 Leer ...

  16. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... incubation period for bacterial vaginosis. How Is the Diagnosis Made? Your childs pediatrician can make the diagnosis ... Editorial Policy This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Copyright 2016 ...

  17. Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont.

    PubMed

    Moran, Nancy A; Yun, Yueli

    2015-02-17

    Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary model for this kind of symbiosis is the association between the bacterium Buchnera and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A longstanding obstacle to efforts to illuminate genetic changes underlying obligate symbioses has been the inability to experimentally disrupt and reconstitute symbiont-host partnerships. Our experiments show that Buchnera can be experimentally transferred between aphid matrilines and, furthermore, that Buchnera replacement has a massive effect on host fitness. Using a recipient pea aphid matriline containing Buchnera that are heat sensitive because of an allele eliminating the heat shock response of a small chaperone, we reduced native Buchnera through heat exposure and introduced a genetically distinct Buchnera from another matriline, achieving complete replacement and stable inheritance. This transfer disrupted 100 million years (? 1 billion generations) of continuous maternal transmission of Buchnera in its host aphids. Furthermore, aphids with the Buchnera replacement enjoyed a dramatic increase in heat tolerance, directly demonstrating a strong effect of symbiont genotype on host ecology. PMID:25561531

  18. Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy A.; Yun, Yueli

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary model for this kind of symbiosis is the association between the bacterium Buchnera and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A longstanding obstacle to efforts to illuminate genetic changes underlying obligate symbioses has been the inability to experimentally disrupt and reconstitute symbiont–host partnerships. Our experiments show that Buchnera can be experimentally transferred between aphid matrilines and, furthermore, that Buchnera replacement has a massive effect on host fitness. Using a recipient pea aphid matriline containing Buchnera that are heat sensitive because of an allele eliminating the heat shock response of a small chaperone, we reduced native Buchnera through heat exposure and introduced a genetically distinct Buchnera from another matriline, achieving complete replacement and stable inheritance. This transfer disrupted 100 million years (∼1 billion generations) of continuous maternal transmission of Buchnera in its host aphids. Furthermore, aphids with the Buchnera replacement enjoyed a dramatic increase in heat tolerance, directly demonstrating a strong effect of symbiont genotype on host ecology. PMID:25561531

  19. Metabolic Complementarity and Genomics of the Dual Bacterial Symbiosis of Sharpshooters

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongying; Daugherty, Sean C; Van Aken, Susan E; Pai, Grace H; Watkins, Kisha L; Khouri, Hoda; Tallon, Luke J; Zaborsky, Jennifer M; Dunbar, Helen E; Tran, Phat L; Moran, Nancy A

    2006-01-01

    Mutualistic intracellular symbiosis between bacteria and insects is a widespread phenomenon that has contributed to the global success of insects. The symbionts, by provisioning nutrients lacking from diets, allow various insects to occupy or dominate ecological niches that might otherwise be unavailable. One such insect is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), which feeds on xylem fluid, a diet exceptionally poor in organic nutrients. Phylogenetic studies based on rRNA have shown two types of bacterial symbionts to be coevolving with sharpshooters: the gamma-proteobacterium Baumannia cicadellinicola and the Bacteroidetes species Sulcia muelleri. We report here the sequencing and analysis of the 686,192base pair genome of B. cicadellinicola and approximately 150 kilobase pairs of the small genome of S. muelleri, both isolated from H. coagulata. Our study, which to our knowledge is the first genomic analysis of an obligate symbiosis involving multiple partners, suggests striking complementarity in the biosynthetic capabilities of the two symbionts: B. cicadellinicola devotes a substantial portion of its genome to the biosynthesis of vitamins and cofactors required by animals and lacks most amino acid biosynthetic pathways, whereas S. muelleri apparently produces most or all of the essential amino acids needed by its host. This finding, along with other results of our genome analysis, suggests the existence of metabolic codependency among the two unrelated endosymbionts and their insect host. This dual symbiosis provides a model case for studying correlated genome evolution and genome reduction involving multiple organisms in an intimate, obligate mutualistic relationship. In addition, our analysis provides insight for the first time into the differences in symbionts between insects (e.g., aphids) that feed on phloem versus those like H. coagulata that feed on xylem. Finally, the genomes of these two symbionts provide potential targets for controlling plant pathogens such as Xylella fastidiosa, a major agroeconomic problem, for which H. coagulata and other sharpshooters serve as vectors of transmission. PMID:16729848

  20. Obligations of an academic and clinical oncologist: historical reflections.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David H

    2014-01-01

    Obligations are derived from one's core values-those fundamental, enduring, deeply held beliefs that guide one's everyday actions. Gandhi stated it more eloquently than I ever could: "Your beliefs become your thoughts, your thoughts become your words, your words become your actions, your actions become your habits, your habits become your values, your values become your destiny." So what are the obligations of the academic oncologist and clinician? I believe there are a few indubitable and fundamental obligations: professionalism, patient care, stewardship, maintenance of knowledge, productivity, and mentorship). I might add that I do not see these obligations as unique to the academician but rather applicable to all physicians. PMID:24857063

  1. 48 CFR 12.216 - Unenforceability of unauthorized obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commercial Items 12.216 Unenforceability of unauthorized obligations. Many supplies or services are acquired... agreements. Many of these agreements contain indemnification clauses that are inconsistent with Federal...

  2. 48 CFR 32.705 - Unenforceability of unauthorized obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unauthorized obligations. Many supplies or services are acquired subject to supplier license agreements. These... (TOS), or other similar legal instruments or agreements. Many of these agreements...

  3. 7 CFR 400.168 - Obligations of participating insurance company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.168 Obligations...

  4. Release of lipopolysaccharide from intracellular compartments containing Salmonella typhimurium to vesicles of the host epithelial cell.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-del Portillo, F; Stein, M A; Finlay, B B

    1997-01-01

    The biological effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on eucaryotic cells have traditionally been characterized following extracellular challenge of LPS on susceptible cells. In this study, we report the capacity of Salmonella typhimurium to release LPS once it is located in the intracellular environment of cultured epithelial cells. LPS is liberated from vacuolar compartments, where intracellular bacteria reside, to vesicles present in the host cell cytosol. The vesicle-associated LPS is detected in infected cells from the time when invading bacteria enter the host cell. Release of LPS is restricted to S. typhimurium-infected cells, with no LPS observed in neighboring uninfected cells, suggesting that dissemination of LPS occurs entirely within the intracellular environment of the infected cell. The amount of LPS present in host vesicles reaches a maximum when intracellular S. typhimurium cells start to proliferate, a time at which the entire host cell cytosol is filled with numerous vesicles containing LPS. All these data support the concept that intracellular bacterial pathogens might signal the host cell from intracellular locations by releasing bioactive bacterial components such as LPS. PMID:8975888

  5. Bacterial rheotaxis.

    PubMed

    Marcos; Fu, Henry C; Powers, Thomas R; Stocker, Roman

    2012-03-27

    The motility of organisms is often directed in response to environmental stimuli. Rheotaxis is the directed movement resulting from fluid velocity gradients, long studied in fish, aquatic invertebrates, and spermatozoa. Using carefully controlled microfluidic flows, we show that rheotaxis also occurs in bacteria. Excellent quantitative agreement between experiments with Bacillus subtilis and a mathematical model reveals that bacterial rheotaxis is a purely physical phenomenon, in contrast to fish rheotaxis but in the same way as sperm rheotaxis. This previously unrecognized bacterial taxis results from a subtle interplay between velocity gradients and the helical shape of flagella, which together generate a torque that alters a bacterium's swimming direction. Because this torque is independent of the presence of a nearby surface, bacterial rheotaxis is not limited to the immediate neighborhood of liquid-solid interfaces, but also takes place in the bulk fluid. We predict that rheotaxis occurs in a wide range of bacterial habitats, from the natural environment to the human body, and can interfere with chemotaxis, suggesting that the fitness benefit conferred by bacterial motility may be sharply reduced in some hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:22411815

  6. Bacterial iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Simon C; Robinson, Andrea K; Rodrguez-Quiones, Francisco

    2003-06-01

    Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many cases, this involves the secretion and internalisation of extracellular ferric chelators called siderophores. Ferrous iron can also be directly imported by the G protein-like transporter, FeoB. For pathogens, host-iron complexes (transferrin, lactoferrin, haem, haemoglobin) are directly used as iron sources. Bacterial iron storage proteins (ferritin, bacterioferritin) provide intracellular iron reserves for use when external supplies are restricted, and iron detoxification proteins (Dps) are employed to protect the chromosome from iron-induced free radical damage. There is evidence that bacteria control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins during iron-restricted growth. And finally, the expression of the iron homeostatic machinery is subject to iron-dependent global control ensuring that iron acquisition, storage and consumption are geared to iron availability and that intracellular levels of free iron do not reach toxic levels. PMID:12829269

  7. Comparative Genomics of Wolbachia and the Bacterial Species Concept

    PubMed Central

    Nslund, Kristina; Bourtzis, Kostas; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of host-specialization to speciation processes in obligate host-associated bacteria is well known, as is also the ability of recombination to generate cohesion in bacterial populations. However, whether divergent strains of highly recombining intracellular bacteria, such as Wolbachia, can maintain their genetic distinctness when infecting the same host is not known. We first developed a protocol for the genome sequencing of uncultivable endosymbionts. Using this method, we have sequenced the complete genomes of the Wolbachia strains wHa and wNo, which occur as natural double infections in Drosophila simulans populations on the Seychelles and in New Caledonia. Taxonomically, wHa belong to supergroup A and wNo to supergroup B. A comparative genomics study including additional strains supported the supergroup classification scheme and revealed 24 and 33 group-specific genes, putatively involved in host-adaptation processes. Recombination frequencies were high for strains of the same supergroup despite different host-preference patterns, leading to genomic cohesion. The inferred recombination fragments for strains of different supergroups were of short sizes, and the genomes of the co-infecting Wolbachia strains wHa and wNo were not more similar to each other and did not share more genes than other A- and B-group strains that infect different hosts. We conclude that Wolbachia strains of supergroup A and B represent genetically distinct clades, and that strains of different supergroups can co-exist in the same arthropod host without converging into the same species. This suggests that the supergroups are irreversibly separated and that barriers other than host-specialization are able to maintain distinct clades in recombining endosymbiont populations. Acquiring a good knowledge of the barriers to genetic exchange in Wolbachia will advance our understanding of how endosymbiont communities are constructed from vertically and horizontally transmitted genes. PMID:23593012

  8. Intracellular recording in behaving animals

    PubMed Central

    Long, Michael A.; Lee, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from behaving animals provide an unparalleled view into the functional role of individual neurons. Intracellular approaches can be especially revealing as they provide information about a neuron’s inputs and intrinsic cellular properties, which together determine its spiking output. Recent technical developments have made intracellular recording possible during an ever-increasing range of behaviors in both head-fixed and freely moving animals. These recordings have yielded fundamental insights into the cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying neural activity during natural behaviors in such areas as sensory perception, motor sequence generation, and spatial navigation, forging a direct link between cellular and systems neuroscience. PMID:22054814

  9. Cultural Generality of the Integration of Obligation and Other Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jen-Shou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. One is to assess the cultural generality of the information integration rule for moral obligation. The other is to examine how people integrate moral obligation and self-interest. Two studies were implemented following the functional measurement methodology with Chinese samples. Study 1 replicated the…

  10. 12 CFR 612.2270 - Purchase of System obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System obligations. 612.2270... REFERRAL OF KNOWN OR SUSPECTED CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS Standards of Conduct 612.2270 Purchase of System... Funding Corporation, may only purchase joint, consolidated, or Systemwide obligations that are: (1)...

  11. 12 CFR 612.2270 - Purchase of System obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purchase of System obligations. 612.2270... REFERRAL OF KNOWN OR SUSPECTED CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS Standards of Conduct 612.2270 Purchase of System... Funding Corporation, may only purchase joint, consolidated, or Systemwide obligations that are: (1)...

  12. 18 CFR 37.8 - Obligations of OASIS users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of OASIS... Obligations of OASIS users. Each OASIS user must notify the Responsible Party one month in advance of initiating a significant amount of automated queries. The OASIS user must also notify the Responsible...

  13. 18 CFR 37.8 - Obligations of OASIS users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of OASIS... Obligations of OASIS users. Each OASIS user must notify the Responsible Party one month in advance of initiating a significant amount of automated queries. The OASIS user must also notify the Responsible...

  14. 18 CFR 37.8 - Obligations of OASIS users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of OASIS... Obligations of OASIS users. Each OASIS user must notify the Responsible Party one month in advance of initiating a significant amount of automated queries. The OASIS user must also notify the Responsible...

  15. 18 CFR 37.8 - Obligations of OASIS users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of OASIS... Obligations of OASIS users. Each OASIS user must notify the Responsible Party one month in advance of initiating a significant amount of automated queries. The OASIS user must also notify the Responsible...

  16. 18 CFR 37.8 - Obligations of OASIS users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of OASIS... Obligations of OASIS users. Each OASIS user must notify the Responsible Party one month in advance of initiating a significant amount of automated queries. The OASIS user must also notify the Responsible...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Systems. MM Docket 97-217, in Amendment of 47 CFR parts 1, 21 and 74 to Enable Multipoint Distribution... reimbursement obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an AWS entity has triggered a cost-sharing obligation and therefore must pay an AWS relocator of a BRS system...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Systems. MM Docket 97-217, in Amendment of 47 CFR parts 1, 21 and 74 to Enable Multipoint Distribution... reimbursement obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an AWS entity has triggered a cost-sharing obligation and therefore must pay an AWS relocator of a BRS system...

  19. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem

  20. 13 CFR 500.213 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 500.213 Section 500.213 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.213 Termination of obligations. (a) The Board, in its discretion, shall...

  1. 13 CFR 500.213 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 500.213 Section 500.213 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.213 Termination of obligations. (a) The Board, in its discretion, shall...

  2. 5 CFR 2635.101 - Basic obligation of public service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic obligation of public service. 2635.101 Section 2635.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions 2635.101 Basic obligation of public service. (a) Public service is...

  3. 5 CFR 2635.101 - Basic obligation of public service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic obligation of public service. 2635.101 Section 2635.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.101 Basic obligation of public service. (a) Public service is...

  4. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  5. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  6. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  7. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  8. 29 CFR 4043.20 - Post-Event filing obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-Event filing obligation. 4043.20 Section 4043.20 Labor... EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events 4043.20 Post-Event filing obligation. The plan administrator and each contributing sponsor of a plan for which...

  9. Measurement of Religiosity and Work Obligations among Israeli Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagie, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 102 Israeli males, ages 22-30, on the relationship between religiosity and the obligation work norm. Finds that the level of obligation to work was significantly higher in the religious group than in the nonreligious group. (CFR)

  10. Standard of care, institutional obligations, and distributive justice.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a particular institutional role. I examine two types of institutional contexts: (1) public research agencies - agencies or departments of states that fund or conduct clinical research in the public interest; and (2) private-for-profit corporations. I argue that investigators who are employed or have their research sponsored by the former have a distinctive institutional obligation to conduct their research in a way that is consistent with the state's duty of distributive justice to provide its citizens with access to basic health care, and its duty to aid citizens of lower income countries. By contrast, I argue that investigators who are employed or have their research sponsored by private-for-profit corporations do not possess this obligation nor any other institutional obligation that is directly relevant to the ethics of RCTs. My account of the institutional obligations of investigators aims to contribute to the development of a reasonable, distributive justice-based account of standard of care. PMID:24117682

  11. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asset retirement obligations. 35.18 Section 35.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Other Filing Requirements 35.18 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A public utility that files a...

  12. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asset retirement obligations. 35.18 Section 35.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Other Filing Requirements 35.18 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A public utility that files a...

  13. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asset retirement obligations. 35.18 Section 35.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Other Filing Requirements 35.18 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A public utility that files a...

  14. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asset retirement obligations. 35.18 Section 35.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Other Filing Requirements 35.18 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A public utility that files a...

  15. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asset retirement obligations. 35.18 Section 35.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Other Filing Requirements 35.18 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A public utility that files a...

  16. 5 CFR 2426.3 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.3 Section 2426.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... GOVERNMENT-WIDE RULES OR REGULATIONS National Consultation Rights 2426.3 Obligation to consult. (a) When...

  17. 5 CFR 2426.13 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.13 Section 2426.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... Regulations 2426.13 Obligation to consult. (a) When a labor organization has been accorded...

  18. 5 CFR 2426.13 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.13 Section 2426.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... Regulations 2426.13 Obligation to consult. (a) When a labor organization has been accorded...

  19. 5 CFR 2426.3 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.3 Section 2426.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... GOVERNMENT-WIDE RULES OR REGULATIONS National Consultation Rights 2426.3 Obligation to consult. (a) When...

  20. 5 CFR 2426.3 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.3 Section 2426.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... GOVERNMENT-WIDE RULES OR REGULATIONS National Consultation Rights 2426.3 Obligation to consult. (a) When...

  1. 5 CFR 2426.13 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.13 Section 2426.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... Regulations 2426.13 Obligation to consult. (a) When a labor organization has been accorded...

  2. 5 CFR 2426.13 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.13 Section 2426.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... Regulations 2426.13 Obligation to consult. (a) When a labor organization has been accorded...

  3. 5 CFR 2426.3 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.3 Section 2426.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... GOVERNMENT-WIDE RULES OR REGULATIONS National Consultation Rights 2426.3 Obligation to consult. (a) When...

  4. 5 CFR 2426.13 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.13 Section 2426.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... Regulations 2426.13 Obligation to consult. (a) When a labor organization has been accorded...

  5. 5 CFR 2426.3 - Obligation to consult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obligation to consult. 2426.3 Section 2426.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... GOVERNMENT-WIDE RULES OR REGULATIONS National Consultation Rights 2426.3 Obligation to consult. (a) When...

  6. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever... kernelweight of certified merchantable walnuts equal to a quantity derived by the application of the...

  7. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever... kernelweight of certified merchantable walnuts equal to a quantity derived by the application of the...

  8. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever... kernelweight of certified merchantable walnuts equal to a quantity derived by the application of the...

  9. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever... kernelweight of certified merchantable walnuts equal to a quantity derived by the application of the...

  10. 7 CFR 984.54 - Establishment of obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Reserve Walnuts § 984.54 Establishment of obligation. (a) Reserve obligation. Whenever... kernelweight of certified merchantable walnuts equal to a quantity derived by the application of the...

  11. 34 CFR 686.43 - Obligation to repay the grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary in accordance with the relevant provisions of subpart A of 34 CFR part 685 if (1) The grant... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Service and Repayment Obligations 686.43 Obligation to repay the grant. (a)...

  12. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  13. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  14. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  15. 22 CFR 221.15 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 221.15 Section 221.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guarantee 221.15 Fiscal Agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of...

  16. 22 CFR 221.15 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 221.15 Section 221.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS The Guarantee 221.15 Fiscal Agent obligations. Failure of the Fiscal Agent to perform any of...

  17. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not...

  18. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not...

  19. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not...

  20. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not...

  1. 48 CFR 252.239-7013 - Obligation of the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Government. 252.239-7013 Section 252.239-7013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7013 Obligation of the Government. As prescribed in 239.7411(c), use the following clause: Obligation of the Government (JUL 2006) (a) This basic agreement is not...

  2. 34 CFR 686.40 - Documenting the service obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Service and Repayment Obligations § 686.40 Documenting the service obligation. (a... in a program of study for which a TEACH Grant was received, the grant recipient must confirm to the..., bilingual education, English language acquisition, special education, or as a reading specialist; or...

  3. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(1)(H),...

  4. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) What limitations apply? Pursuant to...

  5. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(1)(H),...

  6. 5 CFR 334.105 - Obligated service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Obligated service requirement. 334.105 Section 334.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY ASSIGNMENTS UNDER THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.105 Obligated...

  7. 5 CFR 334.105 - Obligated service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Obligated service requirement. 334.105 Section 334.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY ASSIGNMENTS UNDER THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.105 Obligated...

  8. 5 CFR 334.105 - Obligated service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Obligated service requirement. 334.105 Section 334.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY ASSIGNMENTS UNDER THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.105 Obligated...

  9. 5 CFR 334.105 - Obligated service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligated service requirement. 334.105 Section 334.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY ASSIGNMENTS UNDER THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.105 Obligated...

  10. 5 CFR 334.105 - Obligated service requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Obligated service requirement. 334.105 Section 334.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY ASSIGNMENTS UNDER THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PERSONNEL ACT (IPA) § 334.105 Obligated...

  11. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asset retirement... Filed With Changes 154.315 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part and has recorded an asset retirement obligation on its books must provide...

  12. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asset retirement... Filed With Changes 154.315 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part and has recorded an asset retirement obligation on its books must provide...

  13. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asset retirement... FILING REQUIREMENTS 346.3 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A carrier that files material in support of initial rates or change in rates under 346.2 and has recorded asset retirement obligations on its...

  14. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asset retirement... FILING REQUIREMENTS 346.3 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A carrier that files material in support of initial rates or change in rates under 346.2 and has recorded asset retirement obligations on its...

  15. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asset retirement... Filed With Changes 154.315 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part and has recorded an asset retirement obligation on its books must provide...

  16. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asset retirement... FILING REQUIREMENTS 346.3 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A carrier that files material in support of initial rates or change in rates under 346.2 and has recorded asset retirement obligations on its...

  17. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asset retirement... Filed With Changes 154.315 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part and has recorded an asset retirement obligation on its books must provide...

  18. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asset retirement... FILING REQUIREMENTS 346.3 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A carrier that files material in support of initial rates or change in rates under 346.2 and has recorded asset retirement obligations on its...

  19. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asset retirement... Filed With Changes 154.315 Asset retirement obligations. (a) A natural gas company that files a tariff change under this part and has recorded an asset retirement obligation on its books must provide...

  20. 47 CFR 211.7 - Obligation of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obligation of carriers. 211.7 Section 211.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.7 Obligation of carriers. (a) During the continuance of a war in which the...

  1. 47 CFR 211.7 - Obligation of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obligation of carriers. 211.7 Section 211.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.7 Obligation of carriers. (a) During...

  2. 47 CFR 211.7 - Obligation of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation of carriers. 211.7 Section 211.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.7 Obligation of carriers. (a) During...

  3. 47 CFR 211.7 - Obligation of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligation of carriers. 211.7 Section 211.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.7 Obligation of carriers. (a) During...

  4. 47 CFR 211.7 - Obligation of carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obligation of carriers. 211.7 Section 211.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EMERGENCY RESTORATION PRIORITY PROCEDURES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES § 211.7 Obligation of carriers. (a) During...

  5. 31 CFR 225.5 - Pledge of definitive Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pledge of definitive Government obligations. 225.5 Section 225.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE ACCEPTANCE OF BONDS SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU...

  6. 31 CFR 225.5 - Pledge of definitive Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (2) When converting definitive Government obligations to book-entry form, a Federal Reserve Bank will... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pledge of definitive Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES 225.5 Pledge of definitive...

  7. 31 CFR 225.5 - Pledge of definitive Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pledge of definitive Government obligations. 225.5 Section 225.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE ACCEPTANCE OF BONDS SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU...

  8. 31 CFR 225.5 - Pledge of definitive Government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (2) When converting definitive Government obligations to book-entry form, a Federal Reserve Bank will... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pledge of definitive Government... SECURED BY GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS IN LIEU OF BONDS WITH SURETIES 225.5 Pledge of definitive...

  9. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount recognized for the liability and an associated asset retirement cost must be stated at the fair value of the asset retirement obligation in the period in which the obligation is incurred. (b) The... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting for...

  10. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount recognized for the liability and an associated asset retirement cost must be stated at the fair value of the asset retirement obligation in the period in which the obligation is incurred. (b) The... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accounting for...

  11. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount recognized for the liability and an associated asset retirement cost must be stated at the fair value of the asset retirement obligation in the period in which the obligation is incurred. (b) The... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounting for...

  12. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount recognized for the liability and an associated asset retirement cost must be stated at the fair value of the asset retirement obligation in the period in which the obligation is incurred. (b) The... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for...

  13. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount recognized for the liability and an associated asset retirement cost must be stated at the fair value of the asset retirement obligation in the period in which the obligation is incurred. (b) The... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting for...

  14. 22 CFR 211.5 - Obligations of cooperating sponsor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obligations of cooperating sponsor. 211.5 Section 211.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.5 Obligations of cooperating sponsor. (a) Operational Plans....

  15. Parental Beliefs about Nonresident Fathers' Obligations and Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, I-Fen; McLanahan, Sara S.

    2007-01-01

    We examine whether parents rely on principles of equity or equality in making judgments about nonresident fathers' obligations and rights. The data are taken from the first wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The analysis sample includes 4,304 new mothers and 3,414 new fathers. Results indicate that fathers perceive obligations

  16. 34 CFR 686.43 - Obligation to repay the grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the relevant provisions of subpart A of 34 CFR part 685 if— (1) The grant recipient... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Service and Repayment Obligations § 686.43 Obligation to repay the grant. (a) The...

  17. 7 CFR 4274.355 - Loan approval and obligating funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4274.355 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.355 Loan approval and obligating funds. The loan will be considered approved on the date the signed copy of the obligation of funds document is mailed to the intermediary....

  18. 7 CFR 4274.355 - Loan approval and obligating funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4274.355 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.355 Loan approval and obligating funds. The loan will be considered approved on the date the signed copy of the obligation of funds document is mailed to the intermediary....

  19. 7 CFR 4274.355 - Loan approval and obligating funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4274.355 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.355 Loan approval and obligating funds. The loan will be considered approved on the date the signed copy of the obligation of funds document is mailed to the intermediary....

  20. 7 CFR 4274.355 - Loan approval and obligating funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4274.355 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.355 Loan approval and obligating funds. The loan will be considered approved on the date the signed copy of the obligation of funds document is mailed to the intermediary....

  1. 7 CFR 4274.355 - Loan approval and obligating funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4274.355 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS... Intermediary Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.355 Loan approval and obligating funds. The loan will be considered approved on the date the signed copy of the obligation of funds document is mailed to the intermediary....

  2. 7 CFR 783.7 - Obligations of a participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of a participant. 783.7 Section 783.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS TREE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 783.7 Obligations of a participant. (a)...

  3. Reflections on Obligation, Professionalism and the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J.

    A moral order exists that imposes on human beings an obligation toward other human beings, both present and future. This obligation includes making sure that the environment is maintained in a way that will provide for the basic human needs of future generations; accepting the responsibilities of professionalism, including the maintenance of

  4. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  5. 10 CFR 611.112 - Termination of obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 611.112 Section 611.112 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Direct Loan Program § 611.112 Termination of obligations. DOE, the Federal Financing Bank, and...

  6. 5 CFR 2635.101 - Basic obligation of public service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic obligation of public service. 2635.101 Section 2635.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH General Provisions § 2635.101 Basic obligation of public service. (a) Public service is...

  7. 29 CFR 37.21 - How long will the recipient's obligation under the assurance last, and how broad is the obligation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How long will the recipient's obligation under the assurance last, and how broad is the obligation? 37.21 Section 37.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor...'s obligation under the assurance last, and how broad is the obligation? (a) Where the WIA Title...

  8. Nutrient salvaging and metabolism by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Maris V.; Swanson, Michele S.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is ubiquitous in freshwater environments as a free-swimming organism, resident of biofilms, or parasite of protozoa. If the bacterium is aerosolized and inhaled by a susceptible human host, it can infect alveolar macrophages and cause a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. A sophisticated cell differentiation program equips L. pneumophila to persist in both extracellular and intracellular niches. During its life cycle, L. pneumophila alternates between at least two distinct forms: a transmissive form equipped to infect host cells and evade lysosomal degradation, and a replicative form that multiplies within a phagosomal compartment that it has retooled to its advantage. The efficient changeover between transmissive and replicative states is fundamental to L. pneumophila's fitness as an intracellular pathogen. The transmission and replication programs of L. pneumophila are governed by a number of metabolic cues that signal whether conditions are favorable for replication or instead trigger escape from a spent host. Several lines of experimental evidence gathered over the past decade establish strong links between metabolism, cellular differentiation, and virulence of L. pneumophila. Herein, we focus on current knowledge of the metabolic components employed by intracellular L. pneumophila for cell differentiation, nutrient salvaging and utilization of host factors. Specifically, we highlight the metabolic cues that are coupled to bacterial differentiation, nutrient acquisition systems, and the strategies utilized by L. pneumophila to exploit host metabolites for intracellular replication. PMID:24575391

  9. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    OConnell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular focisuch as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesisto high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionalityand dysfunctionalityof the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  10. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems however remains, namely that an obligation system relies more on market forces whereas the feed-in system is based on a greater involvement of the government.

  11. A Lack of Parasitic Reduction in the Obligate Parasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Pombert, Jean-Franois; Blouin, Nicolas Achille; Lane, Chris; Boucias, Drion; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a transition from free-living autotroph to parasitic heterotroph where host-independence has been unexpectedly preserved. PMID:24809511

  12. A lack of parasitic reduction in the obligate parasitic green alga Helicosporidium.

    PubMed

    Pombert, Jean-François; Blouin, Nicolas Achille; Lane, Chris; Boucias, Drion; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a transition from free-living autotroph to parasitic heterotroph where host-independence has been unexpectedly preserved. PMID:24809511

  13. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-09-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. As a result, this article highlights recent advances in the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization.

  14. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. This article highlights recent advances in the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization. PMID:26382301

  15. The evolution of genomic instability in the obligate endosymbionts of whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Daniel B; Moran, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    Many insects depend on ancient associations with intracellular bacteria to perform essential metabolic functions. These endosymbionts exhibit striking examples of convergence in genome architecture, including a high degree of structural stability that is not typical of their free-living counterparts. However, the recently sequenced genome of the obligate whitefly endosymbiont Portiera revealed features that distinguish it from other ancient insect associates, such as a low gene density and the presence of perfectly duplicated sequences. Here, we report the comparative analysis of Portiera genome sequences both within and between host species. In one whitefly lineage (Bemisia tabaci), we identify large-scale structural polymorphisms in the Portiera genome that exist even within individual insects. This variation is likely mediated by recombination across identical repeats that are maintained by gene conversion. The complete Portiera genome sequence from a distantly related whitefly host (Trialeurodes vaporarium) confirms a history of extensive genome rearrangement in this ancient endosymbiont. Using gene-order-based phylogenetic analysis, we show that the majority of rearrangements have occurred in the B. tabaci lineage, coinciding with an increase in the rate of nucleotide substitutions, a proliferation of short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in intergenic regions, and the loss of many widely conserved genes involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. These results indicate that the loss of recombinational machinery is unlikely to be the cause of the extreme structural conservation that is generally observed in obligate endosymbiont genomes and that large, repetitive intergenic regions are an important substrate for genomic rearrangements. PMID:23542079

  16. The Evolution of Genomic Instability in the Obligate Endosymbionts of Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Daniel B.; Moran, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Many insects depend on ancient associations with intracellular bacteria to perform essential metabolic functions. These endosymbionts exhibit striking examples of convergence in genome architecture, including a high degree of structural stability that is not typical of their free-living counterparts. However, the recently sequenced genome of the obligate whitefly endosymbiont Portiera revealed features that distinguish it from other ancient insect associates, such as a low gene density and the presence of perfectly duplicated sequences. Here, we report the comparative analysis of Portiera genome sequences both within and between host species. In one whitefly lineage (Bemisia tabaci), we identify large-scale structural polymorphisms in the Portiera genome that exist even within individual insects. This variation is likely mediated by recombination across identical repeats that are maintained by gene conversion. The complete Portiera genome sequence from a distantly related whitefly host (Trialeurodes vaporarium) confirms a history of extensive genome rearrangement in this ancient endosymbiont. Using gene-order-based phylogenetic analysis, we show that the majority of rearrangements have occurred in the B. tabaci lineage, coinciding with an increase in the rate of nucleotide substitutions, a proliferation of short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in intergenic regions, and the loss of many widely conserved genes involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. These results indicate that the loss of recombinational machinery is unlikely to be the cause of the extreme structural conservation that is generally observed in obligate endosymbiont genomes and that large, repetitive intergenic regions are an important substrate for genomic rearrangements. PMID:23542079

  17. Intercellular nanotubes mediate bacterial communication.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Gyanendra P; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal

    2011-02-18

    Bacteria are known to communicate primarily via secreted extracellular factors. Here we identify a previously uncharacterized type of bacterial communication mediated by nanotubes that bridge neighboring cells. Using Bacillus subtilis as a model organism, we visualized transfer of cytoplasmic fluorescent molecules between adjacent cells. Additionally, by coculturing strains harboring different antibiotic resistance genes, we demonstrated that molecular exchange enables cells to transiently acquire nonhereditary resistance. Furthermore, nonconjugative plasmids could be transferred from one cell to another, thereby conferring hereditary features to recipient cells. Electron microscopy revealed the existence of variously sized tubular extensions bridging neighboring cells, serving as a route for exchange of intracellular molecules. These nanotubes also formed in an interspecies manner, between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and even between B. subtilis and the evolutionary distant bacterium Escherichia coli. We propose that nanotubes represent a major form of bacterial communication in nature, providing a network for exchange of cellular molecules within and between species. PMID:21335240

  18. The role of autophagy in the intracellular survival of Campylobacter concisus

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Portugal, Jose A.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Castao-Rodrguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Given the importance of autophagy for the elimination of intracellular bacteria and the subversion of this process by pathogenic bacteria, we investigated the role of autophagy in C. concisus intracellular survival. Gentamicin protection assays were employed to assess intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, following autophagy induction and inhibition. To assess the interaction between C. concisus and autophagosomes, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed. Expression levels of 84 genes involved in the autophagy process were measured using qPCR. Autophagy inhibition resulted in two- to four-fold increases in intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, while autophagy induction resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular levels or bacterial clearance. C. concisus strains with low intracellular survival levels showed a dramatic increase in these levels upon autophagy inhibition. Confocal microscopy showed co-localization of the bacterium with autophagosomes, while transmission electron microscopy identified intracellular bacteria persisting within autophagic vesicles. Further, qPCR showed that following infection, 13 genes involved in the autophagy process were significantly regulated, and a further five showed borderline results, with an overall indication towards a dampening effect exerted by the bacterium on this process. Our data collectively indicates that while autophagy is important for the clearance of C. concisus, some strains may manipulate this process to benefit their intracellular survival. PMID:24918042

  19. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures.

  20. Intracellular calcium channels in protozoa.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N J; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-09-15

    Ca(2+)-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca(2+) channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in six subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca(2+) channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca(2+)-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa. PMID:24291099

  1. Intracellular Calcium Channels in Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca2+ channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in 6 subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca2+ signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca2+ channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca2+-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa. PMID:24291099

  2. Importance of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Utilization in Francisella Intracellular Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gesbert, Gael; Ramond, Elodie; Tros, Fabiola; Dairou, Julien; Frapy, Eric; Barel, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens have adapted their metabolism to optimally utilize the nutrients available in infected host cells. We recently reported the identification of an asparagine transporter required specifically for cytosolic multiplication of Francisella. In the present work, we characterized a new member of the major super family (MSF) of transporters, involved in isoleucine uptake. We show that this transporter (here designated IleP) plays a critical role in intracellular metabolic adaptation of Francisella. Inactivation of IleP severely impaired intracellular F. tularensis subsp. novicida multiplication in all cell types tested and reduced bacterial virulence in the mouse model. To further establish the importance of the ileP gene in F. tularensis pathogenesis, we constructed a chromosomal deletion mutant of ileP (ΔFTL_1803) in the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain (LVS). Inactivation of IleP in the F. tularensis LVS provoked comparable intracellular growth defects, confirming the critical role of this transporter in isoleucine uptake. The data presented establish, for the first time, the importance of isoleucine utilization for efficient phagosomal escape and cytosolic multiplication of Francisella and suggest that virulent F. tularensis subspecies have lost their branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic pathways and rely exclusively on dedicated uptake systems. This loss of function is likely to reflect an evolution toward a predominantly intracellular life style of the pathogen. Amino acid transporters should be thus considered major players in the adaptation of intracellular pathogens. PMID:25332124

  3. Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell. PMID:25103867

  4. Microsporidia Are Natural Intracellular Parasites of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Troemel, Emily R; Félix, Marie-Anne; Whiteman, Noah K; Barrière, Antoine; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Here we describe an intracellular pathogen isolated from wild-caught C. elegans that we show is a new species of microsporidia. Microsporidia comprise a large class of eukaryotic intracellular parasites that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. We show that microsporidian infection of the C. elegans intestine proceeds through distinct stages and is transmitted horizontally. Disruption of a conserved cytoskeletal structure in the intestine called the terminal web correlates with the release of microsporidian spores from infected cells, and appears to be part of a novel mechanism by which intracellular pathogens exit from infected cells. Unlike in bacterial intestinal infections, the p38 MAPK and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways do not appear to play substantial roles in resistance to microsporidian infection in C. elegans. We found microsporidia in multiple wild-caught isolates of Caenorhabditis nematodes from diverse geographic locations. These results indicate that microsporidia are common parasites of C. elegans in the wild. In addition, the interaction between C. elegans and its natural microsporidian parasites provides a system in which to dissect intracellular intestinal infection in vivo and insight into the diversity of pathogenic mechanisms used by intracellular microbes. PMID:19071962

  5. 12 CFR 1010.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., electricity or recreational amenities, it must be contractually obligated to do so (see 1011.15(f)), and the..., electricity or recreational amenities, that entity shall be clearly identified in the Property Report...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., electricity or recreational amenities, it must be contractually obligated to do so (see 1011.15(f)), and the..., electricity or recreational amenities, that entity shall be clearly identified in the Property Report...

  7. 12 CFR 1010.103 - Developer obligated improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., electricity or recreational amenities, it must be contractually obligated to do so (see 1011.15(f)), and the..., electricity or recreational amenities, that entity shall be clearly identified in the Property Report...

  8. The Ebola outbreak in Western Africa: ethical obligations for care.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Aminu; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Peterson, Kristin; Brown, Brandon

    2016-04-01

    The recent wave of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Western Africa and efforts to control the disease where the health system requires strengthening raises a number of ethical challenges for healthcare workers practicing in these countries. We discuss the implications of weak health systems for controlling EVD and limitations of the ethical obligation to provide care for patients with EVD using Nigeria as a case study. We highlight the right of healthcare workers to protection that should be obligatorily provided by the government. Where the national government cannot meet this obligation, healthcare workers only have a moral and not a professional obligation to provide care to patients with EVD. The national government also has an obligation to adequately compensate healthcare workers that become infected in the course of duty. Institutionalisation of policies that protect healthcare workers are required for effective control of the spread of highly contagious diseases like EVD in a timely manner. PMID:25205389

  9. 7 CFR 400.166 - Obligations of the Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations under the Act published in chapter IV of 7 CFR. ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.166 Obligations of...

  10. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers 54.405 Carrier obligation... within the 60-day time period. A carrier providing Lifeline service in a state that has...

  11. 47 CFR 54.405 - Carrier obligation to offer Lifeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Low-Income Consumers 54.405 Carrier obligation... demonstrate continued eligibility within the 60-day time period. A carrier providing Lifeline service in...

  12. Antibodies protect against intracellular bacteria by Fc receptor-mediated lysosomal targeting.

    PubMed

    Joller, Nicole; Weber, Stefan S; Müller, Andreas J; Spörri, Roman; Selchow, Petra; Sander, Peter; Hilbi, Hubert; Oxenius, Annette

    2010-11-23

    The protective effect of antibodies (Abs) is generally attributed to neutralization or complement activation. Using Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin as a model, we discovered an additional mechanism of Ab-mediated protection effective against intracellular pathogens that normally evade lysosomal fusion. We show that Fc receptor (FcR) engagement by Abs, which can be temporally and spatially separated from bacterial infection, renders the host cell nonpermissive for bacterial replication and targets the pathogens to lysosomes. This process is strictly dependent on kinases involved in FcR signaling but not on host cell protein synthesis or protease activation. Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism whereby Abs and FcR engagement subverts the strategies by which intracellular bacterial pathogens evade lysosomal degradation. PMID:21048081

  13. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the environment. PMID:26385434

  14. Spatially-resolved intracellular sensing of hydrogen peroxide in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Emilie A. K.; Netterfield, Tatiana S.; Sarkar, Saheli; Kemp, Melissa L.; Payne, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding intracellular redox chemistry requires new tools for the site-specific visualization of intracellular oxidation. We have developed a spatially-resolved intracellular sensor of hydrogen peroxide, HyPer-Tau, for time-resolved imaging in live cells. This sensor consists of a hydrogen peroxide-sensing protein tethered to microtubules. We demonstrate the use of the HyPer-Tau sensor for three applications; dose-dependent response of human cells to exogenous hydrogen peroxide, a model immune response of mouse macrophages to stimulation by bacterial toxin, and a spatially-resolved response to localized delivery of hydrogen peroxide. These results demonstrate that HyPer-Tau can be used as an effective tool for tracking changes in spatially localized intracellular hydrogen peroxide and for future applications in redox signaling. PMID:26585385

  15. Intracellular parcel service: current issues in intracellular membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Johannes M; Spang, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain a multitude of membrane structures that are connected through a highly dynamic and complex exchange of their constituents. The vibrant instability of these structures challenges the classical view of defined, static compartments that are connected by different types of vesicles. Despite this astonishing complexity, proteins and lipids are accurately transported into the different intracellular membrane systems. Over the past few decades many factors have been identified that either mediate or regulate intracellular membrane trafficking. Like in a modern parcel sorting system of a logistics center, the cargo typically passes through several sequential sorting stations until it finally reaches the location that is specified by its individual address label. While each membrane system employs specific sets of factors, the transport processes typically operate on common principles. With the advent of genome- and proteome-wide screens, the availability of mutant collections, exciting new developments in microscope technology and sophisticated methods to study their dynamics, the future promises a broad and comprehensive picture of the processes by which eukaryotic cells sort their proteins. PMID:25702105

  16. Bacterial Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Erwin; Reichenbach, Tobias

    Microbial laboratory communities have become model systems for studying the complex interplay between nonlinear dynamics of evolutionary selection forces, stochastic fluctuations arising from the probabilistic nature of interactions, and spatial organization. Major research goals are to identify and understand mechanisms that ensure viability of microbial colonies by allowing for species diversity, cooperative behavior and other kinds of "social" behavior. A synthesis of evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes provides the mathematical tools and conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of these ecological systems. We give an introduction to the modern formulation of these theories and illustrate their effectiveness, focusing on selected examples of microbial systems. Intrinsic fluctuations, stemming from the discreteness of individuals, are ubiquitous, and can have important impact on the stability of ecosystems. In the absence of speciation, extinction of species is unavoidable, may, however, take very long times. We provide a general concept for defining survival and extinction on ecological time scales. Spatial degrees of freedom come with a certain mobility of individuals. When the latter is sufficiently high, bacterial community structures can be understood through mapping individual-based models, in a continuum approach, onto stochastic partial differential equations. These allow progress using methods of nonlinear dynamics such as bifurcation analysis and invariant manifolds. We conclude with a perspective on the current challenges in quantifying bacterial pattern formation, and how this might have an impact on fundamental research in nonequilibrium physics .

  17. Obligate Insect Endosymbionts Exhibit Increased Ortholog Length Variation and Loss of Large Accessory Proteins Concurrent with Genome Shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Laura J.; Sabree, Zakee L.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme genome reduction has been observed in obligate intracellular insect mutualists and is an assumed consequence of fixed, long-term host isolation. Rapid accumulation of mutations and pseudogenization of genes no longer vital for an intracellular lifestyle, followed by deletion of many genes, are factors that lead to genome reduction. Size reductions in individual genes due to small-scale deletions have also been implicated in contributing to overall genome shrinkage. Conserved protein functional domains are expected to exhibit low tolerance for mutations and therefore remain relatively unchanged throughout protein length reduction while nondomain regions, presumably under less selective pressures, would shorten. This hypothesis was tested using orthologous protein sets from the Flavobacteriaceae (phylum: Bacteroidetes) and Enterobacteriaceae (subphylum: Gammaproteobacteria) families, each of which includes some of the smallest known genomes. Upon examination of protein, functional domain, and nondomain region lengths, we found that proteins were not uniformly shrinking with genome reduction, but instead increased length variability and variability was observed in both the functional domain and nondomain regions. Additionally, as complete gene loss also contributes to overall genome shrinkage, we found that the largest proteins in the proteomes of nonhost-restricted bacteroidetial and gammaproteobacterial species often were inferred to be involved in secondary metabolic processes, extracellular sensing, or of unknown function. These proteins were absent in the proteomes of obligate insect endosymbionts. Therefore, loss of genes encoding large proteins not required for host-restricted lifestyles in obligate endosymbiont proteomes likely contributes to extreme genome reduction to a greater degree than gene shrinkage. PMID:24671745

  18. Pharmacology of intracellular signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Stefan R

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future. PMID:16402119

  19. Investigating interference with apoptosis induction by bacterial proteins.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hua; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    The modulation of host cell apoptosis by bacterial pathogens is critical for their intracellular survival. Several intracellular bacteria achieve this by secreting proteins that interact with apoptosis pathways to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is such bacterium. The protein Ats-1, translocated from A. phagocytophilum by the bacterial type IV secretion system, localizes to host cell mitochondria, and interferes with apoptosis induction. In this chapter, we present a protocol applied to investigate an anti-apoptotic effect of Ats-1. PMID:25172281

  20. Intense Transpositional Activity of Insertion Sequences in an Ancient Obligate Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Samuel; Ling, Alison; Pérez, Philippe; Delaunay, Carine; Vavre, Fabrice; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The streamlined genomes of ancient obligate endosymbionts generally lack transposable elements, such as insertion sequences (IS). Yet, the genome of Wolbachia, one of the most abundant bacterial endosymbionts on Earth, is littered with IS. Such a paradox raises the question as to why there are so many ISs in the genome of this ancient endosymbiont. To address this question, we investigated IS transpositional activity in the unculturable Wolbachia by tracking the evolutionary dynamics and history of ISWpi1 elements. We show that 1) ISWpi1 is widespread in Wolbachia, being present in at least 55% of the 40 sampled strains, 2) ISWpi1 copies exhibit virtually identical nucleotide sequences both within and among Wolbachia genomes and possess an intact transposase gene, 3) individual ISWpi1 copies are differentially inserted among Wolbachia genomes, and 4) ISWpi1 occurs at variable copy numbers among Wolbachia genomes. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence for intense ISWpi1 transpositional activity and frequent ISWpi1 horizontal transmission among strains during recent Wolbachia evolution. Thus, the genomes of ancient obligate endosymbionts can carry high loads of functional and transpositionally active transposable elements. Our results also indicate that Wolbachia genomes have experienced multiple and temporally distinct ISWpi1 invasions during their evolutionary history. Such recurrent exposition to new IS invasions may explain, at least partly, the unusually high density of transposable elements found in the genomes of Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:18562339

  1. Mechanisms of Obligatory Intracellular Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Anaplasma phagocytophilum persists in nature by cycling between mammals and ticks. Human infection by the bite of an infected tick leads to a potentially fatal emerging disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that replicates inside mammalian granulocytes and the salivary gland and midgut cells of ticks. A. phagocytophilum evolved the remarkable ability to hijack the regulatory system of host cells. A. phagocytophilum alters vesicular traffic to create an intracellular membrane-bound compartment that allows replication in seclusion from lysosomes. The bacterium downregulates or actively inhibits a number of innate immune responses of mammalian host cells, and it upregulates cellular cholesterol uptake to acquire cholesterol for survival. It also upregulates several genes critical for the infection of ticks, and it prolongs tick survival at freezing temperatures. Several host factors that exacerbate infection have been identified, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cholesterol. Host factors that overcome infection include IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-?). Two bacterial type IV secretion effectors and several bacterial proteins that associate with inclusion membranes have been identified. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying A. phagocytophilum infection will foster the development of creative ideas to prevent or treat this emerging tick-borne disease. PMID:21734244

  2. Mechanisms of obligatory intracellular infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2011-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum persists in nature by cycling between mammals and ticks. Human infection by the bite of an infected tick leads to a potentially fatal emerging disease called human granulocytic anaplasmosis. A. phagocytophilum is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that replicates inside mammalian granulocytes and the salivary gland and midgut cells of ticks. A. phagocytophilum evolved the remarkable ability to hijack the regulatory system of host cells. A. phagocytophilum alters vesicular traffic to create an intracellular membrane-bound compartment that allows replication in seclusion from lysosomes. The bacterium downregulates or actively inhibits a number of innate immune responses of mammalian host cells, and it upregulates cellular cholesterol uptake to acquire cholesterol for survival. It also upregulates several genes critical for the infection of ticks, and it prolongs tick survival at freezing temperatures. Several host factors that exacerbate infection have been identified, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cholesterol. Host factors that overcome infection include IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-?). Two bacterial type IV secretion effectors and several bacterial proteins that associate with inclusion membranes have been identified. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying A. phagocytophilum infection will foster the development of creative ideas to prevent or treat this emerging tick-borne disease. PMID:21734244

  3. Review: Intracardiac intracellular angiotensin system in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yong, Qian Chen; Thomas, Candice M.

    2012-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has mainly been categorized as a circulating and a local tissue RAS. A new component of the local system, known as the intracellular RAS, has recently been described. The intracellular RAS is defined as synthesis and action of ANG II intracellularly. This RAS appears to differ from the circulating and the local RAS, in terms of components and the mechanism of action. These differences may alter treatment strategies that target the RAS in several pathological conditions. Recent work from our laboratory has demonstrated significant upregulation of the cardiac, intracellular RAS in diabetes, which is associated with cardiac dysfunction. Here, we have reviewed evidence supporting an intracellular RAS in different cell types, ANG II's actions in cardiac cells, and its mechanism of action, focusing on the intracellular cardiac RAS in diabetes. We have discussed the significance of an intracellular RAS in cardiac pathophysiology and implications for potential therapies. PMID:22170614

  4. Microsporidia: Eukaryotic Intracellular Parasites Shaped by Gene Loss and Horizontal Gene Transfers.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Microsporidia are eukaryotic parasites of many animals that appear to have adapted to an obligate intracellular lifestyle by modifying the morphology and content of their cells. Living inside other cells, they have lost many, or all, metabolic functions, resulting in genomes that are always gene poor and often very small. The minute content of microsporidian genomes led many to assume that these parasites are biochemically static and uninteresting. However, recent studies have demonstrated that these organisms can be surprisingly complex and dynamic. In this review I detail the most significant recent advances in microsporidian genomics and discuss how these have affected our understanding of many biological aspects of these peculiar eukaryotic intracellular pathogens. PMID:26195306

  5. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Kirkamide, an Aminocyclitol from an Obligate Leaf Nodule Symbiont.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Simon; Carlier, Aurlien; Neuburger, Markus; Grabenweger, Giselher; Eberl, Leo; Gademann, Karl

    2015-06-26

    The new C7N aminocyclitol kirkamide (1) was isolated from leaf nodules of the plant Psychotria kirkii by using a genome-driven (1)H?NMR-guided fractionation approach. The structure and absolute configuration were elucidated by HRMS, NMR, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. An enantioselective total synthesis was developed, which delivered kirkamide (1) on a gram scale in 11?steps and features a Ferrier carbocyclization and a Pd-mediated hydroxymethylation. We propose that kirkamide is synthesized by Candidatus Burkholderia kirkii, the obligate leaf symbiont of Psychotria kirkii. Kirkamide (1) was shown to be toxic to aquatic arthropods and insects, thus suggesting that bacterial secondary metabolites play a protective role in the Psychotria/Burkholderia leaf nodule symbiosis. PMID:26033226

  6. Forced Resurgence and Targeting of Intracellular Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Blango, Matthew G.; Ott, Elizabeth M.; Erman, Andreja; Veranic, Peter; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular quiescent reservoirs of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which can seed the bladder mucosa during the acute phase of a urinary tract infection (UTI), are protected from antibiotic treatments and are extremely difficult to eliminate. These reservoirs are a potential source for recurrent UTIs that affect millions annually. Here, using murine infection models and the bladder cell exfoliant chitosan, we demonstrate that intracellular UPEC populations shift within the stratified layers of the urothelium during the course of a UTI. Following invasion of the terminally differentiated superficial layer of epithelial cells that line the bladder lumen, UPEC can multiply and disseminate, eventually establishing reservoirs within underlying immature host cells. If given access, UPEC can invade the superficial and immature bladder cells equally well. As infected immature host cells differentiate and migrate towards the apical surface of the bladder, UPEC can reinitiate growth and discharge into the bladder lumen. By inducing the exfoliation of the superficial layers of the urothelium, chitosan stimulates rapid regenerative processes and the reactivation and efflux of quiescent intracellular UPEC reservoirs. When combined with antibiotics, chitosan treatment significantly reduces bacterial loads within the bladder and may therefore be of therapeutic value to individuals with chronic, recurrent UTIs. PMID:24667805

  7. Influence of dTMP on the phenotypic appearance and intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zander, Johannes; Besier, Silke; Saum, Stephan H; Dehghani, Faramarz; Loitsch, Stefan; Brade, Volker; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2008-04-01

    Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are frequently associated with persistent and recurrent infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The phenotypic appearance of S. aureus SCVs or normal-colony variants (NCVs) is postulated to be affected by the intracellular amount of dTMP. This hypothesis was proven by metabolic pathway assays revealing altered intracellular dTMP concentrations, followed by investigation of the associated phenotype. Inhibition of the staphylococcal thymidylate synthase, which generated intracellular dTMP from dUMP, using 5-fluorouracil and co-trimoxazole resulted in an SCV phenotype. Inhibition of a nucleoside transporter, which provided the bacterial cell with extracellular thymidine, caused growth inhibition of SCVs. In turn, reversion of SCVs to NCVs was achieved by supplying extracellular dTMP. High-performance liquid chromatography additionally confirmed the intracellular lack of dTMP in SCVs, in contrast to NCVs. Moreover, the dTMP concentration is postulated to influence the intracellular persistence of S. aureus. Cell culture experiments with cystic fibrosis cells revealed that clinical and co-trimoxazole-induced SCVs with a diminished amount of dTMP showed significantly better intracellular persistence than NCVs. In conclusion, these results show that the dTMP concentration plays a key role in both the phenotypic appearance and the intracellular persistence of S. aureus. PMID:18160477

  8. Interactions between Autophagy and Bacterial Toxins: Targets for Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a physiological process involved in defense mechanisms for clearing intracellular bacteria. The autophagic pathway is finely regulated and bacterial toxins interact with this process in a complex manner. Bacterial toxins also interact significantly with many biochemical processes. Evaluations of the effects of bacterial toxins, such as endotoxins, pore-forming toxins and adenylate cyclases, on autophagy could support the development of new strategies for counteracting bacterial pathogenicity. Treatment strategies could focus on drugs that enhance autophagic processes to improve the clearance of intracellular bacteria. However, further in vivo studies are required to decipher the upregulation of autophagy and potential side effects limiting such approaches. The capacity of autophagy activation strategies to improve the outcome of antibiotic treatment should be investigated in the future. PMID:26248079

  9. Lineage-Specific Patterns of Genome Deterioration in Obligate Symbionts of Sharpshooter Leafhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; McCutcheon, John P.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Moran, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera) rely on obligate bacterial symbionts that provision nutrients. Some of these symbionts are ancient and have evolved tiny genomes, whereas others are younger and retain larger, dynamic genomes. Baumannia cicadellinicola, an obligate symbiont of sharpshooter leafhoppers, is derived from a relatively recent symbiont replacement. To better understand evolutionary decay of genomes, we compared Baumannia from three host species. A newly sequenced genome for Baumannia from the green sharpshooter (B-GSS) was compared with genomes of Baumannia from the blue-green sharpshooter (B-BGSS, 759 kilobases [kb]) and from the glassy-winged sharpshooter (B-GWSS, 680 kb). B-GSS has the smallest Baumannia genome sequenced to date (633 kb), with only three unique genes, all involved in membrane function. It has lost nearly all pathways involved in vitamin and cofactor synthesis, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are redundant with pathways of the host or the symbiotic partner, Sulcia muelleri. The entire biosynthetic pathway for methionine is eliminated, suggesting that methionine has become a dietary requirement for hosts. B-GSS and B-BGSS share 33 genes involved in bacterial functions (e.g., cell division, membrane synthesis, metabolite transport, etc.) that are lost from the more distantly related B-GWSS and most other tiny genome symbionts. Finally, pairwise divergence estimates indicate that B-GSS has experienced a lineage-specific increase in substitution rates. This increase correlates with accelerated protein-level changes and widespread gene loss. Thus, the mode and tempo of genome reduction vary widely among symbiont lineages and result in wide variation in metabolic capabilities across hosts. PMID:26260652

  10. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low–Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  11. Amoebal Endosymbiont Neochlamydia Genome Sequence Illuminates the Bacterial Role in the Defense of the Host Amoebae against Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kasumi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Matsuo, Junji; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Nagai, Hiroki; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the obligate intracellular amoebal endosymbiont Neochlamydia S13, an environmental chlamydia strain, has an amoebal infection rate of 100%, but does not cause amoebal lysis and lacks transferability to other host amoebae. The underlying mechanism for these observations remains unknown. In this study, we found that the host amoeba could completely evade Legionella infection. The draft genome sequence of Neochlamydia S13 revealed several defects in essential metabolic pathways, as well as unique molecules with leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and ankyrin domains, responsible for protein-protein interaction. Neochlamydia S13 lacked an intact tricarboxylic acid cycle and had an incomplete respiratory chain. ADP/ATP translocases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and secretion systems (types II and III) were well conserved, but no type IV secretion system was found. The number of outer membrane proteins (OmcB, PomS, 76-kDa protein, and OmpW) was limited. Interestingly, genes predicting unique proteins with LRRs (30 genes) or ankyrin domains (one gene) were identified. Furthermore, 33 transposases were found, possibly explaining the drastic genome modification. Taken together, the genomic features of Neochlamydia S13 explain the intimate interaction with the host amoeba to compensate for bacterial metabolic defects, and illuminate the role of the endosymbiont in the defense of the host amoebae against Legionella infection. PMID:24747986

  12. Cyclic Dimeric GMP Signaling Regulates Intracellular Aggregation, Sessility, and Growth of Ehrlichia chaffeensis ?

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yumi; Matsuo, Junji; Cheng, Zhihui; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger, is known to regulate bacterial biofilm and sessility. Replication of an obligatory intracellular pathogen, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, is characterized by formation of bacterial aggregates called morulae inside membrane-bound inclusions. When E. chaffeensis matures into an infectious form, morulae become loose to allow bacteria to exit from host cells to infect adjacent cells. E. chaffeensis expresses a sensor kinase, PleC, and a cognate response regulator, PleD, which can produce c-di-GMP. A hydrophobic c-di-GMP antagonist, 2?-O-di(tert-butyldimethysilyl)-c-di-GMP (CDGA) inhibits E. chaffeensis internalization into host cells by facilitating degradation of some bacterial surface proteins via endogenous serine proteases. In the present study, we found that PleC and PleD were upregulated synchronously during exponential growth of bacteria, concomitant with increased morula size. While CDGA did not affect host cells, when infected cells were treated with CDGA, bacterial proliferation was inhibited, morulae became less compact, and the intracellular movement of bacteria was enhanced. Concurrently, CDGA treatment facilitated the extracellular release of bacteria with lower infectivity than those spontaneously released from sham-treated cells. Addition of CDGA to isolated inclusions induced dispersion of the morulae, degradation of an inclusion matrix protein TRP120, and bacterial intrainclusion movement, all of which were blocked by a serine protease inhibitor. These results suggest that c-di-GMP signaling regulates aggregation and sessility of E. chaffeensis within the inclusion through stabilization of matrix proteins by preventing the serine protease activity, which is associated with bacterial intracellular proliferation and maturation. PMID:21788390

  13. The Effect of Bacteriophage Preparations on Intracellular Killing of Bacteria by Phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Kłak, Marlena; Bubak, Barbara; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Żaczek, Maciej; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Górski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular killing of bacteria is one of the fundamental mechanisms against invading pathogens. Impaired intracellular killing of bacteria by phagocytes may be the reason of chronic infections and may be caused by antibiotics or substances that can be produced by some bacteria. Therefore, it was of great practical importance to examine whether phage preparations may influence the process of phagocyte intracellular killing of bacteria. It may be important especially in the case of patients qualified for experimental phage therapy (approximately half of the patients with chronic bacterial infections have their immunity impaired). Our analysis included 51 patients with chronic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections treated with phage preparations at the Phage Therapy Unit in Wroclaw. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of experimental phage therapy on intracellular killing of bacteria by patients' peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils. We observed that phage therapy does not reduce patients' phagocytes' ability to kill bacteria, and it does not affect the activity of phagocytes in patients with initially reduced ability to kill bacteria intracellularly. Our results suggest that experimental phage therapy has no significant adverse effects on the bactericidal properties of phagocytes, which confirms the safety of the therapy. PMID:26783541

  14. Identification of a Novel Small Non-Coding RNA Modulating the Intracellular Survival of Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Xu, Jie; Wang, Ligui; Wang, Tongkun; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Chunli; Yuan, Jiuyun; Zhuang, Yubin; An, Chang; Lei, Shuangshuang; Du, Xinying; Wang, Zhoujia; Li, Wenna; Yuan, Xitong; Huang, Liuyu; Yang, Xiaoli; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are gene expression modulators respond to environmental changes, stressful conditions, and pathogenesis. In this study, by using a combined bioinformatic and experimental approach, eight novel sRNA genes were identified in intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis. BSR0602, one sRNA that was highly induced in stationary phase, was further examined and found to modulate the intracellular survival of B. melitensis. BSR0602 was present at very high levels in vitro under stresses similar to those encountered during infection in host macrophages. Furthermore, BSR0602 was found to be highly expressed in the spleens of infected mice, suggesting its potential role in the control of pathogenesis. BSR0602 targets the mRNAs coding for gntR, a global transcriptional regulator, which is required for B. melitensis virulence. Overexpression of BSR0602 results in distinct reduction in the gntR mRNA level. B. melitensis with high level of BSR0602 is defective in bacteria intracellular survival in macrophages and defective in growth in the spleens of infected mice. Therefore, BSR0602 may directly inhibit the expression of gntR, which then impairs Brucellae intracellular survival and contributes to Brucella infection. Our findings suggest that BSR0602 is responsible for bacterial adaptation to stress conditions and thus modulate B. melitensis intracellular survival. PMID:25852653

  15. Cytochemical Differences in Bacterial Glycocalyx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautgartner, Wolf Dietrich; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hannig, Matthias; Pelz, Klaus; Stoiber, Walter

    2005-02-01

    To examine new cytochemical aspects of the bacterial adhesion, a strain 41452/01 of the oral commensal Streptococcus sanguis and a wild strain of Staphylococcus aureus were grown with and without sucrose supplementation for 6 days. Osmiumtetraoxyde (OsO4), uranyl acetate (UA), ruthenium red (RR), cupromeronic blue (CB) staining with critical electrolytic concentrations (CECs), and the tannic acid-metal salt technique (TAMST) were applied for electron microscopy. Cytochemically, only RR-positive fimbriae in S. sanguis were visualized. By contrast, some types of fimbriae staining were observed in S. aureus glycocalyx: RR-positive, OsO4-positive, tannophilic and CB-positive with ceasing point at 0.3 M MgCl2. The CB staining with CEC, used for the first time for visualization of glycoproteins of bacterial glycocalyx, also reveals intacellular CB-positive substances-probably the monomeric molecules, that is, subunits forming the fimbriae via extracellular assembly. Thus, glycosylated components of the biofilm matrix can be reliably related to single cells. The visualization of intracellular components by CB with CEC enables clear distinction between S. aureus and other bacteria, which do not produce CB-positive substances. The small quantities of tannophilic substances found in S. aureus makes the use of TAMST for the same purpose difficult. The present work protocol enables, for the first time, a partial cytochemical differentiation of the bacterial glycocalyx.

  16. What are the public obligations to AIDS patients?

    PubMed

    Kelley, David

    2002-01-01

    The operating assumption in most discussions of health policy is that government has some responsibility for the health of its citizens and that it may legitimately tax, subsidize, and regulate its citizens in the exercise of that responsibility. On this assumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDS patients are a function of their needs in relationship to other health needs. This paper challenges the operating assumption by arguing that it cannot be grounded in the obligations that individuals have to each other. The paper rests on its own assumption: the moral theory of individualism. On this theory, individuals are ends in themselves who have the right to choose their own actions and uses of their resources; they do not have unchosen obligations to help others. In regard to HIV/AIDS patients, consequently, individuals have no duty to help, nor any other obligation beyond that of respecting their rights; and there is no valid basis for government regulations or subsidies on their behalf. The paper argues against the two approaches commonly used to defend a more expansive view of individual obligations and the role of government. The first is the assumption of welfare rights to goods and services; the second is the assumption that distributive justice requires some redistribution of health care resources. PMID:15971567

  17. Palladium-mediated intracellular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusop, Rahimi M.; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Johansson, Emma M. V.; Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M.; Bradley, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Many important intracellular biochemical reactions are modulated by transition metals, typically in the form of metalloproteins. The ability to carry out selective transformations inside a cell would allow researchers to manipulate or interrogate innumerable biological processes. Here, we show that palladium nanoparticles trapped within polystyrene microspheres can enter cells and mediate a variety of Pd0-catalysed reactions, such as allylcarbamate cleavage and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. The work provides the basis for the customization of heterogeneous unnatural catalysts as tools to carry out artificial chemistries within cells. Such in cellulo synthesis has potential for a plethora of applications ranging from cellular labelling to synthesis of modulators or inhibitors of cell function.

  18. Bacterial Speciation: Genetic Sweeps in Bacterial Species.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    One theory of bacterial speciation states that bacterial and animal species share the property of cohesion, meaning that diversity within a species is constrained. A new study provides direct evidence that genome-wide sweeps can limit diversity within bacterial species. PMID:26859266

  19. In Vitro Models for the Study of the Intracellular Activity of Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Buyck, Julien M; Lemaire, Sandrine; Seral, Cristina; Anantharajah, Ahalieyah; Peyrusson, Frdric; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Franoise

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria are poorly responsive to antibiotic treatment. Pharmacological studies are thus needed to determine which antibiotics are most potent or effective against intracellular bacteria as well as to explore the reasons for poor bacterial responsiveness. An in vitro pharmacodynamic model is described, consisting of (1) phagocytosis of pre-opsonized bacteria by eukaryotic cells; (2) elimination of non-internalized bacteria with gentamicin; (3) incubation of infected cells with antibiotics; and (4) determination of surviving bacteria by viable cell counting and normalization of the counts based on sample protein content. PMID:26468107

  20. Antimycobacterial Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata Leaf Extracts Under Intracellular and Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhatter, Purva; Gupta, Pooja; Daswani, Poonam; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the extracts of Andrographis paniculata has been studied using intracellular and axenic hypoxic conditions. The inhibition (confirmed using the gold standard colony forming unit assay) was found to increase with "double stimuli" or higher concentration of the extract. Organic solvent extracts were found to inhibit bacterial growth more than the aqueous extracts under microaerophilic conditions mimicked through axenic and intracellular assays. This could be further explored to evaluate the potential of the plant to be used against nonreplicating/dormant bacilli. PMID:25348959

  1. In vitro and intracellular activities of peptide deformylase inhibitor GSK1322322 against Legionella pneumophila isolates.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jacques; Dubois, Maïtée; Martel, Jean-François; Aubart, Kelly; Butler, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor currently in development as an oral and intravenous agent for the treatment of hospitalized community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, showed poor in vitro activity against a panel of 50 Legionella pneumophila strains, with MICs ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 16 μg/ml, but very potent intracellular activity, with the minimum extracellular concentrations capable of inhibiting intracellular proliferation (MIECs) ranging from 0.12 to 2 μg/ml and 98% of the strains being inhibited by concentrations of ≤ 1 μg/ml. PMID:25348534

  2. A detailed view of the intracellular transcriptome of Listeria monocytogenes in murine macrophages using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, Tilman; Hilker, Rolf; Mannala, Gopala K.; Gentil, Katrin; Weigel, Markus; Farmani, Neda; Windhorst, Anita C.; Goesmann, Alexander; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hain, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen and causative agent for the foodborne infection listeriosis, which is mainly a threat for pregnant, elderly, or immunocompromised individuals. Due to its ability to invade and colonize diverse eukaryotic cell types including cells from invertebrates, L. monocytogenes has become a well-established model organism for intracellular growth. Almost 10 years ago, we and others presented the first whole-genome microarray-based intracellular transcriptome of L. monocytogenes. With the advent of newer technologies addressing transcriptomes in greater detail, we revisit this work, and analyze the intracellular transcriptome of L. monocytogenes during growth in murine macrophages using a deep sequencing based approach. We detected 656 differentially expressed genes of which 367 were upregulated during intracellular growth in macrophages compared to extracellular growth in Brain Heart Infusion broth. This study confirmed ∼64% of all regulated genes previously identified by microarray analysis. Many of the regulated genes that were detected in the current study involve transporters for various metals, ions as well as complex sugars such as mannose. We also report changes in antisense transcription, especially upregulations during intracellular bacterial survival. A notable finding was the detection of regulatory changes for a subset of temperate A118-like prophage genes, thereby shedding light on the transcriptional profile of this bacteriophage during intracellular growth. In total, our study provides an updated genome-wide view of the transcriptional landscape of L. monocytogenes during intracellular growth and represents a rich resource for future detailed analysis. PMID:26579105

  3. Potato psyllids and their bacterial allies: Two fronts in the war against zebra chip disease.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid is a major pest of potato in the western United States that transmits the pathogen that causes zebra chip disease. Potato psyllids, like all psyllids, have close associations with bacterial endosymbionts living within them. These endosymbionts may be obligate or facultative, and the...

  4. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria. PMID:21961954

  5. Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1994-04-07

    Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

  6. Bacterial concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

  7. Bacterial elicitation and evasion of plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Robert B.; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Martin, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on plant responses to bacterial attack has identified extracellular and intracellular host receptors that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns and more specialized virulence proteins, respectively. These findings have shed light on our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which bacteria elicit host defences and how pathogens have evolved to evade or suppress these defences. PMID:16936700

  8. Linking the Transcriptional Profiles and the Physiological States of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during an Extended Intracellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Kyle H.; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Caldwell, Shannon; Balázsi, Gábor; Russell, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis have evolved strategies for coping with the pressures encountered inside host cells. The ability to coordinate global gene expression in response to environmental and internal cues is one key to their success. Prolonged survival and replication within macrophages, a key virulence trait of M. tuberculosis, requires dynamic adaptation to diverse and changing conditions within its phagosomal niche. However, the physiological adaptations during the different phases of this infection process remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed a multi-tiered approach to define the temporal patterns of gene expression in M. tuberculosis in a macrophage infection model that extends from infection, through intracellular adaptation, to the establishment of a productive infection. Using a clock plasmid to measure intracellular replication and death rates over a 14-day infection and electron microscopy to define bacterial integrity, we observed an initial period of rapid replication coupled with a high death rate. This was followed by period of slowed growth and enhanced intracellular survival, leading finally to an extended period of net growth. The transcriptional profiles of M. tuberculosis reflect these physiological transitions as the bacterium adapts to conditions within its host cell. Finally, analysis with a Transcriptional Regulatory Network model revealed linked genetic networks whereby M. tuberculosis coordinates global gene expression during intracellular survival. The integration of molecular and cellular biology together with transcriptional profiling and systems analysis offers unique insights into the host-driven responses of intracellular pathogens such as M. tuberculosis. PMID:22737072

  9. Settling Down: The Genome of Serratia symbiotica from the Aphid Cinara tujafilina Zooms in on the Process of Accommodation to a Cooperative Intracellular Life

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Marn, Alejandro; Latorre, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    Particularly interesting cases of mutualistic endosymbioses come from the establishment of co-obligate associations of more than one species of endosymbiotic bacteria. Throughout symbiotic accommodation from a free-living bacterium, passing through a facultative stage and ending as an obligate intracellular one, the symbiont experiences massive genomic losses and phenotypic adjustments. Here, we scrutinized the changes in the coevolution of Serratia symbiotica and Buchnera aphidicola endosymbionts in aphids, paying particular attention to the transformations undergone by S. symbiotica to become an obligate endosymbiont. Although it is already known that S. symbiotica is facultative in Acyrthosiphon pisum, in Cinara cedri it has established a co-obligate endosymbiotic consortium along with B. aphidicola to fulfill the aphids nutritional requirements. The state of this association in C. tujafilina, an aphid belonging to the same subfamily (Lachninae) that C. cedri, remained unknown. Here, we report the genome of S. symbiotica strain SCt-VLC from the aphid C. tujafilina. While being phylogenetically and genomically very closely related to the facultative endosymbiont S. symbiotica from the aphid A. pisum, it shows a variety of metabolic, genetic, and architectural features, which point toward this endosymbiont being one step closer to an obligate intracellular one. We also describe in depth the process of genome rearrangements suffered by S. symbiotica and the role mobile elements play in gene inactivations. Finally, we postulate the supply to the host of the essential riboflavin (vitamin B2) as key to the establishment of S. symbiotica as a co-obligate endosymbiont in the aphids belonging to the subfamily Lachninane. PMID:24951564

  10. Settling down: the genome of Serratia symbiotica from the aphid Cinara tujafilina zooms in on the process of accommodation to a cooperative intracellular life.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Marín, Alejandro; Latorre, Amparo

    2014-07-01

    Particularly interesting cases of mutualistic endosymbioses come from the establishment of co-obligate associations of more than one species of endosymbiotic bacteria. Throughout symbiotic accommodation from a free-living bacterium, passing through a facultative stage and ending as an obligate intracellular one, the symbiont experiences massive genomic losses and phenotypic adjustments. Here, we scrutinized the changes in the coevolution of Serratia symbiotica and Buchnera aphidicola endosymbionts in aphids, paying particular attention to the transformations undergone by S. symbiotica to become an obligate endosymbiont. Although it is already known that S. symbiotica is facultative in Acyrthosiphon pisum, in Cinara cedri it has established a co-obligate endosymbiotic consortium along with B. aphidicola to fulfill the aphid's nutritional requirements. The state of this association in C. tujafilina, an aphid belonging to the same subfamily (Lachninae) that C. cedri, remained unknown. Here, we report the genome of S. symbiotica strain SCt-VLC from the aphid C. tujafilina. While being phylogenetically and genomically very closely related to the facultative endosymbiont S. symbiotica from the aphid A. pisum, it shows a variety of metabolic, genetic, and architectural features, which point toward this endosymbiont being one step closer to an obligate intracellular one. We also describe in depth the process of genome rearrangements suffered by S. symbiotica and the role mobile elements play in gene inactivations. Finally, we postulate the supply to the host of the essential riboflavin (vitamin B2) as key to the establishment of S. symbiotica as a co-obligate endosymbiont in the aphids belonging to the subfamily Lachninane. PMID:24951564

  11. Intracellular signalling during neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Mócsai, Attila; Walzog, Barbara; Lowell, Clifford A.

    2015-01-01

    Recruitment of leucocytes such as neutrophils to the extravascular space is a critical step of the inflammation process and plays a major role in the development of various diseases including several cardiovascular diseases. Neutrophils themselves play a very active role in that process by sensing their environment and responding to the extracellular cues by adhesion and de-adhesion, cellular shape changes, chemotactic migration, and other effector functions of cell activation. Those responses are co-ordinated by a number of cell surface receptors and their complex intracellular signal transduction pathways. Here, we review neutrophil signal transduction processes critical for recruitment to the site of inflammation. The two key requirements for neutrophil recruitment are the establishment of appropriate chemoattractant gradients and the intrinsic ability of the cells to migrate along those gradients. We will first discuss signalling steps required for sensing extracellular chemoattractants such as chemokines and lipid mediators and the processes (e.g. PI3-kinase pathways) leading to the translation of extracellular chemoattractant gradients to polarized cellular responses. We will then discuss signal transduction by leucocyte adhesion receptors (e.g. tyrosine kinase pathways) which are critical for adhesion to, and migration through the vessel wall. Finally, additional neutrophil signalling pathways with an indirect effect on the neutrophil recruitment process, e.g. through modulation of the inflammatory environment, will be discussed. Mechanistic understanding of these pathways provide better understanding of the inflammation process and may point to novel therapeutic strategies for controlling excessive inflammation during infection or tissue damage. PMID:25998986

  12. The origins of cooperative bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Sachs, J L; Hollowell, A C

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. Intimately interacting bacterial cells are ubiquitous on biological and mineral surfaces in all habitats. Molecular and cellular biologists have unraveled some key mechanisms that modulate bacterial interactions, but the ecology and evolution of these associations remain poorly understood. One debate has focused on the relative importance of cooperation among cells in bacterial communities. Some researchers suggest that communication and cooperation, both within and among bacterial species, have produced emergent properties that give such groups a selective advantage. Evolutionary biologists have countered that the appearance of group-level traits should be viewed with caution, as natural selection almost invariably favors selfishness. A recent theory by Morris, Lenski, and Zinser, called the Black Queen Hypothesis, gives a new perspective on this debate (J. J. Morris, R. E. Lenski, and E. R. Zinser, mBio 3(2):e00036-12, 2012). These authors present a model that reshapes a decades-old idea: cooperation among species can be automatic and based upon purely selfish traits. Moreover, this hypothesis stands in contrast to the Red Queen Hypothesis, which states that species are in constant evolutionary conflict. Two assumptions serve as the core of the Black Queen model. First, bacterial functions are often leaky, such that cells unavoidably produce resources that benefit others. Second, the receivers of such by-products will tend to delete their own costly pathways for those products, thus building dependency into the interactions. Although not explicitly required in their model, an emergent prediction is that the initiation of such dependency can favor the spread of more obligate coevolved partnerships. This new paradigm suggests that bacteria might often form interdependent cooperative interactions in communities and moreover that bacterial cooperation should leave a clear genomic signature via complementary loss of shared diffusible functions. PMID:22532558

  13. Bacterial synthesis of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, R A J; Hill, D J; Kenward, M A; Williams, C D; Radecka, I

    2007-06-01

    Various bacterial species accumulate intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) granules as energy and carbon reserves inside their cells. PHAs are biodegradable, environmentally friendly and biocompatible thermoplastics. Varying in toughness and flexibility, depending on their formulation, they can be used in various ways similar to many nonbiodegradable petrochemical plastics currently in use. They can be used either in pure form or as additives to oil-derived plastics such as polyethylene. However, these bioplastics are currently far more expensive than petrochemically based plastics and are therefore used mostly in applications that conventional plastics cannot perform, such as medical applications. PHAs are immunologically inert and are only slowly degraded in human tissue, which means they can be used as devices inside the body. Recent research has focused on the use of alternative substrates, novel extraction methods, genetically enhanced species and mixed cultures with a view to make PHAs more commercially attractive. PMID:17578408

  14. Magnetic microbes: Bacterial magnetite biomineralization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-09-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of prokaryotes with the ability to orient and migrate along the magnetic field lines in search for a preferred oxygen concentration in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. These microorganisms produce magnetosomes, the intracellular nanometer-sized magnetic crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer membrane, typically organized in chains. Magnetosomes have nearly perfect crystal structures with narrow size distribution and species-specific morphologies, leading to well-defined magnetic properties. As a result, the magnetite biomineralization in these organisms is of fundamental interest to diverse disciplines, from biotechnology to astrobiology. As a result, this article highlights recent advances inmore » the understanding of the bacterial magnetite biomineralization.« less

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